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Sample records for adult male sprague

  1. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

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    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats.

  2. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  3. Therapeutic effects of quercetin against bisphenol A induced testicular damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

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    Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis were used for histology while blood plasma was used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. BPA administration resulted in a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height with impaired spermatogenesis. Quercetin treatment resulted in restoration of spermatogenesis and reversal of histological damage. In addition, BPA treatment significantly reduced (p quercetin treatment led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone, decrease in estrogen concentration, as well as a normalized lipid profile. In conclusion, results indicated that BPA administration induces toxic effects on testis and epididymis, impairs spermatogenesis, with an imbalance in hormonal levels and lipid profile while quercetin amended these toxic effects by restoring normal spermatogenesis, testicular tissue damage, and hormonal levels. This suggests that quercetin may be a potential therapeutic against BPA induced testicular toxicity.

  4. Respiratory Tract Lung Geometry and Dosimetry Model for Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2015-07-24

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague-Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  5. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

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    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  6. Evaluation of the curcumin vasoprotective effect in Sprague-Dawley male rats with a hypercholesterolemic diet.

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    Fernando Moraga C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can range from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. The pathophysiological mechanisms that modulate oxidative stress, inflammatory and profibrotic activity should be crucial in the liver injury and vascular aggressiveness. Curcumin, a compound derived from Curcuma longa L, possesses vasoprotectives properties. OBJECTIVE: To compare in hypercholesterolemic diet situations the vascular changes between Sprague-Dawley male rats who consume curcumin and who do not consume. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Analytical, experimental, prospective and longitudinal study in Sprague-Dawley male rats exposed to conditions of Nonalcoholic fatty liver with and without curcumin, for four months. After the sacrifice, a vascular function protocol was performed on an isolated superior mesenteric artery (response to acetylcholine, L-NGNitroarginine Methyl Ester and nitroprusside and measurement of portal pressure by direct puncture. The results were expressed as average and the standard deviation of the central tendency. The differences between the groups were tested using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The portal pressure measurement showed no significant differences between groups. There was no significant difference in the nitroprusside test, in the other hand, exist a difference with acetylcholine between arteries of nonalcoholic fatty liver group against nonalcoholic fatty liver plus curcumin group. DISCUSSION: Curcumin improved the vasodilator response in response to acetylcholine, suggesting a possible antioxidant effect which improves endothelial function. It is suggested for future therapeutic use.

  7. ANTIACNE EFFECT OF POLYHERBAL GEL FORMULATION IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

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    S. A. Thube

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is the commonest skin disorder to affect humans, characterized by both non-inflammatory (comedones and inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, and nodulocystic lesions. Topical gel formulation has been developed containing Barleria prionitis, Butea monosperma, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Lagenaria siceraria. In vivo antiacne activity was performed for the formulations using male sprague dawley rats. Physical observations were carried out at regular intervals on the rat ear and progressive fading of comedo was found on treated animals. Test group showed significant improvement on comedo reduction of rat pinna observed photographically. Test group showed a significant improvement compared to standard. The present study scientifically evaluates the antiacne potential of the herbs as a single entity as well as in combination using in vivo methods. The results obtained will help in identification and isolation of bioactive constituents for treating the root causes of acne without side effects.

  8. Age differences in fear retention and extinction in male Sprague-Dawley rats: effects of ethanol challenge during conditioning.

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    Broadwater, Margaret; Spear, Linda P

    2013-09-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is an ideal model to investigate how learning and memory are influenced by alcohol use during adolescence because the neural mechanisms involved have been studied extensively. In Exp 1, adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were non-injected or injected with saline, 1 or 1.5 g/kg ethanol intraperitoneally 10 min prior to tone or context conditioning. Twenty-four hours later, animals were tested for tone or context retention and extinction, with examination of extinction retention conducted 24h thereafter. In Exp 2, a context extinction session was inserted between the tone conditioning and the tone fear retention/extinction days to reduce pre-CS baseline freezing levels at test. Basal levels of acquisition, fear retention, extinction, and extinction retention after tone conditioning were similar between adolescent and adult rats. In contrast adolescents showed faster context extinction than adults, while again not differing from adults during context acquisition, retention or extinction retention. In terms of ethanol effects, adolescents were less sensitive to ethanol-induced context retention deficits than adults. No age differences emerged in terms of tone fear retention, with ethanol disrupting tone fear retention at both ages in Exp 1, but at neither age in Exp 2, a difference seemingly due to group differences in pre-CS freezing during tone testing in Exp 1, but not Exp 2. These results suggest that age differences in the acute effects of ethanol on cognitive function are task-specific, and provide further evidence for age differences cognitive functioning in a task thought to be hippocampally related.

  9. Immunotoxicological effects of benzene inhalation in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Robinson, S N; Shah, R; Wong, B A; Wong, V A; Farris, G M

    1997-05-16

    The inhalation of benzene is toxic to various components of the immunologic system in rodents. Spleen and thymus weights, total spleen and femur marrow cell counts, enumeration of spleen B- and T-lymphocytes, and an assessment of humoral immunocompetence, were used to evaluate the immunotoxicity of benzene in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to 0, 30, 200 or 400 ppm benzene for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 or 4 weeks. An early indicator of immunotoxicity was a reduction in the number of B-lymphocytes after 2 weeks of 400 ppm. After 4 weeks of 400 ppm, there was a reduction in thymus weight and spleen B-, CD4+/CD5+ and CD5+ T-lymphocytes. Rats exposed to 30, 200 or 400 ppm benzene for 2 or 4 weeks and challenged with sheep red blood cells developed a humoral response comparable to that of the control (0 ppm) animals. Enumeration of spleen T- and B-lymphocytes in rats exposed to benzene and challenged with SRBC showed only a transient reduction in spleen B-lymphocytes after 2 weeks of exposure to 400 ppm. These data suggest that there are no immunotoxicological effects of exposure to 200 ppm benzene or less, in rats exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 or 4 weeks.

  10. The Remedial Efficacy of Spirulina platensis versus Chromium-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

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    M O Elshazly

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Spirulina platensis against chromium-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gps. Gp1 served as control, rats of Gps 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to Spirulina platensis (300 mg/kg b.wt per os and sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD via drinking water at concentration of 520 mg /l respectively. Chromium administration caused alterations in the renal function markers as evidenced by significant increase of blood urea and creatinine levels accompanied with significant increase in kidney's chromium residues and MDA level as well as decreased catalase activity and glutathion content in kidney tissue. Histologically, Cr provoked deleterious changes including: vascular congestion, wide spread tubular epithelium necrobiotic changes, atrophy of glomerular tuft and proliferative hyperplasia. The latter was accompanied with positive PCNA expression in kidney tissues as well as DNA ploidy interpretation of major cellular population of degenerated cells, appearance of tetraploid cells, high proliferation index and high DNA index. Morphometrical measurements revealed marked glomerular and tubular lumen alterations. On contrary, spirulina co-treatment with Cr significantly restored the histopathological changes, antioxidants and renal function markers and all the previously mentioned changes as well.

  11. The Remedial Efficacy of Spirulina platensis versus Chromium-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Elshazly, M. O.; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S.; Morgan, Ashraf M.; Ali, Merhan E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Spirulina platensis against chromium-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gps). Gp1 served as control, rats of Gps 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to Spirulina platensis (300 mg/kg b.wt per os) and sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) via drinking water at concentration of 520 mg /l respectively. Chromium administration caused alterations in the renal function markers as evidenced by significant increase of blood urea and creatinine levels accompanied with significant increase in kidney’s chromium residues and MDA level as well as decreased catalase activity and glutathion content in kidney tissue. Histologically, Cr provoked deleterious changes including: vascular congestion, wide spread tubular epithelium necrobiotic changes, atrophy of glomerular tuft and proliferative hyperplasia. The latter was accompanied with positive PCNA expression in kidney tissues as well as DNA ploidy interpretation of major cellular population of degenerated cells, appearance of tetraploid cells, high proliferation index and high DNA index. Morphometrical measurements revealed marked glomerular and tubular lumen alterations. On contrary, spirulina co-treatment with Cr significantly restored the histopathological changes, antioxidants and renal function markers and all the previously mentioned changes as well. PMID:26029926

  12. Consequences of adolescent ethanol exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats on fear conditioning and extinction in adulthood

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    Broadwater, Margaret A.

    Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and that these deficits may persist into adulthood. Five experiments were conducted to assess long-term consequences of ethanol exposure on tone and context Pavlovian fear conditioning in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 examined age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol-induced disruptions of fear conditioning to a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. Experiments 2 examined fear conditioning 22 days after early-mid adolescent (P28-48) or adult (P70-90) exposure to 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol or water given every other day (total of 11 exposures). In Experiment 3, mid-late adolescents (P35-55) were exposed in the same manner to assess whether timing of ethanol exposure within the adolescent period would differentially affect later fear conditioning. Experiment 4 assessed the influence of prior adolescent or adult ethanol exposure on the disrupting effects of a pre-conditioning ethanol challenge. In Experiment 5, neurogenesis (doublecortin---DCX) and cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase---ChAT) markers were measured to assess potential long-term ethanol-induced changes in neural mechanisms important for learning and memory. Results indicated that the long-lasting behavioral effects of ethanol exposure varied depending on exposure age, with early-mid adolescent exposed animals showing attenuated context fear retention (a relatively hippocampal-dependent task), whereas mid-late adolescent and adult exposed animals showed slower context extinction (thought to be reliant on the mPFC). Early-mid adolescent ethanol-exposed animals also had significantly less DCX and ChAT expression than their water-exposed counterparts, possibly contributing to deficits in context fear. Tone fear was not influenced by prior ethanol exposure at any age. In terms of age differences in ethanol sensitivity, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to ethanol

  13. Effects of Nicotine Exposure on In Vitro Metabolism of Chlorpyrifos in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Lee, Sookwang; Busby, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles; Poet, Torka S.

    2009-01-30

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a common organophosphate (OP) insecticide which is metabolized by CYP450s to the neurotoxic metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and a non-toxic metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of repeated in vivo nicotine exposures on CPF in vitro metabolism and marker substrate activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed subcutaneously with 1 mg nicotine/kg/, for up to 10 days. Animals showed signs of cholinergic crisis after the initial nicotine doses, but exhibited adaptation after a couple days of treatment. Rats were sacrificed on selected days 4 or 24 hr after the last nicotine-treatment. While CYP450 reduced CO spectra were not different across the treatments, the single nicotine dose group showed a 2-fold increase in CYP2E1 marker substrate (p-nitrophenol) activity 24 hr after a single nicotine treatment compared to saline controls. Conversely, repeated nicotine treatments resulted in decreased EROD marker substrate activity 4 hr after the 7th day of treatment. CPF-oxon Vmax and Km did not show significant changes across the different nicotine treatment groups. The Vmax describing the metabolism of CPF to TCP was increased on all groups (days 1, 7, and 10) 24 hr after nicotine treatment but were unchanged 4 hr after nicotine treatment. Results of this in vitro study suggest that repeated nicotine exposure (i.e., from smoking) may result in altered metabolism of CPF. Future in vivo experiments based on these results will be conducted to ascertain the impact of in vivo nicotine exposures on CPF metabolism in rats.

  14. The Effects of Chronic Ingestion of Mercuric Chloride on Fertility and Testosterone Levels in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

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    John C. Heath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although male infertility is well researched, the effects of inorganic mercury on male reproduction and fertility are less well known. Studies pertaining to mercury and male fertility identified reduced concentration of testosterone in the serum of male workers, a toxic influence on fertility of organic mercury compounds within concentrations at the workplace, and increased days to pregnancy. We evaluated the effect of chronic mercuric chloride (HgCl2 exposure in male rats on reproductive endpoints. Thirty-day old male Sprague Dawley rats (n=31 were exposed to 0.0, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg/day of HgCl2 via gavage. After 60 days exposure, they were housed with nonexposed females for 21 days. A survivor analysis revealed the exposed animals took longer to impregnate the females and had a lower rate of impregnation. Further statistical analysis revealed a lower correlation between testicular testosterone levels and days to impregnate, and also lower sperm counts in the epididymis head and body of the exposed males. The results indicate that HgCl2 exposure had significant adverse effects on male rat reproduction endpoints including fertility at a dose that was not clinically toxic.

  15. Pan-colonic pharmacokinetics of catechins and procyanidins in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Goodrich, Katheryn M; Smithson, Andrew T; Ickes, Anne K; Neilson, Andrew P

    2015-10-01

    Poor absorption and bioavailability of procyanidins from the upper gastrointestinal tract result in the majority of the dose reaching the colon. During colonic transit, progressive microbial metabolism likely produces gradients of procyanidins and microbial metabolites along the length of the colon, suggesting that proximal and distal regions are exposed to different profiles of procyanidins and metabolites. However, previous studies have largely treated the colon as a single organ or looked at fecal profiles, and differences in the profiles of native and metabolite compounds between regions have not been observed. The metabolism kinetics of procyanidins larger than trimers and formation of metabolites in the colon have not been well characterized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of delivery and microbial metabolism of monomeric, dimeric and oligomeric procyanidins in the cecum and proximal, mid and distal colon. Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged grape seed extract and sacrificed over 18 h. Analysis of luminal contents showed distinct native and metabolite profiles for each region. Procyanidins had maximum concentrations at approximately 3h postgavage for all sections. Metabolites reached maximum concentrations from 3 to 18 h postgavage. The appearance of metabolites was highly dependent on species: larger metabolites were found at earlier times in the more proximal segments, and smaller metabolites were found at later times in more distal regions. This study allowed for the observation of regions in the lower gastrointestinal tract, giving insight into the distribution and delivery of procyanidins and their microbial metabolites throughout the colon.

  16. LUNG CARCINOMA IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

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    Dhanasekar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report three case of Lung Carcinoma in young adult males, non - smokers, no family history of malignancy and no other risk factors like occupational or environmental exposure, past history of tuberculosis or chronic obstructive bronchitis, who presented with variable chest radiographic and computerized tomog raphic findings, these cases warrants further analysis regarding the changing trend of higher incidents of lung carcinoma in young adult males.

  17. LUNG CARCINOMA IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

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    Dhanasekar; Anbumaran; Rajagopalan; Shanmugapriya

    2015-01-01

    Here we report three case of Lung Carcinoma in young adult males, non - smokers, no family history of malignancy and no other risk factors like occupational or environmental exposure, past history of tuberculosis or chronic obstructive bronchitis, who presented with variable chest radiographic and computerized tomog raphic findings, these cases warrants further analysis regarding the changing trend of higher incidents of lung carcinoma in young adult males.

  18. The influence of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on the brain iron metabolism in adult Sprague dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qiong; Li Yaru; Chang Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Iron is an essential element in all living organisms and is required as a cofactor for oxygen-binding proteins. Iron metabolism, oxygen homeostasis and erythropoiesis are consequently strongly inter-connected. In mammalian cells, exposure to a low-oxygen environment triggers a hypoxic response pathway cen-tered on the regulated expression of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ( HIF) . Hypoxia has been shown to increase the expression of a variety of proteins involved in iron homeostasis. However, little is known about brain iron metabolism after intermittent hypobaric hypoxia ( IHH) treatment. In this study, adult Sprague dawley ( SD) rats were treated with IHH for 28 days, 8h per day and then we detected iron homeostasis in different brain areas of SD rats. Results:The protein level of hippocampus transferrin receptor 1 ( TfR1 ) , divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) with IRE, DMT1 (-IRE), ferritin-H, iron regulatory protein (IRP) 2 and ceruloplasmin (CP) is ele-vated significantly while ferritin-L decreased. We have also found the down regulation of IRP1. We observe the same results in the cerebral cortex in the brain. Conclusions:We first discover that IHH has an influence on the brain iron homeostasis and the decreased ferritin-L corresponds to the down regulation of IRP1 indicating hypoxia can affect the expression of ferritin-L through IRE/IRP system. Although there is a marked increase in TfR1 ex-pression that would lead to the raised level of LIP in cells. It can finally result in the higher ROS which can damage the cells. The concerned mechanisms involved in it remain to be deliberated.

  19. Hypobaric hypoxia induces depression-like behavior in female Sprague-Dawley rats, but not in males.

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    Kanekar, Shami; Bogdanova, Olena V; Olson, Paul R; Sung, Young-Hoon; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2015-03-01

    Rates of depression and suicide are higher in people living at altitude, and in those with chronic hypoxic disorders like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and smoking. Living at altitude exposes people to hypobaric hypoxia, which can lower rat brain serotonin levels, and impair brain bioenergetics in both humans and rats. We therefore examined the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on depression-like behavior in rats. After a week of housing at simulated altitudes of 20,000 ft, 10,000 ft, or sea level, or at local conditions of 4500 ft (Salt Lake City, UT), Sprague Dawley rats were tested for depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST). Time spent swimming, climbing, or immobile, and latency to immobility were measured. Female rats housed at altitude display more depression-like behavior in the FST, with significantly more immobility, less swimming, and lower latency to immobility than those at sea level. In contrast, males in all four altitude groups were similar in their FST behavior. Locomotor behavior in the open field test did not change with altitude, thus validating immobility in the FST as depression-like behavior. Hypobaric hypoxia exposure therefore induces depression-like behavior in female rats, but not in males.

  20. Maternal separation enhances object location memory and prevents exercise-induced MAPK/ERK signalling in adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Makena, Nokuthula; Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A

    2012-09-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of developing psychopathology accompanied by reduced cognitive function in later life. Maternal separation induces anxiety-like behaviours and is associated with impaired memory. On the other hand, exercise has been shown to diminish anxiety-like behaviours and improve cognitive function. The effects of maternal separation and exercise on anxiety, memory and hippocampal proteins were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Maternal separation produced anxiety-like behaviours which were reversed by exercise. Maternal separation also enhanced object location memory which was not affected by exercise. Exercise did, however, increase synaptophysin and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the hippocampus of non-separated rats and this effect was not observed in maternally separated rats. These findings show that maternal separation selectively enhanced n memory and prevented activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway in the adult rat hippocampus.

  1. Absorption, Distribution, Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics of C14-Pyronaridine Tetraphosphate in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Sang Hyun Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to determine the absorption, distribution, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of the antimalarial drug pyronaridine tetraphosphate (PNDP in Sprague-Dawley rats. Following oral administration of a single dose (10 mg/Kg of C14-PNDP, it was observed that the drug was readily absorbed from the small intestine within 1 hour following oral administration and was widely distributed in most of the tissues investigated as determined from the observed radioactivity in the tissues. The peak value of the drug in the blood was reached at around 8 hours postadministration, and radioactivity was detected in most of the tissues from 4 hours onwards. C14-PNDP showed a poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and the absorption, distribution, and excretion of C14-PNDP were found to be gender-independent as both male and female rats showed a similar pattern of radioactivity. Excretion of the drug was predominantly through the urine with a peak excretion post 24 hours of administration. A small amount of the drug was also excreted in the feces and also in the breath. It was found that the Cmax, AUC (0-inf, and Tmax values were similar to those observed in the Phase II clinical trials of pyronaridine/artesunate (Pyramax conducted in Uganda.

  2. Investigation of the anxiolytic effects of xanthohumol, a component of humulus lupulus (Hops), in the male Sprague-Dawley rat.

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    Ceremuga, Thomas E; Johnson, Lori A; Adams-Henderson, Jamilia M; McCall, Suzanne; Johnson, Don

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiolytic effects of xanthohumol, a component of Humulus lupulus (hops), and its potential interaction with the benzodiazepine binding site on the y-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. This was a prospective, randomized, between-subjects experimental study. Fifty-five rats were assigned to 1 Sof 5 groups with 11 rats per group: control (vehicle), xanthohumol, midazolam, midazolam with xanthohumol, and flumazenil with xanthohumol. In this study the elevated plus maze measured the behavioral components of anxiety and motor movements. A 2-tailed multivariate analysis of variance and least significant difference post hoc test was used to determine if a significant difference existed. Our data suggest that xanthohumol does not produce anxiolysis by modulation of the GABAA receptor; however, there may be a possible interaction between xanthohumol and midazolam, or xanthohumol may influence the modulation of another neurotransmitter site in the central nervous system. Alone, xanthohumol does not show significant modulation of the benzodiazepine receptor. Additional research should investigate if xanthohumol acts as a benzodiazepine GABAA partial agonist or antagonist or if it modulates another neurotransmitter system in the central nervous system.

  3. Developmental treatment with ethinyl estradiol, but not bisphenol A, causes alterations in sexually dimorphic behaviors in male and female Sprague Dawley rats.

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    Ferguson, Sherry A; Law, Charles Delbert; Kissling, Grace E

    2014-08-01

    The developing central nervous system may be particularly sensitive to bisphenol A (BPA)-induced alterations. Here, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats (n = 11-12/group) were gavaged daily with vehicle, 2.5 or 25.0 μg/kg BPA, or 5.0 or 10.0 μg/kg ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on gestational days 6-21. The BPA doses were selected to be below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/day. On postnatal days 1-21, all offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose. A naïve control group was not gavaged. Body weight, pubertal age, estrous cyclicity, and adult serum hormone levels were measured. Adolescent play, running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, female sex behavior, and manually elicited lordosis were assessed. No significant differences existed between the vehicle and naïve control groups. Vehicle controls exhibited significant sexual dimorphism for most behaviors, indicating these evaluations were sensitive to sex differences. However, only EE2 treatment caused significant effects. Relative to female controls, EE2-treated females were heavier, exhibited delayed vaginal opening, aberrant estrous cyclicity, increased play behavior, decreased running wheel activity, and increased aggression toward the stimulus male during sexual behavior assessments. Relative to male controls, EE2-treated males were older at testes descent and preputial separation and had lower testosterone levels. These results suggest EE2-induced masculinization/defeminization of females and are consistent with increased volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) at weaning in female siblings of these subjects (He, Z., Paule, M. G. and Ferguson, S. A. (2012) Low oral doses of bisphenol A increase volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in male, but not female, rats at postnatal day 21. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 34, 331-337). Although EE2 treatment caused pubertal delays and decreased testosterone levels in males, their

  4. Females remyelinate more efficiently than males following demyelination in the aged but not young adult CNS.

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    Li, Wen-Wu; Penderis, Jacques; Zhao, Chao; Schumacher, Michael; Franklin, Robin J M

    2006-11-01

    To assess the effects of sex on CNS remyelination, demyelinating lesions were induced by injection of ethidium bromide into the caudal cerebellar peduncle of Sprague-Dawley rats divided into the following 8 groups: young adult male, young adult female, old adult male and old adult female and each of these in which the gonads had been removed 4 weeks prior to lesion induction. Remyelination was assessed, blinded to grouping, by a ranking analysis using standard morphological criteria. In young adult animals, where remyelination proceeds rapidly, there was no difference in the remyelination at four weeks after lesion induction in male or females regardless of whether they were intact or castrated/ovariectomised. However, in old adult rats, where remyelination proceeds slowly, the extent of oligodendrocyte remyelination was significantly less in males compared to females at 8 weeks after lesion induction. Removal of gonads did not affect remyelination in old rats of either gender. These results indicate a sex-associated divergence in remyelination efficiency that occurs with ageing that is unaffected by the removal of gonadal sources of sex steroid hormones.

  5. Myelotoxicity in genistein-, nonylphenol-, methoxychlor-, vinclozolin- or ethinyl estradiol-exposed F1 generations of Sprague-Dawley rats following developmental and adult exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T L; Germolec, D R; Musgrove, D L; Delclos, K B; Newbold, R R; Weis, C; White, K L

    2005-08-01

    The myelotoxicity of five endocrine active chemicals was evaluated in F1 generation of Sprague-Dawley rats following developmental and adult exposures at three concentration levels. Rats were exposed to genistein (GEN: 25, 250 and 1250 ppm), nonylphenol (NPH: 25, 500 and 2000 ppm), methoxychlor (MXC: 10, 100 and 1000 ppm), vinclozolin (VCZ: 10, 150 and 750 ppm) and ethinyl estradiol (EE2: 5, 25 and 200 ppb) gestationally and lactationally through dams from day 7 of gestation and through feed after weaning on postnatal day (PND) 22 to PND 64. The parameters examined included the number of recovered bone marrow cells, DNA synthesis, and colony forming units (CFU) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and erythropoietin. Except for the EE2, the concentrations of other individual chemicals in the diet were in an approximate range that allowed for a comparison to be made in terms of myelotoxic potency. Decreases in the DNA synthesis, CFU-GM and CFU-M seemed to be the common findings among the alterations induced by these compounds. Using the numbers of alterations induced by each chemical in the parameters examined as criteria for comparison, the order of myelotoxic potency in F(1) males was: GEN>MXC>NPH>VCZ; the order in females: GEN>NPH>VCZ. Additionally, some of the functional changes induced by these compounds were gender-specific or dimorphic. Overall, the results demonstrated that developmental and adult exposures of F1 rats to these endocrine active chemicals at the concentrations tested had varied degrees of myelotoxicity with GEN being the most potent. Furthermore, the sex-specific effects of these chemicals in F1 male and female rats suggest that there may be interactions between these compounds and sex hormone in modulating these responses.

  6. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Administration Induces Amnesia in Male Sprague Dawley Rats and Exacerbates Recovery from Functional Deficits Induced by a Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Rastafa I.; Hayashi, Kentaro; Bongers, Quinn; Wehber, Marlyse; Anderson, Icelle M.; Jansen, Alex D.; Nier, Chase; Fares, Emily; Farquhar, Gabrielle; Kapoor, Amita; Ziegler, Toni E.; VadakkadathMeethal, Sivan; Bird, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T) biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuropathology and reduce deficits induced by stroke in adult rats. To test the impact of CLA on cognitive recovery following a TBI, 5–6 month old male Sprague Dawley rats received a focal injury (craniectomy + controlled cortical impact (CCI; n = 17)) or Sham injury (craniectomy alone; n = 12) and were injected with 25 mg/kg body weight of Clarinol® G-80 (80% CLA in safflower oil; n = 16) or saline (n = 13) every 48 h for 4 weeks. Sham surgery decreased baseline plasma progesterone (P4) by 64.2% (from 9.5 ± 3.4 ng/mL to 3.4 ± 0.5 ng/mL; p = 0.068), T by 74.6% (from 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL to 1.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL; p CLA treatment did not reverse hypogonadism in Sham (P4: 2.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL; T: 0.9 ± 0.2 ng/mL) or CCI-injured (P4: 2.2 ± 0.9 ng/mL; T: 1.0 ± 0.2 ng/mL, p > 0.05) animals by post-injury day 29, but rapidly reversed by post-injury day 1 the hypoadrenalism in Sham (11-DOC: 372.6 ± 36.6 ng/mL; corticosterone: 202.6 ± 15.6 ng/mL) and CCI-injured (11-DOC: 384.2 ± 101.3 ng/mL; corticosterone: 234.6 ± 43.8 ng/mL) animals. In Sham surgery animals, CLA did not alter body weight, but did markedly increase latency to find the hidden Morris Water Maze platform (40.3 ± 13.0 s) compared to saline treated Sham animals (8.8 ± 1.7 s). In CCI injured animals, CLA did not alter CCI-induced body weight loss, CCI-induced cystic infarct size, or deficits in rotarod performance. However, like Sham animals, CLA injections exacerbated the latency of CCI-injured rats to find the hidden MWM platform (66.8 ± 10.6 s) compared to CCI-injured rats treated with saline (30.7 ± 5.5 s, p CLA at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight in adult male rats over 1

  7. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  8. Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, C J; Longino, J T

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the play behaviour in one group of coatis (Nasua narica) at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We incidentally found adult males playing with juvenile coatis, and conducted post-hoc analyses to investigate this interaction. Coati groups consist of adult females and juveniles of both sexes until male juveniles reach two years of age and leave the band to become solitary. Adult males only tolerate juveniles for a brief period during breeding season when the males court females to mate. Outside of the breeding season, adult males are known to prey on juveniles. In this study, when adult males were present with the band, play occurred more than was expected by chance, and adult males engaged in many of these play bouts. Because the mechanisms driving infanticidal behaviour are not well understood, and adult male coatis show a range of behaviours from infanticide to highly affiliative interactions with juveniles, using coatis as a model system may elucidate mechanisms underlying infanticide.

  9. Hyperprolactinemia affects spermiogenesis in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, M; Choudhari, J; Padwal, V; Balasinor, N; Parte, P; Gill-Sharma, M K

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the antifertility effects of hyperprolactinemia have yet to be established in an appropriate experimental model. Hyperprolactinemia is a known side effect of fluphenazine, a broad spectrum, long-acting phenothiazine known to be dopamine type-D2 receptor antagonist. In our earlier study in adult male rats, we reported that fluphenazine at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day suppressed serum FSH but not testosterone (T) through increasing dopamine (DA) metabolism in the pituitary gland, within 60 days. Fluphenazine treatment affected sperm quality and male rats treated with fluphenazine sired fewer litters. The effects of fluphenazine-induced hyperprolactinemia on sperm quality appeared to be related to reduced FSH. We now report that FSH suppression enhanced the uptake of acridine orange (AO), a DNA intercalating, fluorescent dye by the fluphenazine-treated caput epididymal sperms with concomitant reduction in the uptake of thiol-specific monobromobimane (mBBr) fluorescent dye in vitro, suggesting greater accessibility of DNA intercalating dye to sperm chromatin and reduction in free sperm protein thiols. The concomitant increase in AO and decrease in mBBr fluorescence was suggestive of loose chromatin packaging in caput epididymal sperms after treatment with fluphenazine at 3 mg/kg/day for 60 days. The suppression in levels of protamine (P1) in caput epididymal sperms suggested that chromatin hypocompaction was due to reduced deposition of protamines in sperm chromatin. Reduction in testicular levels of cyclic adenosyl 3', 5' monophosphate response element modulator (CREMtau) and P1 further suggested that reduced deposition was indeed due to reduced synthesis. The concomitant reduction in testicular levels of transition protein 1 (TP1) and transition protein 2 (TP2) also suggested that hypoprotamination was due to reduced synthesis of these proteins crucial for facilitating P1 deposition. The effect appeared to have occurred at the level of translation

  10. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jennifer L.; Lansdell, Theresa A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Baker, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 µg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. PMID:26440580

  11. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jennifer L; Lansdell, Theresa A; Lookingland, Keith J; Baker, Lisa E

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning.

  12. Effects of tributyltin chloride(TBTCl) on seroid hormone and seroidogenic enzymes in Sprague-Dawley male rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, T.S.; Lee, S.J.; Shin, J.H.; Kim, T.S.; Moon, H.J.; Ki, H.Y.; Bae, H.; Han, S.Y. [Endocrine Toxicology Div., National Inst. of Toxicological Research, Korea FDA, Seoul (Korea); Dong, M.S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea); Yoon, Y.D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Tributyltin (TBT), organotin compound is used a wood preservative, a stabilizer of poly-vinyl chloride (PVC), a bactericide, a vermicide, and antifouling agent in maritime paint. TBTCl has been known to bioaccumulate through the food chain and induce imposex in female gastropods. Testosterone was synthesized from cholesterol in Leydig cell. In male rat testes, cholesterol in in the inner membrane of mitochondria is converted to prognenolone by cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and prognenolone is consequently converted to progesterone by 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}a-HSD). Progesterone is converted to testosterone by cytochrome P450 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase (P450c17), and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta}-HSD). Testosterone is converted to estradiol by P450 aromatase. Some studies have been reported that steroidogenic enzyme and steroid hormone were affected by TBT. In a two-generation study of tributyltin chloride, serum estradiol was decreased in F1 and F2 male rats. But serum concentration of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were not changed in F1 and F2 male rats. When pregnant rats were orally administrated by TBTCl, serum progesterone was decreased and serum estradiol was increased in female litters. Also litters were affected on development of reproductive organs and sexual of differentiation by TBTCl.3 Tributyltin increased serum progesterone in granulosa cells, but serum testosterone and estradiol were diminished.4 TBT has been known that it repressed P450 aromatase activity. In this study, we investigated effect of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) on the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes and steroid hormone in male rat.

  13. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  14. The combined toxicity of dibutyl phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene on the reproductive system of male Sprague Dawley rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuemei [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); An Hui; Ao Lin; Sun Lei; Liu Wenbin; Zhou Ziyuan [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang Yingxiong, E-mail: wyx61221@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cao Jia, E-mail: caojia1962@126.com [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Our previous studies revealed more than 100 pollutants, most of which were endocrine disruptors (EDs) in two Chinese rivers, the Jialing and the Yangtze near Chongqing. Most EDs, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are known to act individually as reproductive toxicants. However, little is known about the combined toxicity of DBP and BaP. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to single doses of DBP (250 mg/kg), single doses of BaP (5 mg/kg) and combined doses of DBP and BaP. Significant adverse effects were observed on the reproductive system, including decreased sperm count, increased production of abnormal sperm, changes in serum testosterone levels and irregular arrangements of the seminiferous epithelium. Biochemical analyses showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased after exposure to these EDs. Therefore, our data suggest that exposure to DBP and BaP, in either separate or combined doses, can affect the reproductive system of male rats adversely via oxidative stress-related mechanisms. No significant additive effect was observed after combined exposure. These results indicate that exposure to mixtures of EDs have unexpected and elusive effects. Our findings provide preliminary but important data for assessing water safety in China.

  15. Some Adverse Effects of Used Engine Oil (Common Waste Pollutant On Reproduction of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Olalekan Akintunde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Used oil is contaminated not only with heavy metals but also with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are insignificant in the unused oil. In our study we determined possible reproductive effects of used engine oil on male rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were used for the study. The rats had average weight of 181.5 ± 10 g, animal feeds and portable water was provided ad-libitum. The rats were assigned to 4 groups (n = 7 including control. The treated groups orally received 0.1 ml/rat, 0.2 ml/rat and 0.4 ml/rat of the used engine oil every other day for 28 days using oral canulla. The spermatozoa were collected from epididymis for sperm analysis and testes were removed and preserved in Bouin’s fluid for routine histological analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was progressive weight increase among the control group of rats that received distilled water. Meanwhile, rats that received 0.4 ml/rat of the used engine oil showed significant (P 0.05 weight reduction. The spermatozoa number was decreased with significance (P 0.05. The percentage of head deformity been 41.43 ± 2.61 and 42.00 ± 3.74 at 0.2 ml/rat and 0.4 ml/rat respectively, also significant increase of middle piece deformity was observed only at 0.1 ml/rat (45.71 ± 2.02 while tail deformity significantly decreased (15.71 ± 2.02, 20.00 ± 4.36 and 20.00 ± 4.47 when compared with the control (30.00 ± 1.29. The testicular seminiferous tubules were slightly degenerated with absence of Lumen. The germinal cell layer consisting of necrosis of spermatogonia and interstitial (Leydig cells with affected Sertoli cells at different maturation stages. CONCLUSION: Hence, it can be said that there is a negative relation between used engine oil and male reproductive parameters. And it can be concluded that used engine oil should be  prevented from leaking, spilling or improperly discarded as through medium it may enter storm water runoff and

  16. Triclosan exhibits a tendency to accumulate in the epididymis and shows sperm toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Zhou; Hyung Kim, Tae; Shun Bi, Kai; Hui Chen, Xiao; Sik Kim, Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is considered a potent endocrine disruptor that causes reproductive toxicity in non-mammals, but it is still unclear exactly whether TCS has adverse effects on the sperm or reproductive organs in mammals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the distribution status of TCS in male reproductive organs of rats, and seek the correlation with the TCS-induced sperm toxicity or reproductive organ damage. Male rats were intragastrically administered with TCS at a dose of 50 mg/kg, the kinetics of TCS in the plasma and reproductive organs were investigated. TCS in testes and prostates both showed a lower-level distribution compared to that in the plasma, which indicates it has no tendency to accumulate in those organs. However, TCS in the epididymides showed a longer elimination half-life (t1/2 z), a longer the mean retention time (MRT), and a lower clearance (CLZ /F) compared with those in the plasma. Besides, the ratios of mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-96 h(epididymides/plasma)) and AUC(0-∞(epididymides/plasma)) were 1.13 and 1.51, respectively. These kinetic parameters suggest TCS has an accumulation tendency in the epididymides. Based on this, we investigated the TCS-induced sperm toxicity and histopathological changes of reproductive organs in rats. TCS was given intragastrically at doses of 10, 50, and 200 mg/kg for 8 weeks. Rats treated with the high dose (200 mg/kg) of TCS showed a significant decrease in daily sperm production (DSP), changes in sperm morphology and epididymal histopathology. Considering the histopathological change in the epididymides, TCS may induce the epididymal damage due to the epididymal accumulation of that.

  17. Occlusal status in Asian male adults : Prevalence and ethnic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soh, J; Sandham, John; Chin, Yeen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal status in young Asian male adults of three ethnic groups. Study models of a sample of male army recruits (N = 339, age 1722 years) with no history of orthodontic treatment were assessed. The ethnic proportions of the sample were Chinese 76.1% (

  18. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Gorianovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age. The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval. The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males.

  19. Incomplete urethral duplication in an adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-09-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly with less than 200 cases reported. It predominantly occurs in males and is nearly always diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. It is defined as a complete second passage from the bladder to the dorsum of the penis or as an accessory pathway that ends blindly on the dorsal or ventral surface.

  20. Water-Soluble Chitosan Nanoparticles Inhibit Hypercholesterolemia Induced by Feeding a High-Fat Diet in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, a deacetylated product of chitin, has been demonstrated to lower cholesterol in humans and animals. However, chitosan is not fully soluble in water which would influence absorption in the human intestine. In addition, water-soluble chitosan (WSC has higher reactivity compared to chitosan. The present study was designed to clarify the effects of WSC and water-soluble chitosan nanoparticles (WSC-NPs on hypercholesterolemia induced by feeding a high-fat diet in male Sprague-Dawley rats. WSC-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method and the spray-drying technique. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape and had a smooth surface. The mean size of WSC-NPs was 650 nm variing from 500 to 800 nm. Results showed that WSC-NPs reduced the blood lipids and plasma viscosity significantly and increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD activities significantly. This paper is the first report of the lipid-lowering effects of WSC-NPs suggesting that the WSC-NPs could be used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Development and validation of an LCMS method to determine the pharmacokinetic profiles of caffeic acid phenethyl amide and caffeic acid phenethyl ester in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, John; Bowman, Phillip D; Kerwin, Sean M; Stavchansky, Salomon

    2014-02-01

    A validated LCMS method was developed for the quantitative determination of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) from rat plasma. Separation was achieved using a reverse-phase C12 HPLC column (150 × 2.00 mm, 4 µm) with gradient elution running water (A) and acetonitrile (B). Mass spectrometry was performed with electrospray ionization in negative mode. This method was used to determine the pharmacokinetic profiles of CAPA and CAPE in male Sprague-Dawley rats following intravenous bolus administration of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of CAPA and 20 mg/kg of CAPE. The pharmacokinetic analysis suggests the lack of dose proportionality in the dose range of 5-20 mg/kg of CAPA. Total clearance values for CAPA ranged from 45 to 156 mL/min and decreased with increasing dose of CAPA. The volume of distribution for CAPA ranged from 17,750 to 52,420 mL, decreasing with increasing dose. The elimination half-life for CAPA ranged from 243.1 to 295.8 min and no statistically significant differences were observed between dose groups in the range of 5-20 mg/kg (p > 0.05). The elimination half-life for CAPE was found to be 92.26 min.

  2. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF, and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF. The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming.

  3. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  4. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  5. Skeletal site-specific effects of endurance running on structure and strength of tibia, lumbar vertebrae, and mandible in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Kirsten N; Sacco, Sandra M; Turnbull, Patrick C; Longo, Amanda B; Ward, Wendy E; Peters, Sandra J

    2016-06-01

    Bone microarchitecture, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength are affected positively by impact activities such as running; however, there are discrepancies in the magnitude of these effects. These inconsistencies are mainly a result of varying training protocols, analysis techniques, and whether or not the skeletal sites measured are weight bearing. This study's purpose was to determine the effects of endurance running on sites that experience different weight bearing and load. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 20) were randomly assigned to either a group with a progressive treadmill running protocol (25 m/min for 1 h, incline of 10%) or a nontrained control group for 8 weeks. The trabecular structure of the tibia, lumbar vertebra (L3), and mandible and the cortical structure at the tibia midpoint were measured using microcomputed tomography to quantify bone volume fraction (i.e., bone volume divided by total volume (BV/TV)), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), and cortical thickness. BMD at the proximal tibia, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L3), and mandible was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The tibia midpoint strength was measured by 3-point bending using a materials testing system. Endurance running resulted in superior bone structure at the proximal tibia (12% greater BV/TV (p = 0.03), 14% greater Tb.N (p = 0.01), and 19% lower Tb.Sp (p = 0.05)) but not at other sites. Contrary to our hypothesis, mandible bone structure was altered after endurance training (8% lower BV/TV (p < 0.01) and 15% lower Tb.Th (p < 0.01)), which may be explained by a lower food intake, resulting in less mechanical loading from chewing. These results highlight the site-specific effects of loading on the skeleton.

  6. Elevated tissue Cr levels, increased plasma oxidative markers, and global hypomethylation of blood DNA in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to potassium dichromate in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Wei; Yao, Chunji; Lou, Jianlin; Chen, Riping; Jin, Lingzhi; Wu, Nanxiang; Gao, Ming; Song, Peng; Tan, Yufeng; Liu, Kecheng

    2016-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is prevalent in ground water in some areas, but evidence on the toxic effects of Cr (VI) via ingestion through drinking water remains insufficient. The aims of our study were to investigate the toxic effects of Cr (VI) through oral water ingestion on oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, and exposed to porassium dichromate (K2 Cr2 O7 ; 0, 30, 100, and 300 mg/L) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Mean body weight gain, mean water consumption, clinical chemistry determinations, and oxidative stress levels in plasma were measured. Global DNA methylation changes and DNA methylation status at the promoter of p16 gene were also detected. After 4 weeks, mild anemic effects and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels occurred in rats exposed to 100 mg/L or 300 mg/L of Cr (VI). Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity decreased in all exposed groups. Global DNA methylation levels were reduced in 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L exposure groups. However, DNA methylation status at the promoter of P16 gene remained unchanged in all K2 Cr2 O7- treated groups. The correlation analysis indicated that increased MDA levels were closely correlated to global DNA hypomethylation. Our results indicated that oral ingestion of Cr (VI) through drinking water caused not only oxidative stress in plasma, but also global DNA hypomethylation in blood cells from male rats, and a good correlation was found between increased MDA levels and reduced global DNA methylation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1080-1090, 2016.

  7. Increase in Bcl2 expression of penile and prostate cells of Sprague Dawley male rats following treatment with buceng (combination of Pimpinella alpina molk with Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with buceng combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Pimpinella alpine Molk has been proven to increase testosterone level, decrease apoptosis and caspase3 expression. Bcl2 is an antiapoptotic protein found in cytoplasm which inhibits cells apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of buceng on Bcl2 expression on penile and prostate tissues of the rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats of 90 days old, weighing ± 300 grams, were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A, normal rats. Group B, castrated rats and treated with buceng 100 mg/day, per oral (Cast-Bcg; Group C, castrated rats and treated with 2 ml of water as placebo against buceng (Cast-Plac. Group D, castrated rats, treated with mesterolone 6.75 mg/day, per oral, as exogenous testosterone (Cast-Mest. All rats were treated for 30 days. Manova test was used to analyze the different expression of Bcl2 among groups with significance level at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Castration was associated with significant decrease of Bcl2 expression in the penile and prostate tissues (53.0 and 50.9%, respectively compared to normal rats (82.6 and 84.2%, respectively, p < 0.001. Treatment with mesterolone reversed Bcl2 expression (77.1 and 78.1% to a near normal level. The same level of Bcl2 expression was also observed with buceng treatment (73.8 and 78.2%.Conclusion: The treatment with buceng could enhance Bcl2 expression in penile and prostate tissues, comparable to normal rats and mesterolone treated rats.

  8. Non-acute effects of different doses of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on spatial memory in the Morris water maze in Sprague-Dawley male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Soleimani Asl; Mohammad Hassan Farhadi; Nasser Naghdi; Samira Choopani; Alireza Samzadeh-Kermani; Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2011-01-01

    3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; also known as 'ecstasy') has been shown to impair learning and spatial memory in adult and neonatal rats.Many studies have focused on the acute effects of MDMA on memory.In the present study, we intraperitoneally administered MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) to adult male rats to investigate the effects of different doses on rat spatial memory in the Morris water maze, body temperature, and mortality, twice a day, for 7 successive days.The results indicated that MDMA impaired spatial memory dose-dependently, with the highest dose (20 mg/kg) exerting the strongest effects.In addition, MDMA also caused hyperthermia and increased mortality in rats.

  9. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  10. Toxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Titanium Dioxide Bulk Salt in the Liver and Blood of Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Assessed by Different Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farhat; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Fakhr-E-Alam, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) bulk salt as well as its nanoparticles (NPs) in anatase phase with mean crystallite size of 36.15 nm in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injections at four different dose levels of either control (0), 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of body weight (BW) of rat for 28 days on alternate days. Animal mortality, haematology, micronucleus assay, liver histology and activities of liver tissue damage markers like, alkaline phosphate (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), as well as oxidative stress indicators like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were investigated. The study revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) among control and experimental groups in all the haematological parameters at the end of experiment. Significantly elevated levels (P < 0.05) of ALT, AST and ALP were found for the group treated with TiO2 NPs at the dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight as compared to control. TiO2 and TiO2 NPs caused dose-dependent genotoxicity in the blood cells of the treated rat as revealed by micronuclei test. The highest frequency of micronuclei was observed in rats treated with NPs at the dose of 150 mg/kg BW which was significantly different (P < 0.001) from all other experimental groups after 28 days of exposure. Similarly, all the treatments showed dose-dependent oxidative stress in the treated rats. However, the significantly high decline in the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST as well as elevation in malondialdehyde and GSH was observed in the group receiving NPs at the rate of 150 mg/kg BW. TiO2 also caused histological alterations in the liver. The study revealed that higher dose of TiO2 NPs exerted significantly harmful effects on liver and blood as compared to its lower doses as well as from all other doses of their bulk counterparts.

  11. Salvinorin B derivatives, EOM-Sal B and MOM-Sal B, produce stimulus generalization in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate salvinorin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Mary Melissa; Baker, Lisa E

    2011-09-01

    Salvinorin A, the main active component of Salvia divinorum, is a potent and selective κ opioid receptor agonist. Synthetic derivatives of this substance may be useful in the development of medicinal treatments for pain, mood disorders, and drug dependence. Such developments require extensive preclinical screening of these compounds. The drug discrimination assay is a valuable method for exploring potential similarities between novel compounds and known drugs of abuse with respect to their interoceptive stimulus properties, and can be used to investigate the potency of salvinorin A and its derivatives in vivo. This study used drug discrimination methods to compare two synthetic derivatives of salvinorin B, the ethoxymethyl ether (EOM-Sal B) and methoxymethyl ether (MOM-Sal B) with salvinorin A. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 2.0 mg/kg of salvinorin A from its vehicle (75% dimethylsulfoxide/25% water) in a fixed ratio 20 food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure, and were tested for stimulus generalization with EOM-Sal B and MOM-Sal B. For comparison, substitution tests were also conducted with a μ agonist, morphine, a dissociative hallucinogen, ketamine, and two serotonergic hallucinogens, D-lysergic diethylamide (LSD) and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane. Time-course tests were also conducted with salvinorin A and EOM-Sal B. Both EOM-Sal B and MOM-Sal B substituted fully for salvinorin A and displayed greater potency than salvinorin A. EOM-Sal B was discriminated at longer postinjection intervals than salvinorin A. Morphine and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane failed to substitute for salvinorin A, although ketamine and LSD produced significant drug-appropriate responding. The current findings are consistent with previous reports that salvinorin A produces detectable stimulus effects that are distinct from those of other drug classes and, for the first time, establish that synthetic derivatives of this

  12. Behavioral differences between late preweanling and adult female Sprague-Dawley rat exploration of animate and inanimate stimuli and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kiersten S; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-03-01

    The late preweanling rat has potential as a preclinical model for disorders initially manifested in early childhood that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism). No reports, however, of specific-stimulus exploration in the late preweanling rat are found in the literature. We examined the behavioral responses of normal late preweanling (PND 18-19) and adult rats when presented with exemplars of categorically-varied stimuli, including inanimate objects systematically varied in size and interactive properties, biological stimuli, and food. Preweanlings were faster to initiate specific stimulus exploration and were more interactive with most specific stimuli than adults; the magnitude of these preweanling-adult quantitative differences ranged from fairly small to very large depending upon the stimulus. In contrast, preweanlings were adult-like in their interaction with food and prey. Preweanling response to some stimuli, for example to live pups, was qualitatively different from that of adults; the preweanling behavioral repertoire was characterized by pup-seeking while the adult response was characterized by pup-avoidance. The specific stimulus interactions of preweanlings were less impacted than those of adults by the time of day of testing and placement of a stimulus in an anxiety-provoking location. The impact of novelty was stimulus dependent. The differences in interactions of preweanlings versus adults with specific stimuli suggests that CNS systems underlying these behavior patterns are at different stages of immaturity at PND 18 such that there may be an array of developmental trajectories for various categories of specific stimuli. These data provide a basis for the use of the preweanling as a preclinical model for understanding and medicating human disorders during development that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli.

  13. File list: Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  17. Giant Primary Mature Retroperitoneal Teratomain in Adult Male Patient

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ebrahimian; D. Tasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Teratomas are congenital tumors consisting of derivatives from the ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm germ cell layers. A teratoma is considered to be a non-seminomatous germ cell tumor and is typically located in either the sacrococcygeal region or in the gonads. Giant retroperitoneal teratomas in adults are even rarer, with only a few cases previously described in the literature. Case report: A 35-year-old male patient with severe nausea and vomiting was taken to the emergency wa...

  18. Behavioral Differences Between Late Preweanling and Adult Female Sprague-Dawley Rat Exploration of Animate and Inanimate Stimuli and Food

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2010-01-01

    The late preweanling rat has potential as a preclinical model for disorders initially manifested in early childhood that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism). No reports, however, of specific-stimulus exploration in the late preweanling rat are found in the literature. We examined the behavioral responses of normal late preweanling (PND 18-19) and adult rats when presented with exemplars of categorically-varied ...

  19. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  20. Differential Effect of the Dopamine D3 Agonist (±-7-Hydroxy-2-(N,N-di-n-propylamino Tetralin (7-OH-DPAT on Motor Activity between Adult Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rats after a Neonatal Ventral Hippocampus Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Guzmán-Velázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL has been widely used as an animal model for schizophrenia. Rats with an nVHL show several delayed behavioral alterations that mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Sprague-Dawley (SD rats with an nVHL have a decrease in D3 receptors in limbic areas, but the expression of D3 receptors in Wistar (W rats with an nVHL is unknown. The 7-Hydroxy-2-(N,N-di-n-propylamino tetralin (7-OH-DPAT has been reported as a D3-preferring agonist. Thus, we investigated the effect of (±-7-OH-DPAT (0.25 mg/kg on the motor activity in male adult W and SD rats after an nVHL. The 7-OH-DPAT caused a decrease in locomotion of W rats with an nVHL, but it did not change the locomotion of SD rats with this lesion. Our results suggest that the differential effect of 7-OH-DPAT between W and SD rats with an nVHL could be caused by a different expression of the D3 receptors. These results may have implications for modeling interactions of genetic and environmental factors involved in schizophrenia.

  1. Effects of cyclophosphamide on the kaolin consumption (pica behavior) in five strains of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, Atsushi; Kojima, Shu-ichi; Ikeda, Masashi; Hokao, Ryoji; Shinoda, Motoo

    2011-07-01

    It is known that pica, the consumption of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin, can be induced by administration of toxins or emetic agents in rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cyclophosphamide on pica behavior and on the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids (5HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the following five strains of adult male rats: Sprague Dawley (SD), Wistar, Fischer 344 (F344), Wistar-Imamichi (WI) and Long Evans (LE). Cyclophosphamide (25 mg or 50 mg/kg) was injected (i.p.) into the rats and kaolin and food intake were measured at 24 hr after injection. The animals were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) at 3 hr after injection of cyclophosphamide, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna. WI and LE rats clearly showed pica behavior as compared with the other strains. In LE rats, the concentration of 5HIAA in CSF also increased in a dose-dependent manner of cyclophosphamide. The pretreatment with ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist) restored both changes (kaolin consumption and 5HIAA levels) induced by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the LE rat is sensitive to cyclophosphamide, that pica induced by cyclophosphamide mimics many aspects of emesis including the serotonergic response in the central nervous system and that use of the pica model would be a practical method for evaluating the effects of antiemetic drugs in addition to the mechanism of emesis.

  2. Maternal High Fat Diet Alters Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Catalytic Activity in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Chantal A.; Hedges, Christopher P.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Markworth, James F.; Durainayagam, Brenan R.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle. PMID:27917127

  3. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  4. Prenatal high-salt diet in the Sprague-Dawley rat programs blood pressure and heart rate hyperresponsiveness to stress in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James P; King, Summer H; Honeycutt, April D

    2007-07-01

    Several animal models have been developed to study fetal programming of hypertension. One model involves feeding high-salt (HS) diet to rats before and during pregnancy, during lactation, and after weaning for 10 days. In the present investigation, we limited HS diet to the prenatal period in an attempt to find a narrower critical window for fetal programming. The HS diet did not result in low-birth weight offspring. In the adult offspring, radiotelemetry was used to assess blood pressure and heart rate in the conscious unstressed state. As adults, the HS offspring were not hypertensive compared with normal-salt (NS) control animals. However, the pressor and tachycardic responses to 1-h of restraint were significantly enhanced in HS female offspring, and recovery after restraint was delayed. This was accompanied by an increase in relative expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus during basal and stressed conditions. There was no augmented stress response or relative increase in CRH mRNA in adult HS male offspring. When challenged with 1 wk of 8% NaCl diet as adults, neither HS male nor female offspring exhibited salt sensitivity compared with NS groups. These data show that a high-salt diet limited to the prenatal period is not sufficient to program hypertension in adult offspring. However, this narrower critical period is sufficient to imprint a lasting hyperresponsiveness to stress, at least in adult female offspring. These data indicate that excessive maternal salt intake during pregnancy can adversely affect the cardiovascular health of adult offspring.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR DELTAMETHRIN IN THE ADULT MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltamethrin (DLT) is a Type II pyrethroid insecticide widely used in agriculture and public health. DLT is a potent neurotoxin that is primarily cleared from the body by metabolism. To better understand the dosimetry of DLT in the central nervous system, a physiologically based ...

  6. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  7. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality.

  8. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations.

  9. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an Adult Indian Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Harjai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Following its first description by Guy Patin in 1692 as a disease that turned a woman into wood, Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva has maintained its low profile that too mainly in textbooks and rarely does one encounter a live walking individual affected by this entity. The hallmarks of this deadly disease are the short size of only the big toes and uninhibited progressive ossification of soft tissues. It can have a sporadic occurrence or may even be inherited through autosomal dominant pattern and has a wide range of expression. A wrong clinical diagnosis exposes the patient to unnecessary surgical excision and even harmful radiotherapy.Hence a case of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an adult Indian male is being reported here for the benefit of one and all. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 927-931

  10. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  11. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  12. Rutin ameliorates cisplatin-induced reproductive damage via suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, E H; Kandemir, F M; Özkaraca, M; Ömür, A D; Küçükler, S; Çomaklı, S

    2017-02-01

    Cisplatin (CP) treatment causes damage in the male reproductive system. Rutin (RUT) is a naturally occurring flavonoid glycoside that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate effects of RUT against cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Twenty-one adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The control group received physiological saline with oral gavage during 14 days, and physiological saline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) in 10th days of study. CP Group received physiological saline during 14 days, and 10 mg kg(-1) CP was injected IP in 10th day. RUT + CP group received RUT (150 mg kg(-1) ) during 14 days, and 10 mg kg(-1) CP was injected IP in 10th day. Spermatological parameters (including motility, cauda epididymal sperm density, dead sperm percentage and morphological sperm abnormalities), biochemical (MDA, GSH, GSH-px, SOD and CAT), histological (H&E dye) and immunochemistry evaluations of testicles were evaluated. CP treatment caused damage on some spermatological parameters, increased the oxidative stress and induced testicular degeneration and apoptosis when compared to the control group. However, RUT treatment mitigates these side effects when compared to the CP alone group. IT is concluded that RUT treatment may reduce CP-induced reproductive toxicity as a potential antioxidant compound.

  13. Red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) ethanolic extract as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradana, Dimas Adhi; Pondawinata, Marizki; Widyarini, Sitarina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential activity of standardized ethanolic extract of red spinach as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats induced by high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. A total of 42 animals was divided into 6 groups: normal control group, negative control group, positive control group (0.9 mg/kgBW of simvastatin), first intervention group (200 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), second intervention group (400 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), and third intervention group (800 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract). From the first day up to the 66th day, all the groups, except the normal control group and negative control group, were administered simvastatin (positive control) and extract of amaranth (intervention). Then, from the eighth day until Day 66, induction of high-fat and high-cholesterol diet was given in two hours after the simvastatin and red spinach extract administration. The determination of LDL parameters was conducted on Day 0, Day 35, and Day 67. On the 67th day, the animals were dissected to examine the aortic histopathological parameters. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of red spinach with a dose of 200 mg/kgBW, 400 mg/kgBW, and 800 mg/kgBW statistically demonstrated a significant difference (patherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and the histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  14. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption.

  15. Giant Primary Mature Retroperitoneal Teratomain in Adult Male Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ebrahimian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teratomas are congenital tumors consisting of derivatives from the ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm germ cell layers. A teratoma is considered to be a non-seminomatous germ cell tumor and is typically located in either the sacrococcygeal region or in the gonads. Giant retroperitoneal teratomas in adults are even rarer, with only a few cases previously described in the literature. Case report: A 35-year-old male patient with severe nausea and vomiting was taken to the emergency ward of Hamadan Be’sat Hospital. He had not been feeling well, and had suffering from abdominal pain for a month. A physical examination showed some concretion in the right side of his abdomen. A CT scan of his abdomen and pelvis with IV and oral contrast re-vealed that the concretion was formed by aggregates of solid, cystic, and calcareous compo-nents. It compressed stomach and caused the rotation of the stomach around its longitudinal axis. Conclusion: Following the diagnosis, we performed a laparotomy and respected a concretion with dimension 20?25?22cm. Interestingly, we found out all mature tissues within the con-cretion in the pathology examination of an adequate sample (such as trachea, bone, GI lu-men…. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 165-169

  16. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

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    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  17. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  18. Differentially expressed genes between female and male adult Anopheles anthropophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yi-Jie; Gao, Shi-Tong; Huang, Da-Na; Zhao, Yi-Rui; Liu, Jian-ping; Li, Xiao-Heng; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify sex-specific genes in adult Anopheles anthropophagus. As the major malaria vector and Brugia malayi vector in the Asian continent, female Anopheles mosquitoes take blood meals and transmit pathogens through this pathway, while males are nectar feeders. This complex behavior is controlled at several levels, but is probably initiated by the genetic background difference between these two groups. In our study, a subtractive cDNA library for female A. anthropophagus was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique and then 3,074 clones from the female SSH library were analyzed using a microarray-based survey. Genes that were expressed differentially according to sex in A. anthropophagus were screened using real-time polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In our results, we report a series of genes which may be involved in female-specific mosquito behavior, including an inorganic phosphate transporter, a serine protease, the salivary protein GP35-2, and the D7 cluster salivary protein. These findings will provide clues to the nature of insect vectors and open up unprecedented opportunities to develop novel strategies for the control of mosquito-borne diseases.

  19. Temperament moderates the influence of periadolescent social experience on behavior and adrenocortical activity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, M J; McClintock, M K; Cavigelli, S A

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant behavioral and physiological maturation, particularly related to stress responses. Animal studies that have tested the influence of adolescent social experiences on stress-related behavioral and physiological development have led to complex results. We used a rodent model of neophobia to test the hypothesis that the influence of adolescent social experience on adult behavior and adrenocortical function is modulated by pre-adolescent temperament. Exploratory activity was assessed in 53 male Sprague-Dawley rats to classify temperament and then they were housed in one of the three conditions during postnatal days (PND) 28-46: (1) with familiar kin, (2) with novel social partners, or (3) individually with no social partners. Effects on adult adrenocortical function were evaluated from fecal samples collected while rats were individually-housed and exposed to a 1-hour novel social challenge during PND 110-114. Adolescent-housing with novel or no social partners led to reduced adult glucocorticoid production compared to adolescent-housing with familiar littermates. Additionally, highly-exploratory pre-weanling rats that were housed with novel social partners during adolescence exhibited increased exploratory behavior and a more rapid return to basal glucocorticoid production in adulthood compared to those housed with familiar or no social partners during adolescence and compared to low-exploratory rats exposed to novel social partners. In sum, relatively short-term adolescent social experiences can cause transient changes in temperament and potentially longer-term changes in recovery of glucocorticoid production in response to adult social challenges. Furthermore, early temperament may modulate the influence of adolescent experiences on adult behavioral and adrenocortical function.

  20. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (pprolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (pobesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  1. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway to prevent programmed hypertension in maternal fructose-fed male adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Kay L H; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Maternal high-fructose (HF) intake induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is associated with renal programming and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. We examined whether early treatment with a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) can prevent HF-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Four groups of male offspring were studied: control, HF, HF+AUDA and HF+15dPGJ2. In HF+AUDA group, mother rats received AUDA 25 mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the HF+15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5 mg/kg body weight by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension is associated with increased renal protein level of SEH and oxidative stress, which early AUDA therapy prevents. Comparison of AUDA and 15dPGJ2 treatments demonstrated that AUDA was more effective in preventing HF-induced programmed hypertension. AUDA therapy increases angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) protein levels and PGE2 levels in adult offspring kidney exposed to maternal HF. 15dPGJ2 therapy increases plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and decreases L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway, especially inhibition of SEH, on renal programming may aid in developing reprogramming strategy to prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to antenatal HF intake.

  2. Preweaning growth hormone treatment ameliorates adipose tissue insulin resistance and inflammation in adult male offspring following maternal undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C M; Li, M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

    2013-08-01

    It is well established that early-life nutritional alterations lead to increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in adult life. Although it is clear that obesity gives rise to chronic low-grade inflammation, there is little evidence regarding the role of inflammation in the adipose tissue of undernourished (UN) offspring. GH reduces fat mass and has antiinflammatory properties. The present study examined the effect of maternal UN on adipose inflammation in adult offspring and whether GH treatment during a critical period of developmental plasticity could ameliorate metabolic dysfunction associated with a poor start to life. Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to chow (C) or UN (50% ad libitum; UN) diet throughout gestation. Male C and UN pups received saline (control saline [CS]/UN) or GH (2.5 μg/g/d; control growth hormone [CGH]/undernourished growth hormone [UNGH]) from days 3-21. Postweaning males were further randomized and fed either chow or high-fat diet until day 160. An ex vivo glucose uptake assay demonstrated adipose tissue from UN offspring displayed attenuated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake compared with CS, CGH, and UNGH. This was associated with increased insulin receptor, glucose transporter 4, and insulin receptor substrate 1 gene expression. Furthermore, UN demonstrated enhanced TNFα and IL-1β secretion from adipose explants and stromal vascular fraction cultures accompanied by increased adipose tissue gene expression of several key proinflammatory genes and markers of macrophage infiltration. Overall, UN offspring displayed a more potent immunophenotype, which correlated with decreased insulin sensitivity. Preweaning GH treatment negates these detrimental effects, indicating the potential for reversing metabolic dysfunction in UN adult offspring.

  3. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

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  12. Glycyrrhizic Acid Can Attenuate Metabolic Deviations Caused by a High-Sucrose Diet without Causing Water Retention in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Alexander Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizic acid (GA ameliorates many components of the metabolic syndrome, but its potential therapeutic use is marred by edema caused by inhibition of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2. We assessed whether 100 mg/kg per day GA administered orally could promote metabolic benefits without causing edema in rats fed on a high-sucrose diet. Groups of eight male rats were fed on one of three diets for 28 days: normal diet, a high-sucrose diet, or a high-sucrose diet supplemented with GA. Rats were then culled and renal 11β-HSD2 activity, as well as serum sodium, potassium, angiotensin II and leptin levels were determined. Histological analyses were performed to assess changes in adipocyte size in visceral and subcutaneous depots, as well as hepatic and renal tissue morphology. This dosing paradigm of GA attenuated the increases in serum leptin levels and visceral, but not subcutaneous adipocyte size caused by the high-sucrose diet. Although GA decreased renal 11β-HSD2 activity, it did not affect serum electrolyte or angiotensin II levels, indicating no onset of edema. Furthermore, there were no apparent morphological changes in the liver or kidney, indicating no toxicity. In conclusion, it is possible to reap metabolic benefits of GA without edema using the current dosage and treatment time.

  13. Projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus: differential effects of chronic khat and ethanol exposure in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alele, Paul E; Matovu, Daniel; Imanirampa, Lawrence; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Kasule, Gyaviira T

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that many individuals who chew khat recreationally also drink ethanol to offset the stimulating effect of khat. The objective of this study was to describe the separate and interactive effects of chronic ethanol and khat exposure on key projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus of young adult male rats. Methods Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six treatment groups: 2 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg ethanol, combined khat and ethanol (4 g/kg each), a normal saline control, and an untreated group. Treatments were administered orally for 28 continuous days; brains were then harvested, sectioned, and routine hematoxylin–eosin staining was done. Following photomicrography, ImageJ® software captured data regarding neuron number and size. Results No differences occurred in counts of both granular and pyramidal projection neurons in the motor cortex and all four subfields of the hippocampal formation. Khat dose-dependently increased pyramidal neuron size in the motor cortex and the CA3 region, but had different effects on granular neuron size in the dentate gyrus and the motor cortex. Mean pyramidal neuron size for the ethanol-only treatment was larger than that for the 2 g/kg khat group, and the saline control group, in CA3 and in the motor cortex. Concomitant khat and ethanol increased granular neuron size in the motor cortex, compared to the 2 g/kg khat group, the 4 g/kg khat group, and the 4 g/kg ethanol group. In the CA3 region, the 4 g/kg ethanol group showed a larger mean pyramidal neuron size than the combined khat and ethanol group. Conclusion These results suggest that concomitant khat and ethanol exposure changes granular and pyramidal projection neuron sizes differentially in the motor cortex and hippocampus, compared to the effects of chronic exposure to these two drugs separately.

  14. Adult male replacement and subsequent infant care by male and siblings in socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Juárez, Cecilia Paola; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) are small, territorial, socially monogamous primates that show intense infant care by the adult male in the group. It has been hypothesized that male care may be adaptive because it increases offspring survival and/or reduces the metabolic costs to the female of raising the offspring. Alternatively, males may provide care even when they are not related to the infants to increase future reproductive opportunities. We describe changes in infant care patterns that took place after the eviction of the resident male by a solitary male in an owl monkey population in the Argentinean Chaco. The resident male and mother provided all infant care during the first month of life of the infant, until the male was evicted. During the three-day male replacement event, care of the infant was shared among the mother, a four-year-old sister, and a one-year-old brother. The new male began contributing to infant care soon after entering the group, carrying, and interacting socially with the infant in much the same way as any male regularly does. However, despite receiving biparental care from both the original and new resident males, the infant disappeared at the age of four months and was presumed dead. These are the first reports of care by sibling and by non-putative fathers in wild owl monkeys. Given the significant amount of time that new pairs of owl monkeys spend before reproducing, it is possible that male care in owl monkeys functions as mating effort as much as or more than parenting effort.

  15. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  16. Alaska northern fur seal adult male satellite telemetry data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...

  17. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  18. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age grou

  19. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  20. CONSOLIDATION AND MODIFICATION OF SEXUAL PREFERENCES IN ADULT MALE ZEBRA FINCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUIJT, JP; MEEUWISSEN, GB

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study (KRUIJT & MEEUWISSEN, 1991) we examined the sexual preference of cross-fostered zebra finch (= Z) males that were reared by Bengalese finch (= B) parents and then isolated until the adult stage. Males then given a choice between a Z and a B female, directed most courtship and son

  1. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  2. Brief maternal exposure of rats to the xenobiotics dibutyl phthalate or diethylstilbestrol alters adult-type Leydig cell development in male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Ivell; Kee Heng; Helen Nicholson; Ravinder Anand-Ivell

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development,referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome.It is not known,however,whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype.In this study,Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window,and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters.All offspring remained in good health throughout the study.Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring,particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty,with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values,and a modest acceleration of the pubertal trajectory.Part of this effect appeared to be due to a treatment-specific impact on Leydig cell proliferation during puberty for both xenobiotics.Taken together,these results support the notion that maternal exposure to certain xenobiotics can also influence the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population,possibly through an effect on the Leydig stem cell population.

  3. Adolescent and adult male spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) respond differently to acute and chronic methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elyssa; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-01-01

    Eight groups of male adolescent and adult spontaneous hyperactive rats (SHR) were used in a dose response (saline, 0.6, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg) experiment of methylphenidate (MPD). Four different locomotor indices were recorded for 2 hours postinjection using a computerized monitoring system. Acutely, the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD did not elicit an increase in locomotor activity in either the adolescent or in the adult male SHR. The 2.5 and the 10.0 mg/kg doses increased activity in the adolescent and the adult rats. Chronically, MPD treatment when comparing adolescent and adult gave the following results: the 0.6 mg/kg dose of MPD failed to cause sensitization in the adolescent group but caused sensitization in the adult group, while the 2.5 and 10 mg/kg both caused sensitization in the adolescent and adult groups.

  4. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  5. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Croft

    Full Text Available i to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand.Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors.Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61% and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving. Older men (aged +55 years old had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74 and when involved in different activities.Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies.

  6. Satelliting streptococci in an adult male with foetal heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakeerthi S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the days of surgical correction and antibiotics, endocarditis was one of the leading causes of death in adults with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA. Satelliting Streptococcus is an important cause of "culture negative endocarditis". There are no earlier reports of this organism causing endocarditis in a case of PDA. Such a unique association, first of its kind, is reported here.

  7. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site...... of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis...... melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises...

  8. Effects of neutrophils peptide-1 transgenic Chlorella ellipsoidea on the gut microbiota of male Sprague-Dawley rats, as revealed by high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingzhang; Bao, Qi; Chen, Siyuan; Cui, Xingtian; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun

    2016-03-01

    Rabbit neutrophils peptide-1 (NP-1) is a type of defensin that possesses a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Chlorella ellipsoidea is a new eukaryotic expression system for exogenously producing NP-1. The NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea can be directly added into feed as antimicrobial agent without any purification procedure for the NP-1 peptide. However, the effects of C. ellipsoidea and NP-1 on the host gut microbiota should be explored before application. In this study, diets containing different concentrations (1.25, 2.5, and 5%) of C. ellipsoidea and NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea were administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with the chow diet control group, none of the experimental groups showed any significant differences in their growth indices, and no histopathological damage was observed. The phylotypes of gut microbiota in the control group, the 5% C. ellipsoidea diet group and the 5% NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea diet group were determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that both 5% experimental groups had shifted community memberships of gut microbiota. In particular, the 5% NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea diet exhibited an increased abundance of most Gram-positive bacterial taxa and a reduced abundance of most Gram-negative bacterial taxa, and it promoted the growth of some lactic acid bacterial genera. Lactic acid bacteria, especially the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, have been widely reported to be benefic effects on the host. Thus NP-1 transgenic C. ellipsoidea is promising feed additive and gut regulator, as it have the potential to increase the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in gut microbiota of animal.

  9. The protective effects of long-term oral administration of marine collagen hydrolysate from chum salmon on collagen matrix homeostasis in the chronological aged skin of Sprague-Dawley male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiang; Pei, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Nan; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of marine collagen hydrolysate (MCH) from Chum Salmon skin on the aberrant collagen matrix homeostasis in chronological aged skin, Sprague-Dawley male rats of 4-wk-old were orally administrated with MCH at the diet concentrations of 2.25% and 4.5% for 24 mo. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that MCH had the potential to inhibit the collagen loss and collagen fragmentation in chronological aged skin. Based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, collagen type I and III protein expression levels in MCH-treated groups significantly increased as compared with the aged control group. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed MCH was able to increase the expressions of procollagen type I and III mRNA (COL1A2 and COL3A1) through activating Smad signaling pathway with up-regulated TGF-βRII (TβRII) expression level. Meanwhile, MCH was shown to inhibit the age-related increased collagen degradation through attenuating MMP-1 expression and increasing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MCH could alleviate the oxidative stress in chronological aged skin, which was revealed from the data of superoxide dismutase activity and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in skin homogenates. Therefore, MCH was demonstrated to have the protective effects on chronological skin aging due to the influence on collagen matrix homeostasis. And the antioxidative property of MCH might play an important role in the process.

  10. Impact of dramatized television entertainment on adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, R; Loye, D; Steele, G

    1977-02-01

    The authors studied the effects of a week's viewing of five types of television programs, including those with predominantly helpful or hurtful content, on the aggressive mood and hurtful behavior of adult men. They found, within the population studied, a significant decrease in aggressive mood and lower levels of hurtful behavior in viewers of helpful programs as compared with a control group, as well as some evidence that emotional arousal in response to helpful programs is negatively correlated with aggressive mood.

  11. Breeding season influxes and the behaviour of adult male samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzi, S P; Lawes, M

    1987-01-01

    Troops comprising a high density population of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in Natal province, South Africa, experienced an influx of adult males during the breeding season. Observation of one troop revealed that these males competed with one another and with two resident males for access to receptive females. Although both sexes initiated copulation, attempts to do so were more often successful if female-initiated. Males did not interact with non-receptive females and there were no recorded attempts at infanticide. Male-male interactions were agonistic in the presence of receptive females and neutral at other times. No ritualized displays of dominance and subordinance were seen. The significance of these observations for male reproductive strategies is discussed.

  12. Unique mechanism of chance fracture in a young adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  13. Unique Mechanism of Chance Fracture in a Young Adult Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports ofunique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicleaccidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall withthe mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering stylebackpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  14. EFFECT OF SIMULATED WEIGHTLESSNESS ON REPRODUCTION OF ADULT MALE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies had mainly focused on thehar mful effects of space environment on human be-ing's muscle,skeleton and blood circulation[1-3].However,the studies concerningthe effects of spaceenvironment on male reproduction are scare.The space environment is complicated,andweightlessness is one of the most i mportant healthrisk factors.Tail-suspension model is widely usedfor si mulated weightlessness in space health re-search[4].Therefore,the present study was designed toclarify the adverse effects of si mu...

  15. Handedness and cerebral anatomical asymmetries in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Crivello, Fabrice; Perchey, Guy; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2006-02-15

    Using voxel-based morphometry, we measured the cerebral anatomical asymmetries in a sample of 56 young right-handed males and then compared voxelwise asymmetry indices of these subjects to those of 56 young left-handed males. In the right-handed, the clusters of grey matter asymmetry corresponding to the leftward occipital petalia and planum temporale asymmetries were retrieved. Strong rightward temporo-parietal asymmetries were also observed, but the rightward grey matter asymmetry in the frontal lobe was less massive than previously described. Group comparisons of left- and right-handed subjects' asymmetry maps, performed at a statistical threshold not corrected for multiple comparisons, revealed significant effects of handedness on this pattern of anatomical asymmetry in frontal regions, notably in the lower central and precentral sulci, and also in the planum temporale, with right-handed subjects being more leftward asymmetric. Concerning white matter, although almost no focal differences between left- and right-handed subjects were detected, volumetric analyses at the hemispheric level revealed a leftward asymmetry, which happened to be significantly less marked in the left-handed. This latter result, together with the pattern of leftward white matter asymmetries, suggested that anatomical correlates of the left hemispheric specialization for language would exist in white matter. In the population we studied, differences in anatomical asymmetry between left- and right-handed subjects provided structural arguments for a greater functional ambilaterality in left-handed subjects.

  16. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  17. Seronegative Adult Autoimmune Enteropathy in a Male Traveler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli-Akintade, Latifat; Stondell, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is rare but damaging. The lack of consistent objective findings makes diagnosis a challenge. A 45-year-old male developed noninfectious diarrhea with significant weight loss and electrolyte abnormalities. Computed tomography delineated enteritis. Colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed villous atrophy, chronic inflammation, and ulceration of the terminal ileum and cecum. Pathology showed cryptitis with apoptosis and abscesses throughout the small and large bowel and absent goblet cells. Steroids rapidly improved symptoms. Anti-enterocyte antibody serologies were negative. Management can be challenging, and, in this case, the patient initially improved with budesonide and infliximab but required alternative anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy after relapsing. This is an unusual presentation of seronegative AIE, which should be considered in cases of persistent severe diarrhea. PMID:28184376

  18. Economic impact of kidney stones in white male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Scheaffer, R L

    1984-10-01

    A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountain states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approximate cost of various types of surgery, number of days hospitalized, and room rates. Work force costs were estimated from information on work days lost and income categories. Estimated recurrence rates for this disease are used to approximate the total cost, due to stones, for the next year for a current stone case. Each incident of stone disease costs, on the average, approximately $2,000, exclusive of recurrences. Hospital stays average four to five days. The average annual cost of recurrence for a current stone case is conservatively estimated to be in the $300 to $400 range. A conservative projection of these costs to the entire national population of white males in the age range of eighteen to sixty years yields an annual cost due to kidney stones approaching $315,000,000.

  19. Reference values for FEV1 and FVC in male adolescents and young adults of Ibo origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ele, P U

    1992-02-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC) and one second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were measured in 245 healthy Nigerian Ibo males aged 12-23 years. Analysis showed strong correlation between anthropometric factors (age, height, weight) and spirometric measurements (r----0.808-0.994). In the young adult group (18-23 years), FEV1 did not correlate so strongly with weight, however (r----0.654). Prediction equations, based on age and height have been developed for use among male Ibo adolescents and young adults.

  20. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  1. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  2. Prenatal protein malnutrition alters the proportion but not numbers of parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat

    OpenAIRE

    Lister, James P.; Blatt, Gene J.; Kemper, Thomas L.; Tonkiss, John; DeBassio, William A; GALLER, JANINA R.; Rosene, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal protein malnutrition alters the structure and function of the adult rat hippocampal formation. The current study examines the effect of prenatal protein malnutrition on numbers of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) GABAergic interneurons, which are important for perisomatic inhibition of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Brain sections from prenatally protein malnourished and normally nourished rats were stained for parvalbumin and PV-IR neurons were quantified using s...

  3. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Obesity Susceptibility in Adult Male Rat Offspring by Altering Early Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Xue, Jing-Ling; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate whether perinatal nicotine (NIC) exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis. NIC was sc administered (2.0 mg/kg per day) to pregnant rats from gestational day 9 to the time of weaning (postnatal day 28). At weaning, NIC-exposed male pups had an increased body weight and inguinal sc fat mass and a decreased average cell area of adipocyte, which was accompanied by an overexpression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Additionally, the hepatic lipogenic gene levels from NIC-exposed male pups were also affected. At 12 and 26 weeks of age, body weight and fat mass were increased, whereas there was no change in food intake in NIC-exposed male offspring. Adipogenic and lipogenic genes, glucose transporter 4, and leptin mRNA levels were increased, whereas adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased in the epididymal white adipose tissue of NIC-exposed males. The hepatic lipogenic gene expression of NIC-exposed males was increased. NIC-exposed male offspring showed normal glycemia and a higher serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Furthermore, the NIC-exposed male offspring showed higher serum lipids and Castelli index I and lower nonesterified fatty acid. At 26 weeks, in the ip glucose and insulin tolerance tests, the glucose clearance was delayed, and the area under the curve was higher in the NIC-exposed male offspring. In conclusion, perinatal NIC exposure increased obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis.

  4. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  5. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  6. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Lazareva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein.

  7. Long term effects of parenting and family characteristics on delinquency of male young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Smeenk, W.; Loeber, R.; Southamer-Loeber, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Gerris, J.R.; Dubas, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from the criminology literature and family studies, we investigated the long-term effects of established family risk factors and parenting styles on male young adult delinquency. We used data sets from two longitudinal studies, the Pittsburgh Youth Study (N474) and the Child-Rearing and Fami

  8. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male miceJohn C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  10. Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on Young Adult Male Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, Birgitte; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between divorce and young adult male crime, controlling for two factors; socioeconomic status and paternal criminality. The subjects were drawn from the subject pool of a Danish longitudinal study. The initial significant effects of divorce disappeared when the controlling factors were introduced through…

  11. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  12. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.; Happé, F.; Wheelwright, S.J.; Ecker, C.; Lombardo, M.V.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.; Murphy, C.M.; Spain, D.; Lai, M-C.; Chakrabarti, B; Sauter, D.A.; MRC AIMS Consortium, [Unknown; Baron-Cohen, S.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of c

  13. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  14. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  15. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Sharma

    Full Text Available Available instances of inheritance of epigenetic transgenerational phenotype are limited to environmental exposures during embryonic and adult gonadal development. Adult exposures can also affect gametogenesis and thereby potentially result in reprogramming of the germline. Although examples of epigenetic effects on gametogenesis exist, it is notable that transgenerational inheritance of environment-induced adult phenotype has not yet been reported. Epigenetic codes are considered to be critical in neural plasticity. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced long-term brain plasticity has recently been described. In this model, chronic PTZ treatment of adult males causes alterations in CNS transcriptome. Here, we describe our search for transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of PTZ induced gene expression phenotype acquired by adult Drosophila males. We generated CNS transcriptomic profiles of F(1 adults after treating F(0 adult males with PTZ and of F(2 adults resulting from a cross between F(1 males and normal females. Surprisingly, microarray clustering showed F(1 male profile as closest to F(1 female and F(0 male profile closest to F(2 male. Differentially expressed genes in F(1 males, F(1 females and F(2 males showed significant overlap with those caused by PTZ. Interestingly, microarray evidence also led to the identification of upregulated rRNA in F(2 males. Next, we generated microarray expression profiles of adult testis from F(0 and F(1 males. Further surprising, clustering of CNS and testis profiles and matching of differentially expressed genes in them provided evidence of a spermatogenic mechanism in the transgenerational effect observed. To our knowledge, we report for the first time detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult acquired somatic gene expression characteristic. The Drosophila systems model offers an excellent opportunity to understand the epigenetic mechanisms underlying

  16. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  17. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  18. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  19. Sprague River Oregon Bars 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  20. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  1. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  2. Sprague River Oregon Water 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  3. Sprague River Oregon Water 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  4. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  5. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  6. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  7. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  8. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  9. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  10. Pre-weaning growth hormone treatment reverses hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in adult male offspring of mothers undernourished during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal undernutrition results in elevated blood pressure (BP and endothelial dysfunction in adult offspring. However, few studies have investigated interventions during early life to ameliorate the programming of hypertension and vascular disorders. We have utilised a model of maternal undernutrition to examine the effects of pre-weaning growth hormone (GH treatment on BP and vascular function in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard control diet (CON or 50% of CON intake throughout pregnancy (UN. From neonatal day 3 until weaning (day 21, CON and UN pups received either saline (CON-S, UN-S or GH (2.5 ug/g/day(CON-GH, UN-GH. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Male offspring were fed a standard diet until the end of the study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 150 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 160, intact mesenteric vessels mounted on a pressure myograph. Responses to pressure, agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated to determine vascular function. SBP was increased in UN-S groups and normalised in UN-GH groups (CON-S 121±2 mmHg, CON-GH 115±3, UN-S 146±3, UN-GH 127±2. Pressure mediated dilation was reduced in UN-S offspring and normalised in UN-GH groups. Vessels from UN-S offspring demonstrated a reduced constrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, UN-S offspring vessels displayed a reduced vasodilator response in the presence of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, carbenoxolone (CBX, L-NAME and CBX, Tram-34 and Apamin. UN-GH vessels showed little difference in responses when compared to CON and significantly increased vasodilator responses when compared to UN-S offspring. Pre-weaning GH treatment reverses the negative effects of maternal UN on SBP and vasomotor function in adult offspring. These data suggest that developmental cardiovascular programming is

  11. Depressive-Like Behavioral Response of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys during Routine Animal Husbandry Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Hennessy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors—lying on the substrate and day time sleeping—that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7 to 14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood.

  12. Prenatal protein malnutrition alters the proportion but not numbers of parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, James P; Blatt, Gene J; Kemper, Thomas L; Tonkiss, John; DeBassio, William A; Galler, Janina R; Rosene, Douglas L

    2011-07-01

    Prenatal protein malnutrition alters the structure and function of the adult rat hippocampal formation. The current study examines the effect of prenatal protein malnutrition on numbers of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) GABAergic interneurons, which are important for perisomatic inhibition of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Brain sections from prenatally protein malnourished and normally nourished rats were stained for parvalbumin and PV-IR neurons were quantified using stereology in the dentate gyrus, CA3/2 and CA1 subfields, and the subiculum for both cerebral hemispheres. Results demonstrated that prenatal malnutrition did not affect the number of PV-IR interneurons in the hippocampus. Since prenatal protein malnutrition reduces total neuron numbers in the CA1 subfield (1), this results in an altered ratio of PV-IR interneurons to total neuronal numbers (from 1:22.9 in controls to 1:20.5 in malnourished rats). Additionally, there was no hemispheric asymmetry of either PV-IR neuron numbers or ratio of PV-IR:total neuron numbers.

  13. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G. M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age groups power density in the delta and theta frequencies declined from NREM period 1 to 3. In the sigma frequencies, however, no systematic changes in power density were observed over the sleep episode....

  14. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.Pupa e adulto macho previamente desconhecidos de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. A pupa de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972 foi coletada em macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae na Ilha da Marchantaria próximo a Manaus, Brasil e o adulto macho criado foi descrito, fotografado e ilustrado pela primeira vez. Esta é a primeira descrição para a pupa do gênero Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  15. PREVALENCE OF TOBACCO USE AMONG THE ADULT MALES IN A SOUTH INDIAN VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Tobacco usage is widely prevalent in both the developed and developing countries. It is one of the important preventable causes of premature death in developing countries. It has been estimated that nearly 50% of men are dependent on some form of tobacco use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of tobacco usage among the adult male population in rural areas. The objectives were to find out the tobacco usage in various forms and the impact of pictorial warnings on the packing to quit tobacco. A cross sectional observational study was conducted in Pedaparimi village of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, Rural Field Practice area of NRI Medical College, Guntur for 3 months (from January to March 2014. Ten percent of the houses were studied using systematic random sampling method. The data was collected from 105 adult male respondents residing in the village

  16. Effects of aerobic exercise on semen quality in male Sprague-Dawley rats%有氧运动对雄性SD大鼠精子质量参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析不同强度有氧运动对雄性大鼠精子质量参数的影响,为提高精子质量提供合理运动方案。方法选用SPF级雄性SD大鼠40只,随机分为安静对照组(10只);低度有氧运动组(10只);中度有氧运动组(10只),重度有氧运动组(10只)。各有氧运动组的大鼠分别在跑台上进行不同强度的有氧运动,每天运动1小时,每周运动6天,共8周的跑台训练。实验结束后测定各组大鼠的体重、睾丸和附睾重量及脏器系数;采用精子质量分析仪检测各组大鼠的精子密度,活动率,畸形率及畸形指数。结果:经过8周不同强度有氧运动后,与对照组相比,低度、中度及重度有氧运动组的大鼠体重明显降低(P<0.05或P<0.01)。有氧运动组的精子质量明显提高,其中,中度有氧运动组的精子密度及活动率,与对照组相比,明显升高(均P<0.01)。重度有氧运动组的精子密度,与对照组相比,明显提高(P<0.01)。结论有氧运动能显著改善雄性SD大鼠的精子质量,尤其是中度有氧运动,为合理选择提高精子质量的运动方案提供理论依据。%Objective:To analyze the effect of different types of aerobic exercise on semen quality in male Sprague -Dawley (SD ) rats,and thereby provide rational movement scheme to improve sperm quality.Methods:A total of 40 male SD rats were enrolled in the study.The study consisted of control group (n =1 0 ),light aerobic exercise group (n =1 0 ),moderate aerobic exercise group (n =1 0 )and highly aerobic exercise group (n =1 0 ).The aerobic exercise group exercised for 8 weeks,6 times per week and the control group maintained their daily eating habits.Testis and epididymis and its organ coefficient were measured after the 8 weeks experiment.The sperm quality analyzer was used to test the sperm density,activity ratio,deformity rate and index of rats

  17. Advancing maternal age is associated with lower bone mineral density in young adult male offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rudäng, R.; Mellström, D.; Clark, E.; Ohlsson, C; Lorentzon, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Advancing maternal age has been related to increased risk of fetal death and morbidity, as well as higher fracture risk during childhood, in the offspring. In the present study, we demonstrate that advancing maternal age is independently associated with reduced bone mass in the young adult male offspring. Introduction In Sweden the maternal age in both primi- and multipara mothers has steadily increased during the last three decades. It has been previously reported that advancing mate...

  18. Reproductive abnormalities in adult male mice following preimplantation exposures to estradiol or pesticide methoxychlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, Sergei Ya; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Amstislavsky, Vjacheslav S; Tibeikina, Marina A; Osipov, Kiril V; Eroschenko, Victor P

    2006-02-01

    Adult females of ICR strain of mice were bred, separated into different experimental groups, and treated as follows. On Days 2-4 of pregnancy, the mice received daily subcutaneous injections of either 0.05 ml sesame oil (vehicle) or same volume of 5.0mg of purified methoxychlor (MXC) suspended in the vehicle. Another group received a single subcutaneous injection of 1.0 microg of estradiol-17beta (E) on Day 2 of pregnancy only. Male offspring were tested at 3 and 6 months of age. At 3 months, E or MXC did not alter the weights of seminal vesicles, preputial glands, or testes, although after exposure for 30 min to a female in estrus behind a partition, testosterone levels were significantly reduced in treated males in comparison to control males exposed to the same partition test. At 6 months, the preputial glands and testes weight remained unchanged, while the seminal vesicles were significantly heavier in E- and MXC-treated males. Same partition tests again revealed that in E and MXC groups, testosterone levels remained significantly lower in comparison to control males. MXC or E exposures during preimplantation appear to induce long-term effects on the sexual development in 3 and 6 month-old-males by compromising their sexual arousal and altering seminal vesicles weights in the older group.

  19. Differential Effects of Family Structure on Religion and Spirituality of Emerging Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Paul J; Lace, John W

    2016-12-23

    This study examined measures of religion and spirituality in a sample of male and female emerging adult college students whose parents were either divorced or intact using the Personal Religious Inventory, the Duke University Religion Index, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Data were collected online, and 66% of participants received extra credit for participating. A main effect of sex was found, as females reported significantly higher scores than men on all but one measure of religion and spirituality, and the dataset was separated by sex. No differences were found between males from divorced and intact families. However, females from intact families scored significantly higher on all religion and spirituality measures than females from divorced families. This study suggests that females may respond differently than males to their parents' divorce in the context of religion and spirituality, and discusses possible reasons.

  20. Semen quality in adult male survivors 5 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X M; Chen, S M; Yue, H X; Lin, L; Wu, Y B; Liu, B; Jiang, M; Ma, Y X

    2016-12-01

    The influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on semen quality of adult male survivors is unclear. We investigated the semen quality included 673 male survivors from the worse-affected counties in the earthquake between Aug 2008 and July 2013. Semen parameters including pH, volume, concentration, motility and morphology were measured according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to examine the statistical differences between years, and a logistic regression was used to analyse the impacts caused by earthquake on the changes of semen quality. We found the medians (5th and 95th) were 2.5 ml (0.6-5.5) for semen volume, 59.0 × 10(6)  ml(-1) [(13.0-133.0)] × 10(6)  ml(-1) for semen concentration, 46% (13-64%) for sperm progressive motility and 3.0% (0-17.5%) for normal morphology for adult male survivors. Semen concentration, the percentage of sperm progressive motility, total motility and sperm normal morphology were all decreased in the first 3 years, and the differences among years 1, 2 and 3 were significant except the percentage of sperm progressive motility (P earthquake had a negative effect on semen quality. The main findings will provide further diagnosis and therapy basis of male fertility by data, for affected populations in the earthquake.

  1. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  2. Physiological responses of the adult male collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae), to severe dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Greene, L W; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic and hormonal responses of eight adult male collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) to an ad libitum diet intake, or 25% of an ad libitum intake, were examined. Blood samples for hematological, serum-biochemical and hormonal profiles were collected at three week intervals during the nine week experiment starting 4 August 1983. Males fed on the restricted diet lost an average of 26% of their body weight during the trial, compared to a slight weight gain for those fed ad libitum. Characteristics of the red and white blood cell populations were not influenced by diet intake, with the exception of mean corpuscular volume, which was consistently lower amongst males fed on the restricted diet. Restricted food intake resulted in significantly elevated serum values for urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen:creatinine, urea index, alpha globulin:beta globulin, gamma globulin:albumin, nonesterified fatty acids, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase isozymes (LD1 and LD2). Restricted food intake resulted in significantly lowered serum values for total alpha globulin, alpha-1 globulin, total beta globulin, beta-1 globulin, beta-2 globulin, glucose, triglycerides, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, copper and triiodothyronine. Serum levels of creatinine, total protein, albumin, alpha-2 globulin, uric acid, total bilirubin, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, calcium:phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and thyroxine were unaffected by diet intake level. Semen evaluation indicated spermatogenesis was not affected by dietary restriction despite reductions in scrotal circumference and ejaculate gel volume. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower among males fed on the restricted diet after nine weeks. These data suggest male libido might be depressed during poor range conditions, while maintenance of spermatogenesis might permit them to take immediate advantage of improved

  3. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  4. Mass mortality of adult male subantarctic fur seals: are alien mice the culprits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Nico de Bruyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass mortalities of marine mammals due to infectious agents are increasingly reported. However, in contrast to previous die-offs, which were indiscriminate with respect to sex and age, here we report a land-based mass mortality of Subantarctic fur seals with apparent exclusivity to adult males. An infectious agent with a male-predilection is the most plausible explanation for this die-off. Although pathogens with gender-biased transmission and pathologies are unusual, rodents are known sources of male-biased infectious agents and the invasive Mus musculus house mouse, occurs in seal rookeries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular screening for male-biased pathogens in this potential rodent reservoir host revealed the absence of Cardiovirus and Leptospirosis genomes in heart and kidney samples, respectively, but identified a novel Streptococcus species with 30% prevalence in mouse kidneys. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Inter-species transmission through environmental contamination with this novel bacterium, whose congenerics display male-bias and have links to infirmity in seals and terrestrial mammals (including humans, highlights the need to further evaluate disease risks posed by alien invasive mice to native species, on this and other islands.

  5. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  6. The implication of salience network abnormalities in young male adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Guan, Yanyan; Cheng, Jiadong; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Tian, Jie

    2016-07-20

    Studying the neural correlates of smoking behaviors in young adulthood is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes. In previous addiction studies, the important roles of the salience network (SN) in drug cue processing and cognitive control have been revealed. Unfortunately, few studies focused on the resting-state functional connectivity and structural integrity abnormalities of SN in young adult smokers, and less is known about its association with smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits. Thirty-one young male adult smokers and 30 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in this study. The structural and functional connectivity differences of SN were investigated between young adult smokers and nonsmokers by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), which were then correlated with the smoking behavioral assessments (pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)) as well as impaired cognitive control measured by the Stroop task. Within SN, reduced RSFC and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) were found between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right insula in young adult smokers relative to nonsmokers. The RSFC between the ACC and right insula was negatively correlated with the number of errors during the incongruent condition of the Stroop task in young adult smokers. Additionally, the right insula-ACC RSFC was negatively correlated with pack-years in young adult smokers. Our results revealed abnormal RSFC and structural integrity within the SN in young adult smokers, which shed new insights into the neural mechanism of nicotine dependence.

  7. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  8. Subacute toxicity assessment of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Aline Lima; Cavalheiro, Gabriela Finoto; de Souza, Alexsandra Vila Maior; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB), an insecticide and acaricide insect growth regulator, can be used in agriculture against insect predators and in public health programs, to control insects and vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti larvae. Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this compound, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of subacute exposure to the DFB insecticide in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed (gavage) to 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DFB for 28 days. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the DFB-treated animals of the experimental groups. However, there was an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the group that received 8 mg/kg/DFB/day and urea at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/DFB/day, without altering other biochemical or hematological parameters. The subacute exposure to the lowest dose of DFB caused significant decrease in testis weight, daily sperm production, and in number of sperm in the epididymis in relation to the control group. However, no alterations were observed in the sperm morphology, testicular, epididymis, liver and kidney histology, or testosterone levels. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of DFB on male reproduction after the subacute exposure and special attention should be addressed to the effects of low doses of this pesticide.

  9. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  10. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  11. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  12. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Pedro; Silva, Roxana A.; Sanguinetti, Nicole K.; Venegas, Francisca C.; Riquelme, Raul; González, Luis F.; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M.; Moya, Pablo R.; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL); DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL); EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL); and control (sesame oil of 50 μL). At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase) and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity) studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area. PMID:26904299

  13. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL; DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL; EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL; and control (sesame oil of 50 μL. At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area.

  14. Spawning migration movements of Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon, following the removal of Chiloquin Dam-2009 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2011-01-01

    The Chiloquin Dam was located at river kilometer (rkm) 1.3 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus), shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris), and other fish in the Sprague River. Our research objectives in 2009 were to evaluate adult catostomid spawning migration patterns using radio telemetry to identify and describe shifts in spawning area distribution and migration behavior following the removal of Chiloquin Dam in 2008. We attached external radio transmitters to 58 Lost River suckers and 59 shortnose suckers captured at the Williamson River fish weir. A total of 17 radio-tagged Lost River suckers and one radio-tagged shortnose sucker were detected approaching the site of the former Chiloquin Dam but only two radio-tagged fish (one male Lost River sucker and one female Lost River sucker) were detected crossing upstream of the dam site. A lower proportion of radio-tagged shortnose suckers were detected migrating into the Sprague River when compared with previous years. Detections on remote passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag arrays located in the Sprague River show that although the proportion of fish coming into the Sprague River is small when compared to the number of fish crossing the Williamson River fish weir, the number of fish migrating upstream of the Chiloquin Dam site increased exponentially in the first year since its removal. These data will be used in conjunction with larval production and adult spawning distribution data to evaluate the effectiveness of dam removal in order to provide increased access to underutilized spawning habitat located further upstream in the Sprague River and to reduce the crowding of spawning fish below the dam site.

  15. Treatment for convicted adult male sex offenders: an overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Corabian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In countries with developed economies, a common approach to protecting communities from sexual offending is to provide specialized treatment for convicted sex offenders to reduce recidivism. Many psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy interventions are currently in widespread use as sex offender treatment (SOT options delivered within programs to prevent recidivism or reoffending among convicted adult male sex offenders. A number of systematic reviews (SRs have already evaluated the evidence from primary research studies on the effectiveness of these interventions.Methods: A structured overview of SRs published in English since January 1998 was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders.Results: Eight SRs met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from seven moderate-to-high quality SRs suggests that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT delivered within programs adhering to the risk/need/responsivity (RNR model has the potential to reduce recidivism. These findings must be tempered as they are mostly based on poor quality primary research. The reviewed evidence was inconclusive as to the components or framework of an effective SOT program or the setting in which a program should be delivered.Conclusions: This overview provides decision-makers in the SOT field with an accessible, good quality synthesis of the best evidence available on the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders. While further research is warranted, the available evidence suggests that CBT delivered within programs adhering to the RNR model represents the most promising approach.

  16. PES PLANUS (FLATFOOT IN MALE AND FEMALE ADULTS OF BAYELSA- NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare NW

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to provide and document an accurate record of the noticeable occurrence of pes planus amongst adults in Bayelsa State (Nigeria. A random sample of 510 persons (235 males and 275 females; aged 33 ± 15 years and totally Bayelsa's natives was analyzed. An ink imprint on white paper of their weight-bearing surface of the feet was carried out with diagnostic purposes. 48 males (20.4% and 81 females (29.5% revealed pes planus whereas the rest of the sample did not show it. The incidence of pes planus was 1:4. The well known frequent excess of bodyweight in these native groups may be responsible for this abnormality and obliges to pay due attention to the related habits. Furthermore, the obtained results could probably have anthropological and forensic medicine impact.

  17. Adult male circumcision with a circular stapler versus conventional circumcision: A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X D; Lu, J J; Liu, W H; Zhou, J; Yu, R K; Yu, B; Zhang, X J; Shen, B H

    2015-06-01

    Male circumcision is the most frequently performed procedure by urologists. Safety and efficacy of the circumcision procedure requires continual improvement. In the present study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of a new male circumcision technique involving the use of a circular stapler. In total, 879 consecutive adult male patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 441 underwent stapler circumcision, and 438 underwent conventional circumcision. The operative time, pain score, blood loss volume, healing time, treatment costs, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. The operative time and blood loss volume were significantly lower in the stapler group than in the conventional group (6.8 ± 3.1 vs 24.2 ± 3.2 min and 1.8 ± 1.8 vs 9.4 ± 1.5 mL, respectively; Pcircumcision required removal of residual staple nails. Overall, the present study has shown that stapler circumcision is a time-efficient and safe male circumcision technique, although it requires further improvement.

  18. Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia in an adult male due to a novel mutation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanda; Qing, Qi; Liu, Xuesong; Chen, Sibei; Chen, Ziyi; Niu, Xuefeng; Tan, Yaxia; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is caused by mutation in the gene coding for Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), which impairs peripheral B cell maturation and hypogammaglobulinemia. In this report, we present a case of XLA in a 22-year-old adult male. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation located at the conserved region (c.383T>C). The patient had a history of recurrent respiratory tract infection which eventually progressed to chronic type II respiratory failure. Several pathogenic bacteria were isolated on culture of respiratory secretions obtained on bronchoscopy. The patient improved on treatment with antibiotics. PMID:27867589

  19. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulatio...

  20. Modest effects of repeated fluoxetine on estrous cyclicity and sexual behavior in Sprague Dawley female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswood, Navin; Sarkar, Jhimly; Uphouse, Lynda

    2008-12-15

    In an earlier study, we reported that daily fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg/day) rapidly disrupted estrous cyclicity and sexual receptivity in adult, regularly cycling Fischer rats. The current study was designed to investigate if comparable fluoxetine treatment would similarly affect intact, regularly cycling Sprague Dawley rats. In the first experiment, fluoxetine was injected for 24 days. After 11-14 days of daily fluoxetine treatment, 40% of the rats showed a transient disturbance of the estrous cycle with elimination of sexual receptivity. In these affected rats, reduced sexual receptivity generally preceded disruption of vaginal cyclicity. In a second experiment, a shorter exposure was used to attempt to dissociate effects of fluoxetine on behavior and estrous cyclicity. Nine days of fluoxetine treatment eliminated sexual receptivity and proceptivity (hops/darts) in 40% and 46%, respectively, of rats without altering the estrous cycle. Female rats then received a 10th fluoxetine injection 30 min prior to assessment of sexual motivation (measured with the male preference paradigm). There was no effect of fluoxetine on male preference, but fluoxetine significantly reduced the number of crossings and seconds of grooming during preference testing. Therefore, effects of fluoxetine on estrous cyclicity and behavior of Sprague Dawley female rats were smaller and required longer to develop than previously reported in Fischer female rats. These findings reinforce a probable relationship between fluoxetine's effect on sexual activity and neuroendocrine disturbances and illustrate the importance of strain selection in attempting to model human disease.

  1. Adolescent TBI-induced hypopituitarism causes sexual dysfunction in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Tiffany; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2015-02-01

    Adolescents are at greatest risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been documented in both adults and juveniles and despite the necessity of pituitary function for normal physical and brain development, it is still unrecognized and untreated in adolescents following TBI. TBI induced hormonal dysfunction during a critical developmental window has the potential to cause long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits and the topic currently remains unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to determine if four mild TBIs delivered to adolescent male rats disrupts testosterone production and adult behavioral outcomes. Plasma testosterone was quantified from 72 hrs preinjury to 3 months postinjury and pubertal onset, reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors were assessed at 1 and 2 months postinjury. RTBI resulted in both acute and chronic decreases in testosterone production and delayed onset of puberty. Significant deficits were observed in reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors in adult rats at both 1 and 2 months postinjury. These data suggest adolescent RTBI-induced hypopituitarism underlies abnormal behavioral changes observed during adulthood. The impact of undiagnosed hypopituitarism following RTBI in adolescence has significance not only for growth and puberty, but also for brain development and neurobehavioral function as adults.

  2. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

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    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  3. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  4. Adverse effects in lumbar spinal cord morphology and tissue biochemistry in Sprague Dawley male rats following exposure to a continuous 1-h a day 900-MHz electromagnetic field throughout adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimoğlu, Gökçen; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; Çolakoğlu, Serdar; Odacı, Ersan

    2016-12-01

    Cell phones, an indispensable element of daily life, are today used at almost addictive levels by adolescents. Adolescents are therefore becoming increasingly exposed to the effect of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by cell phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a 900-MHz EMF throughout adolescence on the lumbar spinal cord using histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (28.3-43.9g) aged 21days were included in the study. These were divided equally into three groups - control (CG), sham (SG) and electromagnetic (ELMAG). No procedure was performed on the CG rats until the end of the study. SG and ELMAG rats were kept inside an EMF cage (EMFC) for 1h a day every day at the same time between postnatal days 22 and 60. During this time, ELMAG rats were exposed to the effect of a 900-MHz EMF, while the SG rats were kept in the EMFC without being exposed to EMF. At the end of the study, the lumbar regions of the spinal cords of all rats in all groups were extracted. Half of each extracted tissue was stored at -80°C for biochemical analysis, while the other half was used for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. In terms of histopathology, a lumbar spinal cord with normal morphology was observed in the other groups, while morphological irregularity in gray matter, increased vacuolization and infiltration of white matter into gray matter were pronounced in the ELMAG rats. The cytoplasm of some neurons in the gray matter was shrunken and stained dark, and vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasms. The apoptotic index of glia cells and neurons were significantly higher in ELMAG compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis revealed a significantly increased MDA value in ELMAG compared to CG, while SOD and GSH levels decreased significantly. In conclusion, our study results suggest that continuous exposure to a 900-MHz EMF for 1h a day through all stages of

  5. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

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    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  6. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed.

  7. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure.

  8. Desvenlafaxine may accelerate neuronal maturation in the dentate gyri of adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Asokan

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been linked to the effects of anti-depressant drugs on behavior in rodent models of depression. To explore this link further, we tested whether the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI venlafaxine impacted adult hippocampal neurogenesis differently than its primary active SNRI metabolite desvenlafaxine. Adult male Long Evans rats (n = 5-6 per group were fed vehicle, venlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg or desvenlafaxine (0.5 or 5 mg twice daily for 16 days. Beginning the third day of drug treatment, the rats were given a daily bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg injection for 5 days to label dividing cells and then perfused 2 weeks after the first BrdU injection to confirm total new hippocampal cell numbers and their phenotypes. The high desvenlafaxine dose increased total new BrdU+ cell number and appeared to accelerate neuronal maturation because fewer BrdU+ cells expressed maturing neuronal phenotypes and more expressed mature neuronal phenotypes in the dentate gyri of these versus vehicle-treated rats. While net neurogenesis was not increased in the dentate gyri of rats treated with the high desvenlafaxine dose, significantly more mature neurons were detected. Our data expand the body of literature showing that antidepressants impact adult neurogenesis by stimulating NPC proliferation and perhaps the survival of neuronal progeny and by showing that a high dose of the SNRI antidepressant desvenlafaxine, but neither a high nor low venlafaxine dose, may also accelerate neuronal maturation in the adult rat hippocampus. These data support the hypothesis that hippocampal neurogenesis may indeed serve as a biomarker of depression and the effects of antidepressant treatment, and may be informative for developing novel fast-acting antidepressant strategies.

  9. Severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with smoking, not with alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol use can affect the presentation and course of psoriasis. There is a paucity of data on this subject from India. Aims: To find out whether increased severity of psoriasis in adult Indian males is associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the Department of Dermatology of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Male patients above 18 years of age attending a psoriasis clinic between March 2007 and May 2009 were studied. Severity of psoriasis (measured using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI among smokers and non-smokers was compared. We also studied the correlation between severity of psoriasis and nicotine dependence (measured using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and alcohol use disorders (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test- AUDIT. Statistical Analysis: Z-test, Odd′s ratio, Chi-square test, Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 338 patients, 148 were smokers and 173 used to consume alcohol. Mean PASI score of smokers was more than that of non-smokers (Z-test, z = −2.617, P = 0.009. Those with severe psoriasis were more likely to be smokers (χ2 = 5.47, P = 0.02, OR = 1.8, Confidence Interval 1.09-2.962. There was a significant correlation between PASI scores and Fagerström score (Spearman′s correlation coefficient = 0.164, P 0.05. Conclusions: Increased severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with tobacco smoking, but not with alcohol use.

  10. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  11. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  12. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  13. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  14. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  15. Development of a voxel phantom of Japanese adult male in upright posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Endo, A.; Saito, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Noguchi, H. [Safety Administration Department, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1184 (Japan); Emoto, Y.; Koga, S. [Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake-shi, Aichi-ken 470-1192 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    A Japanese voxel phantom in upright posture, JM2, has been developed on the basis of CT images of a healthy Japanese adult male. Body characteristics of JM2 were compared with those of the supine voxel phantom, JM, previously developed using CT images of the same person. Differences were found in the shapes of the spine and lower abdomen and the locations of several organs such as kidneys, liver and stomach between the two phantoms. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for 24 target and 11 sources organs were calculated for monoenergetic photon ranging from 0.01 to 4 MeV. It was found that the SAFs for the kidneys as source organ and the lower large intestine wall as target organ in JM2 were significantly higher than those in JM for all photon energies. The differences of the SAFs between the two phantoms were attributed to the differences in the organ distance and organ geometry depending on the posture. (authors)

  16. The Histopathological Effect of Sildenafil Citrate on Superior Colliculus of Adult Male Rat

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    Amany Shams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preclinical and very limited clinical studies suggest that sildenafil may have therapeutic potential in selected neurological disorders. However, many neurological side effects of sildenafil have been reported. This work aimed to clarify the histopathological effect of sildenafil citrate on the superior colliculus (SC of adult male albino rat. Material and methods: 24 adult male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups. The first 3 groups were received respectively sildenafil citrate orally at doses 0.25, 0.70 and 1.43mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days while the 4th group was used as control. At end of the treatment, the superior colliculi were undergone light and electron microscopic investigation. Results: In the control group, superficial part of the SC has neural cells and myelinated nerve fibers. With least dose of sildenafil, the superficial part of SC revealed disturbance in neural tissue with dilated capillaries and vacuoles. Some neurons showed deeply stained nuclei shrunken cytoplasm. Some cells showed enlarged mitochondria and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. With medium dose of sildenafil, SC showed more disturbances; stripped myelin sheaths or widely separated myelin lamellae, dilated blood vessels with large vacuoles around them and many neurons with apoptotic criteria. However, maximum dose of sildenafil induced massive destruction of edematous neural tissue; invasion of the surface with massive blood vessels, marked decrease in thickness of myelin sheaths and the neural cells revealed degenerative and apoptotic changes. The mean number and size of cells revealed significantly progressive decrease in all treated rats with increasing doses of the drug. Conclusion: Long-term, daily use of sildenafil can lead to pathological effect in the superior colliculus which may be implicated in visual disturbance and this effect is dose dependent, so neurological effect of sildenafil necessitates further investigations. [J

  17. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  18. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  19. Distribution of PDE8A in the nervous system of the Sprague-Dawley rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Lars Schack; Møller, Morten; Kruuse, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are essential regulators of cyclic nucleotide signaling. Little is known of the distribution and function of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) hydrolyzing PDE8A family. Employing immunohistochemistry and Western blots this study maps the distribution of PDE8A...... in the brain of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and in the trigeminal ganglion. PDE8A was confined to neuronal perikaryal cytoplasm and to processes extending from those perikarya. The neurons exhibiting PDE8A-immunoreactivity were widely distributed in the forebrain, brain stem, and cerebellum. Strongly....... The localization of the cAMP degrading PDE8A may indicate a role for PDE8A in cAMP signaling related to pain transmission, motor function, cognition and olfaction....

  20. Uncomplicated Cystitis in an Adult Male Following Influenza B Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert J.; Koutsakos, Marios; Hurt, Aeron C.; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 31 Final Diagnosis: Uncomplicated cystitis Symptoms: Cough • dysuria • fever • hematuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Influenza B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness, circulating concurrently with influenza A viruses. However, virological and clinical knowledge of influenza B viruses is less well advanced than for influenza A, and in particular, complications associated with influenza B infection are not as commonly reported. Complications of influenza B infection predominantly include neurological and musculoskeletal pathologies, while a review of the literature shows that bacterial infections associated with influenza B viruses often involve Gram-positive organisms, with a smaller subset featuring Gram-negative species. Case Report: In this case report we highlight an uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract by Escherichia coli immediately following influenza B infection, in an otherwise healthy adult white male with no prior history of urinary tract infection or structural abnormalities of the renal tract. Conclusions: Bacterial infections complicating influenza B infection may include organisms not commonly associated with the respiratory system, such as Escherichia coli. In addition, bacterial complications of influenza B infection may affect non-respiratory systems, including the genitourinary tract. PMID:28223680

  1. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  2. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  3. Atypically rightward cerebral asymmetry in male adults with autism stratifies individuals with and without language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Dorothea L; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Auer, Tibor; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J; Bullmore, Edward T; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    In humans, both language and fine motor skills are associated with left-hemisphere specialization, whereas visuospatial skills are associated with right-hemisphere specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show a profile of deficits and strengths that involves these lateralized cognitive functions. Here we test the hypothesis that regions implicated in these functions are atypically rightward lateralized in individuals with ASC and, that such atypicality is associated with functional performance. Participants included 67 male, right-handed adults with ASC and 69 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical males. We assessed group differences in structural asymmetries in cortical regions of interest with voxel-based analysis of grey matter volumes, followed by correlational analyses with measures of language, motor and visuospatial skills. We found stronger rightward lateralization within the inferior parietal lobule and reduced leftward lateralization extending along the auditory cortex comprising the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and parietal operculum, which was more pronounced in ASC individuals with delayed language onset compared to those without. Planned correlational analyses showed that for individuals with ASC, reduced leftward asymmetry in the auditory region was associated with more childhood social reciprocity difficulties. We conclude that atypical cerebral structural asymmetry is a potential candidate neurophenotype of ASC.

  4. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  5. Anthropometric study of male external genitalia of 320 healthy Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, M L; Jain, S P; Saxena, S K

    1985-06-01

    Five basic measurements of the male external genitalia were studied in 320 healthy male medical students belonging to the various parts of Nigeria (West Africa). Their ages range from 17 to 23 years. The measurements were as follows: average length of the penis (81.6 +/- 0.94 mm); circumference of the penis (88.3 +/- 0.02 mm); circumference of the scrotum (212.6 +/- 2.48 mm); length of right testis (46.8 +/- 0.54 mm); width of right testis (32.4 +/- 0.37 mm); length of left testis (46.0 +/- 0.53 mm); and width of left testis (31.4 +/- 0.36 mm). The size of the genitalia increases with the increase in age in younger year groups. The adult stages of genitalia development are reached at the age of 21 years in 89.0% of the individuals. The growth of the genitalia is continued with the increasing height and weight, but this growth slows down after attaining a definite height and weight.

  6. Acoustic correlates of Japanese expressions associated with voice quality of male adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Hideki

    2001-05-01

    Japanese expressions associated with the voice quality of male adults were extracted by a series of questionnaire surveys and statistical multivariate analysis. One hundred and thirty-seven Japanese expressions were collected through the first questionnaire and careful investigations of well-established Japanese dictionaries and articles. From the second questionnaire about familiarity with each of the expressions and synonymity that were addressed to 249 subjects, 25 expressions were extracted. The third questionnaire was about an evaluation of their own voice quality. By applying a statistical clustering method and a correlation analysis to the results of the questionnaires, eight bipolar expressions and one unipolar expression were obtained. They constituted high-pitched/low-pitched, masculine/feminine, hoarse/clear, calm/excited, powerful/weak, youthful/elderly, thick/thin, tense/lax, and nasal, respectively. Acoustic correlates of each of the eight bipolar expressions were extracted by means of perceptual evaluation experiments that were made with sentence utterances of 36 males and by a statistical decision tree method. They included an average of the fundamental frequency (F0) of the utterance, speaking rate, spectral tilt, formant frequency parameter, standard deviation of F0 values, and glottal noise, when SPL of each of the stimuli was maintained identical in the perceptual experiments.

  7. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Oyinloye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies.

  8. Quercetin-induced changes in femoral bone microstructure of adult male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Babosová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites with antioxidant effects. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet is quercetin. It is found widely in fruits, vegetables and has a lot of beneficial effects on human health. Quercetin has a positive pharmacological effect on bone metabolism and it prevents the organism against bone loss. However, its impact on the size of basic structural units of the compact bone is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the impact of the quercetin on femoral bone microstructure in 5-month-old male rabbits. Five rabbits of Californian broiler line were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (E group; n=3, animals were intramuscularly injected with quercetin at dose 1000 μg.kg-1 body weight (bw for 90 days, 3 times per week. Two rabbits without quercetin administration served as a control group (C group. According to our results, intramuscular application of quercetin had an insignificant effect on cortical bone thickness in male rabbits. In these rabbits, changes in qualitative histological characteristics were present in the middle part of the compacta, where primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was present and expanded there from the periosteum. Also, a lower number of secondary osteons was found in these animals. From the histomorphometrical point of view, significantly decreased sizes of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons (p <0.05 were found in rabbits administered by quercetin. Our findings indicate that subchronic administration of quercetin at the dose used in our study had considerable impact on both qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone in adult male rabbits.

  9. Persistence of an extreme male-biased adult sex ratio in a natural population of polyandrous bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztolányi, A; Barta, Z; Küpper, C; Székely, T

    2011-08-01

    In a number of insects, fishes and birds, the conventional sex roles are reversed: males are the main care provider, whereas females focus on matings. The reversal of typical sex roles is an evolutionary puzzle, because it challenges the foundations of sex roles, sexual selection and parental investment theory. Recent theoretical models predict that biased parental care may be a response to biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). However, estimating ASR is challenging in natural populations, because males and females often have different detectabilities. Here, we use demographic modelling with field data from 2101 individuals, including 579 molecularly sexed offspring, to provide evidence that ASR is strongly male biased in a polyandrous bird with male-biased care. The model predicts 6.1 times more adult males than females (ASR=0.860, proportion of males) in the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. The extreme male bias is consistent between years and concordant with experimental results showing strongly biased mating opportunity towards females. Based on these results, we conjecture that parental sex-role reversal may occur in populations that exhibit extreme male-biased ASR.

  10. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  11. An assessment of knowledge and attitude of vasectomy in adult males: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Vasectomy is a simple, reliable, safe, effective and permanent method of birth control for men. The failure rate is less than 1%. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of vasectomy in adult males residing in Pokhara, Nepal. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional survey approach was adopted for the present study. 100 adult males of 26-49 years of age were selected for this study. Data was collected from 31-03-2014 to 30-04-2014 by using structured questionnaire and finally analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPPS for Windows Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, IL, USA. Results In the present study majority of the participants had average level of knowledge 69%; 26% had poor and remaining 5% had good level of knowledge regarding vasectomy. Most of the participants had good attitude 60%, 40% of them had average attitude and none of them had poor attitude regarding vasectomy. Conclusion Majority of adult males had average knowledge on vasectomy. So, adult males should be educated about the advantages of vasectomy. This may bring changes in controlling population explosion, sharing the decisions of contraception burden equally with their partners, more awareness of reproductive roles and closes the gap in male and female sterilization rates.

  12. Male Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Lisa B.; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L.; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pret...

  13. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Hock Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%, which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9% and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%. Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60, primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30, secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11, with tertiary education as the reference group. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28, with married as the reference group, ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91, Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91, with Indian as the reference group, age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94; 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28; 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20 ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51, with 60 year-old and above as the reference group and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22 urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population

  14. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013.

  15. Effect of Selegiline on Pituitary- Gonad Axis and Spermatogenesis in Adult Male Rats

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    M. Mokhtari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Selegiline is an inhibitor of B-Mono amino oxidase (MAO-B. In view of its usages in treatment of nervous illnesses such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and depression the side effects of selegiline on the endocrine axises are very important. In this research the effect of selegiline on pituitary- gonad axis and spermatogenesis in adult male rats were studied. For experimental and control groups 32 adult male rats from wistar race were divided into 4 groups of 8. The experimental groups (B,C,D were given oral doses of 5,10,15 (mg/kg.B.W selegiline for the period of 30 days and the control group (A received saline. The blood samples were taken 8 hour after receiving last dose at 30th day and the concentration of LH, FSH and testosterone was measured by RIA. In adition at the 30th day the testes were separated and histological changes was studied among experimental and control groups. The results were evaluated by using ANOVA and Duncan test. The statistical analysis of the results indicated that receiving different dosages of selegiline showed a significant increase in concentration of LH hormone in comparison with control group, but concentration of FSH did not show significant difference compared to the control group. In addition concentration of testosterone in response to different dosages in relative to the control group showed a significant decrease.According to the results we suggest that through LH increase, selegiline causes a decrease in concentration of testosterone via down-regulation receptors on leydig cells. Furthermore selegiline causes increase in dopamine concentration in striatum area as an inhibitor of MAO-B and intern causes decrease in concentration of prolactin. The decrease in prolactin secretion reduce the effect of LH hormone on leydig cell. In addition histological studies showed a significant effects caused by selegiline such as decreased number of spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules, leydig cells and reduced

  16. Male reproductive health after childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Lisa B; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-09-20

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors.

  17. Reproductive biology of Oligosarcus argenteus (Gunther, 1864 adult males and description of the gonadal maturation stages

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    Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oligosarcus argenteus belongs to the Acestrorhynchinae subfamily, being restricted to South America, and found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins, in lotic and lentic environments, where they are able to reproduce. With the purpose of studying the reproductive biology of the males from this species, many morphological parameters were analyzed during a 24 month period, as well as characterizing the different testicular maturation stages. A maturity scale, with three stages (I - Initial Maturing, II - Intermediate Maturing, III - Final Maturing was proposed for the adult males of Oligosarcus argenteus. The reproductive period was established by the bimonthly frequency of spermatogenesis and by the gonadal maturation stages.Oligosarcus argenteus é uma espécie pertencente à subfamília Acestrorhynchinae, restrita à América do Sul, sendo comumente encontrada nas várias bacias hidrográficas brasileiras, em ambientes lóticos e lênticos, onde se reproduzem. Com o objetivo de estudar a biologia reprodutiva de machos desta espécie, vários parâmetros morfológicos foram analisados durante um período de 24 meses, assim como foram caracterizados os diferentes estádios de maturação testicular. Estes foram descritos, considerando-se exemplares adultos, em: Estádio I - Maturação Inicial, Estádio II - Maturação Intermediária e Estádio III - Maturação Final. Pela freqüência bimestral das células germinativas e dos estádios de maturação gonadal, a época de reprodução foi determinada.

  18. The inhibitory effects on adult male reproductive functions of crude garlic (Allium sativum) feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imen Hammami; Afef Nahdi; Claire Mauduit; Mohamed Benahmed; Mohamed Amri; Awatef Ben Amar; Semy Zekri; Ahmed El May; Michele Veronique El May

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of crude garlic on adult male rat reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (untreated) and groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fed for 30 days with 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% crude garlic, respectively. Testes and accessory organs were weighed and some markers were assessed. Light and electron microscopy observations were also performed. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the body weight of groups 4 (14%; P < 0.01) and 5 (20%; P < 0.01); of the prostate weight in group 5 (29.1%; P < 0.05) and of seminal vesicle weight in groups 3 (14.4%; P < 0.01), 4 (18.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (27.3%; P < 0.01). In contrast, testis and epididymis weights were unchanged. In epididymis tissue, the alpha glucosidase activity and the spermatozoa density were unchanged. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone serum levels in groups 3 (77.3%; P < 0.01), 4 (77.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (90.9%; P < 0.01), associated with a significant increase in LH serum levels (P < 0.01). Testicular histology showed a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of empty seminiferous tubules. Moreover, testicular function was affected; a significant decrease in phosphatase acid activity (P < 0.01) and testosterone (P < 0.05) contents were observed. Conclusion: Crude garlic consumption during 1 month reduced testosterone secretion and altered spermatogenesis at 10%, 15% and 30% doses. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 593-601)

  19. The satellite cell in male and female, developing and adult mouse muscle: distinct stem cells for growth and regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Neal

    Full Text Available Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration.

  20. Vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist treatment during mouse embryogenesis impairs social behavior and cognitive function of adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanna M; Cuasay, Katrina; Abebe, Daniel T

    2007-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a regulator of rodent embryogenesis during the period of neural tube closure. VIP enhanced growth in whole cultured mouse embryos; treatment with a VIP antagonist during embryogenesis inhibited growth and development. VIP antagonist treatment during embryogenesis also had permanent effects on adult brain chemistry and impaired social recognition behavior in adult male mice. The neurological deficits of autism appear to be initiated during neural tube closure and social behavior deficits are among the key characteristics of this disorder that is more common in males and is frequently accompanied by mental retardation. The current study examined the blockage of VIP during embryogenesis as a model for the behavioral deficits of autism. Treatment of pregnant mice with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10 had no apparent effect on the general health or sensory or motor capabilities of adult offspring. However, male offspring exhibited reduced sociability in the social approach task and deficits in cognitive function, as assessed through cued and contextual fear conditioning. Female offspring did not show these deficiencies. These results suggest that this paradigm has usefulness as a mouse model for aspects of autism as it selectively impairs male offspring who exhibit the reduced social behavior and cognitive dysfunction seen in autism. Furthermore, the study indicates that the foundations of some aspects of social behavior are laid down early in mouse embryogenesis, are regulated in a sex specific manner and that interference with embryonic regulators such as VIP can have permanent effects on adult social behavior.

  1. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  2. Preventive exercises reduced injury-related costs among adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krist, M.R.; Beijsterveldt, A.M.C van; Backx, F.J.G.; Wit, G.A. de

    2013-01-01

    QUESTION: Is an injury prevention program consisting of 10 exercises designed to improve stability, muscle strength, co-ordination, and flexibility of the trunk, hip and leg muscles (known as The11) cost effective in adult male amateur soccer players?DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a cluster-

  3. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the i

  4. Estimating the resources needed and savings anticipated from roll-out of adult male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Auvert (Bertran); E. Marseille (Elliot); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); J. Lloyd-Smith (James); R. Sitta (Remi); D. Taljaard (Dirk); C. Pretorius (Carel); B. Williams (Brian); J.G. Kahn (James)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Trials in Africa indicate that medical adult male circumcision (MAMC) reduces the risk of HIV by 60%. MAMC may avert 2 to 8 million HIV infections over 20 years in sub-Saharan Africa and cost less than treating those who would have been infected. This paper estimates the fina

  5. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  6. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both chil-dren and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantiifed using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identiifed as regions with signiifcant group-wise differences. The identiifed regions were correlated with clinical scores relfecting de-pression and anxiety and signiifcant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain cir-cuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  7. Contact Karate Promotes Post-Exercise Hypotension in Young Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhaes Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Worldwide, systemic arterial hypertension is a leading cause of death and non-communicable cardiovascular disease. A major factor contributing to this disease is a sedentary lifestyle. However, physical exercise, such as martial arts, may be an option for blood pressure (BP control. The magnitude of post-exercise hypotension is associated with a prolonged decrease in BP in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. Objectives The present study aimed to verify the effects of a Contact Karate (CK session on BP responses during a post-exercise recovery period in young adults. Patients and Methods Thirty-two male CK athletes volunteered (28.2 ± 6.7 years; 77.0 ± 5.7 kg; and 176.0 ± 4.7 cm and underwent one CK session (50 minutes and a control session in which no exercise was performed and the individuals remain seated during the whole time. BP was measured during rest (before sessions, as well as on the 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th minutes of the post-exercise recovery. Results The systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP were significantly lower at the post-exercise period compared to pre-exercise rest (P < 0.05, with the largest reductions being observed at the 60th minutes of recovery [SBP (rest: 125.9 ± 4.7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 111.7 ± 5.4 mmHg; DBP (rest: 78.8 ± .7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 69.8 ± 2.7 mmHg] and at the same periods of post-exercise recovery of the control session. Conclusions A single CK session can promote a decrease in BP for at least 60 minutes after performing this type of exercise in young adults.

  8. Di-n-butyl phthalate causes estrogenic effects in adult male Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama; Ogino, Yukiko; Gregg, Adrienne; Chapman, John; McLaughlin, Mike J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a class of synthetic industrial chemicals commonly found in the aquatic environment worldwide. PAEs have been recognised as anti-androgens in male mammals but little is known about their endocrine disrupting effects in fish. This study investigated the effects of 7-day exposures to nominal (measured) concentrations of 125 (62), 250 (140), 500 (230) and 1,000 (383) μg/L of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) on the biomarkers of reproduction in adult male Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) using molecular, biochemical and histological endpoints. None of the tested concentrations of DnBP had any effect on survival or the vital body indices of the fish. The sizes of spermatogonia, Type A and B spermatocytes and spermatids were significantly smaller relative to the controls after treatment with DnBP. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in fish treated with 250-1,000 μg/L of DnBP in comparison to the unexposed fish. At the end of the exposure period, the expressions of the transcripts for the androgen receptors α and β were significantly elevated in the livers of the fish treated with 500 and 1,000 μg/L of DnBP. In addition, there was also an increase in the circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in the plasma in the higher treatment groups. An induction in the activity of aromatase was noted in the brains of 1,000 μg/L DnBP-treated fish. This was accompanied by an increase in the hepatic expression of the genes (here and later, whenever the phrase gene expression is used as a synonym for gene transcription although it is acknowledged that it is also regulated, e.g., by translation, mRNA stability and protein stability) encoding for the oestrogen receptors α and β and choriogenin L. Collectively, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in the testes, the upregulation of the genes for the oestrogen receptors and choriogenin in the liver, an induction in the brain

  9. Embryonic co-exposure to methoxychlor and Clophen A50 alters sexual behavior in adult male quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Krister; Axelsson, Jeanette; Brunström, Björn

    2005-04-01

    Embryonic exposure to estrogens and estrogenic pollutants is known to demasculinize sexual behavior in adult male Japanese quail. In the present study, we administered the insecticide methoxychlor to quail eggs at a dose of 150 microg/g egg and then studied sexual behavior and other reproductive variables in adult males. In a second experiment we administered the same dose of methoxychlor together with 10 microg/g egg of the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Clophen A50 (CA50) and also CA50 alone. Neither methoxychlor nor CA50 had any significant effects by themselves, but when they were administered together a significant reduction in male sexual behavior was observed. It seems likely that induction of biotransformation enzymes in the embryos by CA50 resulted in increased conversion of methoxychlor to the more estrogenic metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE).

  10. Phthalates in Commercial Chinese Rice Wines: Concentrations and the Cumulative Risk Assessment to Adult Males in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Lu, Wen Wei; Chen, Bo; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations of 16 phthalates in 164 commercial Chinese rice wines (CRW) were detected by GC-MS, and consumption data on CRW in different packaging types was investigated from 634 adult males in Shanghai using a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the principles of probabilistic modelling and cumulative risk assessment, the exposure and health risk of phthalates from CRW to adult males in Shanghai was evaluated. DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP were detected in the samples, the range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6.10% for BBP to 15.24% for DIBP, and the detected concentrations were 51.06-200.34 ng/mL. All the respondents consumed CRW, 90.69% of them consumed CRW 0.01-49.9 mL/d, the minimum value of the average daily intake of CRW was 6.25 mL/d, the median was 13.72 mL/d and the maximum was 300 mL/d. The median exposure level of the 6 detected Phthalates to adult males in Shanghai were 6.58-7.10 ng/(d•kg), and the maximum exposure level were 137.38-540.47 ng/(d•kg). The cumulative exposure health risk index (HI) based on the median and maximum exposure level of the 6 Phthalates (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP) were 0.001147 and 0.063396, both were far less than 1. In conclusion, CRW were generally consumed by the adult males in Shanghai, although multiple phthalates were detected in commercial CRW, health risk of such exposure levels from commercial CRW to the target adult males in Shanghai was very low.

  11. Nicotine enhances the expression of a sucrose or cocaine conditioned place preference in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalari, Deanne M; Marfo, Nana Yaa A; Smith, Tracy T; Levin, Melissa E; Weaver, Matthew T; Thiels, Edda; Sved, Alan F; Donny, Eric C

    2014-09-01

    Nicotine has been shown to enhance the motivational properties of non-nicotine stimuli. This reinforcement-enhancing property of nicotine has the potential to promote the use of other illicit substances as well as maladaptive patterns of food intake. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether nicotine enhances preference for contexts paired with cocaine or sucrose utilizing a place conditioning procedure. Separate groups of adult male rats were administered sucrose or cocaine in one of two compartments of a standard CPP chamber on four consecutive days. Preference was then assessed following no injection, a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of nicotine, and a s.c. saline injection. The animals preferred the chamber paired with either sucrose or cocaine, as evident from an increased time spent in the paired chamber compared to baseline. Nicotine further increased the time spent in the sucrose- or cocaine-paired chamber, consistent with a reinforcement-enhancement effect. Previous results demonstrate an interaction between nicotine and intake of other drugs or food. The present findings provide an additional mechanism that may underlie these effects and which may have implications for drug dependence and obesity.

  12. Effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation: results from a prospective study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Liang, Chaozhao; Su, Puyu; Peng, Zhen; Shi, Kai; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Lu, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Jishuang; Xia, Lei; Yang, Jiajia; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  13. Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Maryam; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Eidi, Akram; Sepehrara, Leili

    2003-10-08

    The present study investigated the interaction between histamine and opioid systems on water intake in adult male rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections were carried out in all experiments. Water intake was measured 1 h after drug injections. Administration of histamine (40-80 microg/rat) and naloxone (0.5-1 microg/rat) increased, while morphine (2.5 microg/rat), pyrilamine (25-50 microg/rat), the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, and ranitidine (10-20 microg/rat), the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, decreased water intake in isolated rats. Blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors attenuated the histamine-induced response. Pyrilamine, but not ranitidine, increased the inhibitory effect induced by morphine. Also, pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors decreased the naloxone-induced effect on water intake. It is concluded that the histaminergic system may have a close interaction with morphine and naloxone on drinking behavior.

  14. Construction of an extended library of adult male 3D models: rationale and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Bremaud, M.; Desbrée, A.; Farah, J.; Huet, C.; Franck, D.

    2011-12-01

    In order to best cover the possible extent of heights and weights of male adults the construction of 25 whole body 3D models has been undertaken. Such a library is thought to be useful to specify the uncertainties and relevance of dosimetry calculations carried out with models representing individuals of average body heights and weights. Representative 3D models of Caucasian body types are selected in a commercial database according to their height and weight, and 3D models of the skeleton and internal organs are designed using another commercial dataset. A review of the literature enabled one to fix volume or mass target values for the skeleton, soft organs, skin and fat content of the selected individuals. The composition of the remainder tissue is fixed so that the weight of the voxel models equals the weight of the selected individuals. After mesh and NURBS modelling, volume adjustment of the selected body shapes and additional voxel-based work, 25 voxel models with 109 identified organs or tissue are obtained. Radiation transport calculations are carried out with some of the developed models to illustrate potential uses. The following points are discussed throughout this paper: justification of the fixed or obtained models' features regarding available and relevant literature data; workflow and strategy for major modelling steps; advantages and drawbacks of the obtained library as compared with other works. The construction hypotheses are explained and justified in detail since future calculation results obtained with this library will depend on them.

  15. Effects of Adult Male Circumcision on Premature Ejaculation: Results from a Prospective Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE. Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, Patient-Reported Outcome measures, and 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to measure the ejaculatory and erectile function for all subjects. The results showed that, during the one-year follow-up, men after circumcision experienced higher IELT and better scores of control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and severity of PE than men before circumcision (P<0.001 for all. Similarly, when compared with the control group, the circumcised men reported significantly improved IELT, control over ejaculation, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse (P<0.001 for all. These findings suggested that circumcision might have positive effects on IELT, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and PE severity. In addition, circumcision was significantly associated with the development of PE.

  16. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver.

  17. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  18. Screening Neuropharmacological Activities of Kaempferia parviflora (Krachai Dam in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaneeya Hawiset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the global prevalence of psychological disorders is increasing continually, the efficacies of therapeutic strategies are still very limited. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and substance possessing antioxidant activity can alleviate the mentioned conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that Kaempferia parviflora, a medicinal plant claimed for nerve tonic, also possessed the neuropharmacological activities which provide the advantage for psychiatric disorders. Approach: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 grams, were orally given the ethanolic extract of K. parviflora at doses of 150, 200 and 250 mg kg-1 BW once daily for 2 weeks. Then, they were determined the neuropharmacological activities including anxiolytic, anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement after single dose, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Results: K. parviflora possessed anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anxiolytic like activity. Conclusion: Our results suggested that K. parviflora might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for psychiatric disorder and cognitive enhancement. However, further investigations about precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  19. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulations. Blood samples for plasma phenytoin levels were collected at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24 hours. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the two brands of phenytoin sodium calculated were area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC 0–24, Area under the Curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞, peak plasma concentration (Cmax and time of peak concentration (tmax. Formulation B failed to comply in terms of Area under the Curve (AUC, an important pharmacokinetic parameter to test bioequivalency, which was tested at significance level 0.05. This showed that the test formulation is not bioequivalent with the innovator. Taken together, our preliminary findings suggest that further studies in a large population is needed before switching phenytoin brands once a patient is carefully titrated to a given phenytoin brand.

  20. Androgens inhibit the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Mieke; Laurent, Michaël R; Jardi, Ferran; Dubois, Vanessa; Deboel, Ludo; Delisser, Peter; Behets, Geert J; D'Haese, Patrick C; Carmeliet, Geert; Claessens, Frank; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Androgens are well known to enhance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy; however, whether androgens also influence bone's adaptive response to mechanical loading remains unclear. We studied the adaptive osteogenic response to unilateral in vivo mechanical loading of tibia in adult male mice in both a long- and a short-term experimental set-up. Mice were divided into four groups: sham operated, orchidectomized (ORX), T (ORX+T), or nonaromatizable dihydrotestosterone (ORX+DHT) replacement. Significant interactions between androgen status and osteogenic response to mechanical loading were observed. Cortical thickness increased by T (0.14 vs 0.11 mm sham, P<.05) and DHT (0.17 vs 0.11 mm sham, P<.05). However, T partially (+36%) and DHT completely (+10%) failed to exhibit the loading-related increase observed in sham (+107%) and ORX (+131%, all P<.05) mice. ORX decreased periosteal bone formation, which was restored to sham levels by T and DHT. However, both androgens completely suppressed the loading-related increase in periosteal bone formation. Short-term loading decreased the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes in sham, whereas in control fibulas, ORX decreased and T increased the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes. Loading no longer down-regulated sclerostin in the ORX or T groups. In conclusion, both T and DHT suppress the osteogenic response to mechanical loading.

  1. Triggering the decision to undergo medical male circumcision: a qualitative study of adult men in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Ntsuape, Conrad; Ramabu, Nankie M; Otlhomile, Boyce; Plank, Rebeca M; Barnhart, Scott; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as part of comprehensive HIV-prevention strategies. A major challenge facing VMMC programs in sub-Saharan Africa remains demand creation; there is urgent need for data on key elements needed to trigger the decision among eligible men to seek VMMC. Using qualitative methods, we sought to better understand the circumcision decision-making process in Botswana related to VMMC. From July to November 2013, we conducted 27 focus group discussions in four purposively selected communities in Botswana with men (stratified by circumcision status and age), women (stratified by age) and community leaders. All discussions were facilitated by a trained same-sex interviewer, audio recorded, transcribed and translated to English, and analyzed for key themes using an inductive content analytic approach. Improved hygiene was frequently cited as a major benefit of circumcision and many participants believed that cleanliness was directly responsible for the protective effect of VMMC on HIV infection. While protection against HIV was frequently noted as a benefit of VMMC, the data indicate that increased sexual pleasure and perceived attractiveness, not fear of HIV infection, was an underlying reason why men sought VMMC. Data from this qualitative study suggest that more immediate benefits of VMMC, such as improved hygiene and sexual pleasure, play a larger role in the circumcision decision compared with protection from potential HIV infection. These findings have immediate implications for targeted demand creation and mobilization activities for increasing uptake of VMMC among adult men in Botswana.

  2. Morphological Study of Adult Male Worms of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubercles, spines and sensory receptors are the most studied structures of adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni isolated in other countries. The purpose of this investigation was to properly define these structures in Brazilian worms. Specimens 7-8 weeks after infection were recovered from albino SW mice and from a wild rodent (Nectomys squamipes and processed for scanning electron microscopy studies. Photomicrographs of the anterior region with the aspects related to the outer and inner regions of both suckers were considered. The ventral portion of the middle region was represented by the anterior of gynaecophoric canal while the dorsal surface was studied in its ventral and dorsal regions mainly focusing the aspect of the tubercles, spines and sensorial papillae. The outer surface of the oral sucker is spiny and spines are bigger, sharp with sensory receptors in their posterior edge. Tubercles with spines or receptors are more concentrated in the middle region and in one of the margins of the gynaecophoric canal. An excretory pore-like structure in the posterior portion was observed. The gynaecophoric canal has few sensory structures, spines broadned in their mid-region and are sharp pointed at the distal end. It was concluded that the presently studied characters are similar to those previously reported

  3. Altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns in adult males with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Ohno, Taisei; Itahashi, Takashi; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Kanai, Chieko; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2014-04-01

    Functions of the orbitofrontal cortex include diverse social, cognitive and affective processes, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recently, altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns have been revealed in several psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, indicating a possibility that altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral morphology reflects abnormal neurodevelopment. However, the presence of sulcal alterations in ASD remains unexplored. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging, subtypes of the 'H-shaped' sulcus (Type I, II and III, in order of frequency), posterior orbital sulcus (POS) and intermediate orbital sulcus were identified in each hemisphere of adult males with ASD (n = 51) and matched normal controls (n = 55) based on the study by Chiavaras and Petrides. ASD showed a significantly altered distribution of H-shaped sulcal subtypes in both hemispheres, with a significant increase of Type III. A significant alteration in the distribution of sulcal subtypes was also identified in the right hemisphere POS of ASD. Categorical regression analysis revealed that Type I and II expressions predicted a reduced total Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Furthermore, Type I expression was associated with a reduced 'attention to detail' subscale score. The results demonstrate that altered sulcogyral morphology can be a marker for abnormal neurodevelopment leading to the increased risk of developing autism.

  4. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors.

  5. Maternal resveratrol intake during lactation attenuates hepatic triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis in adult male rat offspring

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    Masato Tanaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene is a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine and has been shown to exert protective effects on the liver preventing lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet. However, no studies have shown that the nutritional resveratrol intake by the parental generation has modified lipogenesis in an adult offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal resveratrol intake during lactation affects lipogenesis in adult male rat offspring, and if it does, what is the molecular mechanistic basis. Six male pups born from mothers given a control diets during lactation (CC group and six male pups born from mothers given a control diet as well as resveratrol during lactation (CR group were fed a standard diet until sacrifice at 36 weeks. Adult male offspring from mothers given resveratrol during lactation (CR group had lower body weight from the fourth week of lactation until adulthood, but no significant change was observed in the relative food intake. Low levels of plasma triacylglycerol were found in the CR group compared to the CC group. Histopathological analysis of the livers of adult male rat offspring revealed lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in the CC group, whereas lipid droplets were rare in the CR group. Hepatic protein levels of AMPK-phosphorylated at ser403, Sirt1, and Nampt in the CR group were upregulated significantly compared to the CC group. These results indicated the maternal resveratrol intake during lactation-induced activation of AMPK through Sirt1 upregulation. In this study, significant upregulation of the levels of precursor of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c and downregulation of the ratio of active-SREBP-1c/precusor-SREBP-1c were observed in the CR group compared to the CC group. These results suggested that proteolytic processing of SREBP-1c was suppressed by AMPK in the livers of the CR group. It is well known that SREBP-1c

  6. Anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcohlic juglans regia male flower extract on blood glucose level and on liver enzymes activity in intact and diabetogenized adult male rat

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    Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin secretion or function. Walnut is a nutrient used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. In the current study, anti-diabetic effects of the Hydroalcoholic extract of walnut male flowers on diabetogenized rats by using Streptozocin were evaluated.   Materials and Methods: Seventy two adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-225 g each were randomly selected and divided into three main groups, i.e. control, diabetic, and non-diabetic(intact The control group included 8 rats (n=8. The diabetic and non-diabetic groups covered 32 rats each. Each of these groups were divided into four 8 rats including the control, diabetic, experimental 1, 2, and 3 which received 2, 4, or 6 g/kg of the extract per day for 15 days ,respectively. The three diabetic groups were each treated with the above doses of the extract, and the fourth group received no treatment. Diabetes was induced in diabetic rats through intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of Streptozotocin. At the end, blood samples were taken from the experimental and control groups and the serum levels of insulin and glucose were measured.   Results: A significant reduction in blood sugar and increase of insulin in diabetics receiving Hydroalcoholic extract of male flowers walnut was observed compared with non-diabetic ones.   Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of male Walnut flowers, due to increasing insulin, causes reduction of blood sugar.

  7. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  8. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAND LENGTH AND HEIGHT IN ADULT MALES OF NORTH INDIAN PUNJABI POPULATION

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    Maheshwar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stature of an individual is an inherent characteris tic, the estimate of which is considered to be an important a ssessment in identification of unknown human remains 12 .The stature prediction occupies relatively a central position both in anthropological research and in the identification n ecessitated by the medical jurisprudence or by medico legal experts. Estimation of stature of an individual from the skeletal material or from the mutilated or amputated limbs or parts of limbs ha s obvious significance in the personal identification in the events of the murders, accide nts or natural disasters mainly concerns with forensic identification analysis 8 . Whether this is true for the North Indian Punjabi m ale population is not known till date. AIMS: The present study was done with an aim to establish relationship between height and hand length in adult males of north Indian Punjabi population, as it is not seen in the accessible literature till date to the best of our knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Height of 150 healthy male students between 18 to 25 years of age was measured with the help of an anthropometric rod. The height of all the students was measured in anatomical position keeping all the subjects erect . The height measured was vertical distance from the vertex to floor. Hand length is the direct linear distance between the distal wrist crease and the distal ends of most anterior projecting poin t i.e., tip of the middle finger. It is also the distance between midpoint of line joining the two st ylion and Dactylion of middle finger. Result: - A positive correlation between height and hand leng th was observed and it was statistically significant. Regression equation for height estimat ion was formulated using hand length. For statistical analysis IBM ( Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS + Version 20 was used. The mean difference of the height was 1773.273 ± 78.832 mm and Hand length (Right and Left were 196

  10. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

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    Marco Neira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®, rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86. Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha, which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  12. Adult male mice emit context-specific ultrasonic vocalizations that are modulated by prior isolation or group rearing environment.

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    Jonathan Chabout

    Full Text Available Social interactions in mice are frequently analysed in genetically modified strains in order to get insight of disorders affecting social interactions such as autism spectrum disorders. Different types of social interactions have been described, mostly between females and pups, and between adult males and females. However, we recently showed that social interactions between adult males could also encompass cognitive and motivational features. During social interactions, rodents emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, but it remains unknown if call types are differently used depending of the context and if they are correlated with motivational state. Here, we recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice in various behavioral conditions, such as social interaction, novelty exploration and restraint stress. We introduced a modulator for the motivational state by comparing males maintained in isolation and males maintained in groups before the experiments. Male mice uttered USVs in all social and non-social situations, and even in a stressful restraint context. They nevertheless emitted the most important number of calls with the largest diversity of call types in social interactions, particularly when showing a high motivation for social contact. For mice maintained in social isolation, the number of calls recorded was positively correlated with the duration of social contacts, and most calls were uttered during contacts between the two mice. This correlation was not observed in mice maintained in groups. These results open the way for a deeper understanding and characterization of acoustic signals associated with social interactions. They can also help evaluating the role of motivational states in the emission of acoustic signals.

  13. 75 FR 56028 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Sprague's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    .... 5, 32, 58). Breeding Phenology Male Sprague's pipits have a territorial flight display that takes... variation, but the long- term trend is consistently negative (95-percent confidence interval - 5.6 to...

  14. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  15. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history.

  16. Permethrin may disrupt testosterone biosynthesis via mitochondrial membrane damage of Leydig cells in adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yun; Ito, Yuki; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Yanagiba, Yukie; Kobayashi, Miya; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Li, ChunMei; Okamura, Ai; Miyata, Maiko; Ueyama, Jun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakajima, Tamie

    2007-08-01

    Permethrin, a popular synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control noxious insects in agriculture, forestry, households, horticulture, and public health throughout the world, poses risks of environmental exposure. Here we evaluate the reproductive toxicity of cis-permethrin in adult male ICR mice that were orally administered cis-permethrin (0, 35, or 70 mg/kg d) for 6 wk. Caudal epididymal sperm count and sperm motility in the treated groups were statistically reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Testicular testosterone production and plasma testosterone concentration were significantly and dose-dependently decreased with an increase in LH, and a significant regression was observed between testosterone levels and cis-permethrin residues in individual mice testes after exposure. However, no significant changes were observed in body weight, reproductive organ absolute and relative weights, sperm morphology, and plasma FSH concentration after cis-permethrin treatment. Moreover, cis-permethrin exposure significantly diminished the testicular mitochondrial mRNA expression levels of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and enzyme and protein expression levels of StAR and P450scc. At the electron microscopic level, mitochondrial membrane damage was found in Leydig cells of the exposed mouse testis. Our results suggest that the insecticide permethrin may cause mitochondrial membrane impairment in Leydig cells and disrupt testosterone biosynthesis by diminishing the delivery of cholesterol into the mitochondria and decreasing the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone in the cells, thus reducing subsequent testosterone production.

  17. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  18. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

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    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  19. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans.

  20. Protective effects of vitamin E and selenium on spermatogenesis in adult male rat insulin-resistant

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    Alireza Zakerabasali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease and is a multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin secretion and insulin factional or both. In this study, the protective role of vitamin E and sodium selenite in preventing the harmful effects of insulin resistance (diabetes type 2 on spermatogenesis was studied.   Materials & Methods: Male adults (180-200 g of Wistar rats were divided into five groups, each containing 7 rats (control, sham, and three experimental groups. The rats were fed daily with water-soluble fructose (10%, mg/kg 200 of vitamin E (gavage, and 5/0 mg/kg of sodium selenite (intraperitoneal injection or both for 110 days. Subsequently, sperm parameters, levels of testosterone, LH, and daily sperm production (DSP were checked. Additionally, testicular histopathology and malondialdehyde (MDA in the testis were examined.   Results: Sperm count, sperm motility and viability, and insulin resistance in the rats decreased DSP. A significant decrease was observed in the number of Leydig cells, spermatogonia, spermatogenesis, and spermatozoa in the testis of the insulin-resistant animals, whereas MDA and testosterone rose in the insulin-resistant rats. Vitamin E and sodium selenite intake reduced the levels of MDA and harmful effects of fructose on testicles, as well as sperm parameters and testicular pathology. A simultaneous intake of vitamin E and sodium selenite conferred the highest level of protection.   Conclusion: These findings suggest that vitamin E and sodium selenite can have a protective role in the testes of rats against oxidative stress induced by diabetes type 2.

  1. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

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    McGuire Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2 played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ~10 min, ~ 2 min rest periods in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05. Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05. Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  2. Safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Feldblum

    Full Text Available To assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult medical male circumcision (MMC in routine service delivery in Kenya.We enrolled 427 men ages 18-49 at one fixed and two outreach clinics. Procedures were performed by trained clinical officers and nurses. The first 50 enrollees were scheduled for six follow-up visits, and remaining men were followed at Days 7 and 42. We recorded adverse events (AEs and time to complete healing, and interviewed men about acceptability and pain.Placement and removal procedures each averaged between 3 and 4 minutes. Self-reported pain was minimal during placement but was fleetingly intense during removal. The rate of moderate/severe AEs was 5.9% overall (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%-8.5%, all of which resolved without sequelae. AEs included 5 device displacements, 2 spontaneous foreskin detachments, and 9 cases of insufficient foreskin removal. Surgical completion of MMC was required for 9 men (2.1%. Among the closely monitored first 50 participants, the probability of complete healing by Day 42 was 0.44 (95% CI 0.30-0.58, and 0.90 by Day 56. A large majority of men was favorable about their MMC procedure and would recommend PrePex to friends and family.The PrePex device was effective for MMC in Kenya, and well-accepted. The AE rate was higher than reported for surgical procedures there, or in previous PrePex studies. Healing time is longer than following surgical circumcision. Provider experience and clearer counseling on post-placement and post-removal care should lead to lower AE rates.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01711411.

  3. DIETARY SODIUM INTAKE IN A SAMPLE OF ADULT MALE POPULATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY.Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzullo, P; Venezia, Antonella; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Russo, Ornella; Capasso, Clemente; De Luca, Viviana; Farinaro, Eduardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Galletti, Ferruccio; Rossi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess dietary habitual sodium intake, the association between daily sodium intake and anthropometric indices, food habits and hypertension in the sample of adult male population participating in the Olivetti Heart Study. Design, Setting and Participants: The study population was composed of 940 men participating in the 2002-04 follow-up examination of the Olivetti Heart Study. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and sodium excre...

  4. Male circumcision for HIV prevention - a cross-sectional study on awareness among young people and adults in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizaamu Ramadhan NB

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical male circumcision is now part of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. It has been shown that awareness of the protective effect of male circumcision leads to high acceptability towards the introduction of medical male circumcision services within countries. The objective of this survey was to identify factors determining awareness of male circumcision for HIV prevention. Methods We interviewed 452 participants (267 adults >24 years of age; 185 youths 14-24 years living in three rural Ugandan districts in 2008. Using a standardized questionnaire, we assessed socio-demographic parameters, awareness of MC for HIV prevention, general beliefs/attitudes regarding MC and MC status. Determinants for awareness of MC for HIV prevention were examined with multiple logistic regression models. Results Out of all adults, 52.1% were male (mean ± SD age 39.8 ± 11 years, of whom 39.1% reported to be circumcised. Out of all youths, 58.4% were male (18.4 ± 2.5, 35.0% circumcised. Adults were more aware of MC for HIV prevention than youths (87.1% vs. 76.5%; p = 0.004. In adults, awareness was increased with higher educational level compared to no school: primary school (adjusted OR 9.32; 95%CI 1.80-48.11, secondary (5.04; 1.01-25.25, tertiary (9.91; 0.76-129.18, university education (8.03; 0.59-109.95. Younger age and male sex were further significant determinants of increased awareness, but not marital status, religion, district, ethnicity, employment status, and circumcision status. In youths, we found a borderline statistically significant decrease of awareness of MC for HIV prevention with higher educational level, but not with any other socio-demographic factors. Conclusions Particularly Ugandans with low education, youths, and women, playing an important role in decision-making of MC for their partners and sons, should be increasingly targeted by information campaigns about positive health effects of MC.

  5. Sprague River Oregon Water circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  6. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  7. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  8. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  9. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  10. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  11. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  12. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  13. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  14. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  15. Sprague River Oregon Centerline circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  16. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Using plain language skills to create an educational brochure about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kim; Wizowski, Lindsay; Duckworth, JoAnn; Cassano, Jane; Hahn, Shirley Ann; Neal, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Writing in plain language makes it easier for patients to read, understand, and make informed decisions about sperm banking. Greater attention to the issue and properly designed educational brochures for use by nurses in oncology and reproductive health is of evident importance but of unknown impact. A multidisciplinary clinical team followed an evidence-based, patient-centered approach to develop "plain language" patient education materials about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. A patient education booklet was produced and implemented as part of the planned patient education for AYA male oncology patients at McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The patient education booklet for use by health professionals as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion with AYA males has been produced with the hope that it will contribute to better informed decision making regarding sperm banking and increased use of this technology for fertility preservation.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in the human fetal and adult male reproductive tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, A; Liotta, D R; Yao, S; Liu, X H; Klausner, A P; Unger, P; Shapiro, E; Leav, I; Levine, A C

    2000-09-01

    The first rate-limiting step in the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGs is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase (Cox). Two isoforms of Cox have been identified, Cox-1 (constitutively expressed) and Cox-2 (inducible form), which are the products of two different genes. In this study we describe the immunohistochemical localization of Cox-1 and -2 in the human male fetal and adult reproductive tracts. There was no Cox-1 expression in fetal samples (prostate, seminal vesicles, or ejaculatory ducts), and only minimal expression in adult tissues. There was no expression of Cox-2 in the fetal prostate. In a prepubertal prostate there was some Cox-2 expression that localized exclusively to the smooth muscle cells of the transition zone. In adult hyperplastic prostates, Cox-2 was strongly expressed in smooth muscle cells, with no expression in the luminal epithelial cells. Cox-2 was strongly expressed in epithelial cells of both fetal and adult seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts. The Cox-2 staining intensity in the fetal ejaculatory ducts during various times of gestation correlated with previously reported testosterone production rates by the fetal testis. These data indicate that Cox-2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the fetal male reproductive tract, and its expression may be regulated by androgens. The distinct cell type-specific expression patterns of Cox-2 in the prostate (smooth muscle) vs. the seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts (epithelium) may reflect the different roles of PGs in these tissues.

  19. Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically modulated impairments in visuospatial tasks controlled for psychomotor speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Ling M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study reported enhanced psychomotor speed, and subtle but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs. Because male carriers, unlike females, do not have a second, unaffected FMR1 allele, male fXPCs should exhibit similar, if not worse, impairments. Understanding male fXPCs is of particular significance because of their increased risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS. Methods Male fXPCs (n = 18 and healthy control (HC adults (n = 26 aged less than 45 years performed two psychomotor speed tasks (manual and oral and two visuospatial tasks (magnitude comparison and enumeration. In the magnitude comparison task, participants were asked to compare and judge which of two bars was larger. In the enumeration task, participants were shown between one and eight green bars in the center of the screen, and asked to state the total number displayed. Enumeration typically proceeds in one of two modes: subitizing, a fast and accurate process that works only with a small set of items, and counting, which requires accurate serial-object detection and individuation during visual search. We examined the associations between the performance on all tasks and the age, full-scale intelligent quotient, and CGG repeat length of participants. Results We found that in the magnitude comparison and enumeration tasks, male fXPCs exhibited slower reaction times relative to HCs, even after controlling for simple reaction time. Conclusions Our results indicate that male fXPCs as a group show impairments (slower reaction times in numerical visuospatial tasks, which are consistent with previous findings. This adds to a growing body of literature characterizing the phenotype in fXPCs who are asymptomatic for FXTAS. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these impairments

  20. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  1. Evaluation Of Gonadotropin And Testosterone Hormons In Adult Male Cholestatic Rats

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    Nasiri E

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids (EOP, nitric oxide (NO, and cytokins in the blood streams. Therefore we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and function of germ cells in adult male rats."nMaterial and Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: No-surgery, Sham-surgery, and surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animal were killed by ether, serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were determined by Radioimmunoassay, apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by in situ terminal deoxynucloetidyl Transfrase-mediated dUTP nike end labeling (TUNEL."nResults: The mean of FSH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 13.22+ 1.038, 18.14+ 1.276, and 16.92+ 1.072 ng/ml, respectively. The mean of LH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 0.83 + 0.21, 2.058 ± 0.26, and 1.84 + 0.17 ng/ml, respectively. In addition, the mean of testosterone level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 1.52 ± 0.16, 2.41 ± 0.18, and 2.31 + 0.14 ng/ml, respectively. The results of this study were indicated that serum FSH, LH and testosterone were significantly lower in cholestatic than control and sham groups (p=0.0195, P= 0.0029, and P=0.0023, respectively. However there was no significant difference in apoptotic index between all of groups (P=0.195. The apoptotic index in cholestatic, control and sham rats were 9.897± 1.374, 7.086 + 0.91, and 7.729 + 1.101, respectively. "nConclusion: These findings have been shown which as obstructive cholestasis was decreased the levels of serum gonadotropins and testosterone but it has no significant effector testicular germinal cells apoptosis."n"n"n"n 

  2. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate in adult males with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaydaa A Shehata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were assessed in 45 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and/or valproate and free of seizures for ≥1 year. Thirty-four newly diagnosed or untreated patients with epilepsy and 58 matched healthy subjects were also included for comparison. A battery of psychometric tests was utilized including Stanford-Binet (4th edition, Beck Inventory for Depression, Aggressive Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.Results: Compared to matched control subjects, treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance in different cognitive and behavioral functions testing. Treated patients had worse scores in memory for digits forward and backward, total short-term memory, extroversion and psychosis. The duration of AEDs intake was correlated with memory of objects (r = -0.323; P = 0.030, bead memory (r = -0.314; P = 0.036 and total nonverbal short-term memory (r = -0.346; P = 0.020. Treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance of similar extent in behavioral functions testing (depression, aggression and neurosis. The dose of AEDs was correlated with testing scores for neurosis (r = 0.307; P = 0.040, verbal aggression (r = 0.483; P = 0.001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.526; P = 0.000, and duration of drug intake was correlated with scores for depression (r = 0.384; P = 0.009, psychosis (r = 0.586; P = 0.0001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.300; P = 0.045.Conclusions: This study provides support for the notion that AEDs can impair performance

  3. The interaction of steroids with the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular system in the adult male rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.L.L. Verjans

    1976-01-01

    textabstractMajor functions of the mature male gonad are the production of gametes and steroid hormones. Extratesticular as well as intratesticular factors regulate these two male gonadal functions which are associated with two distinct cell compartments in the testis. It has been known for a long t

  4. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Gillespie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring and secondary (impulsive, antisocial psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, was associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  5. Long term outcomes in 46, XX adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia reared as males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, A; Yau, M; Qamar, A; Gangishetti, P; Barhen, A; Al-Malki, S; Mistry, H; Anthony, W; Toralles, M B; New, Maria I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency and whose karyotype is 46, XX are usually assigned to the female gender. Reported herein are the long term outcomes in three patients with CAH whose karyotype is 46, XX and who were reared as males. A retrospective review of three CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype who were reared as males was conducted. Gender assignment, clinical and biochemical data, pre and post-genitoplasty genital examinations were reviewed. Gender identity was tested by an extensive questionnaire. Gender role, sexual preference, marital status and sexual satisfaction were evaluated by interview. The three patients were genotyped for the CYP21A2 gene confirming the diagnosis of CAH. Owing to genital virilization, cultural preferences for male gender and the lack of newborn screening programs the three patients reported herein were assigned to the male gender at birth before the diagnosis of CAH was established. In adulthood the patients remained significantly virilized. Thorough psychosexual assessments in adulthood revealed well established male gender identities compatible with their male gender assignments at birth. In all three patients, gender role and behavior were consistent with male gender identity including sexual intercourse with female partners. The three patients reported herein revealed that male gender assignment to CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype may have a successful outcome providing there is strong parental support and expert endocrine care. No standard guidelines have been published for the gender assignment of CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype and genital ambiguity. More studies concerning gender assignment in CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype reared as males are needed.

  6. PERSISTANT MULLERIAN DUCT SYNDROME IN AN ADULT MALE DIAGNOSED DURING HERNIORAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar Kinhal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism in which Mullerian duct derivatives are seen in a genotypically as well as phenotypically normal male patient. Very few cases have been repo rted in the literature. P MDS is likely to be encountered during surgery for undescended testis and inguinal hernia. Thus awareness of this disorder and the options of surgical management are necessary. We report a case of PMDS in a 35 year - old - male with le ft cryptorchidism and right inguinal hernia with uterus as content

  7. A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Pennie J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1 published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2 male only studies (≥18 years or 3 where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i a significant change (p Results Nine studies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg and/or BMI (kg/m2 changes (p≤0.05. Four studies had effective interventions (p Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self-monitoring and tailored feedback. Conclusion Uncertainty remains as to the features of successful nutrition interventions for males due to limited details provided for nutrition intervention protocols, variability in mode of delivery and comparisons between delivery modes as well as content of information provided to participants between studies. This review offers knowledge to

  8. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  9. THE EFFECTS OF ETHINYL ESTRADIOL ON SPERMATOGENESIS IN THE ADULT MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, increases in male infertility have been attributed to exposure to environmental estrogens. Decreased sperm concentrations and increased infertility have been reported in the human, while many reports have documented reproductive effects due to estrogenic exposure in ani...

  10. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  11. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

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    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  12. PERSISTANT MULLERIAN DUCT SYNDROME IN AN ADULT MALE DIAGNOSED DURING HERNIORAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyadhar Kinhal; Mahesh Desai; Syeda Siddiqua Banu; Varun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism in which Mullerian duct derivatives are seen in a genotypically as well as phenotypically normal male patient. Very few cases have been repo rted in the literature. P MDS is likely to be encountered during surgery for undescended testis and inguinal hernia. Thus awareness of this disorder and the options of surgical management are necessary. We report a case of PMDS in a 35 yea...

  13. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  14. Disentangling recoding processes and evaluative associations in a gender attitude implicit association test among adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    The course of male development of implicit gender attitudes between young age (N = 30, age 17-26 years) and old age (N = 34, age 56-78 years) was investigated. The findings demonstrated that younger males had a stronger implicit preference for females relative to males than did older participants, shedding light on the nature of age differences in gender attitudes in regard to implicit measures. Although younger and older participants demonstrated different levels of gender bias on an implicit association test (IAT), the application of the ReAL model [Meissner, F., & Rothermund, K. (2013). Estimating the contributions of associations and recoding in the implicit association test: The ReAL model for the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(1), 45-69.] showed that evaluative associations of both female and male were activated at equivalent levels among both the young and old age groups, but younger males were more able to recode the female gender and a positive evaluation into common categories. Thus, the differences in attitudinal responses between younger and older males exaggerated the differences in the underlying evaluative associations with respect to gender and concealed the differences in recoding processes. These findings have important implications for the measurement and interpretation of implicit gender attitudes.

  15. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  16. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON) or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat), a purified high fat (HF) diet (45%kcal from fat) and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat) (HFCLA). All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21) until the end of the study (day 150). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory EDHF

  17. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat, a purified high fat (HF diet (45%kcal from fat and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat (HFCLA. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21 until the end of the study (day 150. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory

  18. Patterns of sugar feeding and host plant preferences in adult males of An. gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Poueme, Rodrigue S; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-12-01

    Sugar feeding by male mosquitoes is critical for their success in mating competition. However, the facets of sugar source finding under natural conditions remain unknown. Here, evidence obtained in Western Burkina Faso indicated that the distribution of An. gambiae s.s. (M and S molecular forms) males across different peri-domestic habitats is dependent on the availability of potential sugar sources from which they obtain more favorable sites for feeding or resting. Among field-collected anophelines, a higher proportion of specimens containing fructose were found on flowering Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), Dolonix regia (Fabaceae), Thevetia neriifolia (Apocynaceae), Senna siamea, and Cassia sieberiana (both Fabaceae) compared to that recorded on other nearby plants, suggesting that some plants are favored for use as a sugar source over others. Y-tube olfactometer assays with newly-emerged An. gambiae s.s. exposed to odors from individual plants and some combinations thereof showed that males use odor cues to guide their preference. The number of sugar-positive males was variable in a no-choice cage assay, consistent with the olfactory response patterns towards corresponding odor stimuli. These experiments provide the first evidence both in field and laboratory conditions for previously unstudied interactions between males of An. gambiae and natural sugar sources.

  19. Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the Fran(c)ois langur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hai ZHOU; Bang LUO; Cheng-Ming HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Infanticide by males is a common phenomenon in mammals,especially primates,as lactation lasts much longer than gestation in many species.Usually,infanticidal episodes occur soon after group takeovers,and are traditionally considered a male reproductive strategy (i.e.,support the sexual selection hypothesis,Hrdy,1974).To verify the validity of this conception,we observed one group of Fran(c)ois' langurs in the Nonggang Nature Reserve,China,between August 2003 and July 2004.During the study period,a Fran(c)ois' langur female with the youngest infant in the group was attacked three times by immigrating males,and later disappeared by the third day after the final attack.We suggest that these attacks on the female-infant dyad represent infanticide attempts by males,and may be the cause of the adult female and her infant's disappearance.Presumably,that female dispersed with her infant to avoid infanticide and was not killed.Though these observations do not completely verify the sexual selection hypothesis,they are not inconsistent with it.

  20. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  1. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on `Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantit...

  2. Age effect of deafening on stereotyped song maintenance in adult male bengalese finches Lonchura striata domestica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingyu SUN; Rui WANG; Shuli SHAO; Shaoju ZENG; Mingxue ZUO

    2009-01-01

    Birdsong is a complex learned vocal behavior that relies on auditory experience for development. However, it appears that among different species of close-ended songbirds, there are some variations in the necessity of auditory feedback for maintaining stereotyped aduh song. In zebra finches, the deterioration of adult songs following deafness depends on the birds' age. It is unknown whether this age effect is a general ride in other avian species as well. Therefore, we chose Bengalese finches, whose songs show more complexity and have much heavier dependency on auditory feedback than that of zebra finches, to compare the degree of song degradation after heating loss in old (over 18 months old) and young adult birds (5-6 months old). We found that beth syllable sequence and syllable phonology were much leas severely affected by deafening in old adults than that in young ones. Moreover, young adults almost lost their capability to sing trills over 6 months following deafening, while old birds continued to sing plenty of trills and trilled syllables after the same period of deafening. Our results suggest that age plays an important role in affecting the dependency of adult song maintenance on auditory feedback in Bengalese finches. Furthermore, the age dependency may be a general phenomenon in different species of close-ended songbirds.

  3. Prevalence of vocal fry in young adult male American English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Wolk, Lesley; Slavin, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess possible gender differences in the prevalence of vocal fry in the voices of young male college students. Results were compared with previously published findings derived from a matched sample of female speakers. Thirty-four male college students, native American English speakers, produced speech samples in two speaking conditions: (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) reading task. Data analyses included perceptual evaluations by two licensed speech-language pathologists. Results showed that vocal fry was perceived significantly more frequently in sentences than in isolated vowel productions. When vocal fry occurred in sentences, it was detected significantly more often in sentence-final position than in initial- and/or mid-sentence position. Furthermore, the prevalence of vocal fry in sentences was significantly lower for male speakers than has previously been reported for female speakers. Possible physiological and sociolinguistic explanations are discussed.

  4. Calorie restriction and corticosterone elevation during lactation can each modulate adult male fear and anxiety-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Bell, Veronica; Samuel, Anil; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G

    2014-09-01

    Early life events, such as calorie restriction (CR) and elevated glucocorticoids, can calibrate the lifelong behavioural and physiological profile of an individual. Stress reactivity in adulthood is particularly sensitive to early life events; however, the consequence to fear and anxiety-like behaviour is less clear. Consequently, the current study sought to examine the effects of post-natal CR and glucocorticoid elevation, long considered powerful programming stimuli, on the subsequent fear and anxiety behaviour of the adult offspring. Rat dams received either corticosterone (200 μg/ml) supplementation in drinking water (CORT) or a 25% CR from post-natal day (PND) 1 to 11. Responses to the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field and a predator odour (TMT; 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline) were characterised in the adult male offspring. Both treatment conditions resulted in enhanced fear responses to TMT, characterised by heightened risk assessment and increased avoidance of TMT. CORT nursed offspring further demonstrated an anxiogenic profile in the open field. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function was unchanged in CORT adult offspring, whilst corticosterone concentration was elevated by post-natal CR. CR and CORT treated dams both exhibited greater anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM. A modest and temporary enhancement of maternal care was observed in CR and CORT treated dams, with CR dams further exhibiting rapid pup retrieval latencies. The results indicate enhanced emotionality in the adult male progeny of dams exposed to CR and corticosterone supplementation during the post-natal period. The modest enhancement of maternal care observed by both treatments is unlikely to have influenced the behavioural profile of the offspring.

  5. Changing drinking styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of male and female drinking among young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Törrönen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations in which you need to play with different aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23 years) in Denmark...... aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23) in Denmark and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N=16)....

  6. Co-expression and interaction of cubilin and megalin in the adult male rat reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praet, Oliver; Argraves, W Scott; Morales, Carlos R

    2003-02-01

    Cubilin is a peripheral membrane protein that cooperates with the endocytic receptor megalin to mediate endocytosis of ligands in various polarized epithelia. Megalin is expressed in the male reproductive tract where it has been implicated in the process of sperm membrane remodeling. A potential role for cubilin in the male reproductive tract has not been explored. Using RT-PCR, we found that cubilin and megalin mRNAs are expressed in the efferent ducts, corpus and cauda epididymis, and proximal and distal vas deferens. Immunohistological analysis revealed that cubilin was expressed in nonciliated cells of the efferent ducts, principal cells of the corpus and cauda epididymis and vas deferens. Immunogold EM showed cubilin in endocytic pits, endocytic vesicles, and endosomes of these cells. The expression profile of cubilin in the male reproductive tract was coincident with that of megalin except in principal cells of the caput epididymis. Double immunogold labeling showed that cubilin and megalin co-localized within the endocytic apparatus and recycling vesicles of efferent duct cells. Neither protein was found in lysosomes. Injection of RAP, an antagonist of megalin interaction with cubilin, reduced the level of intracellular cubilin in cells of the efferent ducts and vas deferens. In conclusion, cubilin and megalin are co-expressed in cells of the epididymis and vas deferens and the endocytosis of cubilin in these tissues is dependent on megalin. Together, these findings highlight the potential for a joint endocytic role for cubilin and megalin in the male reproductive tract.

  7. Properties of Isokinetic Fatigue at Various Movement Speeds in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David H.; Manning, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Eighteen male subjects, aged 20 to 28 years, engaged in three fatigue bouts using an isokinetic dynamometer to measure knee extension contractions. Peak torque varied inversely with movement speed, and the pattern of decrement was independent of speed. Time to peak torque did not change significantly across trials in isokinetic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  8. Priming of Non-Speech Vocalizations in Male Adults: The Influence of the Speaker's Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Armony, Jorge L.; Joanette, Yves; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Previous research reported a priming effect for voices. However, the type of information primed is still largely unknown. In this study, we examined the influence of speaker's gender and emotional category of the stimulus on priming of non-speech vocalizations in 10 male participants, who performed a gender identification task. We found a…

  9. Factors Associated with Knowledge of and Willingness for Adult Male Circumcision in Changsha, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiang Zeng

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of male genital diseases. MC is not commonly practiced among Chinese males and little is known about the factors associated with their knowledge of and willingness for MC. This study was to explore the knowledge regarding the foreskin among Chinese males and to identify factors associated with their willingness to undergo circumcision.A total of 237 patients with redundant prepuce/phimosis were interviewed through face-to-face interviews. The items on the questionnaire included: demographics, an objective scale assessing knowledge about the foreskin, willingness to have MC, the attitudes of sexual partners and doctors toward redundant prepuce/phimosis, and the approaches that patients used to acquire knowledge regarding the prepuce. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify factors that are associated with willingness to be circumcised (WTC.A total of 212 patients completed the interview. Multivariable logistic regression showed that three factors were significantly associated with WTC: being married (OR = 0.43, perceiving redundant prepuce/phimosis as a disease (OR = 1.93, and if a patient's partner supported MC (OR = 1.39. 58% (n = 122 had received information about the foreskin from another party: 18% (n = 37 from school, 8% (n = 17 from family, 17% (n = 36 from friends, 27% (n = 57 from health care providers. About 4% (n = 8 believed that their partners disliked their redundant prepuce/phimosis. 20% (n = 42 had received doctors' advice to undergo circumcision.Knowledge about the foreskin was low among Chinese males. Our study elucidates the factors associated with WTC and suggests that more education of the population about the foreskin can help improve the recognition of a correctible abnormality and help patients assess the potential role of MC in their health.

  10. Early experience and plasticity of song in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, AE; TenCate, C; Slater, PJB

    1996-01-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn song primarily at 35-65 days of age, but birds deprived of experience at that stage may modify their songs later. Experiments on 5 groups examined the effect of varying early social experience on the plasticity of adult song. Major changes of song in adultho

  11. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne;

    2013-01-01

    of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis...

  12. A Telephone Intervention for Substance-Using Adult Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O'Rourke, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned…

  13. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  14. A Retrospective Study of Gay Gifted, Young Adult Males' Perceptions of Giftedness and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedillo, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, retrospective study investigated suicidal ideation among 32 young adult men. Participants were asked to report their experiences as adolescents. The primary focus of the study was to discover how gay gifted adolescents dealt with issues of suicide and suicidal ideation. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling…

  15. Spermatogenesis in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo): quantitative approach in immature and adult males subjected to various photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirault, Jérôme; Brillard, Jean-Pierre; Bakst, Murray R

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and quantitate the germ cell populations of the testes in sexually mature male turkeys (Trial 1), determine the duration of meiosis based on BrdU labeling and stereological analyses (Trial 2), and examine the impact of various photoperiods on germinal and somatic cell populations in immature and adult males (Trial 3). In Trial 1, both testes within a male had similar stereological components (P>0.05) for all parameters analyzed. In Trial 2, the duration of Type-1 spermatocytes and round spermatids in turkeys lasted 4.5+/-0.5 and 2.0+/-0.5 days, respectively. In Trial 3, the short photoperiod (7L:17D) delayed testicular growth (in the stereological parameters analyzed). In contrast, the effect of a moderately short photoperiod (10.5L:13.5D) was comparable to the effect of a long (14L:10D) or increasing photoperiod (7L:17D to 14L:10D) on the stereological parameters examined. With the exception of the short photoperiod, all other photoperiods used in this study induced comparable early testicular maturation, with maximum testis weight at 29-35 weeks of age. As the males got older, there was a progressive, linear decline in testis weight through 60 weeks, at which time there were no significant differences among photoperiods. In conclusion, the duration of meiosis in the turkey was similar to that observed in the fowl and guinea-fowl. The existence of a threshold of photosensitivity to gonad stimulation in male turkeys is suggested to be between 7.0 and 10.5 h of light.

  16. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloko Matshipi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  17. Brain serotonin synthesis in adult males characterized by physical aggression during childhood: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Booij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults exhibiting severe impulsive and aggressive behaviors have multiple indices of low serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. It remains unclear though whether low 5-HT mediates the behavior or instead reflects a pre-existing vulnerability trait. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ((11C-AMT was used to compare 5-HT synthesis capacity in two groups of adult males from a 21-year longitudinal study (mean age +/- SD: 27.1+/-0.7: individuals with a history of childhood-limited high physical aggression (C-LHPA; N = 8 and individuals with normal (low patterns of physical aggression (LPA; N = 18. The C-LHPA males had significantly lower trapping of (11C-AMT bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex and self-reported more impulsiveness. Despite this, in adulthood there were no group differences in plasma tryptophan levels, genotyping, aggression, emotional intelligence, working memory, computerized measures of impulsivity, psychosocial functioning/adjustment, and personal and family history of mood and substance abuse disorders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results force a re-examination of the low 5-HT hypothesis as central in the biology of violence. They suggest that low 5-HT does not mediate current behavior and should be considered a vulnerability factor for impulsive-aggressive behavior that may or may not be expressed depending on other biological factors, experience, and environmental support during development.

  18. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  19. Trade-off between resource allocation and acquisition in anadromous adult male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vladic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual energetic limitations in variable environments lead to life-history trade-offs between investment in somatic growth and gonadal tissue, causing individuals to adopt specific behavioural tactics to attain reproduction. We investigated energy allocation in primary and secondary sexual traits in Atlantic salmon by estimating the life history characters (smolt size, sea age, first sea year growth rate by back-calculation of scales. Adult size increased with the fish sea age (years at sea and exerted a strong allometric effect on the energy investment pattern into secondary sexual traits. A compensatory mechanism at the ejaculate level is identified by which males investing less in secondary sexual traits produce ejaculates of higher quality. Distinct differences in investment into primary and secondary sexual traits between the fish that spent a single year in the sea before returning to the spawn (grilse and multi-sea-year adults were detected, indicating that their energy allocation strategy in reproductive effort reflects alternative developmental pathways. Grilse ejaculate investment depended more on the resource allocation, whereas multi-sea-year male ejaculate investment depended more on the resource acquisition.

  20. Subacute and Reproductive Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Hydroethanolic Extract of Jacaranda decurrens Roots in Adult Male Rats

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    Joyce Alencar Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença (Bignoniaceae is a species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Previous findings from our group reported scientifically that J. decurrens has anti-inflammatory efficacy. However, more toxicological studies are needed to support and ensure its safe use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of a prolonged treatment with hydroethanolic root extract of J. decurrens (EJD on hematological, biochemical, and reproductive parameters in adult male rats. The animals received by oral gavage 0; 250; 500; or 1000 mg/kg body weight of EJD for 28 days. After the treatment, biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and reproductive parameters were analyzed. The EJD treatment did not cause adverse effects on body weight gain, feed and water consumption, hematological and biochemical profiles, or histopathological analysis of liver and kidney. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in reproductive parameters, such as sperm production, number of sperm in the epididymis, and sperm morphology. These results demonstrate the absence of subacute toxicity as a result of the oral treatment with EJD for 28 days in adult male rats. However, other studies should be performed to evaluate the total safety of this plant.

  1. The Effect of Disulfiram on Serum Levels of Hormones in the Pituitary-Thyroid in Adult Male Rats

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    S.E. Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Disulfiram is used for treatment of alcohol intoxication.Based on the results of different studies, excessive amounts of the drug can affect the body's endocrine function. This study investigated the effect of disulfiram on the activity of the pituitary - thy-roid in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: In this study 50 adult male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200 to 220 g were used in the experimental, control and intact groups. Experimental groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg oral doses of disulfiram for 10 days and control group received 1 ml saline for 10 days and intact groups did not receive any thing. At the end of the tenth day ,the rats were bled from the heart and T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured by commercial kits Gama Counter and the results were analyzed using one-way (ANOVA with SPSS ver-sion 18. Results: Results show that there was no significant changes in T4 plasma level, but T3 and TSH level increased significantly when the control and intact groups were compared. Conclusion: Disulfiram had no significant effect in T4 plasma level but T3 and TSH level in-creased significantly. It probably happened due to increasing serotonin and reducing soma-tostatine and also enhancing the activity of 5-Deiodinase enzymes following the entry of cal-cium ions into the cells.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:43-47

  2. Male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of colorectal cancer screening among young adult African American men

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    Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.

  3. Schistosoma mansoni Egg, Adult Male and Female Comparative Gene Expression Analysis and Identification of Novel Genes by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Letícia; Amaral, Murilo S.; Beckedorff, Felipe; Silva, Lucas F.; Dazzani, Bianca; Oliveira, Katia C.; Almeida, Giulliana T.; Gomes, Monete R.; Pires, David S.; Setubal, João C.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is a public health problem. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread species responsible for schistosomiasis in the Americas, Middle East and Africa. Adult female worms (mated to males) release eggs in the hepatic portal vasculature and are the principal cause of morbidity. Comparative separate transcriptomes of female and male adult worms were previously assessed with using microarrays and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), thus limiting the possibility of finding novel genes. Moreover, the egg transcriptome was analyzed only once with limited bacterially cloned cDNA libraries. Methodology/Principal findings To compare the gene expression of S. mansoni eggs, females, and males, we performed RNA-Seq on these three parasite forms using 454/Roche technology and reconstructed the transcriptome using Trinity de novo assembly. The resulting contigs were mapped to the genome and were cross-referenced with predicted Smp genes and H3K4me3 ChIP-Seq public data. For the first time, we obtained separate, unbiased gene expression profiles for S. mansoni eggs and female and male adult worms, identifying enriched biological processes and specific enriched functions for each of the three parasite forms. Transcripts with no match to predicted genes were analyzed for their protein-coding potential and the presence of an encoded conserved protein domain. A set of 232 novel protein-coding genes with putative functions related to reproduction, metabolism, and cell biogenesis was detected, which contributes to the understanding of parasite biology. Conclusions/Significance Large-scale RNA-Seq analysis using de novo assembly associated with genome-wide information for histone marks in the vicinity of gene models constitutes a new approach to transcriptome analysis that has not yet been explored in schistosomes. Importantly, all data have been consolidated into a UCSC Genome Browser search

  4. Abdominal separation in an adult male patient with acute abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We report a male patient with prolonged post-prandial abdominal distension and a sudden onset of epigastric pain initially diagnosed as acute abdomen. The patient had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed peritonitis and abdominal computed tomography scan showed upper abdominal mesentery intorsion. The patient then underwent surgical intervention. It was found that the descending mesocolon dorsal root was connected to the ascending colon and formed a membrane encapsulating the small intestine...

  5. Fluconazole induced herpes labialis-like lesions in an adult male

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    Harish C. Goel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluconazole is a bistriazole commonly prescribed for thetreatment of various fungal infections caused by yeasts and dermatophytes. However, there have been several reports of rare Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs like Fixed Dose Eruption (FDE, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Stevens Johnson Syndrome following oral administration of fluconazole. We report a rare case of fluconazole induced oral mucosal lesions, mimicking herpes labialis, in a 34 year old male patient receiving oral fluconazole for the treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis.

  6. A HUGE SILENT INTRACRANIA L HYDATID CYST IN AN ADULT MALE: A CASE REPORT

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    Sonal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease of the brain is a rare parasitic infestation caused by larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. It has an insidious onset with a slow rate of growth resulting in late diagnosis. Its occurence is rare in India, being endemic in Mediterranean countries and Middle East. We report a case of a huge, slow - growing, silent intracranial left parieto - temporo - occipital hydatid cyst in an 18 year old male presenting as a large cystic space occupying lesion.

  7. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414) selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered...

  8. Sexual Well-Being in Adult Male Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

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    Bogna Dudzińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency show impaired fecundity due to testicular adrenal rest tumors and/or suppression of the gonadal axis. Sexual well-being might be an additional factor; however, no data exists. Patients and Methods. Prospective longitudinal monocentric study included 20 male CAH patients (14 salt wasting, 6 simple virilizing; age 18–49 yr. Clinical assessment, testicular ultrasound, biochemical and hormonal parameters, three validated self-assessment questionnaires (SF-36, GBB-24, and HADS, and male Brief Sexual Function Inventory (BSFI were analyzed at baseline and after two years. Results. Basal LH and testosterone levels suggested normal testicular function. LH and FSH responses to GnRH were more pronounced in patients with a good therapy control according to androstenedione/testosterone ratio < 0.2. This group had significant higher percentage of patients on dexamethasone medication. GBB-24, HADS, and SF-36 showed impaired z-scores and no changes at follow-up. BSFI revealed impairments in dimensions “sexual drive,” “erections,” and “ejaculations,” whereas “problem assessment” and “overall satisfaction” revealed normal z-scores. Androstenedione levels correlated (P=0.036 inversely with z-scores for “sexual drive” with higher levels associated with impaired “sexual drive.” Conclusion. Male CAH patients showed a partly impaired sexual well-being which might be an additional factor for reduced fecundity.

  9. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

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    Pavel Grigoriev

    Full Text Available Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s.We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980-2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time.Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005-2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality effects would not have occurred.

  10. Dose-dependent effect of Bisphenol-A on insulin signaling molecules in cardiac muscle of adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivashanmugam, Preethi; Mullainadhan, Vigneswari; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2017-03-25

    Environmental contaminant, Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen, an essential component used for the production of two classes of polymers such as polycarbonate and epoxy resin which disrupts the normal endocrine function. BPA has intense effects on mice endocrine pancreas, an essential tissue involved in glucose metabolism. It disrupts pancreatic β-cell insulin content, induces hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in male rats. Cardiac muscle is an insulin responsive organ and insulin has direct effects on glucose transport. The present study was designed to assess the effect of BPA on insulin signaling molecules in the cardiac muscle of adult male Wistar rat. Adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were selected and divided into following groups: Group 1: Control (vehicle treated), Group 2: Rats treated with 10 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day for 30 days orally, Group 3: Rats treated with 100 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day for 30 days orally, Group 4: Rats treated with 400 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day for 30 days orally. IR (insulin receptor) and pIR(Tyr1162) proteins were significantly decreased in the high dose group (400 mg). There was no change in IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate-1) and Akt proteins. Whereas, a decrease in pIRS1(Tyr632) (100 mg and 400 mg), pAkt (Ser473) (400 mg) and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) (cytosolic and plasma membrane) proteins was observed which may affect the cardiovascular function. It is concluded that BPA exposure has adverse effect on cardiac insulin signal transduction which may affect its function.

  11. Piloting PrePex for Adult and Adolescent Male Circumcision in South Africa--Pain Is an Issue.

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    Limakatso Lebina

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS have recommended the scale-up of Medical Male Circumcision (MMC in countries with high HIV and low MMC prevalence. PrePex device circumcision is proposed as an alternate method for scaling up MMC.Evaluate safety and feasibility of PrePex in South Africa.A multisite prospective cohort PrePex study in adults and adolescents at three MMC clinics. Participants were followed-up 8 times, up to 56 days after PrePex placement.In total, 398 PrePex circumcisions were performed (315 adults and 83 adolescents their median ages were 26 (IQR: 22-30 and 16 years (IQR: 15-17, respectively. The median time for device placement across both groups was 6 minutes (IQR: 5-9 with the leading PrePex sizes being B (30% and C (35% for adults (18-45 years, and A (31% and B (38% for adolescents (14-17 years. Additional sizes (size 12-20 were rarely used, even in the younger age group. Pain of device application was minimal but that of removal was severe. However, described pain abated rapidly and almost no pain was reported 1 hour after removal. The Adverse Events rate were experienced by 2.7% (11/398 of all participants, three of which were serious (2 displacements and 1 self-removal requiring prompt surgery. None of the Adverse Events required hospitalization. The majority of participants returned to work within a day of device placement.Our study shows that PrePex is a safe MMC method, for males 14 years and above. PrePex circumcision had a similar adverse event rate to that reported for surgical MMC, but device removal caused high levels of pain, which subsided rapidly.

  12. Induction of blindness by formoguanamine hydrochloride in adult male roseringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anamika Sengupta; Yoshihiko Obara; Tapan K Banerji; Saumen K Maitra

    2002-12-01

    Formoguanamine (2,4-diamino-s-triazine) was known to be an effective chemical agent in inducing blindness in poultry chicks, but not in adult birds. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the influences, if any, of this chemical on the visual performance and retinal histology in an adult sub-tropical wild bird, the roseringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Formoguanamine (FG) hydrochloride was subcutaneously injected into adult parakeets at a dosage of 25 mg (dissolved in 0×75 ml physiological saline)/100 g body weight/day, for two consecutive days while the control birds were injected only with a placebo. The effects were studied after 10, 20 and 30 days of the last treatment of FG. Within 24 h of the treatment of FG, about 90% of the total birds exhibited lack of visual responses to any light stimulus and even absence of pupillary light reactions. The remaining birds became totally blind on the day following the last injection of FG and remained so till the end of investigation. At the microscopic level, conspicuous degenerative changes were noted in the outer pigmented epithelium and the photoreceptive layer of rods and cones in the retinas of FG treated birds. A significant reduction in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer was also found in the retinas of FG treated parakeets, compared to that in the control birds. However, the inner cell layers of the retina in the control and FG administered parakeets were almost identical. It deserves special mention that the effects of FG, noted after 30 days of last treatment, were not very different from those noted just after 10 days of treatment. Collectively, the results of the present investigation demonstrate that FG can be used as a potent pharmacological agent for inducing irreversible blindness through selective damage in retinal tissue even in the adult wild bird, thereby making FG treatment an alternative euthanasic device to a cumbersome, stressful, surgical method of enucleation of the ocular

  13. Alterations in male sexual behaviour, attractiveness and testosterone levels induced by an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2008-06-26

    Despite an abundance of research on calorie restriction (CR) altering gonadal and appetite regulating hormones, the sexual behavioural consequences of CR remain to be examined systematically. This study compared the sexual behaviour, partner preference, serum testosterone and leptin levels of male adult Hooded Wistar rats administered a CR (continuous 25%, 50% CR or a temporary restriction) with ad libitum fed controls. The temporary restriction (Previous CR) failed to alter sexual behaviour, partner preference and levels of testosterone and leptin. The moderately 25% CR males did not demonstrate an impairment in sexual behaviour but did demonstrate a reduced level of attractiveness to females in one measure of partner preference. Sexual performance was affected by a substantial CR, as the CR 50% group exhibited a longer latency to the first intromission, indicating alteration in sexual arousal. Females also consistently demonstrated a clear preference for the control group compared to the CR 50% group. These findings indicate a possible reduction in the overall reproductive potential of the substantially CR animals. Testosterone levels were equally suppressed by both the 25% and 50% CR, while leptin levels were only reduced in the CR 50% group. Leptin, rather than testosterone, may have influenced the impairment in sexual behaviour only demonstrated by the substantially CR animals. Testosterone, may, however, play a role in modulating the preference of control over CR males, as attractiveness was totally reduced by a substantial CR, and partially reduced by a moderate restricted regimen.

  14. Embryonic exposure to dimethoate and/or deltamethrin impairs sexual development and programs reproductive success in adult male offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slima, A; Ben Abdallah, F; Keskes-Ammar, L; Mallek, Z; El Feki, A; Gdoura, R

    2012-05-01

    Pesticides can be toxic to desirable plants and animals, including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive effects of low doses of pesticides on male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. Three groups of five female mice were treated daily by oral gavage with dimethoate (5 mg kg(-1) per day), deltamethrin (5 mg kg(-1) per day) and their mixture at 5 mg kg(-1) per day from day 3 to day 21 of pregnancy. Fertility, sexual behaviour and a number of reproductive endpoints, such as organ weights, sperm evaluations and testicular histology, were examined on four adult male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. When compared with control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg kg j(-1) causes a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes of exposed mice and it affects their fertility by reducing the density, mobility and vitality of sperm and increasing the number of abnormal forms of these cells (P ≤ 0.01). The same results were obtained in mice exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg j(-1) combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin. This study demonstrated that deltamethrin and combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin caused a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes, which affected the sperm parameters of male offspring of exposed mice to a low dose of these pesticides during pregnancy.

  15. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking.

  16. Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-11-19

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  17. Testicular hormones do not regulate sexually dimorphic Pavlovian fear conditioning or perforant-path long-term potentiation in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaras, S G; Maren, S; DeCola, J P; Lane, N I; Gale, G D; Schlinger, B A; Fanselow, M S

    1998-04-01

    We recently reported that Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal perforant-path long-term potentiation (LTP) are sexually dimorphic in rats. Males show greater contextual fear conditioning, which depends on the hippocampus, as well as greater hippocampal LTP. In order to examine the role of circulating gonadal hormones in adult male rats, animals were castrated in two experiments, and Pavlovian fear conditioning and in vivo perforant-path LTP were examined. It was found that sexually-dimorphic LTP and fear conditioning are not regulated by the activational effects of testicular hormones in adult male rats. That is, in every respect, castrated male rats were similar to intact male rats in Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal LTP. It is likely that sexual dimorphism in this system is established earlier in development by the organizational effects of gonadal hormones.

  18. 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassó-Matoses, M; Picó-Alfonso, A; Fernández-García, J; Lobato-Encinas, J; Mira-Llinares, A

    1992-01-01

    A 33-year-old male was referred for infertility. Examination revealed bilateral scrotal gonads of soft consistency and small size. Semen analysis showed azoospermia. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and normal testosterone values were found. Surgical exploration and histopathology diagnosed dysgenetic testes with complete epididymis, and remnants of Fallopian tubes attached to the albuginea, with normal vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed on deferentovesiculography. Karyotype was 45,X/46,XY del(Y)(q11) with only 15% of 46XY cells in gonadal tissue. The clinical spectrum of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and significance of this chromosomic anomaly is discussed.

  19. Macro- and Microelemental Composition and Toxicity of Unsweetened Natural Cocoa Powder in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong-Manso, Samuel; Abdulai Seidu, Mahmood; Osei-Prempeh, Paul; Kwaku Boamah, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP) is a pulverized high-grade powder of compressed solid blocks which remains after extraction. Little scientific data is available concerning its safety despite the presence of potential toxic elements. Elemental composition in UNCP was analyzed with ED-XRF spectroscopy. Single oral high dose toxicity study was conducted on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g) by the limit test method. One group received water and the test group 2000 mg/kg UNCP. All animals were observed for 14 days and then euthanized for haematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Thirty-eight (38) elements were found in UNCP. There was an increase in HDL cholesterol (p 0.05), alkaline phosphatase (p 0.05). Haematological changes were not significant. Histopathological analysis showed no toxic effect on the heart, liver, kidney, lungs, testis, and spleen. Intestinal erosion was observed in the test group. UNCP appears to be relatively safe when taken as a single oral high dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w.t. in rats. Caution should however be exercised at high doses due to the high elemental content of copper and high possibility of intestinal lining erosion. PMID:27610134

  20. Passive Response to Stress in Adolescent Female and Adult Male Mice after Intermittent Nicotine Exposure in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis; Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-04-23

    Smoking is frequently co-morbid with depression. Although it is recognized that depression increases the risk for smoking, it is unclear if early smoking exposure may increase the risk for depression. To test this possibility we assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on the Forced Swim Test (FST), which is used as a measure of passive coping, and depressive-like behavior in rodents, and on the open field test (OFT), which is used as a measure of locomotion and exploratory behavior. Male and female mice received daily saline or nicotine (0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) injections from postnatal day (PD) 30 to PD 44. FST and OFT were performed either 1 or 30 days after the last injection (PD 45 and PD 74, respectively). In females, treatment with 0.3 mg/kg nicotine lead to increased FST immobility (64%) and decreased OFT locomotor activity (12%) one day following the last nicotine injection (PD 45); while no effects were observed in adulthood (PD 74). In contrast, on PD45, nicotine treatment did not change the male FST immobility but lead to lower OFT locomotor activity (0.6 mg/kg, 10%). In adulthood (PD 74), both nicotine doses lead to higher FST immobility (87%) in males while 0.6 mg/kg nicotine to lower OFT locomotor activity (13%). The results (i) identify females as more vulnerable to the immediate withdrawal that follows nicotine discontinuation in adolescence and (ii) suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may enhance the risk for passive response towards unavoidable stress in adult males.

  1. Distinct Testicular Steroidogenic Response Mechanisms Between Neonatal and Adult Heat-Acclimated Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kurowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In comparison to short-term gonad heat exposure, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate testicular steroidogenesis during long-term whole body heat acclimation. Material and Methods: Testicular slices from neonatal (NHA and adult (AHA heat-acclimated Wistar rats were analysed in vitro to assess the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of steroidogenic enzymes under basal and luteinising hormone (LH or prolactin (PRL stimulated conditions compared with control rats (CR. Furthermore, a de-acclimated group (DA was created by transferring adult NHA rats to control conditions. Results: Heat acclimation significantly increased plasma LH levels in the AHA group and LH and PRL in the NHA group compared with the CR group; however, after heat acclimation, the T and E2 levels did not differ from the control levels. All heat-acclimated groups showed high basal intra-testicular steroid production in vitro. Moreover, basal Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 levels were upregulated in vitro in the NHA and DA groups versus the CR group. LH in vitro stimulation upregulated Cyp11a1 expression in the NHA and AHA groups and PRL stimulation upregulated Cyp17a1 levels in the NHA and DA groups compared with the basal expression levels. In the AHA group, decreased basal Star and CYP11A activities but increased HSD3B1 and CYP17A1 activities were found. Conclusion: Our data revealed that despite the similar steroid levels in plasma and secreted in vitro by neonatal and adult heat-acclimated rat testicular slices, the molecular mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic response to heat acclimation during these different developmental stages were distinct.

  2. Use of local isolate of Monascus purpureus for reducing blood cholesterol in Sprague Dawley rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Research using local isolate of M. purpureus to reduce the blood cholesterol total on the white rats of Sprague Dawley strain had been done. The research proposed was to obtain the best doses of fermented rice contain lovastatin to reduce the blood cholesterol content of the white rats Sprague Dawley strain. The research used 42 male rats which was devided into 6 treatments based on the food and fermented rice doses. Each rat was 2 months and 250 gram in weight. The cholesterol food and the standard food given everyday for 20 gram/day/rat. The blood rats was measured the content of cholesterol every seven days for 21 days. The result showed that the lovastatin of the fermented rice could reduce 20,78% the blood cholesterol total of the white rats Sprague Dawley strain.

  3. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  4. Systematic Literature Review of the Epidemiology of Nongenetic Forms of Hypogonadism in Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Zarotsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the literature on the prevalence, incidence, and proportion of patients receiving treatment for male hypogonadism and a systematic literature search was performed for articles published in the last 20 years. Of the 97 studies identified, 96 examined the prevalence, 2 examined the incidence, and 4 examined the proportion of males with hypogonadism patients receiving treatment. Based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, the prevalence of hypogonadism in the general population ranged from 2.1% to 12.8% of middle-aged to older men, with an estimated incidence of 12 new cases per 1,000 person-years. Prevalence was higher among patients with comorbid conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Approximately 10–12% of men with hypogonadism were receiving testosterone treatment. This literature review suggests that there is potentially a significant burden of hypogonadism in the general population. Burden seems to increase with age and in the presence of certain disease conditions. Data suggests that many hypogonadal men who may benefit from testosterone replacement are not receiving treatment. This may be the result of underdiagnosis of the disease, lack of awareness by patients or physicians, irregularities surrounding the diagnostic criteria, and deficiency of long-term safety studies.

  5. The cytogenetic theory of the pathogenesis of human adult male germ cell tumors. Review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, R S; Houldsworth, J

    1998-01-01

    Human male germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a biological paradox because, in order to develop into a pluripotential tumor, a germ cell destined to a path of limited or no proliferation must acquire the potential for unlimited proliferation. In addition, it must acquire the ability to elicit embryonal differentiation patterns without the reciprocal inputs from fertilization and the imprinting-associated genomic changes which are a part of normal embryonal development. Although much speculated about, the genetic mechanisms underlying these properties of male GCTs remain enigmatic. Recent cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses of these tumors are providing new insights and new testable hypotheses. Based on our recent work, we propose two such hypotheses. One relates to the mechanism of germ cell transformation and germ cell tumor development. We suggest that the invariable 12p amplification noted as early as in carcinoma in situ/intratubular germ cell neoplasia (CIS/ITGCN) lesions leads to deregulated overexpression of cyclin D2, a cell cycle G1/S checkpoint regulator with oncogeneic potential. Such overexpression reinitiates the cell cycle. We visualize this happening during the pachytene stage of meiosis through aberrant recombinational events which lead to 12p amplification. The other hypothesis relates to the origin of primary extragonadal GCTs. By comparing cytogenetic changes in primary mediastinal versus gonadal lesions, we propose that, in contrast to long-standing speculation that primary extra-gonadal tumors arise from embryonally misplaced primordial germ cells, these lesions arise from migration of transformed gonadal germ cells.

  6. Mixed Hepatoblastoma in a Young Male Adult: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Fiaschetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoblastoma (HB is a rare malignant tumour of the liver and usually occurs in the first three years of life. Most of these tumours arise in the embryo; hence it seems to be unusual that hepatoblastoma occurs in adults and is an exceptional cause of primary malignant liver tumour in adult patients. The diagnosis is often overlooked, and patients might be diagnosed at late stages of the disease at risk of increased mortality. In this paper we report a case of a 30-year-old man with mixed hepatoblastoma and abdominal pain, hepatomegaly and fever. The patient under went noninvasive diagnostic methods: duplex scanning, Computed Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI. In our experience, despite the important role of histological sample provided by biopsy in defining the diagnosis, very important was the role of MRI, more than ultrasonography and enhanced CT. The MRI detects tumor features as size, margins, and ratio with neighboring organs in order to get the best surgical approach.

  7. Dose conversion coefficients for Chinese reference adult male and female voxel phantoms from idealized neutron exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Huan; Qiu, Rui; Yang, Yue; Pan, Yu-Xi; Liu, Li-Ye

    2015-01-01

    A new set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese reference adult voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF are presented for six idealized external neutron exposures from 10-8 MeV to 20 MeV. The voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF were adjusted from the previous phantoms CNMAN and CNWM respectively, and the masses of individual organs have been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. The calculation of organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were performed with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. The resulting dose conversion coefficients were compared with those published in ICRP Publication 116, which represents the reference Caucasian. The organ-absorbed dose conversion coefficients of most organs are in good agreement with the results in ICRP Publication 116, however, obvious discrepancies are observed for some organs and certain geometries. For neutrons with energies above 2 MeV, the effective dose conversion coefficients of Chinese reference adult are almost identical to those of ICRP Publicatio...

  8. 大麦虫成虫活体的雌雄鉴别%Identification of Alive Female and Male Adult of Zophobas morio ( Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜嫄; 张翌楠; 马玲; 王慧; 胡礼禹; 韩杰

    2012-01-01

    Zophobas mono (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), introduced in China in recent years, is a multi-purpose insect, and can be manually fed in a large number of individual, with high nutritional value, as a high-protein fodder, in particular, it can be used as an alternative to breeding a variety of natural enemies of insect host. In the artificial propagation, the male and female are needed to be identified for sexual pairing to ensure fecundity. To identify female and male adults of Z. morio, their morphological characteristics were studied through the careful observation in this paper. The results showed there was sexual dimorphism of external morphology of Z. morio adults. The frons of the female adult was flat while that of male adult was sunken. Additionally, the length, width and length-width ratio of the third antennal segment and anal plate were significant different between the female and male adults. Above morphological characteristics can be used to efficiently distinguish sex of Z. morio adults without damage, and the knowledge would be useful in artificial propagation of Z. morio.

  9. Single coronary artery; extremely rare coronary anomaly successfully treated surgically in young adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, A R

    2010-05-01

    Single coronary artery arising from aortic root, is a rare congenital anomaly. A 30-year-old male presented with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complaining of chest pain and raised troponin levels. Emergency angiography showed no coronary lesions but both left and right coronary arteries arising from single ostium. Patient was operated electively and perioperative findings confirmed the diagnosis of single coronary artery, as left coronary artery after taking origin from right sinus of valsalva runs through the septum, before dividing into left anterior descending and circumflex branches. The single coronary ostium opened with a slit like incision over the course of left main coronary, making the size of ostium three to four times bigger than the native one. In addition left internal mammary artery was harvested and grafted to the left anterior descending branch distally. Patient made successful recovery. Four months follow up dobutamine stress echo showed no inducible ischemia.

  10. Neural Correlates of Psychosis and Gender Dysphoria in an Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Karine; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Mueller, Andressa; Soll, Bianca; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Salvador, Jaqueline; Zucker, Kenneth J; Schneider, Maiko Abel; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) (DSM-5) or transsexualism (ICD-10) refers to the marked incongruity between the experience of one's gender and the sex at birth. In this case report, we describe the use of LSD as a triggering factor of confusion in the gender identity of a 39-year-old male patient, with symptoms of psychosis and 25 years of substance abuse, who sought psychiatric care with the desire to undergo sex reassignment surgery. The symptoms of GD/psychosis were resolved by two therapeutic measures: withdrawal of psychoactive substances and use of a low-dose antipsychotic. We discuss the hypothesis that the superior parietal cortical area may be an important locus for body image and that symptoms of GD may be related to variations underlying this brain region. Finally, this case report shows that some presentations of GD can be created by life experience in individuals who have underlying mental or, synonymously, neurophysiological abnormalities.

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight. The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

  12. Association Between Smoking and Physician-Diagnosed Stroke and Myocardial Infarction in Male Adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sounghoon; Kim, Hyeongsu; Kim, Vitna; Lee, Kunsei; Jeong, Hyoseon; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Soon-Ae; Shin, Eunyoung; Park, Minsu; Ko, Eunjung

    2016-01-25

    To evaluate the association between smoking and physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction, this study used Community Health Survey data from 2009 on 92,082 males over the age of 30 years. Using multiple logistic regression, association index between smoking and physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction was calculated after adjusting the effects of age, hypertension, and diabetes. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of the physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction in the smoking group were 1.12 (1.02-1.24) and 1.21 (1.06-1.38) compared to the non-smoking group. The values of the physician-diagnosed stroke and myocardial infarction were 0.84 (0.74-0.94) and 0.96 (0.82-1.12) in the current-smoking subgroup, 1.38 (1.24-1.53) and 1.45 (1.26-1.67) in the ex-smoking subgroup, 1.39 (1.18-1.63) and 1.85 (1.53-2.24) in the 10- to 19-year smokers groups, 1.39 (1.22-1.58) and 1.36 (1.15-1.60) in the 30- to 40-year smokers groups, and 0.53 (0.44-0.63) and 0.47 (0.36-0.63) in those who had smoked for over 50 years. These results showed smoking was a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction in Korean males. This objective evidence should guide policy-making and public health interventions in the fields of smoking prevention and prohibition.

  13. First comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild adult male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B McCarthy

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes

  14. Effect of nitrofurazone on the reproductive organs in adult male mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shio Kumar Singh; Sumana Chakravarty

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone (nitrofurazone), a derivative of nitrofuran, on male reproductive organs of Parkes (P) strain mice. Methods: Mice were given nitrofurazone orally at a dose of 64mg/kg body weight per day, for 10 and 20 days, and were killed 24 h and/or 56 days after the last treatment. Histological appearance of testis, motility and number of spermatozoa in cauda epididymidis, and biochemical indices in epididymis and seminal vesicle were evaluated. Results: Histologically, testis showed marked regressive changes in the seminiferous tubules in mice treated with nitrofurazone. Ten days after treatment, there was much depletion of germ cells in the seminiferous tubules, and the germinal epithelium was lined mainly with Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and a few round spermatids; intraepithelial vacuoles and multinucleated giant cells were also observed in tubules. By 20 days, regressive changes in the seminiferous tubules were further pronounced, and pachytene spermatocytes were the most advanced germ cells noticed in the tubules. In severe cases, the tubules were lined with a thin layer of Sertoli cells and spennatogonia. The treatment also caused marked reductions in the motility and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, in weight and the level of fructose in the seminal vesicle, and in sialic acid level in the epididymis. Fifty six days after drug withdrawal, the alterations induced in the reproductive organs returned to control levels. Conclusion: Our results suggest that nitrofurazone treatment in P mice induces marked alterations in the male reproductive organs, and that the alterations are reversible following cessation of treatment.

  15. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens in adult male rats affects hypothalamic regulation of food intake, induces obesity and alters glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, María Florencia; Stoker, Cora; Rossetti, María Florencia; Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge Guillermo

    2015-02-05

    The absence of phytoestrogens in the diet during pregnancy has been reported to result in obesity later in adulthood. We investigated whether phytoestrogen withdrawal in adult life could alter the hypothalamic signals that regulate food intake and affect body weight and glucose homeostasis. Male Wistar rats fed from conception to adulthood with a high phytoestrogen diet were submitted to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding a low phytoestrogen diet, or a high phytoestrogen-high fat diet. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake through an orexigenic hypothalamic response characterized by upregulation of AGRP and downregulation of POMC. This was associated with elevated leptin and T4, reduced TSH, testosterone and estradiol, and diminished hypothalamic ERα expression, concomitant with alterations in glucose tolerance. Removing dietary phytoestrogens caused manifestations of obesity and diabetes that were more pronounced than those induced by the high phytoestrogen-high fat diet intake.

  16. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  17. Steroid hormone signaling during development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ashley; Prudic, Kathleen L; Monteiro, Antónia

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that steroid hormones regulate sexual behavior in vertebrates via organizational and activational effects. However, whether the organizational/activational paradigm applies more broadly to the sexual behavior of other animals such as insects is not well established. Here we describe the hormonal regulation of a sexual behavior in the seasonally polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana is consistent with the characteristics of an organizational effect. By measuring hormone titer levels, quantifying hormone receptor gene expression in the brain, and performing hormone manipulations, we demonstrate steroid hormone signaling early in pupal development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in B. anynana. These findings suggest the organizational/activational paradigm may be more highly conserved across animal taxa than previously thought.

  18. A Telephone Intervention for Substance-Using Adult Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilinyi, Lyungai F; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O'Rourke, Allison

    2011-01-27

    OBJECTIVE: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. METHOD: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned to the intervention (MET) or comparison group following a baseline assessment. Participants in the MET condition received a personalized feedback report on their IPV and substance-use behaviors, consequences, and social norms beliefs. RESULTS: Results supported the likely effectiveness of MET in short-term reduction of IPV behavior, increasing motivation for treatment seeking, and changing perceived norms for IPV and substance abuse (SA). CONCLUSIONS: Applications for brief MET interventions to facilitate voluntary treatment entry among substance-using IPV perpetrators are discussed.

  19. Relationship between parenting and cognitive schemas in a group of male adult offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica ePellerone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the experimental group, aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group, aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily.The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ. The preliminary analysis showed an high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father’s control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders.

  20. Short-Term Treatment with Bisphenol-A Leads to Metabolic Abnormalities in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Thiago M.; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Maria Esmeria C.; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Nef, Serge; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adult mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of 100 µg/kg BPA or vehicle for 8 days. Whole body energy homeostasis was assessed with in vivo indirect calorimetry. Insulin signaling assays were conducted by western blot analysis. Mice treated with BPA were insulin resistant and had increased glucose-stimulated insulin release. BPA-treated mice had decreased food intake, lower body temperature and locomotor activity compared to control. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit was impaired in BPA-treated mice. This impairment was associated with a reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the Thr308 residue. Both skeletal muscle and liver displayed an upregulation of IRS-1 protein by BPA. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was also impaired in the skeletal muscle from BPA-treated mice. In the liver, BPA effects were of lesser intensity with decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit. In conclusion, short-term treatment with low doses of BPA slows down whole body energy metabolism and disrupts insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Thus, our findings support the notion that BPA can be considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22470480

  1. The Effect of Myrtus communis Extract on Liver Enzymes and Blood Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out experimentally and completely random. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided in 7 groups including: control which received no treatment, sham who received 2 mL of distilled water, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd experimental groups which received 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Myrtus communis leaf extract respectively, the 4th experimental group as the diabetic control group who received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and the 5th experimental group as the diabetic treatment group who received 3 mg/kg of extract. This experiment lasted 14 days with prescript orally. After this period, all the rats, were weighted, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart centrifuged and sera were evaluated for the concentration of various factors. In addition liver were removed and sliced. Results: According to the obtained results, the plasma concentration of liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol and glucose presented a significant decrease at (p≤0.05. Whereas no significant change were seen in body weight, triglyceride, urea, albumin and total protein. Histological studies of the liver tissue showed no significant difference among various groups. Conclusion: Myrtus communis is comprise of collections of flavonoids and other various components with antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Thence it can effective in treatment of liver diseases and decrease of blood sugar and cholesterol in diabetes mellitus patients.

  2. Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Nigella sativa Linn (NsL oil against subacute tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in adult male albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control group; 30 rats equally subdivided into: Ia; −ve control group, Ib; +ve control group received saline, Ic; +ve control group received corn oil. Group II: 10 rats received NsL oil; 1 mg/kg in 1 ml corn oil/day, group III: 10 rats received tramadol; 30 mg/kg/day, group IV: 10 rats received tramadol + NsL oil in the previous doses. Treatments were given by gavage for 30 days. Then rats were sacrificed and specimens from the livers and kidneys were taken for biochemical and histopathological study. Biochemical data showed elevated liver enzymes; alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, bilirubin as well as urea and creatinine in tramadol group. A significant increase in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels were also noticed. Histological analysis of the liver showed vacuolated hepatocyte cytoplasm indicating hydropic degeneration with binucleated cells, apoptotic nuclei, congested central veins, cellular infiltration and hemorrhage. Kidney sections revealed atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts and wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules, hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration. There was also an increase in area % of collagen fibers in both organs. Concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol induced partial improvement in the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects. In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential.

  3. Construction of Chinese adult male phantom library and its application in the virtual calibration of in vivo measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizheng; Qiu, Rui; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli

    2016-03-01

    In vivo measurement is a main method of internal contamination evaluation, particularly for large numbers of people after a nuclear accident. Before the practical application, it is necessary to obtain the counting efficiency of the detector by calibration. The virtual calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation usually uses the reference human computational phantom, and the morphological difference between the monitored personnel with the calibrated phantom may lead to the deviation of the counting efficiency. Therefore, a phantom library containing a wide range of heights and total body masses is needed. In this study, a Chinese reference adult male polygon surface (CRAM_S) phantom was constructed based on the CRAM voxel phantom, with the organ models adjusted to match the Chinese reference data. CRAMS phantom was then transformed to sitting posture for convenience in practical monitoring. Referring to the mass and height distribution of the Chinese adult male, a phantom library containing 84 phantoms was constructed by deforming the reference surface phantom. Phantoms in the library have 7 different heights ranging from 155 cm to 185 cm, and there are 12 phantoms with different total body masses in each height. As an example of application, organ specific and total counting efficiencies of Ba-133 were calculated using the MCNPX code, with two series of phantoms selected from the library. The influence of morphological variation on the counting efficiency was analyzed. The results show only using the reference phantom in virtual calibration may lead to an error of 68.9% for total counting efficiency. Thus the influence of morphological difference on virtual calibration can be greatly reduced using the phantom library with a wide range of masses and heights instead of a single reference phantom.

  4. Survey the effects of dietary sodium nitrite on the histological changes of the aortic artery in the adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeaid Khatamsaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of high consumption of nitrite in processed (fast foods and high level of nitrite in water, soil and ecosystem, nitrite can endanger humans health. In this study the effects of sodium nitrite on aorta was examined in adult male rats. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 30 Wistar adult male rats were randomly divided into three groups of 10, including; control group. First experimental group that received low dose of sodium nitrite (175 mg/kg.bw, second experimental group that received high dose of sodium nitrite (350 mg/kg.bw. They were examined for 60 days. The rats got sodium nitrite through drinking water. At the end of the experiment the rats were taken to the anesthesia jar and based on ether principles, they anesthetized with ether and their blood samples were collected from their hearts. Then their aorta were extracted from their bodies and the tissue sections were prepared for testing tissue changes. Features such as histological features of aorta (morphometric and morphologic features were analyzed. The samples were stained with masson trichrome and Hematoxylin- Eosin methods. The internal media layer was measured with Image tool software. Then the amount of nitrite oxide in their blood were tested. At the end results were analyzed by 17 version of SPSS software and ANOVA test was run. Results: The results of this study showed that thickness of medial layer in two experimental group that received low and high dose of sodium nitrite compared with the control group decreased (p 0.05, and the group that received of high dose of sodium nitrite showed irregular and non- uniform state in aortic media layer. Conclusion: The finding of this study indicated that consumption of sodium nitrite in long term can induce damage in artries tissue.

  5. 违法犯罪成年男性个性特征调查%A Survey of Personality Characteristics of Male Adult Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳琳; 潘勇; 姚家斌

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study relationship between personality characteristics and criminal offences in male adult prisoners.Methods: Personality of 175 male adult in prisoners was assessed by Eysenk Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results:(1) P,N,E scores of prisoners were higher than those of the norms; (2) P score of the 18~29 age group was considerably higher than that of the 30~45 age group,whereas L score of the 18~29 age group was lower than that of the 30~45 age group;(3) scores on extroversion and emotional unstability were significantly higher , whereas scores on introversion and emotional stability were significantly lower when compared to the norms;(4) a percentage of 43.43% of male adult prisoners showed typical psychotic traits (T>61.5). Conclusion: There was significant relationship between personality and criminal offences.

  6. 17α-Ethinyl estradiol affects anxiety and shoaling behavior in adult male zebra fish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanian, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Bollner, Tomas; Olsson, Per-Erik; Olsén, Håkan; Hällström, Inger Porsch

    2011-09-01

    Ethinyl estradiol is a potent endocrine disrupting compound in fish and ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. In this study, we exposed adult zebra fish (Danio rerio) males to 0, 5 or 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol/L for 14 days and analyzed the effects on non-reproductive behavior. Effects of treatment of the exposed males was shown by vitellogenin induction, while brain aromatase (CYP 19B) activity was not significantly altered. Both concentrations of Ethinyl estradiol significantly altered the behavior in the Novel tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The effects were, however, opposite for the two concentrations. Fish that were exposed to 5 ng/L had longer latency before upswim, fewer transitions to the upper half and shorter total time spent in the upper half compared with control fish, while 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol treatment resulted in shorter latency and more and longer visits to the upper half. The swimming activity of 25, but not 5 ng-exposed fish were slightly but significantly reduced, and these fish tended to spend a lot of time at the surface. We also studied the shoaling behavior as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. The fish treated with Ethinyl estradiol had significantly longer latency before leaving shoal mates and left the shoal fewer times. Further, the fish exposed to 5 ng/L also spent significantly less time away from shoal than control fish. Fertilization frequency was higher in males exposed to 5 ng/L Ethinyl estradiol when compared with control males, while no spawning was observed after treatment with 25 ng/L. The testes from both treatment groups contained a normal distribution of spermatogenesis stages, and no abnormality in testis morphology could be observed. In conclusion, we have observed effects on two behaviors not related to reproduction in zebra fish males after

  7. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2016-10-18

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  8. Male predominance among Japanese adult patients with late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Y; Kanda, Y; Ogawa, N; Sakata-Yanagimoto, M; Nakagawa, M; Kawazu, M; Goyama, S; Kandabashi, K; Izutsu, K; Imai, Y; Hangaishi, A; Kurokawa, M; Tsujino, S; Ogawa, S; Aoki, K; Chiba, S; Motokura, T; Hirai, H

    2003-12-01

    Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (LHC) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is mainly caused by viral infections. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 141 Japanese adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic HSCT from 1995 to 2002. In all, 19 patients developed LHC a median of 51 days after HSCT. Adenovirus (AdV) was detected in the urine of 10 LHC patients, of whom eight had AdV type 11. Five of the six available serum samples from these patients were also positive for AdV type 11, but the detection of AdV in serum was not associated with a worse outcome. Male sex and the development of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were identified as independent significant risk factors for LHC. Male predominance was detected in LHC after HSCT, as has been previously shown in children with AdV-induced acute HC. The detection of AdV DNA in serum did not predict a poor outcome.

  9. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (pfasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (pfasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons.

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  11. Opposite-sex attraction in male mice requires testosterone-dependent regulation of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellino, Roberta; Trova, Sara; Cimino, Irene; Farinetti, Alice; Jongbloets, Bart C.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Panzica, Giancarlo; Giacobini, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia; Peretto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Opposite-sex attraction in most mammals depends on the fine-tuned integration of pheromonal stimuli with gonadal hormones in the brain circuits underlying sexual behaviour. Neural activity in these circuits is regulated by sensory processing in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first central station of the vomeronasal system. Recent evidence indicates adult neurogenesis in the AOB is involved in sex behaviour; however, the mechanisms underlying this function are unknown. By using Semaphorin 7A knockout (Sema7A ko) mice, which show a reduced number of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone neurons, small testicles and subfertility, and wild-type males castrated during adulthood, we demonstrate that the level of circulating testosterone regulates the sex-specific control of AOB neurogenesis and the vomeronasal system activation, which influences opposite-sex cue preference/attraction in mice. Overall, these data highlight adult neurogenesis as a hub for the integration of pheromonal and hormonal cues that control sex-specific responses in brain circuits. PMID:27782186

  12. Asperger syndrome in adolescent and young adult males. Interview, self- and parent assessment of social, emotional, and cognitive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS diagnosed in childhood were approached for the assessment using the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Interview (ASDI), (personal and parent interview), the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). About 75% of the targeted group participated. The ASDI results came out significantly different at personal vs parent interviews in several key domains. In contrast, the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, showed no significant differences across the individuals with AS and their parents in the scoring of cognitive/social and emotional/adaptive skills. The BDI proved to be an adequate screening instrument for depression in that it correctly identified the vast majority of cases with clinical depression in the AS group. The DEX results suggested an executive function deficit problem profile in males with AS as severe as that reported in groups of individuals with traumatic brain injury and schizophrenia. Interviews (personal and collateral), and self-rating and parent-rating questionnaires all have a role in the comprehensive diagnostic process in AS and other autism spectrum disorders, and could be used as adjuncts when evaluating whether or not individuals meeting diagnostic symptom criteria for the condition have sufficient problems in daily life to warrant a clinical diagnosis of AS.

  13. Male-specific phosphorylated SR proteins in adult flies of the Mediterranean fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Giuseppe; Louis, Christos; Zhang, Hongyou; Petrella, Valeria; Di Natale, Manuela; Perri, Maria; Salvemini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a widely used mechanism of gene regulation in sex determination pathways of Insects. In species from orders as distant as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, female differentiation relies on the activities of conserved splicing regulators, TRA and TRA-2, promoting female-specific expression of the global effector doublesex (dsx). Less understood is to what extent post-translational modifications of splicing regulators plays a role in this pathway. In Drosophila melanogaster phosphorylation of TRA, TRA-2 and the general RBP1 factor by the LAMMER kinase doa (darkener of apricot) is required for proper female sex determination. To explore whether this is a general feature of the pathway we examined sex-specific differences in phosphorylation levels of SR splicing factors in the dipteran species D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata (Medfly) and Musca domestica (Housefly). We found a distinct and reproducible pattern of male-specific phosphorylation on protein extracts enriched for SR proteins in C. capitata suggesting that differential phosphorylation may also contribute to the regulation of sex-specific splicing in the Medfly.

  14. Heritability of Renal Function and Inflammatory Markers in Adult Male Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Paolo; Su, Shaoyong; Karohl, Cristina; Veledar, Emir; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Vaccarino, Viola

    2010-01-01

    Background Loss of renal function is accompanied by a progressive increase in markers of inflammation; it is unknown whether they share common genetic pathways. Study Design We evaluated the shared heritability of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in 524 twin males from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry; 9 twins were excluded due to incomplete or incorrect data. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prior coronary artery disease and intercurrent medications. Results The mean eGFR was 89 ± 13 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range 35–146); eGFR, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and TNF-α receptor (TNF-αR) were moderately heritable (all ∼50%), while IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and P-selectin were highly heritable (68 and 76%, respectively). IL-6R and TNF-αR showed a significant inverse association with eGFR (p = 0.04 and p renal function and inflammation. Thus, increased inflammation represents a response to declining renal function rather than being a mechanism contributing to renal deterioration. PMID:20720405

  15. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos João Luiz Dornelles

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  16. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  17. Prenatal cocaine alters later responses to morphine in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, Josefina; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Maldonado, Concepción; Manzanedo, Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Miñarro, José

    2006-08-30

    Mice prenatally exposed to cocaine (25 mg/kg), physiological saline or non-treated during the last 6 days of pregnancy were evaluated as adults for the rewarding properties of 2 mg/kg of morphine, using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Likewise, isolated animals underwent a social interaction test with conspecifics after receiving the same morphine dose. Unlike control or animals pre-treated with saline, subjects prenatally treated with cocaine did not develop CPP with this dose of morphine. Only cocaine-exposed animals showed increased threat, avoidance and fleeing during the social encounter. No differences in motor effects of morphine were observed. Analysis of monoamines revealed effects of housing conditions, isolated animals having fewer DOPAC but higher levels of HVA than those grouped, but in both groups there was a decrease in DOPAC in cocaine- and saline-treated mice. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases the response to the rewarding properties of drugs in mature offspring. They also implicate cocaine consumption during pregnancy could affect the response of offspring to take other drugs of abuse.

  18. Coffee polyphenols improve peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Shioya, Yasushi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2014-02-01

    Brewed coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and many studies have examined its effects on human health. We investigated the vascular effects of coffee polyphenols (CPPs), hypothesizing that a single ingestion of CPP during glucose loading would improve endothelial function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized acute clinical intervention study with crossover design and measured reactive hyperemia index (RHI) to assess the acute effects of a 75-g glucose load with CPP in healthy, nondiabetic adult men. Blood glucose and insulin levels were elevated after glucose loading with and without CPP, with no significant differences between treatments. The RHI did not significantly decrease after glucose loading without CPP. With CPP, however, RHI significantly (P < .05) increased over baseline after glucose loading. The difference between treatments was statistically significant (P < .05). No significant changes were observed in an oxidative stress marker after glucose loading with or without CPP. These findings suggest that a single ingestion of CPP improves peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy subjects.

  19. Early adult psychological consequences for males of adolescent pregnancy and its resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M; Robbins, C

    1990-08-01

    Using data front 2522 young men who were first surveyed as 7th-grade students in Houston, Texas in 1971, we examined the psychological consequences in early adulthood of having a girlfriend become pregnant in adolescence. By age 21, 15% of the young men were involved in a nonmarital pregnancy. Rates were higher for blacks (24%) than for whites (12%) or Hispanics (16%). Among whites, most adolescent pregnancies were ended by abortion (58%). Adolescent pregnancies to blacks most often resulted in single parenthood (56%). Hispanics tended to have the child, and marry or live together (55%). Consistent with the life course perspective, young men involved in adolescent pregnancies were more psychologically distressed as young adults than those who did not have a girlfriend become pregnant in adolescence. The greater distress in adulthood is not simply a function of accelerated role transitions, because men whose girlfriends had abortions are also distressed, and those who let their girlfriends assume major parenting responsibility are no less distressed than those who became fathers and married or lived with their girlfriends. Subgroup comparisons revealed that psychological distress levels of young black men were not influenced by adolescent pregnancy.

  20. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Robson Brown, K [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  1. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  2. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Mepham, Kathryn, E-mail: katherine.mepham@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Sebag, Igal A., E-mail: igal.sebag@mcgill.ca [Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  3. Sex differences in the reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking after forced abstinence in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eKucerova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventing relapse to drug abuse is one of the struggles faced by clinicians in order to treat patients with substance use disorders (DSM-5. There is a large body of clinical evidence suggesting differential characteristics of the disorder in men and women which is in line with preclinical findings as well. The aim of this study was to assess differences in relapse-like behavior in methamphetamine (METH seeking after a period of forced abstinence which simulates the real clinical situation very well. Findings from such study might add new insights in gender differences in relapse mechanisms to previous studies, which employ a classical drug or cue-induced reinstatement procedure following the extinction training.Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in IV self-administration procedure conducted in operant boxes using nose-poke operandi (Coulborn Instruments, USA. Active nose-poke resulted in activation of the infusion pump to deliver one intravenous infusion of METH (0.08 mg/kg. After baseline drug intake was established (maintenance phase, a period of forced abstinence was initiated and rats were kept singly in their home-cages for 14 days. Finally, one reinstatement session in operant boxes was conducted. Females were found to self-administer significantly lower dose of METH. The relapse rate was assessed as a number of active nose-pokes during the reinstatement session, expressed as a percentage of active nose-poking during the maintenance phase. Females displayed approximately 300 % of active nose-pokes compared to 48 % in males. This indicates higher vulnerability to relapse of METH seeking behavior in female rats. This effect was detected in all females, independently of current phase of their estrous cycle. Therefore, this paradigm using operant drug self-administration and reinstatement of drug-seeking after forced abstinence model can be used for preclinical screening for potential new anti-relapse medications specific for

  4. Difference in leptin hormone response to nutritional status in normal adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sowyan, Noorah S

    2009-01-15

    The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E) and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didn't show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) obesity and also protect the liver

  5. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

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    Jessica L. Bachman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8±3.0 years old, VO2max:   59.1±5.7 mL/kg/min fasted (NoBK or received breakfast (BK and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172±4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312±4513 kJ; p<0.001 and evening (BK: 12265±4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833±4065; p=0.039 energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90±0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86±0.03; p<0.001 were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2±0.7 versus 4.5±0.6 mmol/L; p=0.025. Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management.

  6. Attentional Control and Interpretation of Facial Expression after Oxytocin Administration to Typically Developed Male Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Okumura, Eiichi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Furutani, Naoki; Ono, Yasuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in attentional-inhibitory control have been reported to correlate to anger, hostility, and aggressive behavior; therefore, inhibitory control appears to play an important role in prosocial behavior. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that oxytocin (OT) exerts a prosocial effect (e.g., decreasing negative behaviors, such as aggression) on humans. However, it is unknown whether the positively valenced effect of OT on sociality is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In the present study, we hypothesized that OT enhances attentional-inhibitory control and that the positively valenced effect of OT on social cognition is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, we tested this hypothesis using 20 healthy male volunteers. We considered a decrease in the hostility detection ratio, which reflects the positively valenced interpretation of other individuals’ facial expressions, to be an index of the positively valenced effects of OT (we reused the results of our previously published study). As a measure of attentional-inhibitory control, we employed a modified version of the flanker task (i.e., a shorter conflict duration indicated higher inhibitory control). These results failed to demonstrate any significant behavioral effects of OT (i.e., neither a positively valenced effect on facial cognition nor an effect on attentional-inhibitory control). However, the enhancement of attentional-inhibitory control after OT administration significantly correlated to the positively valenced effects on the interpretation of uncertain facial cognition (i.e., neutral and ambiguous facial expressions). PMID:25659131

  7. Attentional control and interpretation of facial expression after oxytocin administration to typically developed male adults.

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    Tetsu Hirosawa

    Full Text Available Deficits in attentional-inhibitory control have been reported to correlate to anger, hostility, and aggressive behavior; therefore, inhibitory control appears to play an important role in prosocial behavior. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that oxytocin (OT exerts a prosocial effect (e.g., decreasing negative behaviors, such as aggression on humans. However, it is unknown whether the positively valenced effect of OT on sociality is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In the present study, we hypothesized that OT enhances attentional-inhibitory control and that the positively valenced effect of OT on social cognition is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, we tested this hypothesis using 20 healthy male volunteers. We considered a decrease in the hostility detection ratio, which reflects the positively valenced interpretation of other individuals' facial expressions, to be an index of the positively valenced effects of OT (we reused the results of our previously published study. As a measure of attentional-inhibitory control, we employed a modified version of the flanker task (i.e., a shorter conflict duration indicated higher inhibitory control. These results failed to demonstrate any significant behavioral effects of OT (i.e., neither a positively valenced effect on facial cognition nor an effect on attentional-inhibitory control. However, the enhancement of attentional-inhibitory control after OT administration significantly correlated to the positively valenced effects on the interpretation of uncertain facial cognition (i.e., neutral and ambiguous facial expressions.

  8. Postanesthetic effects of isoflurane on behavioral phenotypes of adult male C57BL/6J mice.

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    Kumiko Yonezaki

    Full Text Available Isoflurane was previously the major clinical anesthetic agent but is now mainly used for veterinary anesthesia. Studies have reported widespread sites of action of isoflurane, suggesting a wide array of side effects besides sedation. In the present study, we phenotyped isoflurane-treated mice to investigate the postanesthetic behavioral effects of isoflurane. We applied comprehensive behavioral test batteries comprising sensory test battery, motor test battery, anxiety test battery, depression test battery, sociability test battery, attention test battery, and learning test battery, which were started 7 days after anesthesia with 1.8% isoflurane. In addition to the control group, we included a yoked control group that was exposed to the same stress of handling as the isoflurane-treated animals before being anesthetized. Our comprehensive behavioral test batteries revealed impaired latent inhibition in the isoflurane-treated group, but the concentration of residual isoflurane in the brain was presumably negligible. The yoked control group and isoflurane-treated group exhibited higher anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test and impaired learning function in the cued fear conditioning test. No influences were observed in sensory functions, motor functions, antidepressant behaviors, and social behaviors. A number of papers have reported an effect of isoflurane on animal behaviors, but no systematic investigation has been performed. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to systematically investigate the general health, neurological reflexes, sensory functions, motor functions, and higher behavioral functions of mice exposed to isoflurane as adults. Our results suggest that the postanesthetic effect of isoflurane causes attention deficit in mice. Therefore, isoflurane must be used with great care in the clinical setting and veterinary anesthesia.

  9. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the posture modification of Adult Male (AM) and Adult Female (AF) reference phantoms of ICRP 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Alves, M. C.; Souza, D. N.; Carvalho, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to modify the standing posture of the anthropomorphic reference phantoms of ICRP publication 110, AM (Adult Male) and AF (Adult Female), to the sitting posture. The change of posture was performed using the Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the phantoms and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. Scion Image software was used to reconstruct and smooth the knee and hip contours of the phantoms in a sitting posture. For 3D visualization of phantoms, the VolView software was used. In the change of postures, the organ and tissue masses were preserved. The MCNPX was used to calculate the equivalent and effective dose conversion coefficients (CCs) per fluence for photons for six irradiation geometries suggested by ICRP publication 110 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO) and energy range 0.010-10 MeV. The results were compared between the standing and sitting postures, for both sexes, in order to evaluate the differences of scattering and absorption of radiation for different postures. Significant differences in the CCs for equivalent dose were observed in the gonads, colon, prostate, urinary bladder and uterus, which are present in the pelvic region, and in organs distributed throughout the body, such as the lymphatic nodes, muscle, skeleton and skin, for the phantoms of both sexes. CCs for effective dose showed significant differences of up to 16% in the AP irradiation geometry, 27% in the PA irradiation geometry and 13% in the ROT irradiation geometry. These results demonstrate the importance of using phantoms in different postures in order to obtain more precise conversion coefficients for a given exposure scenario.

  10. Molecular basis for the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis: An experimental study in the Sprague-dawley rat model

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    Alexander E Omu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat. Materials and Methods: Three groups of eight adult male SD rats were maintained for 4 weeks on a normal diet as control, zinc deficient diet and zinc deficient diet with zinc supplementation of 28 mg zinc/kg body weight respectively. Using standard techniques, the following parameters were compared between the three groups of experimental animals at the end of 4 weeks: (a Serum zinc, magnesium (Mg, copper (Cu, selenium (Se and cadmium (Cd, (b serum sex hormones, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, (c interleukin-4 (IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 expression in the testes, (d assessment of apoptosis of testicular cells using electron microscopy and (e testicular volume and histology using the orchidometer and Johnsen score, respectively. Results: The zinc deficient group showed a reduction of testicular volume, serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Se, Mg, SOD, GPX, IL-4, Bcl-2 and testosterone (P < 0.05, as well as increased levels of serum Cd, MDA and tissue TNF-α, Bax, caspase-3 and apoptosis of the germ cells (P < 0.05 compared with control and zinc supplementation groups. Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

  11. Comparison of the sports injuries incidence between male and female elite shootersin the Iranian national adult team

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    Gholamreza Mohseni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the sports injuries incidence between the female and male elite shooters in the Iranian national adult team. Materials and methods: Information on injuries occurred for 32 athletes including 16 men (with mean ± SD, age of 4.28.62 ± 4.60 years, height 177.56 ± 5.05 cm, weight 74.21 ± 8.46 kg and 16 women (with mean ± SD, age of 23.12 ± 1.54 years, height 164.18 ± 4.21 cm, weight 58.06 ± 8.07 kg who were elite shooters in the national adult team was collected through researcher-made questionnaire with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.90. Descriptive statistics and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t test and chi-square (x2 were used for the analysis of the information. Results: The results showed that the number of bone injuries (x2 = 1.032, sig =0.310, skin injuries (x2 =2.360, sig =0.501 and muscle injuries, tendon injured, ligaments injuries (x2 =4.667, sig =0.198 is the same for male and female elite shooters, but the number of joint injuries in men is more than women (x2 =16.267, sig =0.001.Also, there was no significant difference between the average bone injuries and its affiliates (0.05

  12. Resting Serum Concentration of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) in Sportsmen and Untrained Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyi-Odumosu, F A; Bello, O A; Biliaminu, S A; Owoyele, B V; Abu, T O; Dominic, O L

    2017-03-06

    There is an inverse relationship between regular physical activity and concentration of serum inflammatory markers, with variations in resting CRP in trained and untrained subjects. The effect of acute and prolonged exercises has been studied on inflammatory markers with dearth of information and controversies on the resting serum values of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). Therefore, this study sought to identify and compare variations that occur in serum levels of high sensitivity CRP in groups of sportsmen (6) and physically active untrained subjects. Eighty-one healthy male participants made up of 21 untrained (control), 10 footballers, 10 athletes, 10 karates, 10 volleyballers, 10 basketballers, and 10 baseballers voluntarily participated in the study. Participants rested while in sitting position for about 30 minutes during which blood pressures and heart rates were taken. 5 mls of venous blood was withdrawn from the antecubital vein of the participants (aseptically) between 7:00 and 10:00 am into lithium heparin bottles following an overnight fast. The supernatant was decanted and centrifuged at 3000 rpm, serum was collected and stored at -20ºC prior to biochemical assay which was done with the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for hs-CRP. Differences in the means within the sporting groups were analysed using one-way ANOVA while the difference between the trained sportsmen and untrained young adults was analysed using the independent T-test. Statistical significance was set at p hs-CRP (µg/ml) was 1.0±0.2 in the untrained, 2.6±0.7 in footballers, 3.6±2.1 in track athletes, 2.4±0.5 in basketballers, 2.2±0.5 in volleyballers, 2.4±1.3 in baseballers, and 1.7±0.5 in karate respectively. There was no significant difference in the resting hs-CRP amongst the sporting groups, and in the sportsmen and untrained group. Resting serum levels of hs-CRP falls within normal range, and varies insignificantly in groups of sports, and in sportsmen

  13. Population fluctuation of adult males of the fruit fly, Bactrocera tau Walker (Diptera: Tephritidae) in passion fruit orchards in relation to abiotic factors and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasyim, A.; Muryati, M.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit fly (Bactrocera tau) is the most destructive pest on some fruits in Indonesia. Monitoring of the pest population is essential as one of the procedures in the IPM concept. The study aimed to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of adult males of B. tau and their damage on passion fruits in rela

  14. Association of Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality and Shift-Work Schedule in Relation to Hypertension Prevalence in Chinese Adult Males: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Ding, Rongjing; Wu, Shouling; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicated that measurement of sleep only by duration and quality may be biased. This study aimed to investigate the interactive association of self-reported sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males. Methods: A total of 4519 Chinese adult males (≥18 years) were enrolled into the cross-sectional survey. Sleep attributes were measured from the responses to the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and relevant questions in a structured questionnaire survey. The association of sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, considering the interaction between them or not. Results: Taking the potential interaction of the three aspects of sleep into consideration, only short sleep duration combined with poor sleep quality was found to be related to hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males (odds ratio (OR): 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–2.31), which could be modified by occasional and frequent shift-work schedule (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.05–1.95; OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.40–2.79). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was not associated with the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese adult males unless poor sleep quality exists, which could be further modified by shift-work schedule. Assessment of sleep by measuring sleep duration only was not sufficient when exploring the association of sleep with hypertension. PMID:28230809

  15. The endocrine disruptors dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) influence Leydig cell regeneration following ethane dimethane sulphonate treatment of adult male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, K.; Anand-Ivell, R.; Teerds, K.J.; Ivell, R.

    2012-01-01

    The manner by which endocrine-disrupting xenobiotics, such as phthalates, can induce changes in the development of the male reproductive system still remains largely unknown. Herein, we have explored the application of ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS) to eliminate adult-type Leydig cells in the mat

  16. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  17. Neurobehavioral toxicity of a repeated exposure (14 days to the airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorene in adult Wistar male rats.

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    Julie Peiffer

    Full Text Available Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and may contribute to the neurobehavioral alterations induced by the environmental exposure of humans to PAHs. Since no data are available on fluorene neurotoxicity, this study was conducted in adult rats to assess the behavioral toxicity of repeated fluorene inhalation exposure. Male rats (n = 18/group were exposed nose-only to 1.5 or 150 ppb of fluorene 6 hours/day for 14 consecutive days, whereas the control animals were exposed to non-contaminated air. At the end of the exposure, animals were tested for activity and anxiety in an open-field and in an elevated-plus maze, for short-term memory in a Y-maze, and for spatial learning in an eight-arm maze. The results showed that the locomotor activity and the learning performances of the animals were unaffected by fluorene. In parallel, the fluorene-exposed rats showed a lower level of anxiety than controls in the open-field, but not in the elevated-plus maze, which is probably due to a possible difference in the aversive feature of the two mazes. In the same animals, increasing blood and brain levels of fluorene monohydroxylated metabolites (especially the 2-OH fluorene were detected at both concentrations (1.5 and 150 ppb, demonstrating the exposure of the animals to the pollutant and showing the ability of this compound to be metabolized and to reach the cerebral compartment. The present study highlights the possibility for a 14-day fluorene exposure to induce some specific anxiety-related behavioral disturbances, and argues in favor of the susceptibility of the adult brain when exposed to volatile fluorene.

  18. Learning and memory deficits in male adult mice treated with a benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drug during the juvenile period

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    Yusuke Furukawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is also known to be important for brain development. Therefore, disturbances of GABA receptor (GABA-R mediated signaling (GABA-R signal during brain development may influence normal brain maturation and cause late-onset brain malfunctions. In this study, we examined whether the temporal stimulation of the GABA-R signal during brain development induces late-onset adverse effects on the brain in adult male mice. To stimulate the GABA-R signal, we used either the benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drug triazolam (TZ or the non-benzodiazepine drug zolpidem (ZP. We detected deficits in learning and memory in mice treated with TZ during the juvenile period, as seen in the fear conditioning test. On the other hand, ZP administration during the juvenile period had little effect. In addition, decreased protein expression of GluR1 and GluR4, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors, was detected in the hippocampi of mice treated with TZ during the juvenile period. We measured mRNA expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs, which are neuronal activity markers, in the hippocampus shortly after the administration of TZ or ZP to juvenile mice. Decreased IEG expression was detected in mice with juvenile TZ administration, but not in mice with juvenile ZP administration. Our findings demonstrate that TZ administration during the juvenile period can induce irreversible brain dysfunction in adult mice. It may need to take an extra care for the prescription of benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drugs to juveniles because it might cause late onset learning and memory defects.

  19. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

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    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  20. Adult glucocorticoid exposure leads to transcriptional and DNA methylation changes in nuclear steroid receptors in the hippocampus and kidney of mouse male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Sophie; Matthews, Stephen G; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) are commonly prescribed for the management of inflammatory and endocrine disorders. However, nothing is known regarding the effects of sGC on adult germline methylome and whether these effects can be transmitted to the next generation. We hypothesized that administration of sGC to adult male mice alters DNA methylation in mature sperm and modifies the transcription and methylation of steroid receptors in male F1 offspring. Adult C57BL/6 males (n = 10/group) were injected on five consecutive days with 1 mg/kg sGC (i.e., dexamethasone) or vehicle and euthanized 35 or 60 days after initial treatment or bred with control females (60 days postinitial treatment; n = 5/group). A significant increase in global non-CpG methylation was observed in F0 sperm 60 days following sGC treatment. In the hippocampus and kidney of Postnatal Day 50 (PND50) and PND240 male offspring derived from fathers exposed to sGC, significant differences in mineralocorticoid receptor (Nr3c2; Mr), estrogen alpha receptor (Nr3a1; Ers1), and glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1; Gr) expression were observed. Furthermore, significant demethylation in regulatory regions of Mr, Gr, and Esr1 was observed in the PND50 kidney derived from fathers exposed to sGC. This is the first demonstration that paternal pharmacological exposure to sGC can alter the expression and DNA methylation of nuclear steroid receptors in brain and somatic tissues of offspring. These findings provide proof of principle that adult male exposure to sGC can affect DNA methylation and gene expression in offspring, indicating the possibility that adult experiences that evoke increases in endogenous glucocorticoid (i.e., stress) might have similar effects.

  1. MODEST EFFECTS OF REPEATED FLUOXETINE ON ESTROUS CYCLICITY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY FEMALE RATS

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In an earlier study, we reported that daily fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg/day) rapidly disrupted estrous cyclicity and sexual receptivity in adult, regularly cycling Fischer rats. The current study was designed to investigate if comparable fluoxetine treatment would similarly affect intact, regularly cycling Sprague Dawley rats. In the first experiment, fluoxetine was injected for 24 days. After 11–14 days of daily fluoxetine treatment, 40% of the rats showed a transient disturbance of the e...

  2. A Foxp2 Mutation Implicated in Human Speech Deficits Alters Sequencing of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabout, Jonathan; Sarkar, Abhra; Patel, Sheel R.; Radden, Taylor; Dunson, David B.; Fisher, Simon E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2016-01-01

    Development of proficient spoken language skills is disrupted by mutations of the FOXP2 transcription factor. A heterozygous missense mutation in the KE family causes speech apraxia, involving difficulty producing words with complex learned sequences of syllables. Manipulations in songbirds have helped to elucidate the role of this gene in vocal learning, but findings in non-human mammals have been limited or inconclusive. Here, we performed a systematic study of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of adult male mice carrying the KE family mutation. Using novel statistical tools, we found that Foxp2 heterozygous mice did not have detectable changes in USV syllable acoustic structure, but produced shorter sequences and did not shift to more complex syntax in social contexts where wildtype animals did. Heterozygous mice also displayed a shift in the position of their rudimentary laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) layer-5 neurons. Our findings indicate that although mouse USVs are mostly innate, the underlying contributions of FoxP2 to sequencing of vocalizations are conserved with humans.

  3. Ultrastructural analysis of β-lapachone-induced surface membrane damage in male adult Schistosoma mansoni BH strain worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, André de Lima; Ximenes, Eulália Camelo Pessoa Azevedo; Silva, Renata Alexandre Ramos; Barbosa, Vanessa Xavier; Góes, Alexandre José da Silva; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessôa de Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    The present study provides, for the first time, conclusions on the in vitro schistosomicidal properties of β-lap. Adult male Schistosoma mansoni worms of the BH strain were used for the study. Motility, mortality, cell viability and alterations in the tegument were employed as schistosomicidal parameters. Alterations in motility were observed 6h after incubation in concentrations of 50 and 100 μM. β-lap decreased significantly the worm viability, reducing the formation of formazan in 17.7%, 27.4% and 54.8% at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 μM, respectively. Mortality in concentrations of 50 and 100 μM was of 67% and 100%, respectively, after 24h. The death of the parasite was preceded by progressive surface membrane damage, characterized by tegument peeling, spine reduction and erosion, blister formation and rupture, and the emergence of holes. In addition to this, in the anterior portion, intense general edema, areas of cracking with a wrinkled surface, furrows and a fibrous appearance were also observed. The results of the present study thus provide a sound basis for further in-depth studies of the schistosomicidal properties of β-lap, both in the laboratory and in the field.

  4. The Effect of an Angiotensin II Antagonist on Hormones of Pituitary-Gonad Axis in Adult Male Rats

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    S. Ebrahim Hosseini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of valsartan, an angiotensin II antagonist, on the function of the pituitary- gonad axis. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (200 to 220 g were used as experimental and control groups. The 3 experimental groups received either 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg/day valsartan in 1 ml water orally for 28 days, while a set of control group received 1 ml distilled water for the same period of time and another set received no treatment. At the end of the experimental period, blood was collected and serum was analyzed for FSH, LH, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels by RIA methods. Results: There were no significant differences among FSH levels at all doses of valsartan used, while the serum LH level was decreased significantly at the maximum dose of the drug used. Serum testosterone level decreased at both the 200 and 400 mg/kg dose compared to the control, while the dihydrotestosterone level was reduced significantly at all the three dosages used. Conclusion: According to our founding, suggested that the effects of valsartan on serum LH, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone may be mediated through angiotensin II receptor.

  5. The expression of several reproductive hormone receptors can be modified by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Lafuente, A

    2016-07-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of several reproductive hormone receptors on the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis activity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The studied receptors are the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHr), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), and the androgen receptor (Ar). Adult male rats were orally treated with 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS kg(-1) d(-1) for 28 days. In general terms, PFOS can modify the relative gene and protein expressions of these receptors in several tissues of the reproductive axis. At the testicular level, apart from the expected inhibition of both gene and protein expressions of FSHr and Ar, PFOS also stimulates the GnRHr protein and the LHr gene expression. The receptors of the main hormones involved in the HPT axis may have an important role in the disruption exerted by PFOS on this axis.

  6. Impact of Statins on Cognitive Deficits in Adult Male Rodents after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

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    Weijun Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of statin treatment on cognitive decline is controversial, and the effect of statins on cognitive deficits in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI has yet to be investigated. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the effect of statins on cognitive deficits in adult male rodents after TBI. After identifying eligible studies by searching four electronic databases on February 28, 2014, we assessed study quality, evaluated the efficacy of statin treatment, and performed stratified metaregression and metaregression to assess the influence of study design on statin efficacy. Eleven studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria from a total of 183 publications. The overall methodological quality of these studies was poor. Meta-analysis showed that statins exert statistically significant positive effects on cognitive performance after TBI. Stratified analysis showed that atorvastatin has the greatest effect on acquisition memory, simvastatin has the greatest effect on retention memory, and statin effects on acquisition memory are higher in closed head injury models. Metaregression analysis further showed that that animal species, study quality, and anesthetic agent impact statin effects on retention memory. We conclude that statins might reduce cognitive deficits after TBI. However, additional well-designed and well-reported animal studies are needed to inform further clinical study.

  7. Juvenile stress potentiates aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and freezing during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats.

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    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic experiences that occur during adolescence can render individuals vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders. A model in juvenile rats (age: 27-29 days) was developed previously to study the long-term effects of adolescent stress exposure on behaviour and physiology. This paradigm, termed juvenile stress, involves subjecting juvenile rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we investigated the effects of the juvenile stress paradigm on freezing behaviour and aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats (age: 68-90 days). We found that rats previously subjected to juvenile stress increased aversive 22-kHz USVs (total calls and time spent calling) compared with controls during fear-conditioning training. The acoustic USV parameters between control and juvenile stress rats were largely equivalent, including duration, peak frequency and amplitude. While rats did not differ in freezing behaviour during fear conditioning, juvenile stress rats exhibited greater cue-conditioned freezing upon testing 24 h later. Our results show that juvenile stress elicited different long-term changes in freezing and aversive USVs during fear conditioning. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of assessing USVs to detect experience-dependent differences between control and stress-exposed animals which are not detectable by measuring visible behaviour.

  8. Effects of a ferment soy product on the adipocyte area reduction and dyslipidemia control in hypercholesterolemic adult male rats

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    Carlos Iracilda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available data on the effects of a fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti on circulating lipids and adiposity are not completely settled. This study aimed to observe the effects of a fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti on central obesity and dyslipidemia control in Wistar adult male rats. Methods Over a period of 8 weeks, animals had "ad libitum" food intake and water consumption as well as body weight and food consumption was monitored. The animals were assigned to four different experimental groups: Control Group (C; Control + Fermented Product Group (CPF; Hypercholesterolemic diet group (H; and Hypercholesterolemic + Fermented Product Group (HPF. The HPF and CPF groups received an intragastric administration of 1 ml of fermented product daily. After the experimental period the animals were killed by decapitation, blood was collected to measure cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol plasma concentration. Adipocyte circumference, lipolysis and lipogenis rates were measures using epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissues. Results The results demonstrated that 1 ml/day/rat of the fermented soy product promoted important benefits such as reduced cholesterolemia in hypercholesterolemic diet group and the adipocyte circumference in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet group. Conclusion The fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti decreased circulating lipids levels and reduced adipocyte area in rats.

  9. Density of mu-opioid receptors in the hippocampus of adult male and female rats is altered by prenatal morphine exposure and gonadal hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamberová, Romana; Rimanóczy, Agnes; Bar, Noffar; Schindler, Cheryl J; Vathy, Ilona

    2003-01-01

    The present in vitro autoradiography study demonstrates that prenatal exposure to morphine alters the density of mu-opioid receptors in the hippocampus of adult female but not adult male rats. Prenatal morphine exposure increased the mu-opioid receptor density in the CA1 of ovariectomized (OVX) females and in the CA3 of OVX, estradiol benzoate-plus progesterone (EB+P)-treated females, but decreased it in CA3 of OVX females. There were also hormonal effects on mu-opioid receptor density in adult female rats. In the CA1, only morphine-exposed but not saline-exposed, hormone-treated females (EB, P, or EB+P) had a decrease in mu-opioid receptor density relative to OVX females. Both saline-exposed and morphine-exposed, OVX females after gonadal hormone replacement had a lower density of mu-opioid receptors in the CA3 and in the dentate gyrus (DG) than OVX females. In male rats, there was a decrease in mu-opioid receptor density in the CA1 and CA3 of gonadectomized (GNX), testosterone 17beta-proprionate (TP)-treated males relative to GNX males regardless of prenatal morphine exposure. In the DG, the mu-opioid receptor density was reduced only in morphine-exposed but not in saline-exposed, TP-treated males compared with GNX males. Thus, our data demonstrate that mu-opioid receptor density in the hippocampus is affected by prenatal morphine exposure and by male and female gonadal hormones.

  10. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

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    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  11. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Sterling

    Full Text Available Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon, and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1 are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2 ease environmental

  12. Why don’t urban youth in Zambia use condoms? The influence of gender and marriage on non-use of male condoms among young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Boyer, Christopher B.; Mutombo, Namuunda; Chowdhuri, Rachna Nag; Ngo, Thoai D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%). This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia. Methods A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18–24 years. A random walk strategy was implemented in urban areas; eligible, enrolled participants were administered a survey on household characteristics, health access, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Relative risk regression models were built to determine factors associated with the decision to not use a male condom (non-use) at most recent sexual intercourse. Results A total of 2,388 individuals were interviewed; 69% were female, 35% were married, and average lifetime sex partners was 3.45 (SD±6.15). Non-use of male condoms was 59% at most recent sexual intercourse. In a multivariate model, women were more likely to report non-use of a male condom compared with men (aRR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.38]), married individuals were more likely to report non-use compared with unmarried individuals (aRR = 1.59 [1.46, 1.73]), and those residing in the highest poverty wards were more likely to report non-use compared with those in the lowest poverty wards (aRR = 1.31 [1.16, 1.48]). Those with more negative perceptions of male condom use were 6% more likely to report non-use (aRR = 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]). Discussion regarding contraception with a partner decreased non-use 13% (aRR = 0.87 [0.80, 0.95]) and agreement regarding male condom use with a partner decreased non-use 16% (aRR = 0.84 [0.77, 0.91)]). Discussion Non-use of male condoms is high among young, married adults, particularly women, who may be interested in

  13. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

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    Rosenbaum, Stacy; Hirwa, Jean Paul; Silk, Joan B.; Vigilant, Linda; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund’s Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females’ social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2–3 years) in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers’ preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle. PMID:26863300

  14. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei.

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    Stacy Rosenbaum

    Full Text Available Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females' social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2-3 years in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers' preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle.

  15. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stacy; Hirwa, Jean Paul; Silk, Joan B; Vigilant, Linda; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females' social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2-3 years) in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers' preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle.

  16. Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among Entamoeba histolytica-infected adult males: a changing epidemiology associated with sexual transmission--Taiwan, 2006-2013.

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    Yi-Chun Lo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM. We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors.The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006-2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors.Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40% of 524 males and one (1.7% of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23% of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87% and 64 (90% of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006-2009 to 2010-2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P = 0.001 while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P = 0.001 among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral-anal sex before illness onset.Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI.

  17. Mammary gland development and response to prenatal atrazine exposure in the Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary gland (MG) tumor development in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats is increased by longterm dietary exposure to the chlorotriazine herbicide atrazine (ATR). ATR is proposed to cause these changes in the adult SD rat by altering hormonally-regulated estrous cyclicity. In Long-Evans...

  18. Measurement of uptake rates of internal organs including thyroid gland and daily urinary excretion rates for adult Korean males

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    Kim, Jung Hoon; Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Geun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, uptake rates of internal organs and daily urinary excretion rates were measured to get more reliable estimation results for Korean. Radioactive iodine({sup 131}I) of 100{mu}Ci was administered by ingestion to 28 adult males for the experiment and then the radioactivity in thyroid gland, liver, stomach, small intestine, kidneys, and urine was measured after time intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours. Uptake rates of each organ and daily urinary excretion rates were calculated on the basis of these experimental results. As a result, uptake rates of 19.70% for thyroid and daily urinary excretion rates of 71.12%, on the average, were indicated. The maximum of uptake rates and daily urinary excretion rates were recorded after 2 hours of administration of {sup 131}I, but those rates were decreased gradually later. It was also found that uptake rates were the highest in stomach, followed by the left kidney, liver, small intestine and right kidney except for thyroid gland. In this experiment, the calculated uptake change rate in thyroid gland after 24 hours of administration of {sup 131}I was different from that of ICRP-54/67(30%) and ICRP-78(25%). Thus, it is necessary to apply more reliable approach, reflecting the characteristic of Korean physiology and to obtain the basic data of results using this approach for calculation of the internal adsorbed dose. In the future, this approach can be helpful for the internal dose assessment of radiation workers in a nuclear power plant or in a hospital.

  19. Non-imidazole-based histamine H3 receptor antagonists with anticonvulsant activity in different seizure models in male adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Latacz, Gniewomir; Kuder, Kamil; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Karcz, Tadeusz; Stark, Holger; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3-14) was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R). The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3-14) tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model. Moreover, the protective effect observed for ligand 14 in MES model was lower than that observed for the reference drug phenytoin and was entirely abrogated when rats were co-administered with the brain-penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) but not the brain-penetrant H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL), demonstrating that histaminergic neurotransmission by activation of postsynaptically located H1Rs seems to be involved in the protective action. On the contrary, PYR and ZOL failed to abrogate the full protection provided by 4 in PTZ model and the moderate protective effect by 14 in strychnine (STR) model. Moreover, the experimental and in silico estimation of properties such as metabolism was performed for five selected test compounds. Also, lipophilicity using planar reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography method was included for better understanding of the molecular properties of the tested compounds. Additionally, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination and toxicity parameters were evaluated for the most promising compounds 2, 4, 6, 7, and 14 utilizing in vitro methods. These interesting results highlight the potential of H3R ligands as new antiepileptic drugs or as adjuvants to available epilepsy medications.

  20. Comparison the Effect of Zinc Oxide and Magnesium Oxide Nano Particles on Long Term Memory in Adult Male Mice

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    Mahnaz Kesmati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Magnesium (Mg and zinc (Zn are two essential elemnts for normal performance of central nervous system. So that the learning and memory are influenced by these ions that antagonized NMDA (N methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO and magnesium oxide (MgO on passive avoidance memory in mice. Methods In this experimental study adult male NMRI mice weighing 25 ± 3g were used. ZnO and MgO nano particles (1, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, intrapretoneally (i.p. were injected pre-training in model of passive avoidance learning. Memory was evaluated at 1, 3 and 7 days after training. Delay time in coming down from the safe platform in step down apparatus was evaluated as an index of memory. Open field test was used for evaluation the locomotor activity. Results Nano MgO 2.5 and 5 mg/kg increased delay time in coming down from plateform at one day after training (P < 0.05 in dose dependent manner. Nano ZnO 2.5 and 5 mg/kg reduced delay time in coming down from the platform 1, 3 and 7 day after training (P < 0.05 and just 3 days after training (P < 0.05 respectivley. Locomotor activity did not change in presence of MgO and/or ZnO nano particles. Conclusions It seems that various effects of nano ZnO and MgO on long term memeory is related to the different effects of Zn and Mg ions on receptors (such as NMDA involved in memory process. Toxicity and/ or preservation of nanoparticle in body are another possible reasons.

  1. The Effect of Zonisamide on Sex Hormones Level and Testis Histological Changes in Adult MaleRat

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    M Mallaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: Zonisamide is an inhibitor for glutamate neurotransmitter and gamma aminobutiric acid (GABA-mediators. It also increases the total levels of serotonin. According to the importance of this drug in psychotherapy, its side effects on the endocrine system seem to be very important. This study was aimed to determine the effects of zonisamide on pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Wistar rats were divided in five groups of ten. The control group did not receive any medical treatment. The sham group received 1 ml distilled water as a solvent and three experimental groups were treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/ kg of zonisamide orally for 28 days.At the day of 29, blood samples and preparation of tissue section were taken from all groups. Serum concentrations of hormones were measured via Radio Immuno Assay (RIA. Using the SPSS software, the results were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that 100 and 200(mg/kg.b.w of zonisamide could reduce the serum level of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, while it increased the LH concentration. It should be noted that 200(mg/kg.b.w of drug also enhanced the FSH level (P<0/001. Also, a considerable decline was observed in spermatogenesis chain at high doses of zonisamide. Conclusion: This study showed that high doses of zonisamide decrease the serum concentration of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and the number of spermatogenic cells. It also increased the serum FSH and LH levels. Therefore, it is proposed that zonisamide may decrease the function of reproductive activity. Key words: Zonisamide, Reproduction, Rat

  2. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

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    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05. The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins.

  3. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

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    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  4. Behavioral and monoamine perturbations in adult male mice with chronic inflammation induced by repeated peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Saritha; Dodd, Celia A; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2016-04-01

    Considering the limited information on the ability of chronic peripheral inflammation to induce behavioral alterations, including on their persistence after inflammatory stimuli termination and on associated neurochemical perturbations, this study assessed the effects of chronic (0.25 mg/kg; i.p.; twice weekly) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment on selected behavioral, neurochemical and molecular measures at different time points in adult male C57BL/6 mice. Behaviorally, LPS-treated mice were hypoactive after 6 weeks, whereas significant hyperactivity was observed after 12 weeks of LPS and 11 weeks after 13 week LPS treatment termination. Similar biphasic responses, i.e., early decrease followed by a delayed increase were observed in the open field test center time, suggestive of, respectively, increased and decreased anxiety. In a forced swim test, mice exhibited increased immobility (depressive behavior) at all times they were tested. Chronic LPS also produced persistent increase in splenic serotonin (5-HT) and time-dependent, brain region-specific alterations in striatal and prefrontocortical dopamine and 5-HT homeostasis. Microglia, but not astrocytes, were activated by LPS early and late, but their activation did not persist after LPS treatment termination. Above findings demonstrate that chronic peripheral inflammation initially causes hypoactivity and increased anxiety, followed by persistent hyperactivity and decreased anxiety. Notably, chronic LPS-induced depressive behavior appears early, persists long after LPS termination, and is associated with increased splenic 5-HT. Collectively, our data highlight the need for a greater focus on the peripheral/central monoamine alterations and lasting behavioral deficits induced by chronic peripheral inflammation as there are many pathological conditions where inflammation of a chronic nature is a hallmark feature.

  5. Metabolic responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vary with life-history stage in adult male northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, David C; Somo, Derek A; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-08-01

    Strong individual and life-history variation in serum glucocorticoids has been documented in many wildlife species. Less is known about variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness and its impact on metabolism. We challenged 18 free-ranging adult male northern elephant seals (NES) with an intramuscular injection of slow-release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) over 3 sample periods: early in the breeding season, after 70+ days of the breeding fast, and during peak molt. Subjects were blood sampled every 30 min for 2h post-injection. Breeding animals were recaptured and sampled at 48 h. In response to the ACTH injection, cortisol increased 4-6-fold in all groups, and remained elevated at 48 h in early breeding subjects. ACTH was a strong secretagogue for aldosterone, causing a 3-8-fold increase in concentration. Cortisol and aldosterone responses did not vary between groups but were correlated within individuals. The ACTH challenge produced elevations in plasma glucose during late breeding and molting, suppressed testosterone and thyroid hormone at 48 h in early breeding, and increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids and ketoacids during molting. These data suggest that sensitivity of the HPA axis is maintained but the metabolic impacts of cortisol and feedback inhibition of the axis vary with life history stage. Strong impacts on testosterone and thyroid hormone suggest the importance of maintaining low cortisol levels during the breeding fast. These data suggest that metabolic adaptations to extended fasting in NES include alterations in tissue responses to hormones that mitigate deleterious impacts of acute or moderately sustained stress responses.

  6. Impact of low dose prenatal ethanol exposure on glucose homeostasis in Sprague-Dawley rats aged up to eight months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Probyn

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to alcohol prenatally has a myriad of detrimental effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. It is unknown whether chronic low-moderate exposure of alcohol prenatally has similar and lasting effects on the adult offspring's health. Using our recently developed Sprague-Dawley rat model of 6% chronic prenatal ethanol exposure, this study aimed to determine if this modest level of exposure adversely affects glucose homeostasis in male and female offspring aged up to eight months. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured in late fetal and postnatal life. The pancreas of 30 day old offspring was analysed for β-cell mass. Glucose handling and insulin action was measured at four months using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin challenge, respectively. Body composition and metabolic gene expression were measured at eight months. Despite normoglycaemia in ethanol consuming dams, ethanol-exposed fetuses were hypoglycaemic at embryonic day 20. Ethanol-exposed offspring were normoglycaemic and normoinsulinaemic under basal fasting conditions and had normal pancreatic β-cell mass at postnatal day 30. However, during a glucose tolerance test, male ethanol-exposed offspring were hyperinsulinaemic with increased first phase insulin secretion. Female ethanol-exposed offspring displayed enhanced glucose clearance during an insulin challenge. Body composition and hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue metabolic gene expression levels at eight months were not altered by prenatal ethanol exposure. Low-moderate chronic prenatal ethanol exposure has subtle, sex specific effects on glucose homeostasis in the young adult rat. As aging is associated with glucose dysregulation, further studies will clarify the long lasting effects of prenatal ethanol exposure.

  7. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  8. The Effects of Three Sessions of Running on a Negative Slope on Serum Levels of Liver Enzymes in Adult Male Rats

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    Mohsen Rezaei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three sessions of running on a negative slope (eccentric contraction on changes of the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanin aminotransferaze (ALT in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: 20 adult male rats were divided randomly into two equal groups (exercise and control. Levels of AST and ALT in both groups were measured in a fasting state, 24 hours before and 24 hours after the last session of training.Results: Exercise increased the levels of serum AST and ALT enzymes, significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: Eccentric exercise, without allowing enough time for returning to the pre-exercise state, leads to the damage of some body organs such as the liver.

  9. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sterling, Jeremy T.; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Noel A Pelland; Johnson, Devin S.; Mary-Anne Lea; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data logg...

  10. Partial Inhibitory Effect of Ethanol Extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides (Vahl on Spermatogenesis in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Orlu, Eme Efioanwan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides on spermatogenesis in mammalian system. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this investigation and were divided into six groups of six rats each (A-F. Groups B-F were administered ethanol extracts of L. alopecuroides orally at a daily dose of 50-250 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 35 days. Testicular sections 5 μ thickwere embedded with paraffin and stained according to standard Hematoxylineosin protocol. Computer-assisted histometric analysis was carried out on testicular seminiferous epithelium. Morphometric evaluation of the reproductive organs showed that there was significant (p0.05 to those of the control rats. From analysis of the volumetric proportions of spermatogenic cells, extract interfered with the spermatogenic process in the treated rats inducing over 50% reduction in the number of preleptotene/leptotene primary spermatocytes, 57% decline in the number of advance primary spermatocytes at pachytene, about 60% reduction of secondary spermatocytes and 80% decrease in the expected number of spermatids against the number of spermatogonia. The progressive decline in the number of the various spermatogenic elements on critical examination of the seminiferous epithelium especially at concentrations 200-250 mg/kg bodyweight and the reduction of the spermatogenic efficiency to 20% shows that Lepidagathis alopecuroides possesses anti-spermatogenic properties in rats without the accompanying systemic toxicity reported in the catfish Clarias gariepinus.

  11. Protective Effects of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea Extract against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg−1, medium dose (200 mg kg−1, or high dose (300 mg kg−1 or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (p<0.05. Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS (p<0.05. Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (p<0.05. This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs.

  12. Non-imidazole-based histamine H3 receptor antagonists with anticonvulsant activity in different seizure models in male adult rats

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    Sadek B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bassem Sadek,1 Ali Saad,1 Gniewomir Latacz,2 Kamil Kuder,2 Agnieszka Olejarz,2 Tadeusz Karcz,2 Holger Stark,3 Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz2 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 2Department of Technology and Biotechnology of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany Abstract: A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3–14 was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R. The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3–14 tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ model. Moreover, the protective effect observed for ligand 14 in MES model was lower than that observed for the reference drug phenytoin and was entirely abrogated when rats were co-administered with the brain-penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR but not the brain-penetrant H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, demonstrating that histaminergic neurotransmission by activation of postsynaptically located H1Rs seems to be involved in the protective action. On the contrary, PYR and ZOL failed to abrogate the full protection provided by 4 in PTZ model and the moderate protective effect by 14 in strychnine (STR model. Moreover, the experimental and in silico estimation of properties such as metabolism was

  13. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s-2) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key points This study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  14. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — behavioral measures of learning and memory in adult offspring of rats treated with thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil. Electrophysiological...

  15. Low semen volume in 47 adolescents and adults with 47,XXY Klinefelter or 46,XX male syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L; Jørgensen, N; Skakkebaek, N E;

    2008-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is characterized by progressive testicular failure causing androgen deficiency and azoospermia in most patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate semen quality in consecutive patients with an additional X chromosome as compared with healthy males. Forty-seven males...

  16. Black Males in Education: Learning and Achievement. A Summative Community Analysis Response from the Kwanzaa Adult Forum (December 27, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2011-01-01

    Background: Educating black males is critical. No longer can the black community blame the school for the academic failure of this population. The black community must address this pervasive issue. Purpose: The purpose for this inquiry was to explore community support and recommendations for educating black males. Setting: The setting took place…

  17. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M; McCool, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions.

  18. Exposure to ethinylestradiol during prenatal development and postnatal supplementation with testosterone causes morphophysiological alterations in the prostate of male and female adult gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ana Paula Silva; Biancardi, Manoel Francisco; Góes, Rejane Maira; dos Santos, Fernanda Alcântara; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2011-04-01

    Steroids perform significant functions in prostatic development and growth, so that interferences of this equilibrium may predispose the gland to the development of diseases during the life. Embryonic and neonatal exposure to xenoestrogens, many of them with endocrine-disrupting potential, has been related to the induction of disturbances in reproductive system organs. Thus, this study aimed to analyse morphological and immunocytochemical aspects of prostate in both male and female adult gerbils either exposed to ethinylestradiol during the prenatal phase (pregnant females received 10 μg/kg, by gavage) (EE group) or exposed to testosterone (1 mg/kg) during the postnatal period (EE/T group). Serological analysis revealed a rise in estradiol levels in adult males and females of the EE group. A higher incidence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) was observed in the male and female prostate of the treated groups, besides an increase in collagen and reticular fibres. Immunocytochemistry showed an increase in prostatic epithelial cells immunoreactive to AR and a presence of a smooth muscle layer, evidenced by α actin, in injured regions this way absent in prostatic epithelial buds. These pieces of evidence suggest that the alterations verified in the prostate in adulthood of both sexes may be due to the high oestrogen levels. Either males or females of the EE/T group showed normalized estradiol levels, although prostatic lesions could be observed. While the prostatic gland of male gerbils was more affected than the female prostate, this study showed that the exposure to EE during this critical period of development disrupts the prostate of both sexes in terms of prostatic lesions.

  19. Possible modulation of N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid induced prolactin release by testicular steroids in the adult male rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, M.; Rizvi, S.S.R.; Jahan, S.; Zaidi, P.; Shahab, M. (Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1991-01-01

    N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), an agonist of the neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to acutely stimulate the release of prolactin (PRL) in intact rats and monkeys. To further investigate the role of neuroexcitatory amino acids in PRL secretion, the effects of NMA administration were examined on PRL release in long term orchidectomized adult rhesus monkeys, in both the absence and presence of testosterone. Intact and long term castrated adult male monkeys weighing between 8-13 kg, were implanted with a catheter via the saphenous vein for blood withdrawal and drug infusion. Blood samples were collected at 10 min intervals for 50 min before and 70 min after administration of the drug or vehicle. Plasma PRL concentrations were estimated using radioimmunoassay. Whereas a single iv injection of NMA induced a prompt discharge of PRL in intact monkeys, an identical dose had surprisingly no effect on PRL secretion in orchidectomized animals. On the other hand, plasma PRL increases in response to a challenge dose of thyrotropin releasing hormone were similar in magnitude in the two groups of monkeys. Testosterone replacement in orchidectomized animals by parenteral administration of testosterone enanthate reinitiated the PRL responsiveness to acute NMA stimulation. These results indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) dependent drive to PRL release in the adult male rhesus monkey may be overtly influenced by the sex steroid milieu.

  20. Effects of stress and corticosterone in two post-training periods, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeimmy Marcela Cerón

    2015-04-01

    final product of HPA axis activity. These hormones act on specialized receptors located within all body cells; upon activation by ligand binding, these receptors interact with specific regions of DNA, thereby regulating gene expression (Tsigos & Chrousos, 2002. The lipidic nature of glucocorticoids allows them to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, which may influence cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of stress (movement restriction or the stress hormone corticosterone (intraperitoneal injection of corticosterone, on spatial memory consolidation in adult male Wistar rats in two different post-training time windows (immediately or 3 hours after training involved in memory consolidation. Rats were trained in a spatial memory task in the Barnes maze and a memory retention test was performed twenty-four hours after training. The results showed that both stress and corticosterone were able to enhance memory consolidation when they were administered immediately after training. However, when the same treatments were administered three hours after training, there was not a significant change in the performance during the test carried out after twenty-four hours. These results suggest, on the one hand, that memory consolidation process can be improved using treatments that modulate cellular gene expression programs, as stress and corticosterone, when they are applied during the first window of memory consolidation. Additionally, although the second period of memory consolidation is also related to a particular gene expression and protein synthesis program, the treatments used in the present study were not able to modulate memory consolidation when administered during this period. As the molecular events involved in the second window of memory consolidation may be different from those involved in the first one, it is possible that the molecular changes generated by stress and corticosterone do not interact with them in a way

  1. Recommendations for gonadotoxicity surveillance in male childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors : a report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group in collaboration with the PanCareSurFup Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, Roderick; Mulder, Renee L.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Constine, Louis S.; Bardi, Edit; Boekhout, Annelies; Borgmann-Staudt, Anja; Brown, Morven C.; Cohn, Richard; Dirksen, Uta; Giwercman, Alexsander; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Kenney, Lisa B.; Loonen, Jacqueline J.; Meacham, Lilian; Neggers, Sebastian; Nussey, Stephen; Petersen, Cecilia; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; van Santen, Hanneke M.; Wallace, William H B; Green, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery that involves reproductive organs can cause impaired spermatogenesis, testosterone deficiency, and physical sexual dysfunction in male pubertal, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors. Guidelines for surveillance and management of potential

  2. Developmental exposure to paraquat and maneb can impair cognition, learning and memory in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; He, Xi; Sun, Yan; Li, Baixiang

    2016-10-20

    Paraquat and maneb are identified environmental pollutants. Combined exposure to paraquat and maneb is a latent risk factor for many diseases, particularly those of the central nervous system, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampus is the key structure in memory formation and babies are more sensitive to environmental stimuli than adults, so we investigated the neurotoxicity of paraquat and maneb on the hippocampi of rat pups. Female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were mated (female : male = 2 : 1) every night for a week. The gravid rats were randomly divided into three groups (one control and two experimental groups). A mixed solution of paraquat-maneb was administered twice a week by lavage at a dose of 10 or 15 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (containing 30 or 45 mg kg(-1) bodyweight maneb, respectively) from day 6 after pregnancy till ablactation. Maternal weight gain and offspring bodyweights were not affected by the drugs. However, behavioral tests showed that reaction latency and mistake frequency increased after treatment. Intuitively, we found significant changes in the hippocampal neurons in the morphological observation. Taking into account the interaction of the related genes in the cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway, we used a variety of methods to detect the gene and protein levels. Reduced expression of cAMP and related genes and proteins in the hippocampus and serum was also observed. These results indicate that PQ-MB stimulates cAMP to reduce the production of PKA, thus reducing the phosphorylation of CREB and inhibiting the activation of other elements (BDNF, C-JUN, and C-FOS). These changes lead to hippocampal damage and impaired abilities (learning, cognition, and memory). Our results demonstrate that PQ-MB induces hippocampal toxicity in the early life of rats, and they thus provide a theoretical foundation for further investigation of the bathypelagic mechanism involved and measures that can be taken to avoid PQ-MB neurotoxicity.

  3. Effect of topiramate and traditional antiepileptic drugs on pituitary-sexual gland axis in adult males with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xu; Liang Yu; Jie Liu; Yongjie Luo; Hongbin Sun

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some reports indicate that traditional antiepileptic drugs can cause a certain effect on reproductive endocrine system in epileptic patients. However, the effect of topiramate on reproductive endocrine system needs to be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of topiramate and traditional valproic acid and carbamazepine on pituitary-sexual gland axis in adult males with epilepsy.DESIGN: Self-contrast and randomly parallel controlled study.SETTING: Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences (Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital).PARTICIPANTS: A total of 54 male epileptic patients aged from 18 to 75 years were selected from Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2004 to June 2006. All patients were diagnosed as epilepsy based on illness history and electroencephalogram (EEG), and types of epilepsy were classified based on the theory of epilepsy and epilepsy syndrome established by International Anti-epilepsy League in 1989 and 2001. The accepted patients and their relatives provided the confirmed consent.METHODS: ① The accepted patients were randomly divided into traditional treatment group [n =26,mean age of (34 ±14) years] and topiramate group [n =28, mean age of (28 ±17) years]. In addition, based on various kinds of drugs, patients in the traditional treatment group were divided into two subgroups,including carbamazepine group (n =14) and valproic acid group (n =12). Patients in both subgroups were respectively treated with carbamazepine (100 mg/table, Shanghai Sanwei Pharmaceutical Factory, batch number: 060705) and valproic acid (200 mg/table, Hunan Xiangzhong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., batch number: 061128). Patients in topiramate group were treated with topiramate (25 mg/table, Xi'an Yangsen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., batch number: 060215836). Administration: The beginning dosage of topiramate was 25 mg/d, and then increased 25 mg/d per week. The final dosage was 150 mg/d. In

  4. [Microbiological composition of dental plaque using Sprague Dawley rats as an experimental model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F R; Perrone, M; Acevedo, A M

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological composition of the dental plaque in 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats was determined. Analysis using the light microscope showed the presence of nine colonies which suggested the presence of cocci, (6) diplococci (1) and rods. (2) Five of the bacteria were Gram positive and three were Gram negative. The morphological characteristic suggested the presence of Actinomyces in the case of Gram positive rods; Fusobacterium in the case of Gram negative rods; Neisseria and Veillonella in the of Gram negative cocci and Streptococci for the rest of the colonies. The biochemical characterization of the bacteria suggested the absence of Streptococcus mutans in the dental plaque of this animals.

  5. Leptin Influences Healing in the Sprague Dawley Rat Fracture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengcheng; Cai, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Leptin plays a crucial role in bone metabolism, and its level is related to bone callus formation in the fracture repair process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant leptin on the healing process of femoral fractures in rats. Material/Methods Forty-eight male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with an average body weight of 389 g (range: 376–398 g) and an average age of 10 weeks were included in this animal research, and all rats were randomly divided into two major groups. Then standardized femur fracture models were implemented in all SD rats. Rats in the control group were treated with only 0.5 mL of physiological saline, and rats in the experimental group were treated with recombinant leptin 5 μg/kg/d along with the same 0.5 mL of physiological saline for 42 days intraperitoneally. At the same time, each major group was evenly divided into three parallel subgroups for each parallel bone evaluation separately at the second, fourth, and sixth weeks. Each subgroup included eight rats. Results The total radiological evaluation results showed that the healing progress of femoral fracture in the experimental group was superior to that in the control group from the fourth week. At the sixth week, experimental group rats began to present significantly better femoral fracture healing progress than that of the control group rats. Results of biomechanics show the ultimate load (N) and deflection ultimate load (mm) of the experimental group rats was significantly increased compared with that of the control group rats from the fourth week. Conclusions Our results suggest that leptin may have a positive effect on SD rat femur fracture healing. PMID:28088810

  6. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Gormezano

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1 prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  7. Use of Deslorelin Acetate Implants to Mitigate Aggression in Two Adult Male Domestic Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Correlating Plasma Testosterone Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molter, Christine M; Fontenot, Deidre K; Terrell, Scott P

    2015-09-01

    Two adult, male domestic turkeys were treated with implants of deslorelin acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, to reduce intermale aggression and aggression directed toward the animal care team at a zoologic institution. The turkeys were manually restrained and either two 4.7-mg or two 9.4-mg implants were placed within the pectoral musculature on 3 occasions over the course of approximately 1.5 years. Plasma testosterone concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay every 2 weeks for the first month after a new implant placement and then monthly thereafter. Testosterone concentrations remained low and aggressive behavior was decreased for a period of several months after implant placement. At necropsy of both birds, no adverse gross or histologic lesions were noted at the implantation sites in the pectoral musculature or within the gonadal tissue. Deslorelin acetate implants are a treatment modality to consider for mitigation of aggression in male domestic turkeys.

  8. Assessment of hematological profiles of adult male athletes from two different air pollutant zones of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Health effects from air pollution are severe concern of today's world. The study was undertaken to assess the effects of air pollution on hematological profiles of trained and untrained males of West Bengal. The sample consisted of 60 sprinters, 60 footballers, and 120 untrained males, subdivided into two groups from two zones, namely, Tollygunge and Sonarpur. Suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of ambient air were monitored for both zones. Height and weight of all the subjects were measured. Venous blood sample was drawn from the cubital vein, and the red blood cell count (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined by standard methods. Results revealed that SPM, RPM, SOx, and NOx concentrations were significantly higher in the Tollygunge area than Sonarpur. TC, PCV, and Hb concentration of untrained males were significantly higher than footballers in both regions but no significant difference were observed when compared with sprinters, except the Hb concentration in the Tollygunge zone. On the other hand, all hematological parameters of both trained and untrained males were significantly higher in the Sonarpur area than Tollygunge. It was concluded that environmental air pollutants might influence hematological profile adversely both in trained and sedentary males. However, further investigation in this area is needed.

  9. Spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Nadin; Polansky, Leo; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Group living animals can exhibit fission-fusion behavior whereby individuals temporarily separate to reduce the costs of living in large groups. Primates living in groups with fission-fusion dynamics face numerous challenges in maintaining spatial cohesion, especially in environments with limited visibility. Here we investigated the spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to better understand the mechanisms by which individuals maintain group cohesion during fission-fusion events. Over a 3-year period, we simultaneously tracked the movements of 2-4 males for 4-12 hr on up to 12 consecutive days using handheld GPS devices that recorded locations at one-minute intervals. Analyses of the male's inter-individual distance (IID) showed that the maximum, median, and mean IID values across all observations were 7.2 km, 73 m, and 483 m, respectively. These males (a) had maximum daily IID values below the limits of auditory communication (cohesion when out of sight, and that auditory communication is one likely mechanism by which they do so. We discuss mechanisms by which chimpanzees may maintain the level of cohesion observed. This study provides a first analysis of spatial group cohesion over large distances in forest chimpanzees using high-resolution tracking, and illustrates the utility of such data for quantifying socio-ecological processes in primate ecology.

  10. The Effects of Concurrent Administration of (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Cocaine on Conditioned Place Preference in the Adult Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Diller, Anna J.; Rocha, Angelica; Aaron L. Cardon; Valles, Rodrigo; Wellman, Paul J.; Nation, Jack R.

    2007-01-01

    Conditioned place preference (CPP), a commonly used model for studying the role of contextual cues in drug reward and drug seeking, was employed to explore possible behavioral interactions between (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “ecstasy”) and cocaine. On each of four occasions, adult male rats received one of three doses of MDMA (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg; administered subcutaneously [s.c.]) combined with one of three doses of cocaine (0 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg; administered i...

  11. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properti...

  12. Adverse events profile of PrePex a non-surgical device for adult male circumcision in a Ugandan urban setting.

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    Moses Galukande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Safe Male Circumcision is a proven approach for partial HIV prevention. Several sub Saharan African countries have plans to reach a prevalence of 80% of their adult males circumcised by 2015. These targets require out of ordinary organization, demand creation, timely execution and perhaps the use of SMC devices. OBJECTIVE: To profile Adverse Events rate and acceptance of PrePex, a non surgical device for adult male circumcision. METHODS: A prospective study, conducted at International Hospital Kampala, Uganda, between August and October 2012. Ethical approval was obtained from Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. RESULTS: Of 1,040 men received to undergo SMC, 678 opted for PrePex, 36 were excluded at an initial physical examination screening. 642 were enrolled and consented, and another 17 were excluded before device placement. 625 underwent the procedure. Average age was 24 years (± 7. Twelve moderate AEs occurred among 10 participants 12/625, (1.9%. These were all reversible. Five had device displacement, one had an everted foreskin; five had bleeding after the device was removed and one had voiding difficulties. The majority (279 out of 300 of men interviewed complained of some pain within the week of placement. Mean pain score at device placement (using visual analogue scale was 0.5, at device removal 4.5 and within 2 min of removal the pain score was 1.4. Over 70% of the devices were placed and removed by non-physician clinicians. Presented with a choice, 60% of men chose PrePex over surgical SMC. Close to 90% would recommend the device to their friends. Odour from the necrotic skin was a concern. Removals done 1-2 days earlier than day 7 were beneficial and conferred no extra risk. CONCLUSION: AEs of a moderate or severe nature associated with PrePex were low and reversible. PrePex is feasible for mass safe male circumcision scaling up.

  13. Neurotrophic factor-related gene polymorphisms and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) score in a high-risk male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Alex C; Kissling, Christian; Hodges, Edward; Hünnerkopf, Regina; Clement, R Marc; Dudley, Edward; Freitag, Christine M; Rösler, Michael; Retz, Wolfgang; Thome, Johannes

    2008-12-05

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely under-reported but nevertheless common condition with a clear heritable component. Several genes have been proposed to play a role in the childhood onset of this neurodevelopmental disorder; however, association studies of persistence of ADHD into adulthood have rarely been performed. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be involved in several aspects of neuronal development and neural plasticity in adults. They have also been linked, particularly through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) interaction with dopamine transport, to the pathophysiology of ADHD. This study compares the genotypes of six different single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes within the neurotrophin system and their possible association with adult ADHD score in 143 high-risk male subjects referred to a forensic psychiatric unit. The genes included NTF3, NTRK2 (TrkB), NTRK3 (TrkC), BDNF, and p75(NTR). While none of the SNPs showed significant association with ADHD symptoms, one polymorphism within the exon of NTF3 (rs6332) showed a trend toward an association between the A-allele and increased scores using both the retrospective childhood analysis Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS-k) (P = 0.05) and the adult ADHD assessment Wender-Reimherr interview (P = 0.03). This SNP is a silent mutation which might be in linkage disequilibrium with a functional risk variant for ADHD. As the association was only suggestive, however, this finding needs replication in a larger study with higher power.

  14. Postnatal exposure to a high-carbohydrate diet interferes epigenetically with thyroid hormone receptor induction of the adult male rat skeletal muscle glucose transporter isoform 4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Nupur; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Srinivasan, Malathi; Mahmood, Saleh; Patel, Mulchand S; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-10-01

    Early life nutritional intervention causes adult-onset insulin resistance and obesity in rats. Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), in turn, transcriptionally enhances skeletal muscle Glut4 expression. We tested the hypothesis that reduced circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone and T4 concentrations encountered in postnatal (PN4-PN24) high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula-fed versus the mother-fed controls (MF) would epigenetically interfere with TR induction of adult (100 days) male rat skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, thereby providing a molecular mechanism mediating insulin resistance. We observed increased DNA methylation of the CpG island with enhanced recruitment of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and MeCP2 in the glut4 promoter region along with reduced acetylation of histone (H)2A.Z and H4 particularly at the H4.lysine (K)16 residue, which was predominantly mediated by histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). This was followed by enhanced recruitment of heterochromatin protein 1β to the glut4 promoter with increased Suv39H1 methylase concentrations. These changes reduced TR binding of the T3 response element of the glut4 gene (TREs; -473 to -450 bp) detected qualitatively in vivo (electromobility shift assay) and quantified ex vivo (chromatin immunoprecipitation). In addition, the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator and CREB-binding protein to the glut4 promoter-protein complex was reduced. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the interaction between TR and CBP to be reduced and HDAC4 to be enhanced in HC versus MF groups. These molecular changes were associated with diminished skeletal muscle Glut4 mRNA and protein concentrations. We conclude that early postnatal exposure to HC diet epigenetically reduced TR induction of adult male skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, uncovering novel molecular mechanisms contributing to adult insulin resistance and obesity.

  15. Nicotine Increases Alcohol Intake in Adolescent Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárraga, Armando; Belluzzi, James D.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Use of alcohol and tobacco, the two most concurrently abused drugs, typically first occurs during adolescence. Yet, there have been no systematic analyses of ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (Nic) interactions during adolescence. Recent animal studies report that kappa-opioid (KOR) receptor activation mediates age differences in drug reinforcement. Our hypothesis is that concurrent self-administration of EtOH and Nic will be greater in adolescent rats because of age differences in KOR function. Furthermore, exposure to alcohol and nicotine during adolescence has been reported to increase EtOH intake in adulthood. We performed a longitudinal animal study and hypothesized adolescent rats allowed to self-administer nicotine would drink more alcohol as adults. Methods: Adolescent, postnatal day (P)32, and adult (P90) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer EtOH, Nic, or a combination of both, EtOH+Nic, in an intravenous self-administration paradigm. The role of KOR was pharmacologically evaluated with the KOR antagonist, norbinaltorphamine (norBNI) and with the KOR agonist, U50,488H. Alcohol drinking was subsequently evaluated with male rats in a drinking in the dark (DID), 2-bottle choice test. Results: Concurrent Nic increased EtOH intake in adolescent males, but not in adults or females. Pharmacological blockade of KOR with norBNI robustly increased EtOH+Nic self-administration in adult male rats, but had no effect with female rats. Lastly, in our longitudinal study with male rats, we found prior self-administration of Nic or EtOH+Nic during adolescence increased subsequent oral EtOH intake, whereas prior self-administration of EtOH alone in adults increased subsequent EtOH drinking. Conclusions: There are major age- and sex-differences in the reinforcing effects of EtOH+Nic. Adolescent males are sensitive to the reinforcing interactions of the two drugs, whereas this effect is inhibited by KOR activation in male adults. Nicotine

  16. Effect of the aqueous extract of dry fruits of Piper guineense on the reproductive function of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbongue F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of the aqueous extract of Piper guineense (Piperaceae on male reproductive function in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats, 3 months old, weighing 180-210 g were administered (by gastric intubation the aqueous extract of dry fruits of Piper guineense at two doses, 122.5 and 245 mg/kg for 8 days and 122.5 mg/kg for 55 days. The control group received distilled water for the same duration. Animals were sacrificed and the blood, testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate were collected for biochemical analyses. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the level of testosterone in the serum and testes, cholesterol in the testes, α-glucosidase in the epididymis and fructose in the seminal vesicles after 8 days of treatment, while with 55 days of treatment, the levels of cholesterol in the testes increased by 75%, while the levels of α-glucosidase in the epididymis and the seminal vesicle fructose decreased by 24 and 21% respectively. On the other hand, there was a 20% reduction of fertility in the P. guineense-treated rats after 55 days of treatment. CONCLUSION: The aqueous extract of P. guineense at both doses (122.5 and 245 mg/kg had a positive impact on the male reproductive function since it stimulated the secretions of the testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles. The use of P. guineense could negatively influence male fertility.

  17. Comparison o f Level of Anger between Male and Female Athletes Took Part in Eliminations for Adults Taekwondo National Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer CANBAZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the level of anger of the athletes taking part in A dults N at ional T eam eliminations. The sample group consists of 52 female s , 115 male s , total ly 167 elite athletes took part in the eliminations . The average of age for female s was 20 , 38 , and 20, 99 for male s . In order to identify the level, Spielberg ’s fou r - dimensional Sc hedule whose validity and reliability for our country was adapted to by Özer in 1994, developed by S pielberg in 1983 was used. As a result of analysis made, no outstanding difference of anger level was found between males and females in te rms of permanent anger factor (p=0, 579; similarly no significant difference was discovered in respect to sub factor of anger - out (p=0,315. Also in analysis of anger - in (p=0.673 and anger - out (p=0.290 sub scales, important difference wasn’t pointed out b etween male and female athletes.

  18. A Child's Mind in the Adult Body: An Investigation of Perceptual Differences between Males and Females towards Emotional Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    1992-01-01

    Examined potential gender differences in emotional immaturity. Forty graduate students completed personal data sheets and Peter Pan Syndrome Test. Findings suggest widespread perceptions between females and males about prevalence of emotional immaturity among their significant others. Females seem to consider emotional immaturity special problem…

  19. Adult body height of twins compared with that of singletons: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether childhood differences in body height between singletons and twins persist into adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. This study used data on the 457,999 males who were born alive and without physical anomalies in single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years; 1985-2003). For sibling comparisons, the authors selected the 1,721 sibships of full brothers that included at least 1 male born in a single birth and at least 1 male born in a twin birth (4,520 persons, including 2,493 twins and 2,027 singletons). An analysis of the total study population using generalized estimating equations showed that the twins were 0.6 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.7) shorter than were the singletons after adjustment for a series of background factors. The fixed-effects regression analysis of the sibships that included both twins and singletons showed that the twins were 0.9 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.2) shorter than were their singleton brothers. The study suggests that male twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 were slightly shorter in early adulthood than were singletons.

  20. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

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    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  1. Response of adult male Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae to different pheromone traps in walnut orchards of four isolated regions of Iran

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    Raheleh Dolati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina L. (Lep: Zeuzeridae is an important polyphagous pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs across Europe and Asia. The efficient control of the leopard moth by direct spraying of infested branches and trees is usually impractical because the larvae feed internally and escape from exposure to the used insecticides. Sexual pheromones emitted by females may provide an efficient alternative method to explore the pest, disrupt its mating or capture and kill it. In the present study, we evaluated the efficiency of one Iranian-formulated (in three doses: 1, 1.5, and 2 mg per trap and three non-Iranian-formulated sexual pheromones in attraction and capturing of adult males of the leopard moth in Walnut orchards of Alborz province and three different regions of Kerman province (Rabor, Baft, Darremorid. We found a wide diversity in response of adult males to different pheromones in the four studied regions. This diversity seems to be resulted from isolation of the populations and may present a preliminary stage of divergence and speciation in this species.

  2. Effects of dietary phenochlor DP5 on microsomal enzymes, liver, and blood lipids in adult male and female rats after subchronic and perinatal exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poul, J.M.

    1987-08-01

    PCBs have numerous toxic effects on laboratory animals, namely hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive and hormonal effects, mutagenic and carcinogenic potency (Safe 1984). They have been recognized as potent inducers of many microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes in several species. Moreover, treatment of rats with PCBs gave rise to altered lipid metabolism with accumulation of lipids in the liver. In most of these studies male rats have been used. However, sex differences in the effects of xenobiotics on microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes have been shown particularly with PCBs and little was known about differences in the effects of PCBs on lipid metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the effects of a subchronic treatment with Phenochlor DP5 on some microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme activities and on liver and blood lipids of male and female rats. The long-term effects of DP5 administration during pre and postnatal period on adult microsomal enzyme activities and liver and blood lipids of both sexes have also been studied. A possible xenobiotic imprinting of the hepatic monooxygenase system during neonatal period has been shown recently, and it has been recognized that some functional defects which often manifest themselves in adult period may be induced prenatally or before weaning.

  3. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity—using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults. PMID:28151944

  4. An illustrated key to adult males of neotropical Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy belonging to pusio sub-group (Diptera, Fanniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couri, M S

    2005-11-01

    The 11 neotropical species of Fannia belonging to the pusio sub-group (canicularis group), are keyed F. dodgei Seago; F. femoralis (Stein); F. pamplonae Couri & Araújo; F. parafemoralis Araújo & Couri; F. paraisensis Araújo & Couri; F. punctivervis Malloch; F. pusio (Wiedemann); F. sabroskyi Seago; F. snyderi Seago; F. trimaculata (Stein); F. trimaculatoides Couri & Pamplona. The key is addressed only to the males and the illustrations help in the visualization of the characters.

  5. Evaluation of toxic effects of CdTe quantum dots on the reproductive system in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangrong; Yuwen, Lihui; Yang, Wenjing; Weng, Lixing; Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are highly promising nanomaterials for various biological and biomedical applications because of their unique optical properties, such as robust photostability, strong photoluminescence, and size-tunable fluorescence. Several studies have reported the in vivo toxicity of QDs, but their effects on the male reproduction system have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs at a high dose of 2.0 nmol per mouse and a low dose of 0.2 nmol per mouse. Body weight measurements demonstrated there was no overt toxicity for both dose at day 90 after exposure, but the high dose CdTe affected body weight up to 15 days after exposure. CdTe QDs accumulated in the testes and damaged the tissue structure for both doses on day 90. Meanwhile, either of two CdTe QDs treatments did not significantly affect the quantity of sperm, but the high dose CdTe significantly decreased the quality of sperm on day 60. The serum levels of three major sex hormones were also perturbed by CdTe QDs treatment. However, the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those mated with untreated male mice. These results suggest that CdTe QDs can cause testes toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The low dose of CdTe QDs is relatively safe for the reproductive system of male mice. Our preliminary result enables better understanding of the reproductive toxicity induced by cadmium-containing QDs and provides insight into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological and environmental systems.

  6. Effects of butternut squash extract on dentate gyrus cell proliferation and spatial learning in male adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohsen Marzban; Sara Soleimani Asl; Hassan Fallah Huseini; Mahdi Tondar; Samira Choopani; Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies reported that some plants, including butternut squash, exert positive effects on the brain. However, few studies have examined the effects of butternut squash on learning, memory, and neurogenesis. This study studied the effects of butternut squash extract on spatial learning and cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of healthy male rats. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were intrap-eritoneally injected with 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg butternut squash extract once daily for 2 months. After the last administration, rat's spatial memory was studied using the Morris water maze. Finally, rats were sacrificed and hippocampal sections were prepared for light microscopy and bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry studies. The results revealed that escape latency and swim distance decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control rats, and that the number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly increased in the treatment groups compared with the controls. These findings suggest that butternut squash extract improves the learning and memory abilities of male rats, and increases the proliferation of dentate gyrus cells.

  7. Testosterone replacement therapy to improve secondary sexual characteristics and body composition without adverse behavioral problems in adult male patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Yasuhiro; Sakazume, Satoru; Abe, Yoshiko; Oto, Yuji; Itabashi, Hisashi; Shiraishi, Masahisa; Yoshino, Atsunori; Tanaka, Yuriko; Obata, Kazuo; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a complex genetic disorder, arises from suppressed expression of paternally inherited imprinted genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. Characteristics include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, hypogonadism, obesity, and reduced bone and muscle mass. Testosterone replacement (TR) remains controversial due to concerns regarding behavioral problems. To evaluate the effects of TR on secondary sexual characteristics, body composition, and behavior in adult males with PWS, 22 male PWS patients over the age of 16 with behavioral scores of less than grade 4 on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) underwent monthly intramuscular TR (125 mg). Pubertal change, body composition and behavior were evaluated before and after 24 months of therapy. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH did not change. Increased pubic hair was observed in 16 of 22 patients (72.7%). Percent body fat decreased from 47.55 ± 2.06% to 39.75 ± 1.60% (n = 18) (P = 0.018). Bone mineral density increased from 0.8505 ± 0.0426 g/cm(2) to 0.9035 ± 0.0465 g/cm(2) (n = 18) (P = 0.036), and lean body mass increased from 18093.4 ± 863.0 g to 20312.1 ± 1027.2 g (n = 18) (P = 0.009). The MOAS was unchanged, from 4.5 ± 2.0 at the beginning of the study to 3.0 ± 1.7 at the end of study indicating no increase in aggression. No behavioral problems were observed. Based on this pilot study, TR with 125 mg monthly is a potentially safe and useful intervention for adult males with PWS.

  8. Protective Effect of the Persian Gulf brittle star Ophiocoma Erinaceus extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Brittle star possess  bioactive compounds which confer the wound healing capacity and regenerative potency of damaged  arms and organisms to this creature. The aim of the current study was to assess the   protective  effect  of  the  star extract on liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, Sham exposed, experimental 1 (treated with %25 extract and experimental 2 (treated with %50 extract of star Ophiocoma Erinaceus. The control group received no treatment. The sham exposed groups received carbon tetrachloride .(50% in olive oil .0.5 ml/kg for 7 days. The experimental groups firstly received carbon tetrachloride, then received %25, %50 brittle star extract as intragastric for 7 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed, and their bodies and livers were weighed. Then, the livers sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Finally, the obtained  quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS (V; 20, Mini Tab software, ANOVA, and Tukey. at the significant level of P<0.001. Results: Carbon tetrachloride significantly decreased the rats’ body weight, but it increased their livers weight (P<0.001. Histopathological evaluations showed .extensive liver damage. On the other hand, treatment with brittle star extract .ncreased liver weight, reduced. body weight and significantly altered other induced changes by carbon tetrachloride on liver structure such as hepatocytes number, Kupffer cells, and arteritis, which indicated  the improvement of damaged liver tissue (P<0.001. Conclusion: It was found that brittle star extract can exert protective effects on  liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride on male Wistar rat.

  9. Gazefinder as a clinical supplementary tool for discriminating between autism spectrum disorder and typical development in male adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fujioka, Toru; Inohara, Keisuke; Okamoto, Yuko; Masuya, Yasuhiro; Ishitobi, Makoto; Saito, Daisuke N.; Jung, Minyoung; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Matsumura, Yukiko; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Narita, Kosuke; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Mori, Norio; Katayama, Taiichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Gaze abnormality is a diagnostic criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, few easy-to-use clinical tools exist to evaluate the unique eye-gaze patterns of ASD. Recently, we developed Gazefinder, an all-in-one eye-tracking system for early detection of ASD in toddlers. Because abnormal gaze patterns have been documented in various ASD age groups, we predicted that Gazefinder might also detect gaze abnormality in adolescents and adults. In this study, we tested whether ...

  10. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

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    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  11. The Acute Effects of a Single Bout of Moderate-intensity Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adult Males

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda, Bijli; Balde, Jagruti; Manjunatha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Single acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise like walking have been found to improve cognitive control of attention in children, but some studies have reported no improvement in cognitive flexibility following acute aerobic exercise. Submaximal aerobic exercise performed for 60 minutes facilitated specific aspects of information processing in adults but extended exercises leading to dehydration compromised both information processing and memory functions. Improvemen...

  12. The Role of Familismo and Acculturation as Moderators of the Association Between Family Conflict and Substance Abuse on Latino Adult Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Seda, Alexa; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    The significant research gap on Latino adults who completed substance abuse treatment (SAT) impacts the provision of substance use prevention and treatment for this population. Given the need for culturally-appropriate SAT for Latinos, research that examines the role of cultural constructs and acculturation in relation to substance use behavior is warranted. The purpose of the present study is to test, based on the social control theory, a multiple moderation model using the PROCESS macro1 to examine the moderating effect of Familismo on the association between history of family conflict and years of substance abuse on Latino males who completed SAT at different levels of acculturation (i.e., cultural orientation). Generational status (i.e., immigrant, U. S. born) and age are used as covariates. A total of 117 Latino male participants (Mage= 37, 54% non-U.S. born with a mean length of stay of 19 years in the U.S.) who completed SAT from facilities located in the metropolitan area of Chicago completed self-report measures. Results from the multiple moderation analysis showa significant three-way interaction (family conflict × Familismo × acculturation), indicating that participants with Latino and bicultural orientation who endorse average to high levels of Familismo have fewer years of substance abuse compared to those with U.S. mainstream culture orientation and low Familismo. Findings illustrate the need for SAT that assesses for family conflict and integrates cultural aspects to reduce substance use behavior on Latino males.

  13. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measure