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Sample records for adult male rat

  1. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

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    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  2. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

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    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  3. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

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    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  4. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

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    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  5. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

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    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  6. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

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    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  7. Effect of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on some reproductive and sperm parameters in adult male rats

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    H. M. Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to examine the effect of oral administration of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on spermatogenesis, accessory sex glands and serum testosterone level in adult male rats aged 2.5-3 months. The extract was administered orally daily at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. The results showed that the extract at the three doses significantly reduced testis weight and testosterone level. Furthermore a significant reduction in sperm count, weight of body, tail of epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in rats treated with extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg compared with control, associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms compared with control. It was concluded that Rosmarinus Officinalis extract administration to adult male rats caused adverse effects on some reproductive and semen parameters.

  8. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

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    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  9. EFFECT OF SIMULATED WEIGHTLESSNESS ON REPRODUCTION OF ADULT MALE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies had mainly focused on thehar mful effects of space environment on human be-ing's muscle,skeleton and blood circulation[1-3].However,the studies concerningthe effects of spaceenvironment on male reproduction are scare.The space environment is complicated,andweightlessness is one of the most i mportant healthrisk factors.Tail-suspension model is widely usedfor si mulated weightlessness in space health re-search[4].Therefore,the present study was designed toclarify the adverse effects of si mu...

  10. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

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    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  11. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

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    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  12. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  13. Investigation of curcumin effects on liver tissue in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide

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    Zahra khodaparast; ali reza yousofi; ameneh khoshvagti

    2014-01-01

     Background & Objective: Cyclophosphamide is an antineoplastic drug that has many clinical uses in cancer treatment, but it has toxic effects due to creation of free radicals. In this study, the effects of curcumin" as an antioxidant drug” on liver tissue was investigated. Materials & methods: 50 wistar adult male rats were selected randomly and were divided in to five groups including control, sham (receiving normal saline and olive oil), cyclophosp...

  14. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

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    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  15. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

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    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  16. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

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    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats.

  17. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

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    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats. PMID:27092594

  18. Subacute toxicity assessment of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, in adult male rats.

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    de Barros, Aline Lima; Cavalheiro, Gabriela Finoto; de Souza, Alexsandra Vila Maior; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB), an insecticide and acaricide insect growth regulator, can be used in agriculture against insect predators and in public health programs, to control insects and vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti larvae. Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this compound, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of subacute exposure to the DFB insecticide in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed (gavage) to 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DFB for 28 days. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the DFB-treated animals of the experimental groups. However, there was an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the group that received 8 mg/kg/DFB/day and urea at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/DFB/day, without altering other biochemical or hematological parameters. The subacute exposure to the lowest dose of DFB caused significant decrease in testis weight, daily sperm production, and in number of sperm in the epididymis in relation to the control group. However, no alterations were observed in the sperm morphology, testicular, epididymis, liver and kidney histology, or testosterone levels. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of DFB on male reproduction after the subacute exposure and special attention should be addressed to the effects of low doses of this pesticide.

  19. Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats

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    A.A. Okesina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR, the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group. The control group A received phosphate buffered saline orally, with the aid of a cannula. 1 mL of 50% ethanol was administered orally, by a cannula, to produce the gastric lesion in group B (n = 8. And in the group C, 500 mg/kg body weight of paw paw leaf extract was administered orally, with a cannula, twelve hours after ethanol administration to the rats. This experiment lasted for twenty one consecutive days. The result showed that TBARS in gastric mucosa as an index for oxidative stress level was significantly increased after ethanol administration. CPL did not reduce significantly the levels of TBARS in the gastric mucosa. G-6-PDH activity was significantly increased in gastric mucosa after ethanol administration, but in rats treated with CPL, a reverse of G-6-PDH activity was observed. Ethanol induced a remarkable and significant decrease of GPx activity in gastric mucosa, whereas CPL induced a significant reversion of ethanol’s effect on the enzyme. The results therefore demonstrate that CPL treatment exerts antioxidant effects on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in wistar rats.

  20. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

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    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  1. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

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    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  2. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

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    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  3. Evaluating the Effect of Vitamins E and C on Sexual Cell Lineages in Adult Male Rats under Oxidative Stress Induced by Endosulfan Consumption

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    yazdan heydari; shirzad hosseini; mojtaba keshavarz; ahmad mozafar; mohammadhasaan meshkibaf; mohammadali takhshid

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Endosulfan is one of the strong insecticides used in agriculture. This toxin is absorbed by inhalation and skin. Endosulfan has side effects such as infertility in men. This study surveys the effect of vitamins E and C on  preventing the harmful effects of Endosulfan on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: Adult male rats (200-250 g) from Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats. Rats in the experimental group...

  4. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

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    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  5. Protective effects of vitamin E and selenium on spermatogenesis in adult male rat insulin-resistant

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    Alireza Zakerabasali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease and is a multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin secretion and insulin factional or both. In this study, the protective role of vitamin E and sodium selenite in preventing the harmful effects of insulin resistance (diabetes type 2 on spermatogenesis was studied.   Materials & Methods: Male adults (180-200 g of Wistar rats were divided into five groups, each containing 7 rats (control, sham, and three experimental groups. The rats were fed daily with water-soluble fructose (10%, mg/kg 200 of vitamin E (gavage, and 5/0 mg/kg of sodium selenite (intraperitoneal injection or both for 110 days. Subsequently, sperm parameters, levels of testosterone, LH, and daily sperm production (DSP were checked. Additionally, testicular histopathology and malondialdehyde (MDA in the testis were examined.   Results: Sperm count, sperm motility and viability, and insulin resistance in the rats decreased DSP. A significant decrease was observed in the number of Leydig cells, spermatogonia, spermatogenesis, and spermatozoa in the testis of the insulin-resistant animals, whereas MDA and testosterone rose in the insulin-resistant rats. Vitamin E and sodium selenite intake reduced the levels of MDA and harmful effects of fructose on testicles, as well as sperm parameters and testicular pathology. A simultaneous intake of vitamin E and sodium selenite conferred the highest level of protection.   Conclusion: These findings suggest that vitamin E and sodium selenite can have a protective role in the testes of rats against oxidative stress induced by diabetes type 2.

  6. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

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    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  7. Chronic effect of gabapentin on liver function in adult male rats.

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    Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GPN is a new antiepileptic agent currently in used as add-on therapy in adult patients suffering from partial seizures. The extent of liver damage at different dosage and long term treatment with GPN is not yet clear. Therefore this study was undertaken to find out the possibility of liver damage by this drug. Adult male (Wistar rats of 180-220 g were administered intraperitoneally with GPN (20 or 100 mg/kg for 45 days. After the experimental period, the liver function tests were carried out in control and experimental groups. The activity of liver enzymes, with 20 mg/kg of GPN were not significantly different from the control group but, the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin were enhanced significantly with 100 mg/kg of GPN. Total protein and albumin decreased in this group as compared with control animals. The histopathology of the liver parenchymal cells also showed minute foci of necrosis in a few rats treated with high dose of GPN, whereas, at therapeutic dose the histopathology and biochemical indices showed almost normal values. At therapeutic dose GPN is a safer drug with regards to liver function and hepatocellular damage as compared with other antiepileptic drugs.

  8. Effects of different exercise protocols on ethanol-induced spatial memory impairment in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T; Vaghef, L; Babri, S; Mahmood-Alilo, M; Beirami, M

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is often accompanied by numerous cognitive deficits and may lead to long-lasting impairments in spatial learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of regular treadmill exercise on hippocampal-dependent memory in ethanol-treated rats. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris Water Maze task. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to ethanol (4 g/kg, 20% v/v for 4 weeks) and effects of three exercise protocols (pre-ethanol, post-ethanol and pre-to-post-ethanol treatment) were examined. Results showed that ethanol exposure resulted in longer escape latencies during the acquisition phase of the Morris Water Maze task. Moreover, all three exercise protocols significantly decreased the latency to locate the hidden platform. During the probe trial, ethanol led to decreased time spent in the target quadrant. In contrast, performance on the probe trial was significantly better in the rats that had done the post- and pre-to-post-ethanol, but not pre-ethanol, exercises. These findings suggest that treadmill running can attenuate the adverse effects of chronic ethanol exposure on spatial memory, and may serve as a non-pharmacological alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:23683528

  9. Effects of Chronic Lead Acetate Intoxication on Blood Indices of Male Adult Rat

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    Mohammadhosein Noori Mugahi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead as one of the environmental pollutants can threats the life of living creatures in many ways. In this study, hematological effects of chronic toxicity of the lead acetate in adult male rats through measurement of the lead concentration in the blood of animal’s heart by atomic absorption as well as hematological analyses and differential cell count were investigated. Results showed that lead concentration in the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control groups (P<0.001, and basophilic stippling, Howell-Jolly bodies, decreased RBC count (anemia, increased leukocyte count (leukocytosis, monocytosis, eosinopenia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis were observed in the test group (P<0.001. It is concluded that microcytic hypochromic anemia can be attributed to the interaction of lead with iron and copper metabolism and increased leukocyte count may be linked to the inflammatory effects of lead on lymphatic organs.

  10. Effect of Pistacia Vera Oil on Pituitary Gonad Axis and Histological Testis Changes in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    f Porhemmat; M Shariati; L Sepehrara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Pistachio oil contains the chemical compounds such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids can inhibit 5-α- reductase enzyme and unsaturated fatty acids increase cholesterol levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of pistachio oil on adult male rats’ reproductive status. Methods: In the present experimental study, 40 male Wistar rat were divided into five groups of eight. The control group received ...

  11. Effects of opioid (tramadol) treatment on testicular functions in adult male rats: The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug.

  12. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  13. Anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcohlic juglans regia male flower extract on blood glucose level and on liver enzymes activity in intact and diabetogenized adult male rat

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    Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin secretion or function. Walnut is a nutrient used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. In the current study, anti-diabetic effects of the Hydroalcoholic extract of walnut male flowers on diabetogenized rats by using Streptozocin were evaluated.   Materials and Methods: Seventy two adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-225 g each were randomly selected and divided into three main groups, i.e. control, diabetic, and non-diabetic(intact The control group included 8 rats (n=8. The diabetic and non-diabetic groups covered 32 rats each. Each of these groups were divided into four 8 rats including the control, diabetic, experimental 1, 2, and 3 which received 2, 4, or 6 g/kg of the extract per day for 15 days ,respectively. The three diabetic groups were each treated with the above doses of the extract, and the fourth group received no treatment. Diabetes was induced in diabetic rats through intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of Streptozotocin. At the end, blood samples were taken from the experimental and control groups and the serum levels of insulin and glucose were measured.   Results: A significant reduction in blood sugar and increase of insulin in diabetics receiving Hydroalcoholic extract of male flowers walnut was observed compared with non-diabetic ones.   Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of male Walnut flowers, due to increasing insulin, causes reduction of blood sugar.

  14. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

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    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  15. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas Del Rio, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200-300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0-5, 5-24, 24-48, and 48-72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5-24, 24-48, and 48-72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  16. Screening Neuropharmacological Activities of Kaempferia parviflora (Krachai Dam in Healthy Adult Male Rats

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    Thaneeya Hawiset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the global prevalence of psychological disorders is increasing continually, the efficacies of therapeutic strategies are still very limited. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and substance possessing antioxidant activity can alleviate the mentioned conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that Kaempferia parviflora, a medicinal plant claimed for nerve tonic, also possessed the neuropharmacological activities which provide the advantage for psychiatric disorders. Approach: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 grams, were orally given the ethanolic extract of K. parviflora at doses of 150, 200 and 250 mg kg-1 BW once daily for 2 weeks. Then, they were determined the neuropharmacological activities including anxiolytic, anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement after single dose, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Results: K. parviflora possessed anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anxiolytic like activity. Conclusion: Our results suggested that K. parviflora might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for psychiatric disorder and cognitive enhancement. However, further investigations about precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  17. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  18. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  19. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Puran Badkoobeh; Kazem Parivar; Seyed Mehdi Kalantar; Seyed Davood Hosseini; Alireza Salabat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including...

  20. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A.; Dalby, Matthew J; Garden, Karen; Lynn M. Thomson; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Ross, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insolubl...

  1. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi; Farhad Soltanalinejad; Gholamreza Najafi; Leila Roshangar

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin ...

  2. Suppression of spermatogenesis by testosterone undecanoate-loaded injectable in situ-forming implants in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Dan; Meng, Shu; Wang, Ping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Dan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of administration of testosterone undecanoate (TU)-loaded injectable in situ-forming implant (ISFI) for contraception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were treated with vehicle, TU-loaded ISFIs (540, 270 and 135 mg TU kg-1 ) or TU injections (45 mg TU kg-1 every 30 days) for 120 days. Fertility tests served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Serum testosterone concentration, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, and histology of the testis were monitored. The TU-loaded ISFIs increased serum testosterone levels in rats steadily without fluctuation over 3 months. One month after TU administration, the epididymal sperm count decreased significantly in all experimental groups. After 3 months, the animals treated with 270 and 135 mg kg-1 TU-loaded ISFIs were 100% infertile, and no implantation sites were produced in the mated females. However, some of males treated with 540 mg kg-1 ISFI or TU injections were still fertile but numbers of implantation sites were also significantly lower than control values. TU-loaded ISFI at an appropriate dose has potential as a long-acting male contraceptive drug that suppresses spermatogenesis consistently over a period of 3 months. PMID:26459781

  3. Evaluation Of Gonadotropin And Testosterone Hormons In Adult Male Cholestatic Rats

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    Nasiri E

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids (EOP, nitric oxide (NO, and cytokins in the blood streams. Therefore we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and function of germ cells in adult male rats."nMaterial and Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: No-surgery, Sham-surgery, and surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animal were killed by ether, serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were determined by Radioimmunoassay, apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by in situ terminal deoxynucloetidyl Transfrase-mediated dUTP nike end labeling (TUNEL."nResults: The mean of FSH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 13.22+ 1.038, 18.14+ 1.276, and 16.92+ 1.072 ng/ml, respectively. The mean of LH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 0.83 + 0.21, 2.058 ± 0.26, and 1.84 + 0.17 ng/ml, respectively. In addition, the mean of testosterone level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 1.52 ± 0.16, 2.41 ± 0.18, and 2.31 + 0.14 ng/ml, respectively. The results of this study were indicated that serum FSH, LH and testosterone were significantly lower in cholestatic than control and sham groups (p=0.0195, P= 0.0029, and P=0.0023, respectively. However there was no significant difference in apoptotic index between all of groups (P=0.195. The apoptotic index in cholestatic, control and sham rats were 9.897± 1.374, 7.086 + 0.91, and 7.729 + 1.101, respectively. "nConclusion: These findings have been shown which as obstructive cholestasis was decreased the levels of serum gonadotropins and testosterone but it has no significant effector testicular germinal cells apoptosis."n"n"n"n 

  4. Testicular hormones do not regulate sexually dimorphic Pavlovian fear conditioning or perforant-path long-term potentiation in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaras, S G; Maren, S; DeCola, J P; Lane, N I; Gale, G D; Schlinger, B A; Fanselow, M S

    1998-04-01

    We recently reported that Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal perforant-path long-term potentiation (LTP) are sexually dimorphic in rats. Males show greater contextual fear conditioning, which depends on the hippocampus, as well as greater hippocampal LTP. In order to examine the role of circulating gonadal hormones in adult male rats, animals were castrated in two experiments, and Pavlovian fear conditioning and in vivo perforant-path LTP were examined. It was found that sexually-dimorphic LTP and fear conditioning are not regulated by the activational effects of testicular hormones in adult male rats. That is, in every respect, castrated male rats were similar to intact male rats in Pavlovian fear conditioning and hippocampal LTP. It is likely that sexual dimorphism in this system is established earlier in development by the organizational effects of gonadal hormones.

  5. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  6. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nozhat; Sanaz Alaee; Khodabakhsh Behzadi; Najmeh Azadi Chegini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C) and three experimental groups (I, II and III) received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility an...

  7. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

  8. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

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    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  9. Lactogenic and Cytogenetic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Adult Male Rats and Pups

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    Duraid A. Abbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic and cytogenic effects were studied for Ochratoxin (OTA dosed daily orally throughout lactation period to four groups each consist of newly parturated female rats at doses (0, 60, 120, 180 µg/Kg. BW representing control, T1, T2, T3 group. Micronucleus test results indicated significant increase in number of fragmented and budding nuclei of T1, T2, T3 adult rat bone marrow in dose dependent manner in comparison with control group. The lactating results show no significant change in weekly pup group’s weight gain or length throughout lactating period. Alough there were no changes recorded in viability index of all pups groups, lactating index recorded considerable decline in T1, T2, T3 pups groups according with their adult OTA doses with maximum pups death at the third lactating week. Different histopathological lesions observed in pups liver, kidney and spleen that increase in severity proportionally with their OTA mother doses.

  10. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight. The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

  12. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  13. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, A. I.; Offor, U.; Azu, O. O.; Akinloye, O.

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility. PMID:26516332

  14. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  15. Temperament moderates the influence of periadolescent social experience on behavior and adrenocortical activity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, M J; McClintock, M K; Cavigelli, S A

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant behavioral and physiological maturation, particularly related to stress responses. Animal studies that have tested the influence of adolescent social experiences on stress-related behavioral and physiological development have led to complex results. We used a rodent model of neophobia to test the hypothesis that the influence of adolescent social experience on adult behavior and adrenocortical function is modulated by pre-adolescent temperament. Exploratory activity was assessed in 53 male Sprague-Dawley rats to classify temperament and then they were housed in one of the three conditions during postnatal days (PND) 28-46: (1) with familiar kin, (2) with novel social partners, or (3) individually with no social partners. Effects on adult adrenocortical function were evaluated from fecal samples collected while rats were individually-housed and exposed to a 1-hour novel social challenge during PND 110-114. Adolescent-housing with novel or no social partners led to reduced adult glucocorticoid production compared to adolescent-housing with familiar littermates. Additionally, highly-exploratory pre-weanling rats that were housed with novel social partners during adolescence exhibited increased exploratory behavior and a more rapid return to basal glucocorticoid production in adulthood compared to those housed with familiar or no social partners during adolescence and compared to low-exploratory rats exposed to novel social partners. In sum, relatively short-term adolescent social experiences can cause transient changes in temperament and potentially longer-term changes in recovery of glucocorticoid production in response to adult social challenges. Furthermore, early temperament may modulate the influence of adolescent experiences on adult behavioral and adrenocortical function.

  16. Effect of Thymus vulgaris oil on some reproductive characters in adult male rats

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    S. J. Kakel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to show the effect of thymus vulgaris oil administration at (0.3, 0.6 ml/kg orally for 60 days on male fertility and epididymal sperms characters in male rats at age of 100 days. The animals treated with thyme oil at a dose of (0.6 ml revealed a significant decrease in the weight of testes, body of epididymis, percentage of live/dead sperms and epididymyal sperm count, with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. On the other hand the animals treated with thyme oil at a dose (0.3 ml show a significant decrease in the weight of body of epididymis, epididymal sperm count and the percentage of live/dead sperms accompanied with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. Its concluded from this study that thymus vulgaris has an inhibitory effect on reproductive system and spermatogenesis in mature male rats.

  17. Steroidogenesis in fetal male rats is reduced by DEHP and DINP, but endocrine effects of DEHP are not modulated by DEHA in fetal, prepubertal and adult male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Ladefoged, Ole; Hass, Ulla;

    2004-01-01

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) exhibits antiandrogenic effects in perinatally exposed male rats. Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) are currently being evaluated as potential substitutes for DEHP, but similarities in structure and metabolism of DEHP...

  18. Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M D; Cadete-Leite, A; Andrade, J P; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1991-12-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism upon the structure of the central nervous system of adult rats are poorly understood in spite of evidence that the mature brain is vulnerable to this condition. Existing developmental studies show that the morphological changes induced by thyroid hormone deficiency are related to alterations in neurogenesis. We studied the granular layer of the dentate gyrus under different experimental conditions of hypothyroidism, because in rodents the neurogenesis of the granule cells continues during adulthood. The following groups of rats were analysed: 1) control; 2) hypothyroid from day 0 until day 180 (hypothyroid group); 3) hypothyroid until day 30 and henceforth maintained euthyroid (recovery group); and 4) hypothyroid since day 30 (adult hypothyroid group). Groups of 6 male rats and 6 female rats were analysed separately. The volume of the dentate gyrus granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were evaluated, so we were able to estimate the total number of granule cells. Because in the experimental groups the volume of the granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were reduced, the total number of granule cells was decreased. In the hypothyroid and recovery groups the alterations were identical and more striking than in the adult hypothyroid groups. The total number of granule cells displayed sexual differences in all groups studied except in the hypothyroid groups. The present results support the view that thyroid hormone deficiency interferes with the process of cell acquisition by reducing neuronal proliferation and that it also leads to increased cell death. These events underlie the irreversible morphological changes observed in the brain of hypothyroid rats, either during development or at maturity. The referred structural alterations are probably related to the functional deficits observed in this condition. PMID:1797872

  19. Effects of aqueous root extract of Carpolobia alba G. Don on sexual behaviour in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmogne, H; Koloko, B; Hambe, C; Domkam, J; Ngaha Njila, M; Bend, E; Oundoum Oundoum, P; Massoma Lembè, D; Dimo, T

    2016-10-01

    Several lines say that a number of natural products, mostly plant based, have been claimed to cure male sexual dysfunction. One of such botanicals is Carpolobia alba G. Don which is used in Cameroon to treat erectile dysfunction and related male sexual debilities. However, the traditional claim has not been scientifically tested. Thirty adult male rats (five groups of six animals) were orally treated daily with distilled water, sildenafil citrate (positive control), 75, 150, 300 mg/kg of C. alba G. Don roots aqueous extract. The erection and ejaculation properties were recorded on the first, seventh and fourteenth day of treatment by following copulation settings: number of erections (NE), mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), average interval of copulation (AIC) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). The extract resulted in an improvement of copulation parameters through significant reduction (p erectile and pro-ejaculatory potential of aqueous root extract of this plant in male rats. PMID:27681647

  20. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  1. Adolescent nicotine exposure fails to impact cocaine reward, aversion and self-administration in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Bostwick, Tamaara A; Wetzell, B Bradley; Riley, Anthony L

    2015-10-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of adolescent nicotine pre-exposure on the rewarding and aversive effects of cocaine and on cocaine self-administration in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal days 28-43) were given once daily injections of nicotine (0.6mg/kg) or vehicle and then tested for the aversive and rewarding effects of cocaine in a combined conditioned taste avoidance (CTA)/conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure in adulthood. In Experiment 2, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-exposed to nicotine then tested for cocaine self-administration (0.25 or 0.75mg/kg), progressive ratio (PR) responding, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement in adulthood. In Experiment 1, rats showed significant dose-dependent cocaine-induced taste avoidance with cocaine-injected subjects consuming less saccharin over trials, but no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. For place preferences, cocaine induced significant place preferences with cocaine injected subjects spending significantly more time on the cocaine-paired side, but again there was no effect of nicotine history. All rats in Experiment 2 showed clear, dose-dependent responding during cocaine acquisition, PR testing, extinction and reinstatement with no effect of nicotine pre-exposure. These studies demonstrate that adolescent nicotine pre-exposure does not have an impact on cocaine's affective properties or its self-administration at least with the specific parametric conditions under which these effects were tested. PMID:26255152

  2. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  3. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  4. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  5. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed. PMID:27604865

  6. Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  7. Effects of alcohol on pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion in the adult male rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, T.M.; Abdallah, M.M.; Hayden, J.B. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1989-02-09

    To determine possible hypothalamic actions of alcohol on hormone secretion, the effects of acute intragastric alcohol on plasma LH and FSH pulsations were studied. One jugular and one intragastric cannula were surgically implanted into adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Eight days later, rats were bilaterally castrated at 1400 h and infused intragastrically with either saline or 3 g/kg ethanol between 0700 h 0800 h the next days. Blood samples (300 microliters) were collected every 5 min for 3 h (starting at 0800 h), centrifuged and the plasma was frozen for LH and FSH radioimmunoassay. The blood cells were resuspended in saline and returned to the animal immediately following the next sample collection. While the mean plasma LH or FSH concentration did not vary significantly between the alcohol-treated and saline-treated rats, the mean LH (but not FSH) pulse frequency was lower in ethanol-treated rats (3.3 {plus minus} 0.25 pulses/3 h) than saline-treated controls (7.2 {plus minus} 0.3 pulses/3 h). In addition, mean area under the OH pulses were significantly greater in ethanol-treated than saline controls. These data suggest that: (1) ethanol acts to reduce the frequency of LHRH release for the hypothalamus and increase the area under each LH pulse; and (2) LH and FSH secretion are differentially regulated.

  8. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — behavioral measures of learning and memory in adult offspring of rats treated with thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil. Electrophysiological...

  9. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  10. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nozhat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C and three experimental groups (I, II and III received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration were measured, and reproductive tissues were examined histopathologically. To evaluate the effects of spearmint on fertility of male rats and growth of their offspring, male rats of the control and experimental groups mated with untreated female rats. Results: Results showed that spearmint did not affect the rats’ body and reproductive tissue weights. The sperm count, fast and slow progressive motility of sperm and serum testosterone concentration decreased while number of non-progressive sperm and immotile sperm increased in the experimental groups compared to the control group, but none of these changes were statistically significant. Histopathological studies showed no severe changes in reproductive tissues between control and experimental groups. Number and growth of offspring born from mating of male rats with untreated female rats showed no difference. Conclusion: We concluded that spearmint has no significant toxic effect on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats at the above  mentioned dose levels. However high levels of this extract may have adverse effects on male fertility.

  11. The effect of MDMA-induced anxiety on neuronal apoptosis in adult male rats' hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, S; Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J

    2014-01-01

    Ecstasy or MDMA as a psychoactive drug and hallucinogen is considered one of the most commonly used drugs in the world. This psychotropic substance is discussed both as sexually stimulating and reducing fear and anxiety. Amphetamines also destroy neurons in some brain areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MDMA on anxiety and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Forty-two male Wistar rats of mean weight 200-220 g were used and distributed into six groups [control, control-saline, and experimental groups (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg)]. Rats in experimental groups received MDMA at different doses for seven days by intraperitoneal injection and the control-saline group received saline (1 ml/kg); anxiety was then investigated by plus-maze test. Forty-eight hours after behavioural testing brains were taken from animals and fixed, and after tissue processing, slices were stained with TUNEL kit for apoptotic cells. The area densities of apoptotic neurons were measured throughout the hippocampus and compared in all groups (P Physiological studies showed that 1.25 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg doses caused anti-anxiety behaviour and 5 and 10 mg/kg doses of MDMA caused anxietylike behaviour. Moreover, our histological study showed that ecstasy increased apoptotic cell numbers and the highest increase was observed with the 10 mg/kg dose of MDMA. We concluded that MDMA can cause different responses of anxiety-like behaviour in different doses. This phenomenon causes a different ratio of apoptosis in hippocampal formation. Reduction of anxiety-like behaviour induced by the 2.5 mg/kg dose of MDMA can control apoptosis. PMID:25152052

  12. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Hosseinchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05. The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins.

  13. Chronic crude garlic-feeding modified adult male rat testicular markers: mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El May Michèle V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Garlic or Allium sativum (As shows therapeutic effects such as reduction of blood pressure or hypercholesterolemia but side-effects on reproductive functions remain poorly investigated. Because of garlic's chemical complexity, the processing methods and yield in preparations differ in efficacy and safety. In this context, we clarify the mechanisms of action of crushed crude garlic on testicular markers. Methods During one month of treatment, 24 male rats were fed 5%, 10% and 15% crude garlic. Results We showed that crude garlic-feeding induced apoptosis in testicular germ cells (spermatocytes and spermatids. This cell death process was characterized by increased levels of active CASP3 but not CASP6. Expression of the caspase inhibitors BIRC3 and BIRC2 was increased at all doses of As while expression of XIAP and BIRC5 was unchanged. Moreover, expression of the IAP inhibitor DIABLO was increased at doses 10% and 15% of As. The germ cell death process induced by As might be related to a decrease in testosterone production because of the reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a, Hsd3b5 and Hsd17b. Evaluation of Sertoli markers showed that TUBB3 and GSTA2 expression was unchanged. In contrast, AMH, RHOX5 and CDKN1B expression was decreased while GATA4 expression was increased. Conclusion In summary, we showed that feeding with crude garlic inhibited Leydig steroidogenic enzyme expression and Sertoli cell markers. These alterations might induce apoptosis in testicular germ cells.

  14. Effect of Excess Iodine on Oxidative Stress Markers, Steroidogenic-Enzyme Activities, Testicular Morphology, and Functions in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Mandal, Jagadis; Mondal, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sabyasachi; Chandra, Amar K

    2016-08-01

    Improper iodine intake is a major concern in public health. Chronic intake of low iodine affects gonadal functions of man and animals; however, such effects of excess iodine in male reproduction, specially on testicular morphology, testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities, sperm morphology, sperm viability, and sperm count including male hormonal profiles in reference to iodine status and thyroid hormone profiles are yet to be explored. With this background, adult male rats of 120 ± 10 gm Bw of 90 ± 5 days were divided broadly in two groups depending on the duration of the treatment for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Both the groups consisted of control animals. Excess iodine (100EI), i.e., 100 times more than its recommended level but within its tolerable ranges, was administered through gavage regularly to the first group of experimental animals for 30 and 60 days, respectively, and excessive iodine (500EI), i.e., 500 times more than its recommended level and above tolerable range in the same way and for the same durations, was administered to the other group of experimental animals. Overall results revealed that regular consumption of iodine in excess impairs reproductive functions in adult male rats depending on the dose and duration of its exposure through different mechanisms. Excess iodine accumulates in the testis which results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as evidenced by higher lipid peroxidation level as well as an imbalance in the pro-/antioxidant status inhibiting the activity of ∆(5) 3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD resulting to reduced synthesis of testosterone that causes structural and functional changes of the testis. Secondly, persistent generation of ROS in testis as a result of prolonged excess iodine exposure affects hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis that stimulates synthesis and secretion of corticosterone which inhibits LH release that downregulates testosterone synthesis causing further

  15. Projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus: differential effects of chronic khat and ethanol exposure in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alele, Paul E; Matovu, Daniel; Imanirampa, Lawrence; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Kasule, Gyaviira T

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that many individuals who chew khat recreationally also drink ethanol to offset the stimulating effect of khat. The objective of this study was to describe the separate and interactive effects of chronic ethanol and khat exposure on key projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus of young adult male rats. Methods Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six treatment groups: 2 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg ethanol, combined khat and ethanol (4 g/kg each), a normal saline control, and an untreated group. Treatments were administered orally for 28 continuous days; brains were then harvested, sectioned, and routine hematoxylin–eosin staining was done. Following photomicrography, ImageJ® software captured data regarding neuron number and size. Results No differences occurred in counts of both granular and pyramidal projection neurons in the motor cortex and all four subfields of the hippocampal formation. Khat dose-dependently increased pyramidal neuron size in the motor cortex and the CA3 region, but had different effects on granular neuron size in the dentate gyrus and the motor cortex. Mean pyramidal neuron size for the ethanol-only treatment was larger than that for the 2 g/kg khat group, and the saline control group, in CA3 and in the motor cortex. Concomitant khat and ethanol increased granular neuron size in the motor cortex, compared to the 2 g/kg khat group, the 4 g/kg khat group, and the 4 g/kg ethanol group. In the CA3 region, the 4 g/kg ethanol group showed a larger mean pyramidal neuron size than the combined khat and ethanol group. Conclusion These results suggest that concomitant khat and ethanol exposure changes granular and pyramidal projection neuron sizes differentially in the motor cortex and hippocampus, compared to the effects of chronic exposure to these two drugs separately.

  16. Effects of Calendula officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood sugar, LDL, HDL and Total cholesterol in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Adult male wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahmoodi; A. Azimi; Shahidi, S

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: It’s very important to decrease the glucose level and lipid’s serum in diabetes patients by using medicinal plants. In the present study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Calendula officinalis on blood glucose, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol in diabetic rats was examined. Methods: In this experimental study, thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, diabetic and diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Calendula officinalis (100, 150...

  17. Eating High Fat Chow Decreases Dopamine Clearance in Adolescent and Adult Male Rats but Selectively Enhances the Locomotor Stimulating Effects of Cocaine in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Horton, Rebecca E.; Owens, William A.; Lynette C Daws; France, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Feeding conditions can influence dopamine neurotransmission and impact behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters the locomotor effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter activity in adolescent (postnatal day 25) and adult (postnatal day 75) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Dose-response curves for cocaine-induced locomotor activity were generated in rats with free access to either standard o...

  18. The interaction of steroids with the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular system in the adult male rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.L.L. Verjans

    1976-01-01

    textabstractMajor functions of the mature male gonad are the production of gametes and steroid hormones. Extratesticular as well as intratesticular factors regulate these two male gonadal functions which are associated with two distinct cell compartments in the testis. It has been known for a long t

  19. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  20. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  1. Bisphenol A Prevents the Synaptogenic Response to Testosterone in the Brain of Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leranth, Csaba; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; MacLusky, Neil J.; Hajszan, Tibor

    2007-01-01

    Exposure measurement data from several developed countries indicate that human beings are widely exposed to low levels of the synthetic xenoestrogen, bisphenol A. We reported previously that bisphenol A, even at doses below the reference safe daily limit for human exposure, recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, impairs the synaptogenic response to 17β-estradiol in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Recent experiments revealed that bisphenol A also interferes with andro...

  2. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M; McCool, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions.

  3. The Effect of Zonisamide on Sex Hormones Level and Testis Histological Changes in Adult MaleRat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mallaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: Zonisamide is an inhibitor for glutamate neurotransmitter and gamma aminobutiric acid (GABA-mediators. It also increases the total levels of serotonin. According to the importance of this drug in psychotherapy, its side effects on the endocrine system seem to be very important. This study was aimed to determine the effects of zonisamide on pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Wistar rats were divided in five groups of ten. The control group did not receive any medical treatment. The sham group received 1 ml distilled water as a solvent and three experimental groups were treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/ kg of zonisamide orally for 28 days.At the day of 29, blood samples and preparation of tissue section were taken from all groups. Serum concentrations of hormones were measured via Radio Immuno Assay (RIA. Using the SPSS software, the results were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that 100 and 200(mg/kg.b.w of zonisamide could reduce the serum level of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, while it increased the LH concentration. It should be noted that 200(mg/kg.b.w of drug also enhanced the FSH level (P<0/001. Also, a considerable decline was observed in spermatogenesis chain at high doses of zonisamide. Conclusion: This study showed that high doses of zonisamide decrease the serum concentration of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and the number of spermatogenic cells. It also increased the serum FSH and LH levels. Therefore, it is proposed that zonisamide may decrease the function of reproductive activity. Key words: Zonisamide, Reproduction, Rat

  4. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (pprolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (pobesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  5. Effects of butternut squash extract on dentate gyrus cell proliferation and spatial learning in male adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohsen Marzban; Sara Soleimani Asl; Hassan Fallah Huseini; Mahdi Tondar; Samira Choopani; Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies reported that some plants, including butternut squash, exert positive effects on the brain. However, few studies have examined the effects of butternut squash on learning, memory, and neurogenesis. This study studied the effects of butternut squash extract on spatial learning and cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of healthy male rats. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were intrap-eritoneally injected with 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg butternut squash extract once daily for 2 months. After the last administration, rat's spatial memory was studied using the Morris water maze. Finally, rats were sacrificed and hippocampal sections were prepared for light microscopy and bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry studies. The results revealed that escape latency and swim distance decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control rats, and that the number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly increased in the treatment groups compared with the controls. These findings suggest that butternut squash extract improves the learning and memory abilities of male rats, and increases the proliferation of dentate gyrus cells.

  6. Effect of salvia a Egyptiaca extract on serotoninergic system and cortisol in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract with a dose of 2 g/kg body weight (0.5 ml solution /rat) for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in tryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in all tested brain areas, almost allover the experimental period. Also, it caused significant decrease in serum cortisol level. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the extract of Salvia egyptiaca may affect GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, that eventually inhibit the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) which consequently caused decrease in serum cortisol level. The low level of cortisol inhibits the tryptophan pyrrolase activity resulting in an increase of the peripheral availability of tryptophan for 5-HT synthesis in brain. Accordingly, 5-HT content as well as its metabolite 5-HIAA were increased

  7. Low dose nicotine self-administration is reduced in adult male rats naïve to high doses of nicotine: Implications for nicotine product standards

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tracy T.; Schassburger, Rachel L.; Buffalari, Deanne M.; Sved, Alan F.; Donny, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Product standards that greatly reduce the content of nicotine within cigarettes may result in improved public health. The present study used an animal model to investigate whether individuals who start smoking following implementation of regulation may be affected differently from current smokers who form the basis of most clinical studies. One group of adult male rats (n=14/group) acquired nicotine self-administration at a high nicotine dose (60 μg/kg/infusion) before experiencing a reductio...

  8. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

  9. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  10. Glutamate-induced obesity leads to decreased sperm reserves and acceleration of transit time in the epididymis of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Glaura SA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the established fact that obesity interferes with male reproductive functions, the present study aimed to evaluate sperm production in the testis and storage in the epididymis in a glutamate-induced model of obesity. Methods Male rats were treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate (MSG at doses of 4 mg/kg subcutaneously, or with saline solution (control group, on postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. On day 120, obesity was confirmed by the Lee index in all MSG-treated rats. After this, all animals from the two experimental groups were anesthetized and killed to evaluate body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma hormone levels (FSH, LH and testosterone, testicular and epididymal histo-morphometry and histopathology. Results Significant reductions in absolute and relative weights of testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle were noted in MSG-treated animals. In these same animals plasma testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH concentrations were decreased, as well as sperm counts in the testis and epididymis and seminiferous epithelium height and tubular diameter. The sperm transit time was accelerated in obese rats. However, the number of Sertoli cells per seminiferous tubule and stereological findings on the epididymis were not markedly changed by obesity. Conclusions Neonatal MSG-administered model of obesity lowers sperm production and leads to a reduction in sperm storage in the epididymis of adult male rats. The acceleration of sperm transit time can have implications for the sperm quality of these rats.

  11. Effect of the aqueous extract of dry fruits of Piper guineense on the reproductive function of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbongue F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of the aqueous extract of Piper guineense (Piperaceae on male reproductive function in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats, 3 months old, weighing 180-210 g were administered (by gastric intubation the aqueous extract of dry fruits of Piper guineense at two doses, 122.5 and 245 mg/kg for 8 days and 122.5 mg/kg for 55 days. The control group received distilled water for the same duration. Animals were sacrificed and the blood, testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate were collected for biochemical analyses. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the level of testosterone in the serum and testes, cholesterol in the testes, α-glucosidase in the epididymis and fructose in the seminal vesicles after 8 days of treatment, while with 55 days of treatment, the levels of cholesterol in the testes increased by 75%, while the levels of α-glucosidase in the epididymis and the seminal vesicle fructose decreased by 24 and 21% respectively. On the other hand, there was a 20% reduction of fertility in the P. guineense-treated rats after 55 days of treatment. CONCLUSION: The aqueous extract of P. guineense at both doses (122.5 and 245 mg/kg had a positive impact on the male reproductive function since it stimulated the secretions of the testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles. The use of P. guineense could negatively influence male fertility.

  12. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours. PMID:26238258

  13. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  14. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  15. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia; Lucía, Martínez-Mota

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  16. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors.

  17. Effects of ethanol during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, W A; Sadowski, R N; Sherrill, L K; Gulley, J M; Juraska, J M

    2012-07-23

    Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, the number of neurons and glia is changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the adult mPFC and BLN in Long-Evans male and female rats. Saline or 3g/kg ethanol was administered between postnatal days (P) 35-45 in a binge-like pattern, with 2days of injections followed by 1 day without an injection. Stereological analyses of the ventral mPFC (prelimbic and infralimbic areas) and the BLN were performed on brains from rats at 100 days of age. Neuron and glia densities were assessed with the optical disector and then multiplied by the volume to calculate the total number of neurons and glia. In the adult mPFC, ethanol administration during adolescence resulted in a decreased number of glia in males, but not females, and had no effect on the number of neurons. Adolescent ethanol exposure had no effects on glia or neuron number in the BLN. These results suggest that glia cells in the prefrontal cortex are particularly sensitive to binge-like exposure to ethanol during adolescence in male rats only, potentially due to a decrease in proliferation in males or protective mechanisms in females. PMID:22627163

  18. Effect of perinatal synthetic steroid hormone (allylestrenol, diethylstilbestrol) treatment (hormonal imprinting) on the bone mineralization of the adult male and female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabélyos, C; Horváth, C; Holló, I; Csaba, G

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal treatment with allylestrenol or diethylstilbestrol (DES) reduced the bone mineral content (BMC/bw) of the adult (four months old) female rats, without influencing bone mineral density (BMD/bw). In males these neonatal treatments elevated BMC and BMD alike. Ovariectomy alone decreased BMC and BMD alike; however the neonatal hormone treatments did not influence this reduced value. Ovariectomy of two months old animals increased body weight without the influence of neonatal hormone treatments. In adult males, the body weight was reduced significantly by neonatal DES and non-significantly by neonatal allylestrenol treatment. The experiments call attention to the possible human bone-effects of allylestrenol, which was used in the last decades as medication protecting endangered pregnancies. PMID:10075115

  19. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  20. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Pedro; Silva, Roxana A.; Sanguinetti, Nicole K.; Venegas, Francisca C.; Riquelme, Raul; González, Luis F.; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M.; Moya, Pablo R.; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL); DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL); EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL); and control (sesame oil of 50 μL). At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase) and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity) studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area. PMID:26904299

  1. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL; DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL; EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL; and control (sesame oil of 50 μL. At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area.

  2. Protective effect of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, S; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Tameh, A A; Taherian, A; Moravveji, A

    2014-10-01

    Cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide (CP) may result in reproductive toxicity as one of its side effects. The pumpkin seed is a rich natural source of antioxidant. We have assessed the possible protective efficacy of pumpkin seed extract on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were categorised into four groups. Group 1 served as control and received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isotonic saline solution. Group 2 rats were treated with CP by IP injection in a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, only once. Group 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg pumpkin seed extract respectively. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were examined. Results showed that, sperm characteristics in CP-treated rats were significantly decreased. Biochemical analysis results showed that the co-administration of 300 mg pumpkin seed extract could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly. In CP-treated rats, histopathological changes such as vacuolisation, disorganisation and separation of epididymal epithelium were observed as well. Interestingly, pumpkin seed extract could improve the above-mentioned parameters remarkably in CP-treated rats. Our findings indicated that pumpkin seed extract might be used as protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:24124763

  3. Radioprotective and Anti-infertility Role of Resveratrol in Adult Male Rats Exposed to Whole-body ?-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAMMA-Radiation destroys the process of spermatogenesis and even leads to male infertility. Moreover, seminal oxidative stress is known to end in per oxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of its DNA integrity. Man infertility is defined as one year of regular and unprotected intercourse without conception. Plants provide a treatment option that is affordable and available for infertile couples and phyto therapy is an essential form of treatment in nowadays health system. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural phytoalexin with a wide range of biological activities. Male rats were divided into six groups under investigation, each of six animals. Control group, two RSV groups which received intra gastric RSV (20 and 40 mg kg-1 day-1) for 7 weeks, irradiated group (2 Gy gamma-rays) and two irradiated and RSV groups which received the same preceding doses of RSV for the same period after 2 Gy gamma-rays exposure. Hormonal assay in serum; testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin were recorded for fertility assessment. The abnormalities occurred in the reproductive system of the irradiated rats were evaluated: Chromosomal aberration frequencies in spermatocytes, metaphase-1, sperm-head abnormalities and oxidative parameters in testes tissue; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO). Also, the findings suggest that the anti-fertility effect of melatonin was proved to be transient and reversed completely or in part at the end of the second recovery period. The results showed that RSV has a curative role against the oxidative stress involved by gamma-rays in the rats and showed a significant improvement on the male reproductive functions.

  4. The effects of prepubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethano...

  5. Ameliorative effect of quercetin against arsenic-induced sperm DNA damage and daily sperm production in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sarwat; Rehman, Saima; Ullah, Hizb; Munawar, Asma; Ain, Qurat Ul; Iqbal, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the protective effect of quercetin was evaluated against arsenic induced reproductive ailments in male rats. For this purpose, male rats (n = 5/group) weighing 180-250 g were used. First group served as control, second group received arsenic (50 ppm) in drinking water. Third group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) alone, while fourth group received arsenic + quercetin. All treatments were carried out for 49 days. After treatment, animals were killed by decapitation; testis and epididymis were dissected out. Right epididymis was minced immediately for comet assay, while left epididymis was processed for histology. Similarly, right testis was homogenized for estimation of daily sperm production (DSP) and detection of metal concentration. The results of our research revealed that arsenic treatment did not cause any significant change in body weight and testicular volume. Quercetin treatment significantly prevented tissue deposition of arsenic within the testis. Arsenic treatment caused a significant reduction in DSP, however, in the arsenic + quercetin-treated group and quercetin alone-treated group, DSP was significantly high as compared to the arsenic-treated group. Histological study of epididymis showed empty lumen in arsenic-treated group while in arsenic + quercetin-treated group and quercetin alone-treated group, lumen were filled with sperm and were comparable to control. Sperm DNA damage, induced by arsenic, was significantly reversed toward control levels by supplementation of quercetin. These results suggest that quercetin not only prevents deposition of arsenic in tissues, but can also protect the sperm DNA damage.

  6. Fluoxetine induces changes in the testicle and testosterone in adult male rats exposed via placenta and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Filho, Waldo Oliveira; de Torres, Sandra Maria; Amorim, Marleyne José Afonso Accioly Lins; Andrade, Anderson Joel Martino; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-10-01

    Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression in pregnant and nursing women. However, recent studies have shown adverse effects in the male reproductive system after fluoxetine treatment. Aiming to analyze the extent of damage caused by fluoxetine in the testicle and safe doses for treatment during the perinatal period, the present study analyzed the effects of in utero exposure and exposure during lactation to fluoxetine in spermatogenesis of male rat offspring in adulthood. Wistar rat dams were orally treated with fluoxetine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) from 13 days of gestation to lactation day 21 and their offspring were analyzed at 90 days old. Results showed a reduction in the weight of testes (16%), epididymis (28%), and seminal glands (18%) in animals exposed to fluoxetine 20 mg/kg compared to the control. Seminal gland weight was also reduced 25% and 30% in animals exposed to 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg fluoxetine, respectively. Body weight of animals exposed to 20 mg/kg fluoxetine was reduced from post-natal day 9 to 36 compared to controls but from the post-natal day 9 to 36 there was no statistical difference. The volume of seminiferous epithelium reduced 17% and the total volume of Leydig cells reduced 30% in the group exposed to fluoxetine at 20 mg/kg. Furthermore, Leydig cells volume reduced 29% in the 5 mg/kg group. The length of the seminiferous tubules reduced 17% and daily sperm production per testicle also reduced 18% in animals exposed to the highest dose of fluoxetine compared to controls. The individual area of Leydig cells increased 7% and plasma testosterone increased 49% in animals exposed to fluoxetine at 20 mg/kg. In conclusion, exposure to 20 mg/kg fluoxetine via the placenta and during lactation may change testosterone and testicular parameters important for sperm production and male fertility in adulthood.

  7. Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on The Toxicity and Distribution of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride in Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility of whether the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) has a protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity and distribution of 14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex) of adult male albino rats for determination of distribution of 14C-CCl4 and monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5- HT)) and also estimation of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of 14C-CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of counted 14C in all tested brain areas all over the experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 1'4C-CCl4 injection resulted in a significant reduction (P14C in tested areas. The maximum reduction was observed in cerebral cortex on 1st day (-40.91%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4 . The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period. This may be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. Data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4 .

  8. The effects of prepubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5–20% w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood. PMID:20816899

  9. The effects of pre-pubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K; Koss, Wendy A; Foreman, Emily S; Gulley, Joshua M

    2011-01-20

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long-Evans rats around post-natal day (P) 20. From P35-45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5-20%, w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood. PMID:20816899

  10. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  11. Evaluation of the Antinociceptive Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Potentilla Reptans L. in the Adult Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahmoodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plants have been a focus of attention to researchers due to their fewer side effects in treating diseases comared to chemical drugs. Some health properties of medicinal plants such as anti-hypercholesterolemia and antioxidant effects of Potentilla reptans have been proven. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and analgesic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Potentilla reptans L. (HEP in the male rat. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male rats were divided into 6 groups, including: control group (normal saline, morphine group (1mg/kg, HEP groups (treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, and naloxone group (200 mg/kg. Writhing, formalin and tail-flick tests were used to evaluate the analgesic effects of the extract. In order to analyze the study data, variance and Tukey test were applied. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that in writhing test (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively, formalin test (P<0.05, P<0.001 and tail-flick test (P<0.05, P<0.01; the injection of 50, and 100mg/kg dose of the extract produced significant analgesic effects compared with the control group.  50mg/kg dose of Naloxone injection extract has shown a significant analgesic effect in the formalin test (P<0.05. In addition, the effect of the analgesic dose of 100mg/kg of the extract in formalin test was similar to that of morphine. Conclusions: The findings of the current study revealed that Potentilla reptans L. (HEP has a significant analgesic effect. Opioid pathway seems to be one of the possible mechanisms of extract effects, which further clinical trials are recommended  in this case.

  12. Ameliorative effect of quercetin against arsenic-induced sperm DNA damage and daily sperm production in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sarwat; Rehman, Saima; Ullah, Hizb; Munawar, Asma; Ain, Qurat Ul; Iqbal, Tariq

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the protective effect of quercetin was evaluated against arsenic induced reproductive ailments in male rats. For this purpose, male rats (n = 5/group) weighing 180-250 g were used. First group served as control, second group received arsenic (50 ppm) in drinking water. Third group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) alone, while fourth group received arsenic + quercetin. All treatments were carried out for 49 days. After treatment, animals were killed by decapitation; testis and epididymis were dissected out. Right epididymis was minced immediately for comet assay, while left epididymis was processed for histology. Similarly, right testis was homogenized for estimation of daily sperm production (DSP) and detection of metal concentration. The results of our research revealed that arsenic treatment did not cause any significant change in body weight and testicular volume. Quercetin treatment significantly prevented tissue deposition of arsenic within the testis. Arsenic treatment caused a significant reduction in DSP, however, in the arsenic + quercetin-treated group and quercetin alone-treated group, DSP was significantly high as compared to the arsenic-treated group. Histological study of epididymis showed empty lumen in arsenic-treated group while in arsenic + quercetin-treated group and quercetin alone-treated group, lumen were filled with sperm and were comparable to control. Sperm DNA damage, induced by arsenic, was significantly reversed toward control levels by supplementation of quercetin. These results suggest that quercetin not only prevents deposition of arsenic in tissues, but can also protect the sperm DNA damage. PMID:26524343

  13. Recruitment of hypothalamic orexin neurons after formalin injections in adult male rats exposed to a neonatal immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jane Campbell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to early life physiological stressors, such as infection, is thought to contribute to the onset of psychopathology in adulthood. In animal models, injections of the bacterial immune challenge, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, during the neonatal period has been shown to alter both neuroendocrine function and behavioural pain responses in adulthood. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests a role for the lateral hypothalamic peptide orexin in stress and nociceptive processing. However, whether neonatal LPS exposure affects the reactivity of the orexin system to formalin-induced inflammatory pain in later life remains to be determined. Male Wistar rats (n=13 were exposed to either LPS or saline (0.05mg/kg, i.p on postnatal days (PND 3 and 5. On PND 80-97, all rats were exposed to a subcutaneous hindpaw injection of 2.25% formalin. Following behavioural testing, animals were perfused and brains processed for Fos-protein and orexin immunohistochemistry. Rats treated with LPS during the neonatal period exhibited decreased licking behaviours during the interphase of the formalin test, the period typically associated with the active inhibition of pain, and increased grooming responses to formalin in adulthood. Interestingly, these behavioural changes were accompanied by an increase in the percentage of Fos-positive orexin cells in the dorsomedial and perifornical hypothalamus in LPS-exposed animals. Similar increases in Fos-protein were also observed in stress and pain sensitive brain regions that receive orexinergic inputs. These findings highlight a potential role for orexin in the behavioural responses to pain and provide further evidence that early life stress can prime the circuitry responsible for these responses in adulthood.

  14. Brief maternal exposure of rats to the xenobiotics dibutyl phthalate or diethylstilbestrol alters adult-type Leydig cell development in male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Ivell; Kee Heng; Helen Nicholson; Ravinder Anand-Ivell

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development,referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome.It is not known,however,whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype.In this study,Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window,and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters.All offspring remained in good health throughout the study.Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring,particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty,with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values,and a modest acceleration of the pubertal trajectory.Part of this effect appeared to be due to a treatment-specific impact on Leydig cell proliferation during puberty for both xenobiotics.Taken together,these results support the notion that maternal exposure to certain xenobiotics can also influence the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population,possibly through an effect on the Leydig stem cell population.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during late embryogenesis results in diminished locomotor activity and amphetamine response in females and spatial cognition impairment in males in adult, but not adolescent rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, Bojan; Santrač, Anja; Divović, Branka; Timić, Tamara; Stanković, Tamara; Obradović, Aleksandar Lj; Joksimović, Srđan; Savić, Miroslav M

    2016-02-15

    Numerous basic and epidemiological studies have connected prenatal maternal immune activation with the occurrence of schizophrenia and/or autism. Depending on subtle differences in protocols of the used animal model, a variety of behavioral abnormalities has been reported. This study investigated behavioral differences in Wistar rat offspring of both genders, exposed to the 100 μg/kg per day dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in late embryogenesis (embryonic days 15 and 16), while tested at their adolescent and young adult age (postnatal days 40 and 60, respectively). Immune activation was confirmed by detecting high levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in dam blood withdrawn 2h after the first dose of LPS. The animals were assessed in three consecutive trials of locomotor activity (novelty exploration, response to i.p. saline injection and challenge with 0.5mg/kg amphetamine), Morris water maze and social interaction tests. Overt behavioral dysfunction was perceived in adult rats only, and these changes were gender-distinctive. When compared with control rats, LPS females displayed baseline hypolocomotion and a decreased reactivity to amphetamine, while LPS males exhibited spatial learning (acquisition trials) and memory (probe trial) impairments. Prenatal treatment did not affect the time spent in social interaction. As maternal exposure to LPS in late gestation resulted in behavioral changes in offspring in early adulthood, it may model schizophrenia-like, but not autism-like endophenotypes. However, lack of a potentiated response to amphetamine testified that this model could not mimic positive symptoms, but rather certain traits of cognitive dysfunction and deficit symptoms, in males and females, respectively. PMID:26620494

  16. Estrogen receptor β and oxytocin interact to modulate anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine stress reactivity in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudwa, Andrea E; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2014-04-22

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated in response to stressors and is controlled by neurons residing in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Although gonadal steroid hormones can influence HPA reactivity to stressors, the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is known, however, that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) inhibits HPA reactivity and decreases anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Since ERβ is co-expressed with oxytocin (OT) in neurons of the PVN, an ERβ-selective agonist was utilized to test the whether ERβ decreases stress-induced HPA reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors via an OTergic pathway. Adult gonadectomized male and female rats were administered diarylpropionitrile, or vehicle, peripherally for 5days. When tested for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), diarylpropionitrile-treated males and females significantly increased time on the open arm of the EPM compared to vehicle controls indicating that ERβ reduces anxiety-like behaviors. One week after behavioral evaluation, rats were subjected to a 20minute restraint stress. Treatment with diarylpropionitrile reduced CORT and ACTH responses in both males and females. Subsequently, another group of animals was implanted with cannulae directed at the lateral ventricle. One week later, rats underwent the same protocol as above but with the additional treatment of intracerebroventricular infusion with an OT antagonist (des Gly-NH2 d(CH2)5 [Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4)] OVT) or VEH, 20min prior to behavioral evaluation. OT antagonist treatment blocked the effects of diarylpropionitrile on the display of anxiety-like behaviors and plasma CORT levels. These data indicate that ERβ and OT interact to modulate the HPA reactivity and the display of anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:24631553

  17. Trans and interesterified fat and palm oil during the pregnancy and lactation period inhibit the central anorexigenic action of insulin in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kenia Pereira; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Letícia; da Silva Soares de Souza, Érica; Mucci, Daniela; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; de Albuquerque, Kelse Tibau; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fatima Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil and interesterified fat have been used to replace partially hydrogenated fats, rich in trans isomers, in processed foods. This study investigated whether the maternal consumption of normolipidic diets containing these lipids affects the insulin receptor and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) contents in the hypothalamus and the hypophagic effect of centrally administered insulin in 3-month-old male offspring. At 90 days, the intracerebroventricular injection of insulin decreased 24-h feeding in control rats but not in the palm, interesterified or trans groups. The palm group exhibited increases in the insulin receptor content of 64 and 69 % compared to the control and trans groups, respectively. However, the quantifications of PKB did not differ significantly across groups. We conclude that the intake of trans fatty acid substitutes during the early perinatal period affects food intake regulation in response to centrally administered insulin in the young adult offspring; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

  18. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

  19. Protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and ginger extracts on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Somaieh; Nikzad, Hossein; Mahabadi, Javad Amini; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azami-Tameh, Abolfazl; Taherian, Aliakbar; Sajjadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajjad; Kamani, Mehran

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive toxicity is one of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in cancer treatment. Pumpkin seeds and Zingiber officinale are natural sources of antioxidants. We investigated the possible protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extracts on sperm characteristics, epididymal histology and biochemical parameters of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1, as a control, received an isotonic saline solution injection intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 were injected IP with a single dose of CP (100 mg/kg) once. Groups 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract (50:50). Groups 5 and 6 received only 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and biochemical parameters were assessed. In CP-treated rats, motile spermatozoa were decreased, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.001) but administration of the mixed extract improved sperm parameters. Epididymal epithelium and fibromascular thickness were also improved in extract-treated rats compared to control or CP groups. Biochemical analysis showed that the administration of combined extracts could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the mixed extract could decrease most of the side effects of CP such as vacuolization and separation of epididymal tissue. Our findings indicated that the combined extracts might be used as a protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26714700

  20. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  1. Salvia aegyptiaca as a Potential Herb for Ameliorating the Acute Toxicity Induced by Fenvalerate in Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T3 and T4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T3 and T4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the

  2. Exercise is More Effective at Altering Gut Microbial Composition and Producing Stable Changes in Lean Mass in Juvenile versus Adult Male F344 Rats.

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    Agnieszka Mika

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem that influences many aspects of host physiology. Exposure to specific microbes early in development affects host metabolism, immune function, and behavior across the lifespan. Just as the physiology of the developing organism undergoes a period of plasticity, the developing microbial ecosystem is characterized by instability and may also be more sensitive to change. Early life thus presents a window of opportunity for manipulations that produce adaptive changes in microbial composition. Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species. We therefore investigated whether six weeks of wheel running initiated in the juvenile period (postnatal day 24 would produce more robust and stable changes in microbial communities versus exercise initiated in adulthood (postnatal day 70 in male F344 rats. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial composition of juvenile versus adult runners and their sedentary counterparts across multiple time points during exercise and following exercise cessation. Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability. Juvenile onset exercise altered several phyla and, notably, increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes, a configuration associated with leanness. At the genus level of taxonomy, exercise altered more genera in juveniles than in the adults and produced patterns associated with adaptive metabolic consequences. Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners. Interestingly, exercise produced persistent increases in lean body mass in juvenile but not adult runners. Taken together, these results indicate that the impact of exercise on gut microbiota

  3. The effects of co-administration of opium and morphine with nicotine during pregnancy on spatial learning and memory of adult male offspring rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Sepehri; Shahrnaz Parsania; Mousa‐Al‐Reza Hajzadeh; Tahereh Haghpanah; Vahid Sheibani; Kouros Divsalar; Shahnaz Shekarforoush; Mohammad Reza Afarinesh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Smoking opium/cigarette is a global health concern. The aim of this study was to examine learning and memory of rat male offsprings whose mothers had been exposed to either opium or morphine with nicotine during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were used for the experiments. In the female rats, opium, morphine and nicotine dependencies were induced by daily injections of drug solution for 10 days before mating. Spatial memory was tested by Morris water maze test in ...

  4. Effect of noise stress on count, progressive and non-progressive sperm motility, body and genital organ weights of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It was decided to investigate the effect of noise pollution on the body weight, genital organ weights, and also on sperm parameters. Setting and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 20 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into 2 equal groups (n = 10: (1 control group and (2 experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were exposed to noise for 50 days with an intensity of 90-120 db and frequency of 300 - 350 Hz for 12 hours daily. After 50 days, at first, body weights of all animals were recorded, and then they were killed. The right epididymides were removed and also, sperm concentration and motility were determined. Each organ was weighed separately on an electronic balance. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The statistical significance of difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The weights of the testes, epididymes, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were found to be significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise pollution when compared with the weights of the same organs obtained from control group (P < 0.05. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the 2 groups in terms of sperm concentration. Conclusions: It is concluded that noise pollution has the bad effects on sperm concentration and motility; therefore, it is supposed that homes and places of working must be build far away of noisy of factories and other places with noise.

  5. Magnesium treatment palliates noise-induced behavioral deficits by normalizing DAergic and 5-HTergic metabolism in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Sadir, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Anis, Lubna; Sajid, Irfan; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2016-08-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most abundant biological mineral essential for good health. Neuroprotective, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of magnesium following stress and brain injuries are well established. In present study, we analyzed the protective effects of magnesium in rats exposed to sub-chronic noise stress. Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2, 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once daily for 15 days prior exposure to noise stress. Rats were exposed to noise stress for 4 h after administration of magnesium for 15 days. At the end of treatment behavioral alterations were assessed. Animals were decapitated following behavioral testing and the brains were dissected out for neurochemical estimations by HPLC-EC. Improvement in noise-induced memory deficits as assessed by novel object recognition (NOR) test and elevated plus maze (EPM) test was found in magnesium treated rats. This improvement in noise-induced behavioral deficits following treatment with magnesium may be attributed to a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) turnover as compared to control rats observed in present work. These results suggest that treatment with magnesium can attenuate the noise-induced deficits and may be used as a therapy against noise-induced neurodegeneration. Moreover an adequate amount of magnesium in daily diet may help to develop the ability to resist against or cope up with stressful conditions encountered in daily life. PMID:26928203

  6. Effect of Quercetin on Haematobiochemical and Histological Changes in the Liver of Polychlorined Biphenyls-Induced Adult Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Selvakumar; Senthamilselvan Bavithra; Sekaran Suganya; Firdous Ahmad Bhat; Gunasekaran Krishnamoorthy; Jagadeesan Arunakaran

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure damages the rat liver cells. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, red-blood cells, white-blood cells, neutrophils, platelet counts, and RBC indices were significantly decreased. Polymorphs, eosinophil counts, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly increased. Serum liver enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were increased by PCBs treatment....

  7. Antioxidant effects of magnesium in reducing oxidative stress by injected via an intraperitoneally carbon tetrachloride in the Wistar male adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introdaction & aim: Magnesium playes an important role in the structure and cell metabolism. In this research , anti oxidant effects of magnesium sulfate against oxidative stress effects of was investigated Methods: In this experimewtal study 36 male adults rats were placed into4 groups, with nine rats in each group. Treatment was then carried out as follows. Group I received olive oil (intraperitoneally and distilled water (intragastrically, and served as the untreated control animal group. Group II was the hepatotoxicity group that was given a suspension of (i.p., 0.5 mL/kg b.wt, 50% in olive oil, twice a week. Groups III received dissolved in distilled water daily via an intragastric tube(.0.15M g/kg b.wt.Groups IV were the treatment group that received dissolved in distilled water daily, via an intragastric tube 0.15 g/kg b.wt.,with (i.p., 0.5 mL/kg b.wt., 50% in olive oil twice a week. After a 28-day treatment period, the animals were deprived of food overnight, anesthetized by exposure to diethyl ether, and then sacrificed by decapitation. Blood ws collected from the jugular vein, and serum was separated and used for liver marker assays. Levels of ALT, AST ALP and GGT were estimated using commercial kits. The liver homogenates were used for the assay of SOD .All data were expressed as means S.E.M. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The criterion for statistical significance was p<0.05. Results:In the -treated control group, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT were significantly increased as compared with the untreated control group. In contrast, the group that also received mgso4 Showed signifi cantlyless elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT. compared to normal levels. Liver SOD activity in -treated rats was decreased significantly when compared with the the control group. Treatment with protected this enzyme activity. Conclusion:The results of this study showed that magnesium sulfate

  8. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T3 and T4 in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H2O2, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: ► DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. ► Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. ► Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. ► Vitamins C and E alter ROS, glucose uptake, oxidation and insulin signaling molecules.

  9. Effect of Different Intensities of Short Term Aerobic Exercise on Expression of miR-124 in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

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    Shima Mojtahedi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most specific miRNA of the brain is miR-124 which has been detected in the hippocampal area. This microRNA through suppression of some target genes, cause the stem cell to be changed into the neuron. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of exercise intensity on the expression of miR-124.Materials and Method: Eighteenadult male Wistar rats were selected as subjects. The animals randomly divided into 3 groups of control (n=6 and runner (n=6. In low intensity group (n=6 animals daily, were allowed to run on treadmill with an intensity of about 35-40% of maximum oxygen consumption, daily for 30 minutes, of 2 weeks period. In high intensity group (n=6 the subjects were run in the same conditions but with an intensity of about 70-75% maximum oxygen consumption. After 24 hours of the last session of exercise, the animals were killed. Changes in expression analyzed using the quantitave RT-PCR technique.Results: Statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant association between the intensities of exercise and elevated expression of miR-124 in the exercise group at significant level of p≤0.05.Conclusion: To sum up, expression of miR-124, in the hippocampus of adult rats, is associated with exercise intensity and running forcefully in comparison with lower intensity, in which leads to robust changes in some mechanisms that involve in exercise- induced neurogenesis

  10. In vivo exposure of young adult male rats to methoxychlor reduces serum testosterone levels and ex vivo Leydig cell testosterone formation and cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murono, Eisuke P; Derk, Raymond C; Akgul, Yucel

    2006-02-01

    Methoxychlor (MC) was developed as a replacement for the banned pesticide DDT. After in vivo administration, it is metabolized in the liver to 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), which is proposed to be the active agent. Both MC and HPTE have been shown to exhibit weak estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, and they are thought to exert their effects through estrogen and androgen receptors, respectively. Although in vitro studies using cultured rat Leydig cells have reported that HPTE inhibits both basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone formation, the response of circulating testosterone levels to in vivo MC has been more variable. Therefore, the current studies evaluated whether the daily in vivo administration of MC (0, 5, 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a short duration (days 54-60 of age) by gavage altered serum testosterone levels and ex vivo Leydig cell testosterone formation in young adult male rats. These results demonstrate that both fluid-retained and fluid-expressed seminal vesicle weights declined to 44 and 60% of control, respectively, in the 200 mg/kg MC-exposed animals. Similarly, serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone levels declined to 41 and 45% of control, respectively, in the 200 mg/kg MC-exposed animals; however, serum LH and FSH levels were unaffected. Ex vivo Leydig cell basal testosterone formation over 4h declined to 49% of control in animals exposed to 200 mg/kg MC, and ex vivo Leydig cell P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity declined to 79 and 50% of control in animals exposed to 40 and 200 mg/kg of MC, respectively, supporting previous in vitro studies which demonstrated the sensitivity of this step to MC.

  11. Maternal conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reverses high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and inflammation in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, C A; Segovia, S A; Markworth, J F; Gray, C; Zhang, X D; Milan, A M; Mitchell, C J; Barnett, M P G; Roy, N C; Vickers, M H; Reynolds, C M; Cameron-Smith, D

    2016-03-01

    A high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation leads to metabolic disorders in offspring concomitant with increased adiposity and a proinflammatory phenotype in later life. During the fetal period, the impact of maternal diet on skeletal muscle development is poorly described, despite this tissue exerting a major influence on life-long metabolic health. This study investigated the effect of a maternal HFD on skeletal muscle anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory signaling in adult rat offspring. Furthermore, the actions of maternal-supplemented conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on these measures of muscle phenotype were investigated. A purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal fat), a CD supplemented with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal fat, 1% total fat as CLA), a high-fat (HFD; 45% kcal fat from lard), or a HFD supplemented with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal fat from lard, 1% total fat as CLA) was fed ad libitum to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 days before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring received a standard chow diet from weaning, and the gastrocnemius was collected for analysis at day 150. Offspring from HF and HFCLA mothers displayed lower muscular protein content accompanied by elevated monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, and IL-1β concentrations. Phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 (Ser(536)) and expression of the catabolic E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were increased in HF offspring, an effect reversed by maternal CLA supplementation. The present study demonstrates the importance of early life interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of poor maternal diet on offspring skeletal muscle development. PMID:26632603

  12. Role Of Ginkgo BILOBA Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity And Distribution Of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride In Some Brain Areas Of Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) on distribution of14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus) and its toxicity using the determination of monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)) as well as estimation of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of14C-CCl4 (1 ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of 14C amount in all tested brain areas during experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 14C-CCl4 treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P14C amount in areas under investigation. The maximum reduction was recorded in hypothalamus on 3rd day (-49.28%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4. The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period, which might be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. The data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4.

  13. Prenatal stress induces long-term effects in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis in adult male rats.

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    Eva Baquedano

    Full Text Available Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day. Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations.

  14. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  15. Effect of Quercetin on Haematobiochemical and Histological Changes in the Liver of Polychlorined Biphenyls-Induced Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Selvakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure damages the rat liver cells. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, red-blood cells, white-blood cells, neutrophils, platelet counts, and RBC indices were significantly decreased. Polymorphs, eosinophil counts, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly increased. Serum liver enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were increased by PCBs treatment. Serum lipid profiles such as cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins and very-low-density lipoproteins were increased in PCBs-treated rats. High-density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, globulin levels, and albumin/globulin ratio were also decreased after PCB exposure. Then levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate were also altered. Serum glucose levels were increased along with total bilirubin after PCBs exposure. Simultaneous quercetin supplementation significantly protected the PCBs-induced changes of hematobiochemical parameters. Thus, quercetin shows a protective role against PCBs-induced alterations in the hematological and biochemical parameters.

  16. Early Stress History Alters Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Impairs Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Banerjee, K K; Vaidya, V A; Kolthur-Seetharam, U

    2016-09-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with an enhanced risk for adult psychopathology. Psychiatric disorders such as depression exhibit comorbidity for metabolic dysfunction, including obesity and diabetes. However, it is poorly understood whether, besides altering anxiety and depression-like behaviour, early stress also evokes dysregulation of metabolic pathways and enhances vulnerability for metabolic disorders. We used the rodent model of the early stress of maternal separation (ES) to examine the effects of early stress on serum metabolites, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signalling, and muscle mitochondrial content. Adult ES animals exhibited dyslipidaemia, decreased serum IGF1 levels, increased expression of liver IGF binding proteins, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, including Pck1, Lpl, Pdk4 and Hmox1. These changes occurred in the absence of alterations in body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance or insulin levels. ES animals also exhibited a decline in markers of muscle mitochondrial content, such as mitochondrial DNA levels and expression of TFAM (transcription factor A, mitochondrial). Furthermore, the expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial function, such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1, Tfam, Cat, Sesn3 and Ucp3, was reduced in skeletal muscle. Adult-onset chronic unpredictable stress resulted in overlapping and distinct consequences from ES, including increased circulating triglyceride levels, and a decline in the expression of specific metabolic genes in the liver and muscle, with no change in the expression of genes involved in muscle mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results indicate that a history of early adversity can evoke persistent changes in circulating IGF-1 and muscle mitochondrial function and content, which could serve to enhance predisposition for metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. PMID:27196416

  17. Neonatal finasteride administration decreases dopamine release in nucleus accumbens after alcohol and food presentation in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous levels of the neurosteroid (NS) allopregnanolone (AlloP) during neonatal stages are crucial for the correct development of the central nervous system (CNS). In a recent work we reported that the neonatal administration of AlloP or finasteride (Finas), an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase needed for AlloP synthesis, altered the voluntary consumption of ethanol and the ventrostriatal dopamine (DA) levels in adulthood, suggesting that neonatal NS manipulations can increase alcohol abuse vulnerability in adulthood. Moreover, other authors have associated neonatal NS alterations with diverse dopaminergic (DAergic) alterations. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP alter the DAergic response in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during alcohol intake in rats. We administered AlloP or Finas from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND9. At PND98, we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 12 days. On the last day of consumption, we measured the DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) release in NAcc in response to ethanol intake. The samples were obtained by means of in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats, and DA and DOPAC levels were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). The results revealed that neonatal Finas increased ethanol consumption in some days of the consumption phase, and decreased the DA release in the NAcc in response to solutions (ethanol+glucose) and food presentation. Taken together, these results suggest that neonatal NS alterations can affect alcohol rewarding properties. PMID:27139934

  18. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    DMAB Dissanayake; P S Wijesinghe; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Wimalasena, S

    2009-01-01

    Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset) of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively) for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control gr...

  19. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi, E-mail: kbala82@rediffmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. Black

  20. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  1. Protein Restriction During the Last Third of Pregnancy Malprograms the Neuroendocrine Axes to Induce Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Male Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Malta, Ananda; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Pavanello, Audrei; Torrezan, Rosana; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic malprogramming has been associated with low birth weight; however, the interplay between insulin secretion disruption and adrenal function upon lipid metabolism is unclear in adult offspring from protein-malnourished mothers during the last third of gestation. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of a maternal low-protein diet during the last third of pregnancy on adult offspring metabolism, including pancreatic islet function and morphophysiological aspects of the liver, adrenal gland, white adipose tissue, and pancreas. Virgin female Wistar rats (age 70 d) were mated and fed a protein-restricted diet (4%, intrauterine protein restricted [IUPR]) from day 14 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas control dams were fed a 20.5% protein diet. At age 91 d, their body composition, glucose-insulin homeostasis, ACTH, corticosterone, leptin, adiponectin, lipid profile, pancreatic islet function and liver, adrenal gland, and pancreas morphology were assessed. The birth weights of the IUPR rats were 20% lower than the control rats (P rats were heavier, hyperphagic, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic, and hypercorticosteronemic (P rats (P < .05). Maternal undernutrition during the last third of gestation disrupts the pancreatic islet insulinotropic response and induces obesity-associated complications. Such alterations lead to a high risk of metabolic syndrome, characterized by insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:27007071

  2. The endocrine disruptors dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) influence Leydig cell regeneration following ethane dimethane sulphonate treatment of adult male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, K.; Anand-Ivell, R.; Teerds, K.J.; Ivell, R.

    2012-01-01

    The manner by which endocrine-disrupting xenobiotics, such as phthalates, can induce changes in the development of the male reproductive system still remains largely unknown. Herein, we have explored the application of ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS) to eliminate adult-type Leydig cells in the mat

  3. 母爱剥夺雄性大鼠成年后的行为特征%Behavioral characteristics of adult male rats after experiencing neonatal maternal deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀玲; 朱熊兆; 李婷; 彭素芳; 蔡琳

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究经历了新生期母爱剥夺应激的雄性大鼠成年以后的行为特征.方法 在SD大鼠出生后的第1天,随机分为实验组(16只)和对照组(14只).实验组在出生后第1~14天,每天接受6 h(9:00~15:00)的母爱剥夺,对照组不接受任何处理.出生后第21天断乳并分笼饲养直至第10周.采用Morris水迷宫实验、高架十字迷宫、旷场实验对2组大鼠的空间学习记忆能力、焦虑水平、探索行为进行评定.结果 Morris水迷宫实验中,实验组大鼠逃避潜伏期的时间[(83.66±22.91)s]明显长于对照组[(56.98±20.89)s,t =3.32,P <0.05],穿越平台的次数实验组[(2.56±1.55)次]明显少于对照组[(4.21±1.58)s,t =2.89,P <0.05],在目标象限停留的时间实验组[(25±9.52)s]少于对照组[(32.87±8.27)s,t =2.39,P <0.05];旷场实验中,实验组大鼠爬行的总距离[(17.41±2.24)m]明显短于对照组[(22.86±2.89)m,t =5.81,P <0.01],而在中央格停留的时间2组之间的差异无显著性意义( t =2.38,P >0.05);高架十字迷宫实验中,实验组在开臂中停留的时间长于对照组大鼠( u =2.35,P <0.05),进入开臂的次数2组之间差异无显著性( u =-0.99,P >0.05),进入闭臂次数实验组明显多于对照组大鼠( u =2.351,P <0.05).结论 经历了新生期母爱剥夺的雄性大鼠成年以后的行为能力在多方面受到了不同程度的损害.%Objective This paper is to study the behavioral characterization of adult male rats after experiencing neonatal maternal deprivation. Methods A maternal deprivation model was used. The male pups were randomly assigned to maternal deprivation group (n =16) and control group (n =14) on postnatal day 1. Maternal deprivation rats were removed from their mother for 6 hours per day(9∶ 00~15∶ 00). When the pups were 10 weeks old, behavioral tests including Morris water maze,an open field test and an elevated plus maze test were carried out to evaluate their spatial learning and memory

  4. Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendre, M; Comasco, E; Nylander, I; Nilsson, K W

    2015-01-01

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption affect Maoa expression in stress- and reward-related brain regions in the rat. Outbred Wistar rats were exposed to rearing conditions associated with stress (prolonged maternal separation) or no stress during early life, and given free choice between alcohol and/or water in adulthood. Transcript levels of Maoa were assessed in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala and dorsal striatum (DS). Blood was collected to assess corticosterone levels. After alcohol consumption, lower blood corticosterone and Maoa expression in the NAc and DS were found in rats exposed to early life stress compared with control rats. An interaction between early life stress and voluntary alcohol intake was found in the NAc. Alcohol intake before death correlated negatively with Maoa expression in DS in high alcohol-drinking rats exposed to early life stress. Maoa expression is sensitive to adulthood voluntary alcohol consumption in the presence of early life stress in outbred rats. These findings add knowledge of the molecular basis of the previously reported associations between early life stress, MAOA and susceptibility to alcohol misuse. PMID:26645625

  5. Effect of troxerutin on insulin signaling molecules in the gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Sathish; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2014-10-01

    Troxerutin is a trihydroxyethylated derivative of the flavonoid, rutin. It has been reported to possess the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic activities. Troxerutin treatment reduced the blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in high-cholesterol-induced insulin-resistant mice and in type-2 diabetic patients. However, the mechanism by which it exhibits antidiabetic property was unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of troxerutin on insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Wistar male albino rats were selected and divided into five groups. Group I: Control. Group II: High fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Group III: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with troxerutin (150 mg/kg body weight/day orally). Group IV: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg body weight/day orally). Group V: Normal rats treated with troxerutin (150 mg/kg body weight/day orally). After 30 days of treatment, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, and the levels of insulin signaling molecules, glycogen, glucose uptake, and oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle were assessed. Diabetic rats showed impairment in insulin signaling molecules (IR, p-IRS-1(Tyr632), p-Akt(Ser473), β-arrestin-2, c-Src, p-AS160(Thr642), and GLUT4 proteins), glycogen concentration, glucose uptake, and oxidation. Oral administration of troxerutin showed near normal levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile, and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins in type-2 diabetic rats. It is concluded from the present study that troxerutin may play a significant role in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, by improving the insulin signaling molecules and glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle.

  6. A Methyl-Deficient Diet Fed to Rat Dams during the Peri-Conception Period Programs Glucose Homeostasis in Adult Male but Not Female Offspring123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Christopher A.; Hay, Susan M.; Young, Loraine E.; Sinclair, Kevin D.; Rees, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Methyl deficiencies have been implicated in metabolic programming during the periods of oocyte and embryo development. Semisynthetic methyl-deficient diets (MD) with no folic acid, 0.05% choline, and approximately one-half the recommended content of methionine were fed to female rats for 3 wk prior to mating and for the first 5 d of gestation. During the period of MD feeding, plasma homocysteine concentrations were approximately twice those of rats fed the complete (CON) diet. From d 5, both groups received a complete semipurified AIN diet until birth. On d 8, plasma homocysteine concentrations did not differ between the 2 groups. Thereafter, dams and offspring were fed a nonpurified diet for the remainder of the experiment. At 6 mo of age, the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index of the male MD offspring tended to be 32% higher (P = 0.053) and peak insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was 39% higher (P < 0.05) compared with the male CON offspring. There was no difference in the response to an oGTT in the female offspring at 6 mo of age. The increased HOMA index of male MD offspring persisted to 12 mo of age. The peak glucose concentration during oGTT was 23% higher (P < 0.05) in MD compared with the CON males despite 39% greater (P < 0.05) peak insulin concentrations. This study shows that in rats, a physiologically relevant methyl-deficient diet fed during the period of oocyte maturation and preimplantation development programs gender-specific changes in glucose handling by the offspring. PMID:21106931

  7. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  8. CENTRAL 5-ALPHA REDUCTION OF TESTOSTERONE IS REQUIRED FOR TESTOSTERONE’S INHIBITION OF THE HYPOTHALAMO-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS RESPONSE TO RESTRAINT STRESS IN ADULT MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J.; Kudwa, Andrea E.; Donner, Nina C.; McGivern, Robert F.; Brown, Roger

    2013-01-01

    In rodents, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is controlled by a precise regulatory mechanism that is influenced by circulating gonadal and adrenal hormones. In males, gonadectomy increases the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) response to stressors, and androgen replacement returns the response to that of the intact male. Testosterone (T) actions in regulating HPA activity may be through aromatization to estradiol, or by 5α-reduction to the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To determine if the latter pathway is involved, we assessed the function of the HPA axis response to restraint stress following hormone treatments, or after peripheral or central treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Initially, we examined the timecourse whereby gonadectomy alters the CORT response to restraint stress. Enhanced CORT responses were evident within 48hrs following gonadectomy. Correspondingly, treatment of intact male rats with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, for 48 hrs, enhanced the CORT and ACTH response to restraint stress. Peripheral injections of gonadectomized male rats with DHT or T for 48 hrs reduced the ACTH and CORT response to restraint stress. The effects of T, but not DHT, could be blocked by the third ventricle administration of finasteride prior to stress application. These data indicate that the actions of T in modulating HPA axis activity involve 5α-reductase within the central nervous system. These results further our understanding of how T acts to modulate the neuroendocrine stress responses and indicate that 5α reduction to DHT is a necessary step for T action. PMID:23880372

  9. Central 5-alpha reduction of testosterone is required for testosterone's inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response to restraint stress in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; Kudwa, Andrea E; Donner, Nina C; McGivern, Robert F; Brown, Roger

    2013-09-01

    In rodents, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is controlled by a precise regulatory mechanism that is influenced by circulating gonadal and adrenal hormones. In males, gonadectomy increases the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) response to stressors, and androgen replacement returns the response to that of the intact male. Testosterone (T) actions in regulating HPA activity may be through aromatization to estradiol, or by 5α-reduction to the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To determine if the latter pathway is involved, we assessed the function of the HPA axis response to restraint stress following hormone treatments, or after peripheral or central treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Initially, we examined the timecourse whereby gonadectomy alters the CORT response to restraint stress. Enhanced CORT responses were evident within 48 h following gonadectomy. Correspondingly, treatment of intact male rats with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, for 48 h, enhanced the CORT and ACTH response to restraint stress. Peripheral injections of gonadectomized male rats with DHT or T for 48 h reduced the ACTH and CORT response to restraint stress. The effects of T, but not DHT, could be blocked by the third ventricle administration of finasteride prior to stress application. These data indicate that the actions of T in modulating HPA axis activity involve 5α-reductase within the central nervous system. These results further our understanding of how T acts to modulate the neuroendocrine stress responses and indicate that 5α reduction to DHT is a necessary step for T action. PMID:23880372

  10. Evaluation of different doses of mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) on the reduction of sperm production, motility and morphology in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Revilla, J; Cárdenas-Valencia, I; Rubio, J; Guerra-Castañón, F; Olcese-Mori, P; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Mashua is an edible-tuber crop that grows in the Andean region. Folk medicine describes the use of mashua to reduce reproductive function in men. The present study aimed: (i) to determine whether different doses of mashua (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 2 g kg(-1)) produced a dose-response reduction on sperm production and quality; and, (ii) to determine whether these anti-reproductive effects of mashua can be reversible after cessation of treatment (12 and 24 days of recovery time). Mashua-treated rats showed lower values of daily sperm production, epididymal and vas deferens sperm count and sperm motility; meanwhile, mashua increased the percentage of abnormal sperm morphology and epididymal sperm transit rate. The following variables follow a dose-response effect: sperm number in vas deferens, sperm motility and sperm transit rate. In addition, it was demonstrated that the reduction in reproduction function in male rats treated with mashua was reversible after 24 days of recovery time. Finally, lower doses mashua reduces sperm number and quality (motility and morphology), and these adverse effects on male reproductive system may be reversible after 24 days after cessation of the treatment.

  11. Naltrexone effects on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in stressed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Márquez, S; Bonilla-Jaime, H; Vázquez-Palacios, G; Martínez-García, R

    2009-02-16

    Chronic physical or psychological stress disrupts male reproductive function. Studies in our laboratory have shown that stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) and by electrical foot shocks (EFS) has inhibitory effects on male sexual behavior; these effects do not seem to be mediated by an increase in corticosterone, nor by a decrease in testosterone. On the other hand, it is known that endogenous opioids are released in the brain in response to these same stressors; consequently, they could be participating in the impairment of sexual behavior, as well as in the changes in corticosterone and testosterone caused by stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in both stressed sexually experienced and naive male rats. Sexually experienced adult male rats were assigned to one of the following groups (n=10 each): 1) control group, males without sexual evaluation; 2) control group, rats injected ip with saline, non-stressed; 3) control group, rats injected with NTX (3 mg/kg) non-stressed; 4) rats injected ip with saline, and stressed by EFS; 5) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by EFS; 6) rats injected ip with saline and stressed by ICW; 7) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW; 8) rats injected ip with NTX (3 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW. Naive males were assigned to the same control groups but only stressed by ICW and the NTX dose used was 3 mg/kg. Injections were given 30 min before stress sessions. Stress was applied on 20 consecutive days. Male sexual behavior was assessed 15 min after EFS or 30 min after ICW, on days 1, 4, 8, 12, 15, and 20. Trunk blood was collected at the end of the experiments on day 20 of stress. Corticosterone and testosterone were evaluated by HPLC. Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies were longer in control saline naive males compared to control saline sexually experienced males on the

  12. Effects of propoxur on the reproductive system of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Watcho, Pierre; Bouseko, Tepi Serges; Kenfack, Augustave; Tchoumboué, Joseph; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    The reproductive toxicity of propoxur (2-isopropoxy-phenyl-N-methylcarbamate), a carbamate pesticide, was investigated in adult male Wistar rats exposed to 0, 1.73, 2.6, and 5.2 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 successive days. Results obtained from this study showed a significant (p propoxur (5.2 mg/kg) compared to the control. On the contrary, there was a significant (p propoxur at the dose of 5.2 mg/kg body weight. Propoxur had no significant effect on gestation, fertility and parturition indices, average birth weight, litter size and pups sex ratio of untreated female rats mated with treated males rats. These results suggested that propoxur increased food consumption, relative weight of reproductive and detoxication organs, decreased body weight gain and sperm density per gram of cauda epididymis without affecting the reproductive performances.

  13. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue.

  14. Effects of pomegranate juice on insulin and glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Rezaei; , Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini; Davood Mehrabani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Diabetes is one of the diseases resulting from defects in insulin secretion or action. Pomegranate juice is a nutrient used in the treatment of some diseases in traditional medicine. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of pomegranate juice on blood glucose and insulin levels in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: The present study was an empirical one in which 90 adult male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 220 g each, were randomly divided into five groups ...

  15. Chronic green tea consumption decreases body mass, induces aromatase expression, and changes proliferation and apoptosis in adult male rat adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosário; Assunção, Marco; Andrade, José P; Neves, Delminda; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Isabel

    2008-11-01

    Green tea (GT) and its components have been shown to possess antiobesity properties and the corresponding mechanisms of action are being investigated, given the epidemic proportions of obesity incidence. In the current work, we used 12-mo-old male Wistar rats to test the effect of 6 mo of treatment with GT as the sole drinking beverage (52.8 +/- 6.4 mL/d) on adipose tissue (AT). AT aromatase expression was determined by Western blotting, plasma concentrations of 17beta-estradiol and testosterone were determined by RIA, and adipocyte size determined by measuring diameter in tissue sections. Proliferation and apoptosis were also assessed by Ki67 immunostaining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling, respectively. Evaluations were made in subcutaneous (sc) AT and visceral (v) AT. Body weight increased over time in both groups (P rats had a higher percentage of proliferating cells (204.1 +/- 19.5% of control in scAT, P adipocytes (78.3 +/- 1.7% of control in scAT, P < 0.001, and 87.9 +/- 3.2% of control in vAT, P < 0.05). GT also increased the number of apoptotic cells in vAT (320.4 +/- 21.9% of control; P < 0.001). These results suggest new mechanisms for GT on body weight and highlight its potential benefit to prevent or treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18936213

  16. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  17. Effects of Tail fat enriched diet on male Wistar rat reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Ezi; Mehran Hosseini; Mahsa Hassanzadeh-Taheri; Farnaz Jahani; Mohammad Afshar; Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF) enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were random...

  18. Effects of neonatal allopregnanolone manipulations and early maternal separation on adult alcohol intake and monoamine levels in ventral striatum of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Changes in endogenous neonatal levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AlloP) as well as a single 24h period of early maternal separation (EMS) on postnatal day (PND) 9 affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS), causing adolescent/adult alterations including systems and behavioural traits that could be related to vulnerability to drug abuse. In rats, some behavioural alterations caused by EMS can be neutralised by previous administration of AlloP. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP could increase adult alcohol consumption, and if EMS could change these effects. We administered AlloP or finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, from PND5 to PND9, followed by 24h of EMS at PND9. At PND70 we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 15days. Ventral striatum samples were obtained to determine monoamine levels. Results revealed that neonatal finasteride increased both ethanol and glucose consumption, and AlloP increased alcohol intake compared with neonatal vehicle-injected animals. The differences between neonatal groups in alcohol consumption were not found in EMS animals. In accordance, both finasteride and AlloP animals that did not suffer EMS showed lower levels of dopamine and serotonin in ventral striatum. Taken together, these results reveal that neonatal neurosteroids alterations affect alcohol intake; an effect which can be modified by subsequent EMS. Thus, these data corroborate the importance of the relationship between neonatal neurosteroids and neonatal stress for the correct CNS development. PMID:27090561

  19. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options. PMID:26197627

  20. A Comparative Study on the Effects of Glutathione and Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. on Thioacetamide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Adult Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids play significant role in the treatment of many diseases. Green tea (Camellia Sinensis L. is a common beverage all over the world with antioxidant and detoxification effects related to the presence of flavonoids and catchins. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of green tea on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 64 male Wistar rats were allocated to eight groups. The control group received a normal diet alone, sham group received normal saline, hepatotoxic group received thioacetamide (50 mg/kg thioacetamide for three days, other groups received a thioacetamide for three days and the alcoholic extract of bgreen tea, at minimum (50 mg/kg, moderate (100 mg/kg, and maximum (200 mg/kg doses, glutathione (250 mg/kg, green tea (200 mg/kg with glutathione (250 mg/kg for 21 days (i.p.. After that, blood samples were drawn and the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin, as liver injury indices, were measured. Results: The decrease of aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the receptors of different dosages of green tea and glutathione was significant compared with the group treated by thioacetamide. Also, a significant increase was observed in total protein and albumin of serum in green tea receptors compared with thioacetamide group. Conclusion: The study results show the protective effect of green tea on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity which is likely caused by the antioxidant effect of polyphenol compounds controlling thioacetamide activity which in turn controls the cytochrome P450 activity and neutralization of free radicals.

  1. Antinociceptive Effect of Hydroalcoholic Leaf Extract of Hedera helix in Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    shahidi, S.; S. Mohammadi; Mahmoudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: The consumption of chemical compounds and medicinal herbs are different ways to control pain. On the other hand, the complications of chemical drugs and their expensiveness cause people to use herbal medicines The aim of this study was to inves-tigate the antinociceptive effect of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Hedera helix in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 36 adult male rats were divided into 6 groups: control, morphine (1mg/kg), Hedera ...

  2. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    IETJE WIENTARSIH; RINI MADYASTUTI; BAYU FEBRAM PRASETYO; ANGGARA ALDOBRATA

    2012-01-01

    In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill) extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and e...

  3. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  4. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF THE MULTIGLYCOSIDES OF TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII (GTW) ON MALE RATS AND ITS MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENQiao-Qin; CHENHui

    1989-01-01

    It has been reported that GTW caused infertility in male rats and mice, In the present study, GTW was administered orally at a daffy dose of 10 rag/kg, 6 days a week:for 8 weeks to adult male rats. After treatment with the drug, the body weight growth of the

  6. Effects of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) fruit methanol extract on gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, O A; Popoola, Bosede O; Farombi, E O

    2010-09-01

    Xylopia aethiopica (XA) (Annonaceae) possesses great nutritional and medicinal values. This study was designed to investigate the effects of XA fruit methanol extract on oxidative stress in brain of rats exposed to whole body gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 rats each. One group served as control, two different groups were treated with XA and VC (250 mg/kg), 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. The antioxidant status, viz. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated. Results indicate a significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of brain LPO after irradiation. LPO increased by 90% and 151%, after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation, respectively. Irradiation caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in levels of GSH and GST by 61% and 43% after 1 week and, 75% and 73%, respectively, after 8 weeks of exposure. CAT and SOD levels were decreased by 62% and 68%, respectively, after 8 weeks of irradiation. Treatment with XA and VC ameliorated the radiation-induced decreases in antioxidant status of the animals. These suggest that XA could have beneficial effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in brain of exposed rats.

  7. Effects of NOS inhibitor on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury in the adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLi-Sha; XuJiang-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury (DBI) in the adult rat brain. Methods Adult male SD rats were subjected to diffuse brain injury (DBI) model. By using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we compared the proliferation rate of

  8. Recovery of lead-induced suppressed reproduction in male rats by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshma Anjum, M; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of testosterone in recuperation of lead-induced suppressed reproduction in adult male rats. Lead acetate was administered orally to adult male rats (95 ± 5 days) at dosage level of 0.05 and 0.15% for 55 days through drinking water and injected intraperitoneally with either testoviron depot at a dose of 4.16 mg kg(-1) body weight or vehicle alone on days 1, 7 and 14 respectively. At the end of treatment, control and treated males were cohabited with untreated normal-cycling females. After cohabitation for 5 days, all the male rats were killed and weights of reproductive organs were determined. Significant increase in the indices of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, vas deferens and prostate glands was observed in testosterone (T)-treated rats when compared to those of lead-exposed rats. Testosterone treatment significantly increased epididymal sperm count, motile spermatozoa, viable spermatozoa and HOS tail-coiled spermatozoa and also the activity levels of testicular 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases when compared to those of lead-exposed males. From the results, it can be hypothesised that supplementation of testosterone mitigated lead-induced suppressed reproduction in male rats. PMID:24909355

  9. Effects of ethanol during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koss, W.A.; Sadowski, R.N.; Sherrill, L.K.; Gulley, J.M.; Juraska, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, neuron and glia number are changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of...

  10. Maternal lipopolysaccharide treatment differentially affects 5-HT(2A) and mGlu2/3 receptor function in the adult male and female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Dietz, Frank; Koch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. However, it is still not fully understood which biochemical mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms following prenatal immune activation. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and glutamate system have prominently been associated with the schizophrenia pathophysiology but also with the mechanism of antipsychotic drug actions. Here, we investigated the behavioral and cellular response to 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)2/3 receptor stimulation in male and female offspring born to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mothers. Additionally, we assessed protein expression levels of prefrontal 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors. Prenatally LPS-exposed male and female offspring showed locomotor hyperactivity and increased head-twitch behavior in response to the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI. In LPS-exposed male offspring, the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 failed to reduce DOI-induced prepulse inhibition deficits. In LPS-males, the behavioral changes were further accompanied by enhanced DOI-induced c-Fos protein expression and an up-regulation of prefrontal 5-HT2A receptors. No changes in either 5-HT2A or mGlu2 receptor protein levels were found in female offspring. Our data support the hypothesis of an involvement of maternal infection during pregnancy contributing, at least partially, to the pathology of schizophrenia. Identifying biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioral deficits may help to improve therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this mental illness. Since most studies in rodents almost exclusively include male subjects, our data further contribute to elucidating possible gender differences in the effects of prenatal infection on 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptor function. PMID:26051401

  11. Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation. : Maoa,ELS and alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Bendre, Megha; Comasco, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid; Nilsson, Kent W.

    2015-01-01

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption a...

  12. Effect of time period after boric acid injection on {sup 10}B absorption in different regions of adult male rat's brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh.nasrin@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Behnam [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laboratory of Basic Science and Neuroscience, Basic Science Dept, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Pardis-e-Hemmat,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goodarzi, Samereh [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Distribution of {sup 10}B in different regions of rat normal brain was studied. Two groups were chosen as control and trial. Trial group received 2 ml of neutral boron compound. 2, 4 and 6 h after the injection brain removed, coronal sections of forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain were sandwiched between two pieces of polycarbonate. Autoradiography plots of {sup 10}B distribution showed significant differences in three regions with the highest {sup 10}B concentration in the forebrain during 4 h after injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Normal tissue tolerance is very important in BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has been done to determine {sup 10}B distribution in three anatomical regions of rat normal brain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These specific regions of brain have not been studied in previous BNCT projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found significant differences in {sup 10}B distribution between these three regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In different time periods after neutral boron compound injection, there has been a significant difference in boron absorption.

  13. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  14. Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, C J; Longino, J T

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the play behaviour in one group of coatis (Nasua narica) at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We incidentally found adult males playing with juvenile coatis, and conducted post-hoc analyses to investigate this interaction. Coati groups consist of adult females and juveniles of both sexes until male juveniles reach two years of age and leave the band to become solitary. Adult males only tolerate juveniles for a brief period during breeding season when the males court females to mate. Outside of the breeding season, adult males are known to prey on juveniles. In this study, when adult males were present with the band, play occurred more than was expected by chance, and adult males engaged in many of these play bouts. Because the mechanisms driving infanticidal behaviour are not well understood, and adult male coatis show a range of behaviours from infanticide to highly affiliative interactions with juveniles, using coatis as a model system may elucidate mechanisms underlying infanticide.

  15. Pubertal dependent effects of cadmium on episodic prolactin secretion in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Marquez, N. [Fac. de Cienicas, Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia; Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    This work was undertaken to assess if exposure to cadmium related to puberty may affect the episodic pattern of prolactin. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life respectively, at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water. Control age-matched rats received cadmium-free water. Prepubertal cadmium administration decreased mean serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses. Subchronic exposure to cadmium of adult rats decreased mean serum prolactin levels, the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses and their duration, and the mean half-life of the hormone. These results suggest that subchronic cadmium exposure changes the secretory pattern of prolactin in adult male rats in a puberty-dependent way. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 37 refs.

  16. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    OpenAIRE

    Shelat, Vishal G.; Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Qahwaji, Dina; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Hilal, Mohammad Abu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet.Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups...

  17. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Dina Qahwaji; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Shelat, Vishal G.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Mohammad Abu Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four group...

  18. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress. PMID:27174896

  19. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales; Ana Ruiz; Carla Gonzales; Leon Villegas; Amanda Cordova

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of oral administration of an aqueous extract from the roots of Lepidium meyenii (maca)on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Male rats received an aqueous extract of the root (66.7 mg in one mL) twice a day for 14 consecutive days. Results: Treatment with Lepidium meyenii resulted in an increase in the weights of testis and epididymis but not the seminal vesicle weight. The length and frequency of stages IX-XIV seminiferous tubules, where mitosis occurred, were increased and stages Ⅰ-Ⅵ were reduced in rats treated with Lepidium meyenii. Conclusion: The Lepidium meyenii root invigorates spermatogenesis in male rats by acting on its initial stages (IX-XIV).

  20. Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

  1. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

  2. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  3. Male Rat Susceptibility for Liver and Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkawt H. Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of this paper was designed to investigate male rat susceptibility to liver injury. A combination of two experimental animal models (Lead acetate for tissue injury (80 mg / L and castration had been used on twenty male rats, they were divided into two groups sham (n = 10; castrated (n = 10. Results revealed that, liver weight reduced significantly (P < 0.05 in sham group in comparison with castrated rats, but kidney weight changed slightly. Also, serum aminotransferase (AST was significantly higher in sham versus castrated rats. Neither alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP nor malondialdehyde (MDA changed. In conclusion, the absence of male sex hormone would delay tissue injury of male rat organs especially liver organ.

  4. Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposition of citral, an essential oil occurring in many foods and fragrances, was studied in male Fischer rats after iv, po, and dermal treatments. The pattern of distribution and elimination was the same after iv or oral exposure. Urine was the major route of elimination of citral-derived radioactivity, followed by feces, 14CO2, and expired volatiles. However, after dermal exposure, relatively less of the material was eliminated in the urine and more in the feces, suggesting a role for first-pass metabolism through the skin. Citral was almost completely absorbed orally; due to its extreme volatility, much of an applied dermal dose was lost. The citral remaining on the skin was fairly well absorbed. No effect of oral dose, from 5 to 500 mg/kg, was detected on disposition. Although the feces was a minor route of excretion, approximately 25% of the administered dose was eliminated via the bile within 4 hr of an iv dose. The metabolism of citral was both rapid and extensive. Within 5 min of an iv dose, no unmetabolized citral could be detected in the blood. Repeated exposure to citral resulted in an increase in biliary elimination, without any significant change in the pattern of urinary, fecal, or exhaled excretion. This suggests that citral may induce at least one pathway of its own metabolism. The rapid metabolism and excretion of this compound suggest that significant bioaccumulation of citral would not occur

  5. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Saki; Fakher Rahim; Karim Alizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 50 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats affects count, motility and fertilization capacity of sperm. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 30 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 15): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to force swimming s...

  6. Comparison of the Adulthood Chronic Stress Effect on Hippocampal BDNF Signaling in Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknazar, Somayeh; Nahavandi, Arezo; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Peyvandi, Hassan; Akhtari, Amin Shams; Karimi, Mohsen

    2016-08-01

    Studies show that gender plays an important role in stress-related disorders, and women are more vulnerable to its effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate differences in the change in expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its tyrosine intracellular kinase-activating receptor (TrkB) genes in the male and female rats' hippocampus (HPC) under chronic mild repeated stress (CMRS) conditions. In this experiment, male and female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the CMRS and the control group. To induce stress, a repeated forced swimming paradigm was employed daily for adult male and female rats for 21 days. At the end of the stress phase, elevated plus maze (EPM) was used for measuring the stress behavioral effects. Serum corticosterone level was measured by ELISA. BDNF and TrkB gene methylation and protein expression in the HPC were detected using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Chronic stress in the adolescence had more effects on anxiety-like behavior and serum corticosterone concentration in female rats than males. Furthermore, stressed female rats had higher methylation levels and following reduced protein expression of BDNF but not TrkB compared to stressed male rats. These findings suggest that in exposure to a stressor, sex differences in BDNF methylation may be root cause of decreased BDNF levels in females and may underlie susceptibility to pathology development. PMID:26189832

  7. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test

    OpenAIRE

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Methods: Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis...

  8. Expression of rat Multidrug Resistance Protein 2 (Mrp2) in male and female rats during normal and pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-induced postnatal ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Guo, Grace L; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2002-09-16

    The normal maturation of biliary organic anion excretion in newborn rats can be enhanced by microsomal enzyme-inducing chemical treatment, yet the mechanism for this phenomenon is not known. Multidrug Resistance Protein 2 (Mrp2) is a biliary efflux transporter that is inducible by select microsomal enzyme-inducing chemicals. Thus, the aims of this study were to compare the normal and pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-induced postnatal ontogeny of Mrp2 in male and female rats. Mrp2 protein increased in an age-dependent manner in both sexes between 0 and 90 days of age. At birth, Mrp2 protein in both male and female rats was the same, approximately 70% of adult levels. Mrp2 protein in both sexes reached maximal expression levels that were higher than adult levels (male: days 25-40; female: day 45), then decreased to adult levels, at which age Mrp2 protein expression in male and female rats was the same. Second, male and female rats of various ages were treated with PCN (75 mg/kg, ip) or corn oil for 4 days, after which livers were removed and analyzed for Mrp2 protein and mRNA expression. PCN accelerated the expression of Mrp2 protein in male and female rats as early as 10 days of age, whereas, PCN did not affect male and female Mrp2 mRNA ontogeny. These data suggest that PCN increased Mrp2 protein by a sex-independent posttranscriptional mechanism.

  9. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  10. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  11. Incomplete urethral duplication in an adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-09-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly with less than 200 cases reported. It predominantly occurs in males and is nearly always diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. It is defined as a complete second passage from the bladder to the dorsum of the penis or as an accessory pathway that ends blindly on the dorsal or ventral surface.

  12. Isolation and characterization of progenitor cells in uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatos, Marie A; Haugaard-Kedstrom, Linda; Hodges, Robin R;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). METHODS: The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and α-smooth muscle actin...

  13. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  14. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Farokhi; Fereshteh Khaneshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Plantago major (P. major) is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C) received normal saline; A...

  15. Effect of intermittent treatment with tamoxifen on reproduction in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. K. Gill-Sharma; N. Balasinor; P. Parte

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To identify the antifertility effect of intrmittent oral administration of tamoxifen in male rat. Methods:Tamoxifen was administered orally at a dose of 0.4 mg@kg- 1@ d-1 with an intermittent regime for 120 days. Treated and control rats were mated with cycling female rats on days 60, 90 and 120 of treatment. The mated males were sacri riced and the weights of reproductive organs were recorded, and the semm levels of LH, FSH, testosterone and estradi ol estimated by radioimmunoassay. In the female rats, the numbers of implantation sites, corpora lutea, and numbers of normal and resorbed foetuses were recorded on d 21 of gestation. The potency, fecundity, fertility index, litter size and post-implantation loss were then calculated. Results: The fecundity of male rats was completely suppressed by tamoxifen while the potency was maintained at the control level. The fertility index was significantly decreased. No vi able litters were sired. Post implantation loss, indicative of non-viable embryos, was observed but was not significantly increased above the control level. The weights of the testes, epididymides, ventral prostate and seminal vesicles were significantly reduced. The blood LH and testosterone levels were significantly decreased, but not FSH and estradiol.Conclusion: Intermittent oral tarnoxifen administration completely suppressed the fecundity of adult male rats with reserved potency.

  16. Neonatal proinflammatory challenge in male Wistar rats: Effects on behavior, synaptic plasticity, and adrenocortical stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkina, Anna; Stepanichev, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Irina; Freiman, Sofia; Onufriev, Mikhail; Lazareva, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Effects of neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) on the development of anxiety and depressive-like behavior, stress responsiveness, hippocampal plasticity and conditioned fear response were studied in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats. On PND 3 and PND 5, the pups were subcutaneously injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg). In the open field test, signs of increased anxiety were demonstrated in adolescent (PND 32), but not in adult (PND 101) rats. In the elevated plus maze, no changes could be detected in adolescent rats, however, in the adults the number of entries into the open arms decreased suggesting increased anxiety after NPS. Signs of "behavioral despair" in the forced swim test, expressed in adolescent rats as a trend, became significant in the adults indicating depression-like behavior. In the majority of brain slices from PND 19-PND 33 rats subjected to NPS, deficit of LTP in the hippocampal CA1 field was detected, this deficit being associated with the impaired mechanisms of LTP induction. In the adult rats, NPS enhanced fear conditioning promoting improved formation of the novel context-foot shock association in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm without effect on cued fear conditioning. NPS significantly impaired functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), resulting in an elevated corticosterone level maintained in the adolescents but not in the adults and in modified corticosterone response to behavioral sub-chronic stress in both adolescent and adult rats. Thus, NPS induces "perinatal malprogramming" resulting in development of depression-like behaviors, associated with abnormalities in functioning of the HPAA, impaired hippocampal neuroplasticity (LTP) and changes in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. PMID:26851557

  17. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  18. Sex Differences and Laterality in Astrocyte Number and Complexity in the Adult Rat Medial Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, RYAN T.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    The posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD) is sexually dimorphic in several rodent species. In several other brain nuclei, astrocytes change morphology in response to steroid hormones. We visualized MePD astrocytes using glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry. We compared the number and process complexity of MePD astrocytes in adult wildtype male and female rats and testicular feminized mutant (TFM) male rats that lack functional androgen receptors (ARs) to de...

  19. Possible mechanism for accelerated atherogenesis in male versus female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fat and cholesterol enter the circulation as chylomicrons. They are removed from the circulation by attachment to lipoprotein lipase located on the endothelial surfaces. As the result of lipoprotein lipase action, chylomicrons are partially hydrolyzed and then reenter the circulation as remnants, which are rapidly cleared by the liver. We investigated the fate of 3H-retinol- and 14C-cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons injected into male and female rats. The disappearance curves of chylomicrons from the circulation were not significantly different in males and females, which suggests that translocation from plasma to endothelium is similar for both sexes. However, in male rats, the dwell time of chylomicrons on the endothelium was significantly prolonged. At 10 and 20 minutes after chylomicron injection, more label was found in the livers of female than male rats. The opposite was true for hearts. Male hearts contained significantly more endothelium-bound chylomicrons when compared with female hearts. This increase in dwell time may allow greater cholesterol deposition in the endothelium of male rats. The more rapid processing of chylomicrons was associated with a 300% greater postheparin lipoprotein lipase in female rats, which suggests a greater enzyme density at chylomicron attachment points on endothelium

  20. Hepatoprotective Role of Ethanolic Extract of Vitex negundo in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir, Farkaad A; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Mahmood A. Abdulla; Wageeh A. Yehye

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Vitex negundo (VN) was conducted against thioacetamide- (TAA-) induced hepatic injury in Sprague Dawley rats. The therapeutic effect of the extract was investigated on adult male rats. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY), and VN high dose and low dose groups. Rats were administered with VN extract at two different doses, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight. After 12 weeks, the rats administered...

  1. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eLebreton; Peter eWitzgall; Marie eOlsson; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies ...

  2. Emblica officinalis Garten fruits extract ameliorates reproductive injury and oxidative testicular toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Abir Lal; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides have destroying properties on male reproduction and chlorpyrifos adversely affects the male reproductive system. Emblica offcinalis Garten plays a vital role to challenge many diseases in human body. We investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the male reproductive system of adult rats (Wistar Strain) exposed to widely used organophosphate pesticide, Chlorpyrifos, and tried to establish the ameliorative properties of Emblica officinalis Garten with respect ...

  3. Effects of Tail fat enriched diet on male Wistar rat reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ezi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three equal groups and were fed with either standard diet (control or standard diet enriched with 10 % of TF oil or standard diet enriched with 20% TF for 5 consecutive months. Finally, the rats were euthanized, the weights of their bodies, and their testes were measured. Then, the testes were dissected and the sections were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for quantitative histopathological examination. Besides, blood samples were collected for testosterone (T assessment. Results: Compared to the control group, the rats fed with a diet enriched with 20% TF had significantly (P≤0.05 more body weight, while, their testes weight significantly (P≤0.0001 decreased. Also, histological changes showed that TF, in a dose dependence manner, significantly decreased germinal layer, seminiferous area, and spermatogonia number in the rats’ testes. There was no significant difference in T concentration between the groups. Conclusion: It was clearly found that excessive and long term intake of TF can be causative of hypogonadism and increase infertility in male rats.

  4. Role of Nesfatin-1 in the Reproductive Axis of Male Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Song, Min; Li, Xiumei; Luo, Lei; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Zhang, Xiaorong; Ling, Yinghui; Fang, Fugui; Liu, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an important molecule in the regulation of reproduction. However, its role in the reproductive axis in male animals remains to be understood. Here, we found that nesfatin-1 was mainly distributed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus (PeN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the hypothalamus; adenohypophysis and Leydig cells in male rats. Moreover, the concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 and its mRNA in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) vary with the age of the male rat. After intracerebroventricular injection of nesfatin-1, the hypothalamic genes for gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), kisspeptin (Kiss-1), pituitary genes for follicle-stimulate hormone β(FSHβ), luteinizing hormone β(LHβ), and genes for testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) expression levels were decreased significantly. Nesfatin-1 significantly increased the expression of genes for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and cytochrome P450 cleavage (P450scc) in the testis of pubertal rats, but their levels decreased in adult rats (P < 0.05), along with the serum FSH, LH, and testosterone (T) concentrations. After nesfatin-1 addition in vitro, T concentrations of the supernatant were significantly higher than that in the control group. These results were suggestive of the role of nesfatin-1 in the regulation of the reproductive axis in male rats. PMID:27599613

  5. Role of Nesfatin-1 in the Reproductive Axis of Male Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Song, Min; Li, Xiumei; Luo, Lei; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Zhang, Xiaorong; Ling, Yinghui; Fang, Fugui; Liu, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an important molecule in the regulation of reproduction. However, its role in the reproductive axis in male animals remains to be understood. Here, we found that nesfatin-1 was mainly distributed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus (PeN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the hypothalamus; adenohypophysis and Leydig cells in male rats. Moreover, the concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 and its mRNA in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) vary with the age of the male rat. After intracerebroventricular injection of nesfatin-1, the hypothalamic genes for gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), kisspeptin (Kiss-1), pituitary genes for follicle-stimulate hormone β(FSHβ), luteinizing hormone β(LHβ), and genes for testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) expression levels were decreased significantly. Nesfatin-1 significantly increased the expression of genes for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and cytochrome P450 cleavage (P450scc) in the testis of pubertal rats, but their levels decreased in adult rats (P < 0.05), along with the serum FSH, LH, and testosterone (T) concentrations. After nesfatin-1 addition in vitro, T concentrations of the supernatant were significantly higher than that in the control group. These results were suggestive of the role of nesfatin-1 in the regulation of the reproductive axis in male rats. PMID:27599613

  6. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie;

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... that the regulation of kisspeptin synthesis and release are key events in puberty onset in the male rat....

  7. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohara, Yumi; KAWAGUCHI,SHINICHIRO; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured s...

  8. Serotonergic projections from the caudal raphe nuclei to the hypoglossal nucleus in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Jessica R.; Cathy F Thomas; Behan, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The respiratory control system is sexually dimorphic. In many brain regions, including respiratory motor nuclei, serotonin (5HT) levels are higher in females than in males. We hypothesized that there could be sex differences in 5HT input to the hypoglossal nucleus, a region of the brainstem involved in upper airway control. Adult Fischer 344 rats were anesthetized and a retrograde transsynaptic neuroanatomical tracer, Bartha pseudorabies virus (PRV), was injected into the tongue. Sections thr...

  9. Sensibility of male rats fertility against olive oil, Nigella sativa oil and pomegranate extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif W Mansour; Sibghatullah Sangi; Sree Harsha; Mueen A Khaleel; A R N Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To clarify the modulatory effects of daily consumption of pomegranate extract (PE), olive oil (OO) and Nagilla sativa oil (NSO) on antioxidant activity, sperm quality and pituitary-testicular axis of adult male wistar rats. Methods:Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups, eight rats each. Using rat gastric tubes, 1.0 mL distilled water, 1.0 mL PE, 0.4 mL NSO and 0.4 mL OO were orally administered daily for 6 weeks in the first, second, third and fourth groups, respectively. Reproductive organs, body weight, sperm criteria, testosterone, FSH, LH, inhibin-B, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated. At the end of the study protocol, analyses occurred at the same time. Data were analysed by ANOVA test and P<0.05 was considered to be a significant value. Results:In all studied groups, malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased accompanied with an increases in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione. Rats treated with PE showed an increase in catalase activities accompanied with an increase in sperm concentration which was also observed in NSO group. In PE treated group, sperm motility was also increased accompanied with decreased abnormal sperm rate. NSO, OO and PE treated groups shows an insignificant effect on testosterone, inhibin-B, FSH and LH in comparison with control group. Conclusions:These results show that administration of PE, NSO and OO could modify sperm characteristics and antioxidant activity of adult male wistar rats.

  10. Improved sexual behavior in male rats treated with a Chinese herbal extract: hormonal and neuronal implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Zanoli; Augusta Benelli; Manuela Zavatti; Marianna Rivasi; Claudia Baraldi; Mario Baraldi

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of an extract obtained from five Chinese medicinal plants on sexual behavior of adult male rats. Methods: The extract was administered at doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg by oral gavage, acutely (one time, 45 rain before mating test) or subchronically (daily for 10 days) in sexually potent and sexually sluggish/impo-tent rats. Sexual behavior, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) were evaluated in treated rats and compared with controls receiving vehicle. The effect of the extract on central dopaminergic neurotransmis-sion was assessed in the nucleus accumbens using a microdialysis technique. Results: In sexually potent rats, both acute and subchronic treatment with the extract dosed at 30 and 60 mg/kg reduced mount latency and intromission latency. In sluggish/impotent rats, the acutely administered extract at the dose of 60 mg/kg shortened ejaculation latency, whereas subchronically administered at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg, reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, increasing also the percentage of mounting and ejaculating rats. The extract dosed at 60 mg/kg significantly increased LH and T following acute and subchronic administration and increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the nucleus accumbens, 30 rain after the acute administration. Conclusion: The improvement in both appetitive and consummatory components of sexual behavior observed in male rats treated with the extract could be scribed to increased serum T level in parallel with the activation of the central dopaminergic system.

  11. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  12. The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20)g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 r...

  13. Neurotoxic effects induced by endosulfan exposure during pregnancy and lactation in female and male rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Anunciación; Pereiro, Natividad

    2013-09-01

    Possible neurotoxic effects induced by endosulfan exposure during pregnancy and lactation in striatum of Sprague-Dawley female and male offspring rats have been evaluated. Dams were treated orally with 0.61 or 6.12mg of endosulfan/kg/day from the beginning of gestation until weaning. At postnatal day 60 offspring were sacrificed. We studied variations of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin content in striatum by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in these animals. Dopamine and serotonin metabolism was also determined. Endosulfan inhibits the striatal aminergic systems in adult male rats by decreasing norepinephrine and serotonin concentration and dopamine and serotonin metabolism. However, in adult female rats, only a diminution of norepinephrine content and an increase of dopamine and serotonin content were observed after endosulfan administration at the dose of 6.12mg/kg/day, whereas the concentration and the metabolism of these biogenic amines were not with the dose of 0.61mg/kg/day. Gender differences emerge in the striatal aminergic system susceptibility to endosulfan exposure during the early life stages, being the neurotoxic effects of this organochlorine insecticide higher in male than in female rats. PMID:23702353

  14. Acute predator stress impairs the consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Collin R Park; Zoladz, Phillip R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effects of an acute predator stress experience on spatial learning and memory in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. All rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. In the control (non-stress) condition, female rats were superior to the males in the accuracy and consistency of their spatial memory performance tested over multiple days of training. In the stress ...

  15. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2 h each day for 28 days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults. PMID:26826605

  16. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  17. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie;

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...... of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females...... and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels...

  18. Contextual fear conditioning differs for infant, adolescent, and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmorís-Arranz, Francisco J; Méndez, Cástor; Spear, Norman E

    2008-07-01

    Contextual fear conditioning was tested in infant, adolescent, and adult rats in terms of Pavlovian-conditioned suppression. When a discrete auditory-conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with footshock (unconditioned stimulus, US) within the largely olfactory context, infants and adolescents conditioned to the context with substantial effectiveness, but adult rats did not. When unpaired presentations of the CS and US occurred within the context, contextual fear conditioning was strong for adults, weak for infants, but about as strong for adolescents as when pairings of CS and US occurred in the context. Nonreinforced presentations of either the CS or context markedly reduced contextual fear conditioning in infants, but, in adolescents, CS extinction had no effect on contextual fear conditioning, although context extinction significantly reduced it. Neither CS extinction nor context extinction affected responding to the CS-context compound in infants, suggesting striking discrimination between the compound and its components. Female adolescents showed the same lack of effect of component extinction on response to the compound as infants, but CS extinction reduced responding to the compound in adolescent males, a sex difference seen also in adults. Theoretical implications are discussed for the development of perceptual-cognitive processing and hippocampus role.

  19. Early postnatal nociceptive stimulation results in deficits of spatial memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cristiane; Antonio, Bruno; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes; Hamani, Clement; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2015-11-01

    Prematurely-born infants are exposed to multiple invasive procedures while in the intensive care unit. Newborn rats and humans have similar behavioral responses to noxious stimulation. Previous studies have shown that early noxious stimuli may alter dentate gyrus neurogenesis and the behavioral repertoire of adult rats. We evaluated the late effects of noxious stimulation administered during different phases of development on two spatial memory tests; object recognition (OR) and Morris water maze (WM) tests. Noxious stimulation was induced by an intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on postnatal (P) day 1 (group P1) or 8 (P8). Control animals were not stimulated. Behavioral tests were conducted on P60 in both male and female animals. In the WM, three domains were evaluated: acquisition, probe trial performance and reversal re-acquisition. The number of Nissl stained cells in the dentate granule cell layer was assessed by stereological counting. The OR test revealed that P1 male rats had poor long-term memory compared to the control and P8 groups. In the WM, no short- or long-term memory differences were detected between early postnatal-stimulated male and female rats and their respective controls. However, the ability to find the hidden platform in a new position was reduced in P1 male rats. The number of dentate granule cells in P8 males was higher than in all other groups. This study demonstrates that noxious stimulation on P1 results in spatial learning deficits in male animals, but does not disrupt the development of the hippocampus-dependent strategies of learning and memory. PMID:26348792

  20. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 Unclassified Adult Adult male fatbody SRX04...2251,SRX042245,SRX042250 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  3. Systemic physiology and neuroapoptotic profiles in young and adult rats exposed to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Rami Mossad; Krammer, Caspar Weel; Hansen, Tom Giedsing;

    2015-01-01

    neuroapoptosis as well as systemic homeostasis. Here we explored this possibility by performing dorsal skin flap surgery in young and adult rats under four distinct currently used anaesthesia regimens. METHODS: Young (21-days) and adult (2 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 150min exposure...... in experimental groups receiving dexmedetomidine, while propofol administration was associated with increased systemic lactate levels and metabolic acidosis. A substantial difference in anaesthesia/surgery-induced neuroapoptosis was found between young and adult rats in several brain regions. Combination...... and adult spontaneously breathing rats undergoing surgery. These observations further enlighten the need for detailed physiological monitoring under these experimental conditions. Although some statistically significant differences in activated caspase-3 profiles were detected between experimental groups...

  4. Toxic Effects of Atrazine on Reproductive System of Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yang; JIA Zhen Chao; CHEN Jin Yao; HU Jun Xiang; ZHANG Li Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of Atrazine (ATZ) on the reproductive system of male rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ATZ by gavage at dosages of 0, 38.5, 77, and 154 mg/kg bw/day for 30 d. The toxic effects of ATZ to rats were assessed through histopathologcal observation, spermatozoa quality evaluation, testicular marker enzyme indicators, antioxidant capacity and reproductive hormone levels. Results Significant adverse effects on reproductive system were observed in rats exposed to ATZ at different dosages compared with 0 mg/kg group, including an irregular and disordered arrangement of the seminiferous epithelium in 154 mg/kg group;a decreased spermatozoa number and an increased spermatozoa abnormality rate in 77 and 154 mg/kg groups;decreased levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) with the increasing of ATZ concentration; a decreased level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in a dose-dependent manner, and a decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in 154 mg/kg group;and decreased serum levels of testosterone (T) and inhibin-B (INH-B) and an increased serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in 77 and 154 mg/kg groups, and an increased serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in 154 mg/kg group. Conclusion These results suggested that relatively high doses of ATZ could exert reproductive toxicity of male rats.

  5. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF DEHP IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract TITLE: Transgenerational Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in the Male Rat. AUTHORS (ALL): Gray, Leon Earl1; Barlow, Norman J2; Furr, Johnathan R1; Brock, John 3; Silva, Manori J3; Barr, Dana B3; Ostby, Joseph S1SPONSOR NAME:INSTITUTIONS (AL...

  6. Histological study of the effects of oral administration of datura metel on the visual system of male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibiyeye Yetunde Rukayat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to elucidate some of the effects of oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats as marker of toxicity using neurohistochemical study. 12 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B. The rats in group A served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of Cannabis sativa while the rats in group B which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. The duration of administration was for 14d. The rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation 24 hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 72 hours after fixation, right occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus were excised separately for histological (H&E processing. Microscopic observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the visual system of the rats in the treated group compared with the rats in the treated group with preserved histological outline. Oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats caused neurodegeneration of the occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus of Wistar rats.

  7. Effect of glyphosate on reproductive organs in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pengyuan; Hu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Li, Yansen; Li, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate as an active ingredient of Roundup(®) which is thought to be one of the most popular herbicide was used worldwide. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate-based herbicide, but few evidence exists to imply the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone in vivo. In this study SD rats were Lavaged with glyphosate at doses of 5, 50, 500mg/kg to detect the toxicity of glyphosate on rat testis. Glyphosate significantly decreased the average daily feed intake at dose of 50mg/kg, and the weight of seminal vesicle gland, coagulating gland as well as the total sperm count at dose of 500mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor (AR) has no difference among all groups. As to testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and oxidative stress parameters, the level of them has no differences amidst all doses. Taken together, we conclude that glyphosate alone has low toxicity on male rats reproductive system. PMID:27286640

  8. Effect of glyphosate on reproductive organs in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pengyuan; Hu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Li, Yansen; Li, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate as an active ingredient of Roundup(®) which is thought to be one of the most popular herbicide was used worldwide. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate-based herbicide, but few evidence exists to imply the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone in vivo. In this study SD rats were Lavaged with glyphosate at doses of 5, 50, 500mg/kg to detect the toxicity of glyphosate on rat testis. Glyphosate significantly decreased the average daily feed intake at dose of 50mg/kg, and the weight of seminal vesicle gland, coagulating gland as well as the total sperm count at dose of 500mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor (AR) has no difference among all groups. As to testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and oxidative stress parameters, the level of them has no differences amidst all doses. Taken together, we conclude that glyphosate alone has low toxicity on male rats reproductive system.

  9. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  10. Evaluation of N-Butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS) Neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley Male Rats Following 27-day Oral Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Rider, CV; Janardhan, KS; Rao, D.; Morrison, JP; McPherson, CA; Harry, GJ

    2012-01-01

    N-Butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS) is widely used as a plasticizer in polyacetals, polyamides, and polycarbonates and has been found in ground water and effluent from wastewater treatment sites. The compound is lipophilic and distributes rapidly to the brain but also clears rapidly and shows little evidence of accumulation. Limited studies in the literature report neurotoxicity of NBBS in rabbits and rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (Harlan) received corn oil vehicle or NBBS (100, 200, or 4...

  11. Effect of radiation leakage of microwave oven on viability and concentration of sperm in mature and prepuberty male rat

    OpenAIRE

    Zare D; Jelodar Gh; SS Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Testes are composed of very active body tissues, which can be affected by exposure to radiofrequency waves. Age of exposure may also be an important factor. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological parameters of rat sperm exposed to microwave radiation at pre and post puberty. Methods: For this experimental study, 18 adults (2 month years old) and 18 prepuberty (1 month years old) male rats were selected and each group divided in two subgroups, control and ...

  12. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    OpenAIRE

    Ukoha Ukoha Ukoha; Onochie Okwudili Udemezue; Chidi Kingsley Oranusi; Azuoma Lasbrey Asomugha; Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Lynda Chinenye Nzeukwu

    2012-01-01

    Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of ...

  13. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  14. Impaired reproductive function of male rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, A; Dalimi, A; Movahedin, M

    2012-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the classical conditions known to have an adverse effect on female reproductive functions, but a few investigations into male reproductive parameters have been performed. This work was carried out to study the effects of Toxoplasma gondii on reproductive function in male rats. Male rats were infected with the RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites, and following every 10 days from 10 to 70 postinfection (PI), the percentage of body weight to testis weight ratio as well as epididymal sperm parameters (number, motility, viability, and morphology rates), serum testosterone (ST), intratesticular testosterone (ITT), serum lactate dehydrogenase (SLDH), intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase and fructose in seminal vesicles and coagulating glands were measured. The results of the study showed sperm motility, viability and concentration rates were significantly decreased temporary after infection up to 70 days. Sperm abnormality was also increased during these days. In addition, temporary alteration in ST, ITT, SLDH, intratesticular LDH and fructose in seminal vesicle and coagulating gland was observed PI. These findings suggest that toxoplasmosis can cause impermanent impairment on the reproductive parameters of male rats.

  15. Effects of Triclocarban on Intact Immature Male Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleba, Antoni J.; Ahmed, Mohamed I.; Sun, Meng; Gao, Allen C.; Villanueva, Jesus; Conley, Alan J.; Turgeon, Judith L.; Benirschke, Kurt; Gee, Nancy A.; Chen, Jiangang; Green, Peter G.; Lasley, Bill L.

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in various personal hygiene products including soaps. Recently, TCC has been shown to enhance testosterone-induced effects in vitro and to enlarge accessory sex organs in castrated male rats. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of TCC on intact age-matched male rats and on human prostate LNCaP and C4–2B cells. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet or a diet supplemented with TCC (0.25% in diet) for 10 days. Triclocarban induced hyperplasia of accessory sex organs in the absence of significant qualitative histological changes. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were not significantly altered by TCC treatment. In prostate cancer-derived LNCaP and C4–2B cells, TCC potentiated androgen actions via androgen receptor-dependent actions. In conclusion, TCC significantly affects intact male reproductive organs and potentiates androgen effects in prostate cancer cells. PMID:20889956

  16. Neonatal treatment with scopolamine butylbromide prevents metabolic dysfunction in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Ananda; Souza, Aline Amenencia de; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Pavanello, Audrei; Prates, Kelly Valério; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Oliveira, Júlio Cezar de; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Previate, Carina; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether treatment with a cholinergic antagonist could reduce insulin levels in early postnatal life and attenuate metabolic dysfunctions induced by early overfeeding in adult male rats. Wistar rats raised in small litters (SLs, 3 pups/dam) and normal litters (NLs, 9 pups/dam) were used in models of early overfeeding and normal feeding, respectively. During the first 12 days of lactation, animals in the SL and NL groups received scopolamine butylbromide (B), while the controls received saline (S) injections. The drug treatment decreased insulin levels in pups from both groups, and as adults, these animals showed improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, vagus nerve activity, fat tissue accretion, insulinemia, leptinemia, body weight gain and food intake. Low glucose and cholinergic insulinotropic effects were observed in pancreatic islets from both groups. Low protein expression was observed for the muscarinic M3 acetylcholine receptor subtype (M3mAChR), although M2mAChR subtype expression was increased in SL-B islets. In addition, beta-cell density was reduced in drug-treated rats. These results indicate that early postnatal scopolamine butylbromide treatment inhibits early overfeeding-induced metabolic dysfunctions in adult rats, which might be caused by insulin decreases during lactation, associated with reduced parasympathetic activity and expression of M3mAChR in pancreatic islets. PMID:27561682

  17. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrícia de Souza Predes; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta; Juliana Castro Monteiro; Tânia Toledo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol,...

  18. Alterations in male rats following in utero exposure to betamethasone suggests changes in reproductive programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cibele S; Dias, Ana Flávia M G; Rosa, Josiane Lima; Silva, Patricia V; Silva, Raquel F; Barros, Aline L; Sanabria, Marciana; Guerra, Marina T; Gregory, Mary; Cyr, Daniel G; De G Kempinas, Wilma

    2016-08-01

    Antenatal betamethasone is used for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Altered sperm parameters were reported in adult rats after intrauterine exposure to betamethasone. In this study, male rat offspring were assessed for reproductive development after dam exposure to betamethasone (0.1mg/kg) or vehicle on Days 12, 13, 18 and 19 of pregnancy. The treatment resulted in reduction in the offspring body weight, delay in preputial separation, decreased seminal vesicle weight, testosterone levels and fertility, and increased testicular weight. In the testis, morphologically abnormal seminiferous tubules were observed, characterized by an irregular cell distribution with Sertoli cell that were displaced towards the tubular lumen. These cells expressed both Connexin 43 (Cx43) and Proliferative Nuclear Cell Antigen (PCNA). In conclusion, intrauterine betamethasone treatment appears to promote reproductive programming and impairment of rat sexual development and fertility due to, at least in part, unusual testicular disorders.

  19. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie;

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptins, derived from the Kiss1 gene play a central role in activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis via stimulation of GnRH neurons. Both Kiss1 and Kiss1R (receptor) mRNA levels are found to be low in pre-pubertal rats, but whether an increase in kisspeptin and/or its...... at any age, numerous kisspeptin-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus were detected in the adult rat. Increasing doses of kisspeptin-54 given peripherally to male rats at PND15, 30, 45, and 60 evoked roughly similar effects, as revealed by the induction of c-Fos in the pituitary and secretion of LH...

  20. Testosterone deprivation accelerates cardiac dysfunction in obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pintana, Hiranya; Sivasinprasasn, Sivaporn; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-06-01

    Low testosterone level is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. As obese-insulin-resistant condition could impair cardiac function and that the incidence of obesity is increased in aging men, a condition of testosterone deprivation could aggravate the cardiac dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant subjects. However, the mechanism underlying this adverse effect is unclear. This study investigated the effects of obesity on metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiac mitochondrial function in testosterone-deprived rats. Orchiectomized or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n=36per group) were randomly divided into groups and were given either a normal diet (ND, 19.77% of energy fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 57.60% of energy fat) for 12weeks. Metabolic parameters, HRV, LV function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined at 4, 8, and 12weeks after starting each feeding program. We found that insulin resistance was observed after 8weeks of the consumption of a HFD in both sham (HFS) and orchiectomized (HFO) rats. Neither the ND sham (NDS) group nor ND orchiectomized (NDO) rats developed insulin resistance. The development of depressed HRV, LV contractile dysfunction, and increased cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production was observed earlier in orchiectomized (NDO and HFO) rats at week 4, whereas HFS rats exhibited these impairments later at week 8. These findings suggest that testosterone deprivation accelerates the impairment of cardiac autonomic regulation and LV function via increased oxidative stress and impaired cardiac mitochondrial function in obese-orchiectomized male rats. PMID:27000685

  1. Rapid and acute effects of estrogen on time perception in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen ePleil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the rapid and acute effects of estrodiol on time perception were investigated in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Because estrodiol has been shown to increase striatal dopamine release, it may be able to modify time perception and timed performance by increasing the speed of an internal clock in a manner similar to indirect dopamine agonists such as amphetamine and cocaine. Two groups of females (neonatally estradiol-treated/adult ovariectomized and neonatally oil-treated/adult ovariectomized and 2 groups of males (neonatally castrated and adult castrated were trained in a 2 s vs. 8 s duration bisection procedure and tested using intermediate signal durations. After obtaining oil-injected baseline psychometric functions over several days, rats were administered 5μg of estradiol for 4 days and behaviorally evaluated 30 min following each injection. This oil-estradiol administration cycle was subsequently repeated 3 times following the re-establishment of baseline training. Results revealed significant sex differences in the initial baseline functions that were not modifiable by organizational hormones, with males’ duration bisection functions shifted horizontally to the left of females’. Upon the first administration of estradiol, females, but not males, showed a significant, transient leftward shift in their bisection functions, indicative of an increase in clock speed. After extensive retraining in the duration bisection procedure, rats that were exposed to gonadal hormones during the first week of life showed a significant rightward shift in their bisection functions on the fourth day of estradiol administration during each cycle, suggesting a decrease in clock speed. Taken together, our results support the view that there are multiple mechanisms of estrogens’ action in the striatum that modulate dopaminergic activity and are differentially organized by gonadal steroids during early brain development.

  2. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  3. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats : walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, [No Value; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the scia

  4. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eLebreton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males.

  5. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  6. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  7. Drug Specificity in Drug vs. Food Choice in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tunstall, Brendan J.; Riley, Anthony L.; Kearns, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inf) and food (a single 45-...

  8. Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed M. Sulaiman; Mohammed Y. Fatihu; Joseph O. Ayo; Suleiman F. Ambali; Muftau Shittu; Lukuman S. Yaqub

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg); group II was given vitamin C only (100 mg/kg); group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg/kg; ~1/8th LD50), while group IV was pretreated with vitamin C and then exposed to CPF, 30 min later. The regimens were ...

  9. Studies on curacron food poisoning in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of contaminated food with organophosphorus pesticide curacron for different periods on serum glucose, total protein, free amino acids, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases in male rats. Radioimmunoassay technique was used the effect of curacron pesticide on serum insulin level in rats for 45 days. It has been found that curacron caused disturbance in in liver functions which were elucidated through the biochemical determination of glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin of rats fed with daily doses of 71.6 mg curacron/kg for 45 days. The administered dose of curacron showed cumulative physiological effect and caused marked increases in SGOT, SGPT, total protein and serum insulin levels. On the other hand, it caused significant decreases in levels of serum glucose and free amino acids (FAA) as compared with the control ones

  10. The cortical response to sensory deprivation in adult rats is affected by gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mowery, Todd M.; Elliott, Kevin S.; Preston E. Garraghty

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adult-onset sensory deprivation and gonadectomy. Adult male and female rats underwent unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve. Half of the subjects had been gonadectomized 1 week prior to the nerve injury. We found that the areas of deprived barrels were significantly reduced when compared to barrels in the contralateral control hemisphere, and that this shrinkage was independent of sex and gonadectomy. We also found significant reduction...

  11. Prenatal immune challenge alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Reul, J M; Stec, I; Wiegers, G J; Labeur, M S; Linthorst, A C; Arzt, E; Holsboer, F

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether non-abortive maternal infections would compromise fetal brain development and alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning when adult. To study putative teratogenic effects of a T cell-mediated immune response versus an endotoxic challenge, 10-d-pregnant rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(8) human red blood cells (HRBC) or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (Escherichia coli LPS: 30 micrograms/kg). The adult male progeny (3 ...

  12. Comparative assessment of the timing of sexual maturation in male Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Sarah N; Carvallo, Francisco R; Chapin, Robert E; Nowland, William S; Beauchamp, David; Jamon, Raul; Koitz, Rebecca; Winton, Timothy R; Cappon, Gregg D; Hurtt, Mark E

    2013-07-01

    Given the increasing use of Wistar Han (WH) rats in regulatory toxicology studies, these studies were performed to characterize the onset of sexual maturation in maturing WH rats as compared to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Beginning on postnatal day (PND) 38 through PND 91 groups (n=8) of untreated WH rats were evaluated for maturation of the male reproductive system. Testicular spermatid head counts increased beginning on PND 42 until PND 70. Sperm were detected in the caput, corpus, and cauda epididymis on PND 45, 49, and 49, respectively, and counts increased through PND 91. Sperm motility was at adult levels by PND 63. The morphology of the testis/epididymis of all animals at day 70 or older was consistent with qualitative sexual maturity. Based on these endpoints, WH rats were determined to be sexually mature at PND 70, and many of these endpoints evaluated in SD rats exhibited nearly identical trends. PMID:23434729

  13. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  14. Prenatal stress and stress coping style interact to predict metabolic risk in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Moghadam, Alexander A; Cordner, Zachary A; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2014-04-01

    Both prenatal stress (PNS) exposure and a passive stress-coping style have been identified as risk factors for insulin resistance in rats. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that PNS and stress-coping style may interact in predicting susceptibility for metabolic disease. To test this hypothesis, adult male control and PNS offspring were behaviorally characterized using a defensive burying test to have either a passive or proactive stress-coping style. In adulthood, all rats were fed either a standard chow or a high-fat diet for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks of diet exposure, glucose and insulin levels were assessed during an oral glucose tolerance test. Under high-fat diet conditions, PNS rats display elevated glucose and insulin responses to the oral glucose tolerance test, indicative of glucose intolerance. Interestingly, these effects of PNS were far more pronounced in rats characterized by a passive stress-coping style. Additionally, the passively coping PNS rats also gained more weight on the high-fat diet than all other rats tested. This observation suggests that a stressful prenatal environment in combination with a passive stress-coping strategy may prime an individual to be sensitive to diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24467745

  15. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  16. Antispermatogenic activity of Morinda lucida extract in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinusa Raji; Olumide S. Akinsomisoye; Toyin M. Salman

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) on the reproductive activity of male albino rats.respectively. The control rats received the vehicle. All the treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each experimental period, animals were killed and organ weights, sperm characteristics, serum testosterone levels,histology of the testes and fertility were assessed. Results: Morinda lucida leaf extract did not cause any changes in body and somatic organ weights, but significantly increased the testis weight (P < 0.05). The sperm motility and viability, and the epididymal sperm counts of rats treated for 13 weeks were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Sperm morphological abnormalities and serum testosterone levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There were various degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules. The extract reduced the fertility of the treated rats by reducing the litter size. Reversal of these changes, however, occurred after a period of time. Conclusion: The extract of Morinda lucida has reversible antispermatogenic properties.

  17. Oral administration of Kaempferia parviflora did not disturb male reproduction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisomboon, Hataitip; Tohei, Atsushi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the androgenic effect of Kaempferia parviflora (KP), a Thai herbal plant, adult male rats were randomized into control and KP-treatment groups. Rats were treated orally with water in the control group and with 1,000 mg/kg/day of KP in the treatment group for 45 days. Blood samples were collected on days 10, 20, 30 and 45 for measurement of the serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone levels. The reproductive and non-reproductive organs were dissected on day 45 and weighed. Mating behavior was also observed on days 20 and 30. Body weight was measured throughout the study period. The results showed that KP induced an increase in body weight compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in the weights of either reproductive (testis, seminal vesicle plus coagulating gland, levator ani muscle plus bulbocarvernosus muscle and glans penis, except the prostate gland) or non-reproductive organs (kidney, adrenal gland and gastracnemius muscle). There were no significant differences in serum levels of either FSH or LH between the two groups. The serum testosterone and progesterone levels were insignificantly lower in the KP group during the first 30 days. The serum corticosterone levels in the KP group were lower than those in the controls throughout the study period and were significantly low on days 20 and 30. There were no significant changes in mating behavior in the rats treated with KP. Although KP affected the body weight and serum corticosterone level, it did not affect mating behavior, reproductive and non-reproductive organ weights or hormones related to the reproductive system in the adult male rats. Therefore, we conclude that the testosterone-like effect of KP did not disturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis or male reproduction. PMID:18594126

  18. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  19. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert Tr; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. PMID:27300271

  20. Effect of high altitude exposure on spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Rubio, J; Chung, A; Villegas, L; Gonzales, G F

    2003-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of exposure to high altitude on spermatogenesis using transillumination technique and sperm count in male rats. In addition, the effect of oral intubation for intragastric administration of vehicle on testicular parameters in adult male rats in a schedule of 42 days was assessed. Male rats were exposed to Cerro de Pasco (Peru) at 4340 m for 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days resulting in a modification of the pattern of the seminiferous tubule stages. At day 3, stages I, IV-V, VI, VII and IX-XI were relatively shorter at high altitude than at sea level. At day 7, stages VIII, IX-XI, XII and XIII-XIV were reduced. At day 14, stages VII, VIII and IX-XI were reduced. At day 21 and 28, stages VIII, XII and XIII-XIV were significantly increased at high altitude. At day 35 an increase in stage XIII-XIV was observed. At day 42, stages II-III, IX-XI and XII were significantly increased at high altitude. Epididymal sperm count was significantly reduced at day 7 of exposure to high altitude and maintained low levels with respect to sea level up to 42 days. In conclusion, high altitude exposure affects spermatogenesis, particularly onset of mitosis and spermiation. This in turn affects epididymal sperm count.

  1. Syzygium Cumini (L. Seeds Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Maheswari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  3. Effect of Nanosilver Particles on Alanin Amino Transferase (ALT) Activity and White Blood Cells (WBC) Level in Male Wistar Rats, In Vivo Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Naghsh; Ali Noori; Heydar Aqababa; Samira Amirkhani-Dehkordi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nanosilver is extensively used in medical equipment. Given the importance of white blood cells (WBC) in the immune system and liver cells in the body detoxification, this study has examined the effects of nanosilver particles on the white cell count and ALT liver enzyme in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male Wistar rats, provided from Pasteur Institute of Tehran. Nanosilver particles with concentrations of 50, 100, 200 an...

  4. Toxicity Induced after Subchronic Administration of the Synthetic Food Dye Tartrazine in Adult Rats, Role of Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Narges El Golli; Ines Bini-Dhouib; Aicha Jrad; Imene Boudali; Basma Nasri; Nadia Belhadjhmida; Saloua El Fazaa

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxic potential of tartrazine, a food color, in different tissues in adult rat: blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen. Tartrazine was administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight to adult male Wistar rats during a period of 30 days. Tartrazine treatment led to an increase in platelets count, a reduction in peripheral lymphocytes and in spleen T CD8-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tartrazine increased the activities of hepatocellular enzymes a...

  5. Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sujatha; K.C. Chitin; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and testicular steroidogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered with lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed using anesthetic ether. Testes, epididymis,seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were removed and weighed. A 10% testicular homogenate was prepared and cen trifuged at 4°C. The supematant was used for various biochemical estimations. Results: The body weight and the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were reduced in lindane-treated rars. There was asignificant decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reduc tase while an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation was observed. The specific activities of testicular steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were decreased. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein were also decreased in lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane induces oxida tive stress and decreases antioxidant enzymes in adult male rats.

  6. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

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    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain. PMID:24217015

  7. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

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    Ukoha Ukoha Ukoha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of their faces were taken and traced out on tracing papers. On these, two vertical distances, nasion to subnasal and subnasale to menton, and four angles, nasofrontal (NF, nasofacial, nasomental (NM and mentocervical, were measured. Results: The result showed that the Igbo Nigerian adult male had a middle face that was shorter than the lower one (41.76% vs.58.24%, a moderate glabella (NF=133.97°, a projected nose (NM=38.68° and a less prominent chin (NM=125.87°. Conclusion: This study is very important in medical practice as it can be used to compare the pre- and post-operative results of plastic surgery and other related surgeries of the face.

  8. Neuromedin B stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats.

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    Boughton, C K; Patel, S A; Thompson, E L; Patterson, M; Curtis, A E; Amin, A; Chen, K; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Murphy, K G

    2013-11-10

    Neuromedin B (NMB) is a highly conserved bombesin-related peptide found in mammals. NMB mRNA is detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly expressed in the rat hypothalamus, in particular the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus. The mammalian bombesin family of receptors consists of three closely related G protein coupled receptors, BB1, BB2 and BB3. The BB1 receptor subtype has the highest affinity for NMB. NMB has well documented roles in the regulation of the thyroid axis and the stress axis in rats. However, there is little available data regarding the role of NMB in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. It is known that the NMB receptor is expressed in immortalised gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) releasing GT1-7 cells and murine forebrain GnRH neurons, and that anterior pituitary NMB-immunoreactivity is altered by changes in the sex steroid environment. The objective of these studies was thus to further investigate the effects of NMB on the HPG axis. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NMB (10 nmol) to adult male rats significantly increased plasma luteinising hormone (LH) levels 30 min after injection (plasma LH ng/ml; saline 0.69±0.07, 10 nmol NMB 1.33±0.17, P<0.01). In vitro, NMB stimulated GnRH release from hypothalamic explants from male rats and from hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. NMB had no significant effect on LH release from anterior pituitary explants from male rats, or from pituitary LβT2 cells in vitro. These results suggest a previously unreported role for NMB in the stimulation of the HPG axis via hypothalamic GnRH. Further work is now required to determine the receptor mediating the effects of NMB on the reproductive axis and the physiological role of NMB in reproduction. PMID:24120470

  9. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  10. Effect of Fetal Hypothyroidism on Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Male Rats

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    Yousefzadeh, Nasibeh; Jeddi, Sajad; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH) in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and β-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) and heart rate (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 beat/min, p < 0.05) were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201%) and α- MHC expression was lower (47%) than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart. PMID:27411095

  11. Reproductive toxicity of sodium valproate in male rats

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    Bairy Laxminarayana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on rat sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and histopathological changes in testis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 week old were treated with sodium valpraote and sacrificed at the end of 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week after the last exposure to sodium valproate. Epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and histopathology of testes were analyzed. Results: Sperm count and sperm motility were decreased significantly by sodium valproate. The percentage of abnormal sperms increased in a dose-dependent manner. A histopathological study revealed that sodium valproate had caused sloughing of epithelial cells in testes. Conclusion: Sodium valproate causes reversible change in sperm motility, sperm count, morphology, and cytoarchitecture of testes.

  12. Behavioral, biochemical and molecular indices of stress are enhanced in female versus male rats experiencing nicotine withdrawal

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    OSCAR VALENTIN TORRES

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor that promotes tobacco use and relapse during withdrawal. Although women are more vulnerable to tobacco use than men, the manner in which stress contributes to tobacco use in women versus men is unclear. Thus, the goal of this study was to compare behavioral and biological indices of stress in male and female rats during nicotine withdrawal. Since the effects of nicotine withdrawal are age-dependent, this study also included adolescent rats. An initial study was conducted to provide comparable nicotine doses across age and sex during nicotine exposure and withdrawal. Rats received sham surgery or an osmotic pump that delivered nicotine. After 14 days of nicotine, the pumps were removed and controls received a sham surgery. Twenty-four hours later, anxiety-like behavior and plasma corticosterone were assessed. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc, amygdala, and hypothalamus were examined for changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF gene expression. In order to differentiate the effects of nicotine withdrawal from exposure to nicotine, a cohort of rats did not have their pumps removed. The major finding is that during nicotine withdrawal, adult females display higher levels of anxiety-like behavior, plasma corticosterone, and CRF mRNA expression in the NAcc relative to adult males. However, during nicotine exposure, adult males exhibited higher levels of corticosterone and CRF mRNA in the amygdala relative to females. Adolescents displayed less nicotine withdrawal than adults. Moreover, adolescent males displayed an increase in anxiety-like behavior and an up-regulation of CRF mRNA in the amygdala during nicotine exposure and withdrawal. These findings are likely related to stress produced by the high doses of nicotine that were administered to adolescents to produce equivalent levels of cotinine as adults. In conclusion, these findings suggest that intense stress produced by nicotine withdrawal may contribute to tobacco use

  13. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring Born to Suramin-Treated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lee, Chien-Te; Lin, Yu-Ju; Tsai, Ching-Chou

    2016-07-01

    Adulthood hypertension can be programmed by preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is associated with an imbalance in vasoactive factors, including nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We examined whether maternal N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy prevented maternal suramin treatment-induced programmed hypertension in offspring and explored the effects of this therapy on NO, H2S, and RAS pathways in the kidneys. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administered 60 mg/kg suramin alone on Gestational Days 10 and 11 and were treated with or without 1% NAC through drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period. Male offspring were divided into four groups (n = 8-10/group): control, suramin, NAC, and suramin plus NAC. All rat offspring were euthanized at 12 wk of age. Maternal suramin treatment induced programmed hypertension in male offspring, which was prevented by maternal NAC therapy. Suramin-induced programmed hypertension was associated with increased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an NO synthase inhibitor) level, decreased plasma l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio, and decreased renal dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (an ADMA-metabolizing enzyme) activity. Protective effects of NAC against suramin-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in plasma glutathione level, increase in renal 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase level, and restoration of suramin-induced reduction in H2S synthesis in the kidneys. Suramin treatment exerted negligible effect on the RAS pathway in the adult male offspring kidneys. Our data suggested interplay among suramin, ADMA-NO pathway, and H2S synthesis pathway in programmed hypertension. Furthermore, NAC administration in pregnant rats with hypertension prevented programmed hypertension in adult offspring. PMID:27251093

  14. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an Adult Indian Male

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    Rachit Harjai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Following its first description by Guy Patin in 1692 as a disease that turned a woman into wood, Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva has maintained its low profile that too mainly in textbooks and rarely does one encounter a live walking individual affected by this entity. The hallmarks of this deadly disease are the short size of only the big toes and uninhibited progressive ossification of soft tissues. It can have a sporadic occurrence or may even be inherited through autosomal dominant pattern and has a wide range of expression. A wrong clinical diagnosis exposes the patient to unnecessary surgical excision and even harmful radiotherapy.Hence a case of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an adult Indian male is being reported here for the benefit of one and all. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 927-931

  15. Mitogenic effects of propoxur on male rat bladder urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Cano, M; Johnson, L S; StJohn, M K; Asamoto, M; Garland, E M; Thyssen, J H; Sangha, G K; van Goethem, D L

    1994-11-01

    Propoxur produces bladder tumors in rats, but not other species. The hyperplastic and tumorigenic effects do not occur if urinary pH is lowered by administering propoxur in a semi-synthetic diet or co-administering it with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). We fed propoxur at 8000 p.p.m. in Altromin 1321 diet to male Wistar rats for 4 weeks, with or without NH4Cl as 10,000 p.p.m. of the diet. The urine of rats fed control diet with or without propoxur had a relatively high urinary pH (approximately 8); the addition of NH4Cl lowered the urinary pH by approximately 0.5-1.0 units. There was no evidence of urinary calculi or amorphous precipitate nor was there an increase in microcrystals or formation of different crystals than occur in normal rat urine. Propoxur produced hyperplasia of the urothelium, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and increased the labeling index for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These effects were significantly inhibited by co-administration with NH4Cl. There was no evidence of urothelial necrosis. Thus, the hyperplasia appears to result from a direct mitogenic effect of propoxur or a metabolite on the urothelium, rather than from toxicity and consequent regeneration. Based on the present study and previous investigations, the urothelial effects of propoxur in the rat are dependent on high urinary pH and high administered doses, factors which need to be incorporated into any mechanistic model for the chemical and into any extrapolation to potential effects in humans.

  16. Effect of vitamins C and E on reproductive system of male rats treated with sodium fluoride

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    N. A. H. ALKasim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of vitamin C administration (200 mg/ kg, orally concomitantly withsodium fluoride (100 ppm in drinking water for 60 days, the effect of vitamin E administration (500 mg / Kg diet withsodium fluoride (100 ppm in drinking water for 60 days and the effect of both vitamins in adult male rats. Sodium fluoridealone caused significant decrease in total sperms count, the percentage of the live sperms and epididymal head weightassociated with significant increase in the percentage of the sperm abnormalities compared with the control group.Administration of vitamin C with sodium fluoride and the two vitamins with sodium fluoride produced a significant increase intotal sperms count, the percentage of the live sperms and the relative weight of the epididymal head weight, accompanied witha significant decrease in the percentage of sperm abnormalities compared with sodium fluoride group. There were nosignificant changes in the total sperms count in vitamin E group. A significant increase in the percentage of the live sperms andthe epididymal head weight, and a significant decrease in the percentage of sperm abnormalities compared with sodiumfluoride group. It could be concluded that antioxidants administration (vitamin C or vitamin E and the interaction between vitamin E and C concomitantly with sodium fluoride reduce the adverse effects caused by sodium fluoride on sexualefficiency of the adult male rats.

  17. The Effect of Atorvastatin on the Pancreatic Tissue of Male Rats

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    M Karimian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background & aim: Statins are inhibitors drugs of hydroxymethyl glotaryl coenzyme A. In addition to decreasing plasma cholesterol, low-density cholesterol they reduce the rate of triglycerides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on rat pancreatic tissue.In addition to decreasing the rate of plasma cholesterol concentration they also decrease the rate of LDL and Triglyceride. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on rat pancreatic tissue. Methods: In this study, 32 adult male rats were divided into four groups, control and three test groups. To conduct the present study, 32 male adult rats were divided into 4 equal groups: one control group and three test groups. Then the test groups were treated by Atorvastatin for 45 days with 10mg (group1, 20mg (group2 and 30 mg (group3 doses respectively. At the end of the treatment period, all rats were killed by taking blood from their hearts. The pancreas tissue of each rat (N=32 was separated. After fixation, tissue preparation and slide staining, Longerhans diameter was measured and number of cells was counted. Data were analyzed by t test.After fixing and coloring the tissue, all slides were prepared and evaluated under the microscope the diameter of I's of Longerhans and the number of cells. The data was analyzed through t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the diameter mean of Longerhans between the test groups and the control group. The mean number of islets cells were increased in compared to the control group (P>0.05.There was also a significant increase was shown in the number of Longerhans cells in the test groups in relation to the control group (p (05/0>.(p>0.05. Conclusion: The consumption of the atorvastatine causes an increase in the number of Longerhans cells. In addition, the increase in the number of cells also increases the insulin secretion. As a result, blood sugar is decreased. Key Words

  18. Altered pituitary hormone secretion in male rats exposed to bisphenol A

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    Gharravi A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a xenobiotic estrogenic compound. This compound has been suspected to have estrogenic effects on reproductive system of males and females. In this present study we investigated possible low-dose effects of BPA on Luteinizing Hormone in rats. Male Wistar rats (12-13 weeks old were administrated a daily intra peritoneal 10 µg/kgbw/day, 50 µg/kgbw/day, 100 µg/kgbw/day dose of BPA for 6, 6, and 12 days, and one day after last injection, serum level of Luteinizing Hormone was examined by ELISA method. All data were expressed as means ± SE. Two-way ANOVA was performed. Analysis of data showed that in all dose groups, plasma level of Luteinizing Hormone significantly decreased compared to control group. The present study showed that BPA at low doses affects Luteinizing Hormone, one of main hormones in spermatogenesis in the adult Wistar rats, and subsequently alters the steroidgenesis in testicular Leydig cells.

  19. Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats

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    Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

  20. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

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    Garcia Luis I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin

  1. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on Morphology and Ultrastructure of Hippocampus in Adult Male Rats%亚慢性接触2,3,7,8-四氯二苯-并-二(口恶)英对成年雄性大鼠海马形态结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娜娜; 吴景欢; 闫克栋; 张建军

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究亚慢性低剂量2,3,7,8-四氯二苯-并-二(口恶)英(2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,TCDD)染毒对SD雄性成年大鼠海马形态结构的影响.方法 将32只1月龄SPF级Sprague-Dawley雄性大鼠随机分为4组,分别为对照(玉米油)组和低(2 ng/kg)、中(10 ng/kg)、高剂量(50 ng/kg)TCDD染毒组,每组8只.将相应体积的TCDD染毒溶液(或玉米油)涂抹在面包片(与动物标准饲料成分相当,排除二(口恶)英污染)上,供动物自由食用,每天1次,连续染毒13周.取海马组织进行电镜超微结构观察,常规HE染色,海马CA1区体视学分析.结果 TCDD染毒大鼠海马各区细胞排列较对照组松散,锥体细胞超微结构的损伤以内质网同心圆样改变和线粒体空泡样变为主.各剂量TCDD染毒雄性大鼠海马CA1区锥体细胞的体积密度、表面积密度、平均体积、比表面积与对照组相比,差异均无统计学意义.结论 亚慢性低剂量TCDD染毒可引起成年雄性大鼠海马区细胞排列松散,CA1区锥体细胞超微结构受到破坏.%Objective To study the effects of low dose,long term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)on morphology and ultrastructure of hippocampus in adult male rats. Methods Thirty-two one-month-old SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, 8 in each, and treated daily with TCDD at the doses of 2,10 and 50 ng/kg in the experimental groups,corn oil was given to the control. The rats in each group received daily corresponding volume of TCDD (or corn oil) daubed on a piece of bread with contents of matchable to the standard laboratory food, once a day,for 13 weeks. After 13 weeks,pathological (ie. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and stereology analysis on CA1 area) and ultrastructural observation were conducted with transmission electron microscope on hippocampus. Results Under light microscope,the pyramidal cells' distribution in hippocampus of TCDD treated rats showed sparser than the control

  2. 胚胎发育时期接触过乙酸羟孕酮的成年雄性大鼠的肝脏代谢改变%Alterations in hepatic metabolism of adult male rats following exposure to hydroxyprogesterone during embryonic development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Pushpalatha; P.R.Reddy; P.S.Reddy

    2006-01-01

    目的:观察胚胎在子宫内接触乙酸羟孕酮对雄性大鼠成年后肝脏代谢的影响.方法:让怀孕1天、7天和14天的Wistar白化大鼠分别接触高于正常浓度的乙酸羟孕酮(10 mg/kg和25 mg/kg).出生的雄性仔鼠在可控条件下喂养,出生90天后处死,迅速切取肝脏组织称重,并用于生化分析.结果:胚胎发育时期接触过乙酸羟孕酮的大鼠肝脏中的琥珀酸酯脱氢酶、谷氨酸酯脱氢酶、葡萄糖-6-磷酸盐脱氢酶、苹果酸酯脱氢酶以及转氨酶(aminotransaminases)的活性显著提高,乳酸脱氢酶的活性显著下降.此外,与对照组相比,随着实验大鼠肝脏组织脂质氧化反应的增加,抗氧化酶(谷胱甘肽S型转移酶和过氧化氢酶)活性也有显著增加.结论:上述实验结果表明胚胎发育时期接触过乙酸羟孕酮的大鼠的氧化代谢、抗氧化机制以及脂质过氧化水平都得到了提高.转氨酶活性的增加表明线粒体的完整性被损伤和破坏.%Aim: To investigate the effect of in utero exposure to hydroxyprogesterone (HP) on liver metabolism in adult male albino rats. Methods: Pregnant Wistar strain albino rats were exposed to supra-normal levels (10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg) of HP on days 1, 7 and 14 of pregnancy. The male pups were maintained under controlled conditions and the rats were killed 90 days after birth. The liver tissue was immediately excised, weighed and used for biochemical assays.Results: The activity levels of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and aminotransaminases were significantly increased in the livers of rats exposed to HP during embryonic development. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity level was significantly decreased in the liver of experimental rats. Furthermore, there was a significant elevation of activity levels of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase [GST] and catalase [CAT

  3. Sequential changes of serum and liver subcellular oxidants and antoxidant concentrations in silymarin treated male rats

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    J.A.A. Al-Sa'aidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the role of silymarin as an antioxidant and/or it activity in induction of the endogenous antioxidants in intact adult male rats. Seventy males were randomly devided into control and silymarin treated groups (35 each, and were drenched with drinking water and silymarin suspension (200 mg/ kg b.w daily for 40 days. Each group was allocated to 5 equal subgroups; sacrificed before treatment (0 day, and after 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of treatment. At the end of each period, males were anaesthesized, dissected and blood samples were obtained for assessment of MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. liver samples (1 g have been removed and homogenized for assessment of liver subcellular MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. At the end of each periods, serum and liver subcellular MAD concentrations showed no significant changes between groups, whereas SOD, CAT, and GSH concentrations significantly increased at 10, 20, 30, and 40 day periods in silymarin treated males compared with control. It can be concluded that silymarin antioxidant activity is of pharmacological value not only as an antioxidant by itself but also as an inducer of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants even in normal intact male.

  4. The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat

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    Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 received 1% and 2% NaCl, respectively, for 144 hours. We measured the parameters of sensitivity to the ketamine injection (125mg/kg including length of times to the inhibition of the righting reflex, inhibition of the response to painful stimulus and the times to the reappearance of the response to painful stimulus and recovery from anesthesia. We also determined the mortality rates during anesthesia. "n"nResults: The times for inhibition of the righting reflex and response to painful stimulus for group 2 were significantly shorter than those for group 1 and the control group. The times for the reappearance of response to painful stimulus and full recovery from anesthesia in group 2 were significantly longer than those of group 1 and the control group. "n"nConclusions: Hypernatremia affects ketamine anesthesia in the rat, increasing the speed of passing through the different steps of anesthesia. The duration of ketamine efficacy increases, while recovery from anesthesia is significantly delayed.

  5. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim Elaine MP; Damasceno Débora C; Perobelli Juliana E; Spadotto Raquel; Fernandez Carla DB; Volpato Gustavo T; Kempinas Wilma DG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days bef...

  6. Effects of silver nanoparticle on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes of heart tissue in male wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Noushin Naghsh; Amir Masoud Mashayekh; Samaneh Khodadadi

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: The silver nanoparticles are important in many applications of nanoparticles on human health . The toxicity of silver nanoparticles are not well documented yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes in heart tissue.   Materials &Methods: In this study, 40 adult male wistar rats of 220±20gr were divided in to five groups including control and four experimental groups. The la...

  7. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  8. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  9. Immunoisolated transplantation of purified langerhans islet cells in testis cortex of male rats for treatment of streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Ali; Norouzian, Dariush; Mehrabi, Mohammad Reza; Chiani, Mohsen; Saffari, Zahra; Farahnak, Maryam; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to induce experimental diabetes mellitus by streptozotocin in normal adult Wistar rats via comparison of changes in body weight, consumption of food, volume of water, urine and levels of glucose, insulin and C-peptide in serum, between normal and diabetic rats. Intra-venous injection of 60 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin in 250-300 g (75-90 days) adult Wistar rats makes pancreas swell and causes degeneration in Langerhans islet β-cells and induces experimental diabetes mellitus in 2-4 days. For a microscopic study of degeneration of Langerhans islet β-cells of diabetic rats, biopsy from pancreas tissue of diabetic and normal rats, staining and comparison between them, were done. In this process, after collagenase digestion of pancreas, islets were isolated, dissociated and identified by dithizone method and then with enzymatic procedure by DNase and trypsin, the islet cells changed into single cells and β-cells were identified by immune fluorescence method and then assayed by flow-cytometer. Donor tissue in each step of work was prepared from 38 adult male Wistar rats weighted 250-300 g (75-90 days). Transplantation was performed in rats after 2-4 weeks of diabetes induction. In this study, the levels of insulin, C-peptide and glucose in diabetic rats reached to normal range as compared to un-diabetic rats in 20 days after transplantation of islet cells. Transplantation was performed under the cortex of testis as immunoisolated place for islet cells transplantation. PMID:25298622

  10. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats alters hippocampal neurogenesis and produces deficits in spatial location memory in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Thomas, Catherine M; Sheridan, Cheryl S; Nixon, Feather; Flynn, Jennifer A; Mathews, Iva Z

    2012-06-01

    The ongoing development of the hippocampus in adolescence may be vulnerable to stressors. The effects of social instability stress (SS) in adolescence (daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner postnatal days 30-45) on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adolescence (on days 33 and 46, experiment 1) and in adulthood (experiment 2) was examined in Long Evans male rats and compared to nonstressed controls (CTL). Additionally, in experiment 2, a separate group of SS and CTL rats was tested on either a spatial (hippocampal-dependent) or nonspatial (nonhippocampal dependent) version of an object memory test and also were used to investigate hippocampal expression of markers of synaptic plasticity. No memory impairment was evident until the SS rats were adults, and the impairment was only on the spatial test. SS rats initially (postnatal day 33) had increased cell proliferation based on counts of Ki67 immunoreactive (ir) cells and greater survival of immature neurons based on counts of doublecortin ir cells on day 46 and in adulthood, irrespective of behavioral testing. Counts of microglia in the DG did not differ by stress group, but behavioral testing was associated with reduced microglia counts compared to nontested rats. As adults, SS and CTL rats did not differ in hippocampal expression of synaptophysin, but compared to CTL rats, SS rats had higher expression of basal calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CamKII), and lower expression of the phosphorylated CamKII subunit threonine 286, signaling molecules related to synaptic plasticity. The results are contrasted with those from previous reports of chronic stress in adult rats, and we conclude that adolescent stress alters the ongoing development of the hippocampus leading to impaired spatial memory in adulthood, highlighting the heightened vulnerability to stressors in adolescence.

  11. The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, Wiebke; Klaus, Susanne; Fink, Heidrun; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging experimental evidence that hyper-energetic diets not only cause obesity but also impact on behaviour in rodents. A hyper-energetic comfort diet/cafeteria diet (CD) fed during early development programmes anxiety-related behaviour in adult age, but little is known how an obesogenic CD impacts on behaviour when fed at a later age. To this end we fed CD to Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at either 6 weeks or 12 months old, for a period of 6 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field (OF). A glucose tolerance test was performed and metabolic indices, body weight and fat were measured. CD-fed young adult females, but not males, had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of carbohydrates and fats. Only in adult CD-fed rats of both sexes did this overconsumption led to increased weight gain. Protein intake was reduced in all CD groups. Fat mass (subcutaneous, perirenal, gonadal) increased in most CD groups, whereas brown fat increased only in adults. Triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and total cholesterol concentrations increased predominantly in adult CD-fed rats. Glucose tolerance was only impaired in adult males. CD-fed adult males showed fewer entries into the aversive open arms and groomed more on the EPM, whereas adult females spent more time on these arms. In the OF, CD-fed females of both ages visited the inner zone more frequently and travelled a longer distance. The behavioural data suggests anxiolysis in CD-fed females and signs of increased anxiety in adult males. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that feeding CD leads to both obesity and behavioural changes in rats. Overall, these effects were more pronounced in older rats, with the behavioural effects being particularly gender dependent.

  12. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  13. Effect of lindane on antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C. Chitra; R. Sujatha; C. Latchoumycandane; P.P. Mathur

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To find out the changes induced by lindane on the antioxidant enzymes in epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats, Methods; Adult male rats were orally administered lindane at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight per day for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed. The epididymis was removed and weighed and sperm were collected for sperm count, motility and biochemical studies. A 1% homogenate of epididymis was prepared and used for biochemical estimations. Results: In lindane-treated rats, there were significant reductions in the epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motility compared with the controls. Significant decreases in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities and significant increases in the H2O2 generation and lipid peroxidation were also observed in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of lindane-treated rats. Conclusion: Lindane decreases the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the epididymis and epididymal sperm of adult rats thereby inducing oxidative stress.

  14. Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön Ybarra, M A

    1986-01-01

    Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers. PMID:3609972

  15. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  16. ANTI-FERTILITY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF SARCOSTEMMA SECAMONE (L BENNET ON MALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanga Krishna Kumari S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and GRD in plant extract treated rats were decreased. The results of the hormonal assay showed that increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreased in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results of fertility test indicated that the treated adult male rats reduced the number of female’s impregnation. In addition, the number of implantations and the number of viable featuses were also decreased. The results of the present study concluded that, ethanol extract of whole plant of Sarcostemma secamone inhibited sperm concentration, motility and testosterone which might result in a male fertility.

  17. Alterations in gene expression and steroidogenesis in the testes of transient cerebral ischemia in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bing-hai; GUO Yan-qin; LI Hong-zhi; LIU Jie-ting; WU Dan; YUAN Xiao-huan; LI Rong-wen; GUAN Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Serum testosterone levels have been found lower in acute ischemic stroke male patients.However,the exact mechanism remains unclear.In the present study,we measured serum testosterone levels,steroidogenesisrelated genes and Leydig cells number in experimental transient cerebral ischemia male rats to elucidate the mechanism.Methods The middle cerebral arteries of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were sutured for 120 minutes and then sacrificed after 24 hours.Blood was collected for measurement of serum testosterone,follicular stimulating hormone and estradiol levels,and testes were collected for measurement of steroidogenesis-retated gene mRNA levels and number of Leydig cells.Results Serum testosterone levels in rats after cerebral ischemia were significantly lower (0.53±0.16) ng/ml,n=7,mean±SE) compared with control ((2.33±0.60) ng/ml,n=7),while serum estradiol and follicular stimulating hormone levels did not change.The mRNA levels for luteinizing hormone receptor (Lhcgr),scavenger receptor class B member 1 (Scarb1),steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR),cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1),3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD311),17α-hydroxylese/20-lyase (Cyp17a1) and membrane receptor c-kit (kit) were significantly downregulated by cerebral ischemia,while luteinizing hormone,Kit ligand (KitL),17β-hydrosteroid dehydrogenase 3 (HSD17β3) and 5α-reductase (Srd5a1) were not affected.We also observed that,relative to control,the Leydig cell number did not change.Conclusions These results indicate that transient cerebral ischemia in the brain results in lower expression levels of steroidogenesis-related genes and thus lower serum testosterone level.Transient cerebral ischemia did not lower the number of Leydig cells.

  18. Prenatal restraint stress generates two distinct behavioral and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS (stress delivered to the mothers 3 times per day during the last 10 days of pregnancy on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Adult male rats subjected to PRS ("PRS rats" showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM, a reduction in the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, a reduction in the activity of mGlu1/5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ventral hippocampus, and an increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus. In contrast, female PRS rats displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM, improved learning in the Morris water maze, an increase in the activity of mGlu1/5 receptors in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, and no changes in hippocampal neurogenesis or BDNF levels. The direction of the changes in neurogenesis, BDNF levels and mGlu receptor function in PRS animals was not consistent with the behavioral changes, suggesting that PRS perturbs the interdependency of these particular parameters and their relation to hippocampus-dependent behavior. Our data suggest that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females.

  19. A 4-week toxicity study of methionine in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Keigi; Toue, Sakino; Kawamata, Yasuko; Watanabe, Akiko; Miwa, Tadashi; Smriga, Miro; Sakai, Ryosei

    2015-01-01

    To examine 4-week toxicity of l-methionine (methionine), 5-week-old Fisher strain male rats were fed on diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 2.7 (w/w) of added methionine. Although no deaths were recorded, the highest dose of methionine (2.7% [w/w] of diet) reduced food intake and significantly suppressed growth rate. Growth suppression was characterized by an increase in hemolysis, splenic, and hepatic accumulation of hemosiderin, hemolytic anemia, and promotion of hematopoiesis. Other changes observed in the highest methionine intake group were a decrease in white blood cell count, thymus atrophy, and histological abnormalities in the adrenal gland and testis. Small, but significant, growth suppression, accompanied by some minor changes in plasma biochemical parameters, was also seen in rats fed on a test diet containing 0.9% (w/w) of additional methionine. Thus, no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of diet-added methionine were determined at 0.3% and 0.9% (w/w), corresponding to 236 and 705 mg/kg/d body weight, respectively. Since the basal diet contained protein-bound methionine at 0.5% (w/w), NOAEL and LOAEL of total dietary methionine were estimated at 0.8% and 1.4% (w/w) of diet.

  20. Anxiolytic Effect of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae Extract in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Medicinal plants with natural antioxidants have been shown to be beneficial in a variety of complications such as anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM is one of the most widely used models to assess anxiety in small rodents. Objectives This study was designed to characterize the anxiolytic-like activity of Borago officinalis (Linnaeus, family Boraginaceae or Borage flowers extract, using an EPM test. Materials and Methods Male Wistar rats weighing 220-250 grams were used in the present study. Thirty minutes after an intraperitoneal (IP injection of the Borage extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg or saline, each animal was placed in the EPM. Animal behaviors in the experimental sessions were recorded by a video camera located above the maze, interfaced with a monitor and a computer in an adjacent room. The time spent in the open arms, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM and the numbers of entries into the closed arms were recorded for five minutes. Results Statistical analysis indicated that acute IP injection of Borage extract before an EPM trial significantly increased the time spent in open arms and percentage of open arms entries. Whereas, the extract had no effect on the number of closed arm entries. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that injection of Borage extract might have an anxiolytic profile in rats. However, the exact mechanism (s related to the active compound (s in Borage extract should be elucidated in future studies.

  1. Urotensin Ⅱ inhibits carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ming WU; Hong-mei XUE; Lin XIAO; Rui-rong HE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of urotensin Ⅱ (UV) on the carotid sinus baroreflex (CSB). Methods: The functional curve of carotid sinus baroreflex was measured by recording changes in arterial pressure in anesthetized male rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus. Results: UⅡ at the concentration of 3 nmol/L had no effect on the CSB, while at the concentration of 30, 300 and 3000 nmol/L inhibited the CSB, shifting the functional curve of the baroreflex upward and to the right. There was a marked decrease in peak slope and reflex decrease in blood pressure. These effects of UⅡ were concentration-dependent. Pretreatment with verapamil (an antagonist of the L-type calcium channel, 10 μmol/L) partially eliminated the above effects of UⅡ (300 nmol/L) on the CSB. Pretreatment with BIM-23127 (3 μmol/L),an antagonist of human and rat UⅡ receptors, abolished the actions of UⅡ on the CSB. Pretreatment with, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 100 μmol/L did not affect the inhibitory effects of UⅡ (300 nmol/L) on the CSB. Conclusion: These data suggest that UⅡ exerts an inhibitory action on the isolated CSB. Such an action of UV is predominantly mediated by the UⅡ receptors in vascular smooth muscles, resulting in the opening of L-type calcium channels.

  2. In vivo genotoxicity of estragole in male F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Levy, Dan D; Bishop, Michelle E; Pearce, Mason G; Davis, Kelly J; Jeffrey, Alan M; Duan, Jian-Dong; Williams, Gary M; White, Gene A; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles E; Manjanatha, Mugimane G

    2015-05-01

    Estragole, a naturally occurring constituent of various herbs and spices, is a rodent liver carcinogen which requires bio-activation. To further understand the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, genotoxicity was assessed in F344 rats using the comet, micronucleus (MN), and DNA adduct assays together with histopathological analysis. Oxidative damage was measured using human 8-oxoguanine-DNA-N-glycosylase (hOGG1) and EndonucleaseIII (EndoIII)-modified comet assays. Results with estragole were compared with the structurally related genotoxic carcinogen, safrole. Groups of seven-week-old male F344 rats received corn oil or corn oil containing 300, 600, or 1,000 mg/kg bw estragole and 125, 250, or 450 mg/kg bw safrole by gavage at 0, 24, and 45 hr and terminated at 48 hr. Estragole-induced dose-dependent increases in DNA damage following EndoIII or hOGG1 digestion and without enzyme treatment in liver, the cancer target organ. No DNA damage was detected in stomach, the non-target tissue for cancer. No elevation of MN was observed in reticulocytes sampled from peripheral blood. Comet assays, both without digestion or with either EndoIII or hOGG1 digestion, also detected DNA damage in the liver of safrole-dosed rats. No DNA damage was detected in stomach, nor was MN elevated in peripheral blood following dosing with safrole suggesting that, as far both safrole and estragole, oxidative damage may contribute to genotoxicity. Taken together, these results implicate multiple mechanisms of estragole genotoxicity. DNA damage arises from chemical-specific interaction and is also mediated by oxidative species.

  3. Differentiation of embryonic versus adult rat neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlong Ke; Baili Chen; Shaolei Guo; Chao Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the conversion of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro can be increased through specific cytokine combinations. Such neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons could be used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about the differences in dopaminergic differentiation between neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats.OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of rat adult and embryonic-derived neural stem cells to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Surgical Laboratory in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-scn University (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) from June to December 2007. Eight, adult, male,Sprague Dawley rats and eight, pregnant, Sprague Dawley rats (embryonic day 14 or 15) were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University.METHODS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were respectively cultivated in serum-free culture medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. After passaging, neural stem cells were differentiated in medium containing interleukin-1 ct, interleukin-11, human leukemia inhibition factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Six days later, cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alterations in cellular morphology after differentiation of neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats; and percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the differentiated cells.RESULTS: Neural stem cells derived from adult and embryonic rats were cultivated in differentiation medium. Six days later, differentiated cells were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylasc. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons was (5.6 ± 2

  4. Personality Profiles of Adult Males Sexually Molested by Their Maternal Caregivers: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roys, Deloris T.; Timms, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined two groups of adult males who had been sexually abused as children by female maternal caregivers: those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual abuse survivor work, and those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual offender work. These groups show greater psychological disruption than adult males who as children had not…

  5. Sexual differentiation of the brain and partner preference in the male rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Julie)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe studies reported in this thesis have been conducted to investigate the sexual differentiation of partner preference in the male rat. Initially, the effects of neonatal inhibition of brain estrogen formation on later coital behavior and partner preference of the male rat were studied.

  6. Intrahippocampal Insulin Improves Memory in a Passive-Avoidance Task in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani

    2007-01-01

    The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10…

  7. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuntha G

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  8. The reversibility of sperm quality after discontinuing nandrolone decanoate in adult male rats%成年雄性大鼠中断癸酸诺龙后精子质量的可逆性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saied Karbalay-Doust; Ali Noorafshan; Fakhrodin Mesbah Ardekani; Hossien Mirkhani

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the reversibility of the effect of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on sperm parameters after discontinuing the drug. Methods: Three groups of rats received peanut oil (control), low and high doses of ND for 14 weeks, respectively. Each group was divided into subgroups A and B, in which rats were killed 14 and 28 weeks after initiating the injection, respectively. Results: Sperm count and motile sperm fraction were decreased in the subgroups A and B that received low and high doses of ND in comparison with the controls A and B, respectively. The sperm count and motile sperm fraction increased in the subgroups B that received low and high doses of ND in comparison with their corresponding subgroups A. The number of normal morphology sperm was decreased significantly in subgroups A receiving low and high doses of ND in comparison with the control subgroup A. However, this parameter was not decreased in subgroups B receiving low and high doses in comparison with the control subgroup B. The normal sperm morphology did not show any significant differences in the subgroups B in comparison with their corresponding subgroups A. Conclusion: The 14-week injection of low and high doses of ND decreases sperm quality and quantity in rats. These parameters were improved after discontinuing ND, but not recovered completely even when they are left untreated for 14 weeks.

  9. Impairments in testicular function indices in male wistar rats: a possible mechanism for infertility induction by Xylopia aethiopica fruit extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ologhaguo Macstephen Adienbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accumulating evidence about alterations in male fertility necessitates the need to screen more medicinal plants for their effect on male reproductive functions. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica on testicular functions in males using wistar rats as models. Methods: Forty eight adult male rats, randomly divided into four groups of 12 each, were used for the study. Group 1 (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 (test groups. Daily oral doses of 0.5, 2.0 and 10.0 mg/kg b.w. of hydro-methanol extract were given to the test groups for 30 days followed by 30 days withdrawal. From each group, 6 animals were sacrificed on days 31 and 61 of the study and samples collected: Testes and epididymis were each weighed; blood was assayed for serum testosterone; testes processed for tissue biochemical studies. Results: Results show significant (P <0.05 reductions in the weight of reproductive organs, serum testosterone; testicular glycogen, cholesterol, protein and malondialdehyde; while testicular superoxide dismutaase increased. Conclusions: It was concluded that Xylopia aethiopica impairs testicular functions in rats and therefore fertility in males. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 71-75

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  18. Differences in the association between behavior and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in male and female rats after coronary artery ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouweleeuw, Leonie; Hovens, Iris B; Liu, Hui; Naudé, Petrus J W; Schoemaker, Regien G

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure is associated with an increased risk of developing depression and cognitive dysfunction, which negatively affects prognosis. Plasma levels of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) are increased in heart failure and depression. Moreover, NGAL levels are associated with depression in heart failure patients. Since women are at a higher risk of developing comorbid depression with heart failure, the aim of this study was to examine sex differences in the link between NGAL and behavior in a rat model of heart failure. In young adult male and female Wistar rats, myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by means of coronary artery ligation, while control rats received sham surgery. We analyzed aspects of cognition and depression/anxiety using various behavioral tests starting three weeks after surgery. Hemodynamic measurements were performed and hearts and lungs were weighed. NGAL levels in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue were analyzed. MI induced impairment in cardiac contractility and relaxation, and an increase in lung weight. NGAL correlated with signs of heart failure in male, but not female rats. Male MI rats displayed cognitive problems, but not depressive-like or anxiety-like behavior. No behavioral effects of MI were observed in female rats. Plasma NGAL levels were higher in male than female rats with higher concentrations in MI compared to sham. CSF NGAL was higher in MI rats compared to sham and higher in males compared to females. The number of NGAL positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) was only increased in male MI rats. In male, but not in female rats, NGAL levels correlated with depressive-like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. Data indicate that while MI increased NGAL levels in plasma, CSF and PVN, correlations of NGAL with behavior are sex-specific, but independent of whether sham or MI surgery was performed. This suggests that inflammatory processes related to thorax surgery

  19. Antinociceptive Effect of Hydroalcoholic Leaf Extract of Hedera helix in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shahidi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The consumption of chemical compounds and medicinal herbs are different ways to control pain. On the other hand, the complications of chemical drugs and their expensiveness cause people to use herbal medicines The aim of this study was to inves-tigate the antinociceptive effect of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Hedera helix in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 36 adult male rats were divided into 6 groups: control, morphine (1mg/kg, Hedera helix extract (100, 200, 300mg/kg, i.p. and naloxone (1mg/kg with Hedera helix extract (200 mg/kg. The analgesic effects of Hedera helix ex-tract were assessed with writhing and tail flick tests. Results: The results of this study showed that doses of 200 and 300mg/kg of Hedera helix ex-tract decreased pain significantly. However, dose of 300mg/kg of Hedera helix extract showed more antinociceptive effect of Hedera helix extract. The naloxone and Hedera helix extract combination increased the number of writhing compared with the Hedera helix ex-tract group. Conclusion: In this study analgesic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Hedera helix was observed. The antinociceptive effect of extract was probably occurred by activation of opioid system. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:119-125

  20. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats

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    B. Nchegang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment. The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg, haloperidol (1 mg/kg, or atropine (5 mg/kg. Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c. before the test. Results. The extract (days 1–14 had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment, it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent tend to appear during the posttreatment period.

  1. Different Effects of Testosterone on Acute and Chronic Pain in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A Zarifkar; A Jamei; M Shariati

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Nociception and behavioral responses to noxious stimuli are different in males and females. It seems that these differences are due to the effects of sex hormones on the pain mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone administration on nociception by formalin test in gonadectomized rats. Material & Methods: In this study 32 male wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=8) the control rats without receivi...

  2. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Norshalizah Mamikutty; Zar Chi Thent; Shaiful Ridzwan Sapri; Natasya Nadia Sahruddin; Mohd Rafizul Mohd Yusof; Farihah Haji Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW) in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such...

  3. The effects of levamisole on urinary enzyme measurements and proximal tubule cell inclusions in male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, G. O.; Goodwin, D A; Parsons, C. E.; Read, N G

    1988-01-01

    A markedly increased incidence of large angular secondary lysosomes was observed in the proximal tubular cells of male Wistar rats dosed orally with levamisole, 75 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. These inclusions were similar in appearance to those previously observed in male rats treated with decahydronaphthalene. Urinary enzymes were measured throughout the study, and of these enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activities were higher on days 9 and 13 for rats d...

  4. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moghadami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  5. The change in thyroid hormone signaling by altered training intensity in male rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, Ronny; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Iizuka, Yuki; Amano, Izuki; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2016-08-31

    Aerobic (sub lactate threshold; sub-LT) exercise training facilitates oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis of skeletal muscle. Thyroid hormone (TH) also facilitates such metabolic events. Thus, we studied whether TH signaling pathway is activated by treadmill training. Male adult rats received 30 min/day treadmill training with different exercise intensity for 12 days. Then plasma lactate and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were measured. By lactate levels, rats were divided into stationary control (SC, 0 m/min), sub-LT (15 m/min) and supra lactate threshold (supra-LT; 25 m/min) training groups. Immediately after the last training, the soleus muscles were dissected out to measure TH receptor (TR) mRNA and protein expressions. Other rats received intraperitoneal injection of T3, 24 h after the last training and sacrificed 6 h after the injection to measure TH target gene expression. TSH level was suppressed in both sub-LT and supra-LT groups during the exercise. TRβ1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in sub-LT group. Sensitivity to T3 was altered in several TH-target genes by training. Particularly, induction of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase β1 expression by T3 was significantly augmented in sub-LT group. These results indicate that sub-LT training alters TH signaling at least in part by increasing TRβ1 expression. Such TH signaling alteration may contribute metabolic adaptation in skeletal muscle during physical training.

  6. Effect of atorvastatin on orthodontic tooth movement in male wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein MirHashemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs by many patients and have been recently shown to affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatinon on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 samples each. Group A, served as control with no medication while groups B and C received a daily gavage of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC as vehicle and atorvastatin (5 mg/kg as test substance, respectively. In all three groups, 6mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were ligated between the maxillary incisors and first left molars to deliver an initial force of 60g. Tooth movement was measured following sacrifice, 21 days after appliance insertion. Root resorption, PDL width and osteoclast number were histologically evaluated and compared between the groups.The mean amount of tooth movement was 0.62 mm in group A, 0.59 mm in group B and 0.38 mm in group C. OTM reduction following administration of atorvastatin was statistically significant (p0.05.According to the results obtained in the current study, atorvastatin appears to reduce tooth movement in rats; however its effect on osteoclasts, especially osteoclastic function, requires further investigation.

  7. Effect of Atorvastatin on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    MirHashemi, Amir Hossein; Afshari, Maryam; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Dehpour, Ahmadreza; Sheikhzade, Sedigheh; Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs by many patients and have been recently shown to affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatinon on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 samples each. Group A, served as control with no medication while groups B and C received a daily gavage of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as vehicle and atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) as test substance, respectively. In all three groups, 6mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were ligated between the maxillary incisors and first left molars to deliver an initial force of 60g. Tooth movement was measured following sacrifice, 21 days after appliance insertion. Root resorption, PDL width and osteoclast number were histologically evaluated and compared between the groups. Results: The mean amount of tooth movement was 0.62 mm in group A, 0.59 mm in group B and 0.38 mm in group C. OTM reduction following administration of atorvastatin was statistically significant (p0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current study, atorvastatin appears to reduce tooth movement in rats; however its effect on osteoclasts, especially osteoclastic function, requires further investigation. PMID:24910664

  8. Effect of bisphenol S exposure on male reproductive system of rats: A histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hizb; Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Shaheen, Ghazala; Ahsan, Nida

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) has been introduced into the industry as a safer alternative to Bisphenol A. BPS has been detected in human urine sample and induces oxidative stress in vitro and exhibit endocrine disrupting potential in vivo. However, data regarding effect of BPS in mammals is very limited and only a few studies have been carried out. In the present study, direct effect of BPS exposure on oxidative stress and testosterone concentration in rat testis was evaluated in vitro. BPS exposure not only induced oxidative stress but also enhanced antioxidant enzymes activity in the tissue. Based on in vitro results, in vivo study was carried out. In the in vivo sub-chronic study, adult male rats were exposed to different doses of BPS (1-50 μg/kg day). Significant increase in the testicular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were observed in the higher doses tested while antioxidant enzymes activity and protein content were significantly reduced. Plasma and intra-testicular testosterone concentrations were reduced in groups treated with higher doses of BPS. Testicular morphology revealed thin seminiferous epithelium in the treated groups as compared to the control. In the epididymis, area of the tubular epithelium showed significant reduction and empty lumen were observed in the groups treated with higher concentrations of BPS. The present data suggest that BPS has the potential to induce oxidative stress in the testis and might have effect on spermatogenesis in rats.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis. PMID:26886858

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis.

  11. Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Widén, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and female...

  12. Pathological effects of anabolic steroid (Sustanon® on liver of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Al-Kennany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present pathological study on the male rats aims to investigate the effects on liver tissue induced by repeated administration of three doses of sustanon for four periods. The experiment was done on the 100 adult male rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats in each group. The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. Blood was collected in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for measurements liver function tests ALT (alanine aminotransferase and AST (aspartate aminotransferas enzymes. Then the animals were dissected to take samples in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for histopathological examination, then 5 rats were lefted in each group in the diet and water for 30 days after last treatment for examination the above mentioned parameters. The results revealed the presence of significantly increasing of liver enzyme activation represented by ALT and AST at level P<0.05 compared with control groups. The value of these levels were higher in group V in a day 60 after treatment and its continue to increase even after stopping treatment and remained on diet and water only for 30 days. Pathologically, all treated groups with sustanon revealed gross and histopathological changes in liver tissue, there were enlargement and congestion gross. Histopathologically, the liver sections elucidate cellular swelling, vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in addition to fatty change and programmed cell death in all groups during a period 15, 30 and 60 days these changes continue even after stopping the treatment for 30 days but portal fibrosis has been observed.It has been concluded from this study that sustanon in concentration 5, 10

  13. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

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    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  14. EFFECTS OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL CONCIS ON CELL PROLIFERATION OF THE SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE IN ADULT RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuelin; Qiu Shudong; Zhang Pengbo; Shi Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the proliferative response and time course of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells after cerebral cortical concis in the adult rats. Methods Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Cumulative BrdU labeling was employed to detect the proliferating cells. At 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 21 d after cerebral cortical concis, the rats were killed for BrdU immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in the injured ipsilateral SVZ. Results Little BrdU immunoreactivity cells was present in SVZ of the control rats from day 7 to day 21 after sham operation. The number of BrdU immunoreactivity cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ increased at day 1 and peaked at day 7 after cerebral cortical concis. Conclusion After cerebral cortical concis of the adult rats, neural stem/progenitor cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ markedly proliferated with a peak at day 7. This finding may be important for manipulating SVZ cells to promote the recovery from cerebral cortical concis.

  15. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  16. Pharmacological blockade of either cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rat

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Galeano, Pablo; Rubio, Leticia; Suárez, Juan; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to major drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, has recently been linked to alterations in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulates this proliferative response as demonstrated by the finding that pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors not only modulates neurogenesis but also modulates cell death in the brain. In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alter...

  17. Pharmacological blockade of either, cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors, prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    EDUARDO eBLANCO-CALVO; PATRICIA eRIVERA; SERGIO eARRABAL; ANTONIO eVARGAS; FRANCISCO JAVIER ePAVON; ANTONIA eSERRANO; PABLO eGALEANO; LETICIA eRUBIO; JUAN eSUAREZ; FERNANDO eRODRIGUEZ DE FONSECA

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to major drugs of abuse such as cocaine has been recently linked to alterations on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulated this proliferative response since pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors by modulating not only neurogenesis but also cell death in the brain. In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alterations in cell proliferation . To this...

  18. Orexin-1 Receptor Mediation of Cocaine Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; Chan, Clifford; Lin, Li; Cameron, Michael D.; Kenny, Paul J.; See, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that female rats exhibit enhanced cocaine seeking during multiple phases of cocaine addiction compared with males. The orexin/hypocretin system recently has been implicated in drug addiction in male rats. Based on the known sex differences in cocaine addiction, in the current study we examined orexin-mediated cocaine seeking during self-administration, extinction, and reinstatement in age-matched male (initial weight 250–300 g) and female (initial weight 175–225 g)...

  19. TIME COURSE OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT RATS TREATED ACUTELY WITH CARBARYL CARBOFURAN, FORMETANATE, METHOMYL, METHIOCARB, OXAMYL ON PROPOXUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamates, time course profiles for brain and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition were established for each. Adult, male, Long Evans rats (n=4-5 dose group) were dosed orally with either carbaryl (30 mg/kg in corn oil); ...

  20. Early postnatal caloric restriction protects adult male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring from obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Stout, David; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Postnatal ad libitum caloric intake superimposed on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adult-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that this paradigm of prenatal nutrient deprivation-induced programming can be reversed with the introduction of early postnatal calorie restriction. Ten-month-old male rats exposed to either prenatal nutrient restriction with ad libitum postnatal intake (IUGR), pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (IPGR), or postnatal nutrient restriction limited to the suckling phase (50% from postnatal [PN]1 to PN21) (PNGR) were compared with age-matched controls (CON). Visceral adiposity, metabolic profile, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were examined. The 10-month-old male IUGR group had a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral fat (P metabolic inflexibility (Vo(2)) versus CON. The IPGR group remained lean, euglycemic, insulin sensitive, and active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. The PNGR group was insulin sensitive, similar to IPGR, but less active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. We conclude that IUGR resulted in obesity without insulin resistance and energy metabolic perturbations prior to development of glucose intolerance and T2DM. Postnatal nutrient restriction superimposed on IUGR was protective, restoring metabolic normalcy to a lean and active phenotype. PMID:22461568

  1. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  2. Reproductive and endocrinological features of male rats after treatment with cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksena, S.K.; Dahlgren, L.; Lau, I.F.; Chang, M.C.

    1977-06-01

    Single subcutaneous injection of 1 or 5 mg cadmium chloride (CdCl/sub 2/) to adult male rats resulted in a significant reduction in the weights of the testis, epididymidis, vas deferens, ventral prostate and seminal vesicles. Sperm population in the vas deferens, caput and cauda epididymidis was severely reduced. Sexual drive and fertility were not changed 7 or 15 days after treatment with 1 mg CdCl/sub 2/; however, a loss of libido to total sterility were encountered in animals receiving 5 mg CdCl/sub 2/. The circulating testosterone and 5..cap alpha..-dihydrotestosterone were suppressed whereas androstenedione concentration remained unaltered. It appears that CdCl/sub 2/ not only affects spermatogenesis but also inhibits androgen production.

  3. The inhibitory effects on adult male reproductive functions of crude garlic (Allium sativum) feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imen Hammami; Afef Nahdi; Claire Mauduit; Mohamed Benahmed; Mohamed Amri; Awatef Ben Amar; Semy Zekri; Ahmed El May; Michele Veronique El May

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of crude garlic on adult male rat reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (untreated) and groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fed for 30 days with 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% crude garlic, respectively. Testes and accessory organs were weighed and some markers were assessed. Light and electron microscopy observations were also performed. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the body weight of groups 4 (14%; P < 0.01) and 5 (20%; P < 0.01); of the prostate weight in group 5 (29.1%; P < 0.05) and of seminal vesicle weight in groups 3 (14.4%; P < 0.01), 4 (18.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (27.3%; P < 0.01). In contrast, testis and epididymis weights were unchanged. In epididymis tissue, the alpha glucosidase activity and the spermatozoa density were unchanged. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone serum levels in groups 3 (77.3%; P < 0.01), 4 (77.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (90.9%; P < 0.01), associated with a significant increase in LH serum levels (P < 0.01). Testicular histology showed a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of empty seminiferous tubules. Moreover, testicular function was affected; a significant decrease in phosphatase acid activity (P < 0.01) and testosterone (P < 0.05) contents were observed. Conclusion: Crude garlic consumption during 1 month reduced testosterone secretion and altered spermatogenesis at 10%, 15% and 30% doses. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 593-601)

  4. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on hepatic metallothionein, zinc and glutathione in male and female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.; Harrell, B. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the simultaneous responses of hepatic metallothionein (MT), zinc (Zn) and glutathione (GSH) in male and female rats to an acute ethanol dose. In male rats, hepatic MT has been shown to be induced by an acute ethanol dose. The Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the Lieber-DeCarli control diet for a five day period and then divided into 6 groups: baseline females and males, ethanol-treated females and males, pair-fed females and males. At t=0, baseline rats were killed, ethanol-treated rats were given ethanol by intragastric tube, and pair-fed rats were given ethanol by intragastric tube, and pair-fed rats were given an isocaloric sucrose solution by intragastric tube. At t=24 h, the ethanol-treated and pair-fed rats were killed. Livers were assayed for MT. Zn and GSH. Concentrations of blood ethanol (BEC) were significantly greater for male than female rats. A two way ANOVA with the independent variables being time and sex was performed to analyze differences for hepatic MT, Zn and GSH. For rats dosed with ethanol and killed 24 h later compared with rats at baseline, hepatic MT was significantly greater and hepatic Zn and GSH were not significantly different. Hepatic MT, Zn and GSH were not significantly different by sex. A significant correlation existed between hepatic Zn/g and MT/g. In conclusion, 24 h after an acute dose of ethanol, female as well as male rats responded with the induction of hepatic MT; and enough cysteine was available for the induction of hepatic MT and the maintenance of hepatic GSH levels. The measurement of Zn bound to hepatic MT rather than total hepatic Zn would be desirable to discern if changes in Zn distribution occur.

  5. Follicle Development of Xenotransplanted Sheep Ovarian Tissue into Male and Female Immunodeficient Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadat Tahaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess follicle survival after xenotransplantation of sheep ovarian tissue into male and female immunodeficient rats. We evaluated the effects of gonadotropin treatment on follicular development in the transplanted tissue. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sheep ovarian cortical strips were transplanted into the neck back muscles of 8 male and 8 female immunodeficient, castrated rats. Fourteen days after surgery, each rat was treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG for 9 weeks. One day after the last injection, ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histology assessment. Histology analyses were performed before and after grafting. Estradiol (E2 levels were measured before and after gonadectomy, and at the end of the experiment. The control group consisted of 7 male and 7 female noncastrated/ non-grafted rats and the sham group comprised 7 male and 7 female castrated/ non-grafted rats for comparison of serum E2 concentrations. Results: The percentage of primordial follicles decreased after transplantation in male (25.97% and female (24.14% rats compared to the control group (ovarian tissue nongrafted; 37.51%. Preantral follicles increased in the male (19.5% and female (19.49% transplanted rats compared to the control group (11.4%. Differences in antral follicles between male (0.06 ± 0.0% and female (0.06 ± 0.0% rats were not noticeable compared to control (1.25 ± 0.0% rats. We observed a significantly higher percent of mean E2 secretion in grafted males compared to grafted females (P˂0.05. Conclusion: Despite significant differences in E2 secretion between xenografted male and female rats, we observed no statistical differences in terms of follicular development.

  6. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  7. Antiperoxidative Activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum Leaf Extract in Reproductive Organs of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seun Funmilola Akomolafe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg. Hutch. & Dalz is one of the many medicinal plants used in folklore as male fertility enhancers. This research was aimed at evaluating the anti-peroxidative activity of the leaves of this plant by determining their capacity to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA level in reproductive organs and accessory glands of rats. Adult male rats were administered orally with the aqueous leaf extract from T. conophorum at 50, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days while clomiphene citrate (1.04 mg/kg body weight, a fertility drug was used as standard. The results of the study indicated that there was increase in relative organ weight, body weight, mean total food and water consumed by the treated groups. Testicular MDA level was highly significantly different from that of the control (p<0.0001 although a tentatively decreased MDA level was observed. However, MDA levels in the reproductive accessory glands, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland were insignificantly (p<0.05 lower than those of controls. The highest percentage decrease of MDA level (66.35, 42.68, 62.50 and 63.36% was observed at the highest concentration of the extract (1000 mg/kg in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland respectively. These values were two-fold greater than the values obtained for the standard drug. Interestingly, the treatment of rats with the extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and the levels of GSH, vitamin C and total protein. Collectively, the results suggest that the extract from T. conophorum leaves had greater capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in reproductive organs and accessory glands and thus, this plant may be useful in the treatment/management of reproductive cellular damage involving reactive oxygen species.

  8. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Domènech, Òscar [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Barcelona University (Spain); Banjar, Zainy M. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma

  9. Effects of Triclocarban on Intact Immature Male Rat: Augmentation of Androgen Action

    OpenAIRE

    Duleba, Antoni J.; Ahmed, Mohamed I.; Sun, Meng; Gao, Allen C.; Villanueva, Jesus; Conley, Alan J.; Turgeon, Judith L.; Benirschke, Kurt; Gee, Nancy A.; Chen, Jiangang; Green, Peter G.; Lasley, Bill L

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in various personal hygiene products including soaps. Recently, TCC has been shown to enhance testosterone-induced effects in vitro and to enlarge accessory sex organs in castrated male rats. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of TCC on intact age-matched male rats and on human prostate LNCaP and C4–2B cells. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet or a diet supplem...

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of bacoside A against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver toxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2009-10-01

    N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) is a notorious carcinogen, present in many environmental factors. DEN induces oxidative stress and cellular injury due to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species; free radical scavengers protect the membranes from DEN-induced damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of bacoside A (the active principle isolated from Bacopa monniera Linn.) on carcinogen-induced damage in rat liver. Adult male albino rats were pretreated with 15 mg/kg body weight/day of bacoside A orally (for 14 days) and then intoxicated with single necrogenic dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (200 mg/kg bodyweight, intraperitonially) and maintained for 7 days. The liver weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and activity of serum marker enzymes (aspartate transaminases, alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were markedly increased in carcinogen-administered rats, whereas the activities of marker enzymes were near normal in bacoside A-pretreated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutatione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione) in liver also decreased in carcinogen-administered rats, which were significantly elevated in bacoside A-pretreated rats. It is concluded that pretreatment of bacoside A prevents the elevation of LPO and activity of serum marker enzymes and maintains the antioxidant system and thus protects the rats from DEN-induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga IO; Osonuga OA; Osonuga A; Onadeko AA; Osonuga AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results:Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions:The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.

  12. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  13. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... of epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  14. The gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sater, Khaled A; Abdel-Daiem, Wafaa M; Sayyed Bakheet, Mohamad

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, control males and group II, control females; group III, acute cold restraint stressed males and group IV, acute cold restraint stressed females; group V, fluoxetine-treated stressed males and group VI, fluoxetine-treated stressed females. Acute cold restraint stress was established by fixing the four limbs of the rat and placing it in a refrigerator at 4°C for 3h. Fluoxetine was given intraperitoneal in a single dose of 10mg/kg/day. After 2 weeks, stomach and brain tissues were collected for the assay of gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), catalase, nitric oxide (NO) and cortical gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Stressed animals exhibited increased total acidity in association with decreased gastric secretion volume. Gastric MDA was increased while gastric catalase, NO, and cortical GABA were decreased in stressed male rats when compared to stressed females. However, fluoxetine administration attenuated these stress-induced changes especially in stressed male animals. Stressed male rats were more responsive to the antiulcer effect of fluoxetine more than stressed females. However, fluoxetine might be considered to be the first-choice drug in depressive patients with gastric ulcers in the future.

  15. Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Beiderbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS exerts robust anxiolytic and memory enhancing effects, but only in a non-social context. In order to study whether NPS affects aggressive behavior we used Wistar rats bred for low (LAB and high (HAB levels of innate anxiety-related behaviour, respectively, which were both described to display increased levels of aggression compared with Wistar rats not selectively bred for anxiety (NAB. Male LAB, HAB and NAB rats were tested for aggressive behavior towards a male intruder rat within their home cage (10 min, resident-intruder [RI] test. Intracerebroventricular (icv infusion of NPS (1 nmol significantly reduced inter-male aggression in LAB rats, and tended to reduce aggression in HAB and NAB males. However, local infusion of NPS (0.2 or 0.1 nmol NPS into either the nucleus accumbens or the lateral hypothalamus did not influence aggressive behavior. Social investigation in the RI test and general social motivation assessed in the social preference paradigm were not altered by icv NPS. The anti-aggressive effect of NPS is most likely not causally linked to its anxiolytic properties, as intraperitoneal administration of the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazole decreased aggression in LAB rats whereas the anxiolytic drug diazepam did not affect aggression of HAB rats. Thus, although NPS has so far only been shown to exert effects on non-social behaviors, our results are the first demonstration of anti-aggressive effects of NPS in male rats.

  16. Effects of taurine on male reproduction in rats of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jiancheng; Wu Gaofeng; Feng Ying; Lv Qiufeng; Lin Shumei; Hu Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the male reproductive system, and can be biosynthesized by male reproductive organs. But the effect of taurine on male reproduction is poorly understood. Methods Taurine and β-alanine (taurine transport inhibitor) were offered in water to male rats of different ages. The effects of taurine on reproductive hormones, testis marker enzymes, antioxidative ability and sperm quality were invest...

  17. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamed Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-β expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

  18. Effects of maternal rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress before pregnancy on the behaviors and brain monamine of their adult male offspring%母鼠孕前慢性应激对成年雄性子代行为学和脑区单胺递质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海红; 张磊; 方泽漫; 吴彩茹; 朱琴; 黄庆军

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究母鼠孕前慢性应激对成年雄性子代行为学和脑内单胺类神经递质的影响.方法 16只成年雌性SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组和慢性不可预见性应激组(CUS),CUS组大鼠每天接受一种应激,共21d,正常对照组不接受任何应激.应激结束后10 d,2组大鼠均与同种SD雄性大鼠合笼,以成年2月龄雄性子代作为研究对象.用糖水消耗实验测量快感缺失,Morris水迷宫检测空间记忆能力,高效液相色谱法测量海马、下丘脑和前额皮质单胺递质的含量.结果 糖水消耗实验示正常对照组子代的糖水消耗量和糖水消耗百分比均显著高于CUS组子代[糖水消耗量:(10.23±4.12)g,(6.48±3.19)g;糖水消耗百分比:(85.43±20.15)%,(60.98±24.65)%](P<0.05).Morris水迷宫检测示2组的逃避潜伏期无差异,但空间探索测试中正常对照组子代[(4.17±2.29)次]穿越平台的次数明显多CUS组子代[(1.64±1.69)次](P<0.05).CUS组子代[(500.17±80.94)ng/g脑组织]下丘脑5-羟色胺的含量低于正常对照组子代[(569.63±50.91)ng/g脑组织](P<0.05),而CUS组子代[(2315.01±1397.12)ng/g脑组织]海马去甲肾上腺素的含量却要高于正常对照组子代[(907.56±207.27)ng/g脑组织](P<0.05).结论 母鼠孕前慢性应激或抑郁会造成成年雄性子代的快感缺失和空间记忆力下降,以及脑内单胺类神经递质异常.%Objective To examine the effects of maternal rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress before pregnancy on the behaviors and brain monamine of their adult male offspring.Methods Sixteen SD rats were divided into chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) group and controls.CUS rats were exposed to 21 days chronic unpredictable stressors ,and the controls were stress-free.Ten days after the last stressor, all the female rats were caged with sexually experienced males of the same strain.Then we performed the following experiments on the two months male progeny, sucrose consumption

  19. Rodent ultrasonic communication: Male prosocial 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations elicit social approach behavior in female rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willadsen, Maria; Seffer, Dominik; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals with important communicative functions. Low-frequency 22-kHz USV typically occur in aversive situations, such as social defeat, whereas high-frequency 50-kHz USV can be observed in appetitive situations, like rough-and-tumble-play in juveniles or mating in adults. The 2 main USV types serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While 22-kHz USV probably serve as alarm calls, 50-kHz USV appear to serve a prosocial communicative function in the sexual and the nonsexual context. In the sexual context, however, this view has recently been challenged by playback studies where only very limited behavioral changes were observed in response to prosocial 50-kHz USV. The aim of the present study was therefore to test whether female rats display social approach behavior in response to male prosocial 50-kHz USV by means of our established playback paradigm. To this aim, we exposed female rats to playback of the following 2 acoustic stimuli: (a) natural male 50-kHz USV and (b) time- and amplitude-matched white noise, with the latter serving as acoustic control for novelty-induced changes in behavior not linked to the communicative function of male prosocial 50-kHz USV. Our present findings show that female rats display high levels of social approach behavior in response to male prosocial 50-kHz USV, but not time- and amplitude-matched white noise, supporting the conclusion that male prosocial 50-kHz USV are likely to play an important role in establishing social proximity and possibly regulate mating behavior.

  20. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  1. Gender and estrous cycle influences on behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adult rats neonatally administered ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célia Moreira Borella, Vládia; Seeman, Mary V; Carneiro Cordeiro, Rafaela; Vieira dos Santos, Júnia; Romário Matos de Souza, Marcos; Nunes de Sousa Fernandes, Ethel; Santos Monte, Aline; Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Silvânia; Quinn, John P; de Lucena, David F; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in rodents triggers schizophrenia (SCZ)-like alterations during adult life. SCZ is influenced by gender in age of onset, premorbid functioning, and course. Estrogen, the hormone potentially driving the gender differences in SCZ, is known to present neuroprotective effects such as regulate oxidative pathways and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, the aim of this study was to verify if differences in gender and/or estrous cycle phase during adulthood would influence the development of behavioral and neurochemical alterations in animals neonatally administered ketamine. The results showed that ketamine-treated male (KT-male) and female-in-diestrus (KTF-diestrus, the low estrogen phase) presented significant deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and spatial working memory, two behavioral SCZ endophenotypes. On the contrary, female ketamine-treated rats during proestrus (KTF-proestrus, the high estradiol phase) had no behavioral alterations. This correlated with an oxidative imbalance in the hippocampus (HC) of both male and KTF-diestrus female rats, that is, decreased levels of GSH and increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitrite. Similarly, BDNF was decreased in the KTF-diestrus rats while no alterations were observed in KTF-proestrus and male animals. The changes in the HC were in contrast to those in the prefrontal cortex in which only increased levels of nitrite in all groups studied were observed. Thus, there is a gender difference in the adult rat HC in response to ketamine neonatal administration, which is based on the estrous cycle. This is discussed in relation to neuropsychiatric conditions and in particular SCZ. PMID:26215537

  2. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. PMID:26289766

  3. Pharmacological blockade of either, cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors, prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO eBLANCO-CALVO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addiction to major drugs of abuse such as cocaine has been recently linked to alterations on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulated this proliferative response since pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors by modulating not only neurogenesis but also cell death in the brain. In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alterations in cell proliferation . To this end we examined if pharmacological blockade of either CB1 (Rimonabant, 3 mg/kg or CB2 receptors (AM630, 3 mg/kg affects cell proliferation (labeled with BrdU, found in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ. In addition, we measured cell apoptosis (monitored by the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and glial activation ( by analizing the expression of GFAP and Iba-1 in the striatum and hippocampus, during acute or repeated (4 days cocaine administration (20 mg/kg. Results showed that acute cocaine decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in SVZ and SGZ. In contrast, repeated cocaine reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SVZ only. Both acute and repeated cocaine increased the number of cleaved caspase-3+, GFAP+ and Iba1+ cells in the hippocampus, an effect counteracted by AM630 or Rimonabant that increased the number of BrdU+, GFAP+ and Iba1+ cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that changes on neurogenic, apoptotic and gliosis processes, which were produced as a consequence of repeated cocaine administration, were normalized by the pharmacological blockade of CB1 and CB2. The restoring effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on hippocampal cell proliferation were associated with a prevention of the induction of conditioned locomotion, but not of cocaine-induced sensitization.

  4. Alaska northern fur seal adult male satellite telemetry data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...

  5. Hepatoprotective Role of Ethanolic Extract of Vitex negundo in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Farkaad A; Kassim, Normadiah M; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Yehye, Wageeh A

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Vitex negundo (VN) was conducted against thioacetamide- (TAA-) induced hepatic injury in Sprague Dawley rats. The therapeutic effect of the extract was investigated on adult male rats. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY), and VN high dose and low dose groups. Rats were administered with VN extract at two different doses, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight. After 12 weeks, the rats administered with VN showed a significantly lower liver to body weight ratio. Their abnormal levels of biochemical parameters and liver malondialdehyde were restored closer to the normal levels and were comparable to the levels in animals treated with the standard drug, SY. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination further confirmed the results. Progression of liver fibrosis induced by TAA in rats was intervened by VN extract administration, and these effects were similar to those administered with SY. This is the first report on hepatoprotective effect of VN against TAA-induced liver fibrosis. PMID:23762157

  6. A cognitive rehabilitation paradigm effective in male rats lacks efficacy in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kristopher D; Granter-Button, Shirley; Harley, Carolyn W; Moody-Corbett, Frances; Peeling, James; Corbett, Dale

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction, as a consequence of dementia, is a significant cause of morbidity lacking efficacious treatment. Females comprise at least half of this demographic but have been vastly underrepresented in preclinical studies. The current study addressed this gap by assessing the protective efficacy of physical exercise and cognitive activity on learning and memory outcomes in a rat model of vascular dementia. Forty ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (∼6 months old) were exposed to either a diet high in saturated fats and refined sugars or standard laboratory chow and underwent either chronic bilateral carotid occlusion or Sham surgery. Learning and memory abilities were evaluated using standard cognitive outcomes over the ensuing 6 months, followed by histologic analyses of hippocampal CA1 neurons. In Experiment 1, we confirmed hypoperfusion-induced cognitive dysfunction using a 2 × 2 (Surgery × Diet) experimental design, without alterations in hippocampal architecture. In Experiment 2, hypoperfused animals were either exposed to alternating days of physical (wheel running) and cognitive activity (modified Hebb-Williams maze) or sedentary housing. In contrast to males, this combination rehabilitation paradigm did not improve cognition or histopathologic outcomes in hypoperfused animals. These findings, highlighting differences between female and male animals, show the necessity of including both sexes in preclinical experimentation.

  7. Central serotonin depletion modulates the behavioural, endocrine and physiological responses to repeated social stress and subsequent c-fos expression in the brains of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K K; Martinez, M; Herbert, J

    1999-01-01

    Intraspecific confrontation has been used to study effect of depleting central serotonin on the adaptation of male rats to repeated social stress (social defeat). Four groups of adult male rats were used (serotonin depletion/sham: stressed; serotonin depletion/sham: non-stressed). Central serotonin was reduced (by 59-97%) by a single infusion of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxtryptamine (150 microg) into the cerebral ventricles; levels of dopamine and noradrenaline were unaltered (rats received appropriate uptake blockers prior to neurotoxic infusions). Sham-operated animals received solute only. Rats were then either exposed daily for 10 days to a second larger aggressive male in the latter's home cage, or simply transferred to an empty cage (control procedure). Rats with reduced serotonin failed to show the increased freezing behaviour during the pre-defeat phase of the social interaction test characteristic of sham animals. There was no change in the residents' behaviour. Core temperature increased during aggressive interaction in sham rats, and this did not adapt with repeated stress. By contrast, stress-induced hyperthermia was accentuated in serotonin-reduced rats as the number of defeat sessions increased. Basal core temperature was unaffected by serotonin depletion. Heart rate increased during social defeat, but this did not adapt with repeated stress; serotonin depletion had no effect on this cardiovascular response. Basal corticosterone was increased in serotonin-depleted rats, but the progressive reduction in stress response over days was not altered. C-fos expression in the brain was not altered in control (non-stressed) rats by serotonin reduction in the areas examined, but there was increased expression after repeated social stress in the medial amygdala of 5-HT depleted rats. These experiments show that reduction of serotonin alters responses to repeated social stress in male rats, and suggests a role for serotonin in the adaptive process.

  8. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

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    Piyanard Boonnate

    Full Text Available The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology.Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group. All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets.MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated.Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  9. Early life inflammatory pain induces long-lasting deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Yoko O; Victoria, Nicole C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Murphy, Anne Z; Parent, Marise B

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that neonatal injury disrupts adult hippocampal functioning and that normal aging or chronic stress during adulthood, which are known to have a negative impact on hippocampal function, exacerbate these effects. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraplantar injection of the inflammatory agent carrageenan (1%) on the day of birth and their memory was tested in the hippocampal-dependent spatial water maze in adulthood and again in middle age. We found that neonatal injury impaired hippocampal-dependent memory in adulthood, that the effects of injury on memory were more pronounced in middle-aged male rats, and that chronic stress accelerated the onset of these memory deficits. Neonatal injury also decreased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the dorsal CA1 area of middle-aged rats, a brain region critical for spatial memory. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed injury-induced memory deficits, but neonatal morphine treatments in the absence of injury produced significant memory impairments in adulthood. Collectively, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that neonatal injury produces long-lasting disruption in adult hippocampal functioning.

  10. Depressive-Like Behavioral Response of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys during Routine Animal Husbandry Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael B.; Brenda McCowan

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two ...

  11. Pharmacological blockade of either cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Galeano, Pablo; Rubio, Leticia; Suárez, Juan; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to major drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, has recently been linked to alterations in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulates this proliferative response as demonstrated by the finding that pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors not only modulates neurogenesis but also modulates cell death in the brain. In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alterations in cell proliferation. To this end, we examined whether pharmacological blockade of either CB1 (Rimonabant, 3 mg/kg) or CB2 receptors (AM630, 3 mg/kg) would affect cell proliferation [the cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ). Additionally, we measured cell apoptosis (as monitored by the expression of cleaved caspase-3) and glial activation [by analyzing the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1] in the striatum and hippocampus during acute and repeated (4 days) cocaine administration (20 mg/kg). The results showed that acute cocaine exposure decreased the number of BrdU-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the SVZ and SGZ. In contrast, repeated cocaine exposure reduced the number of BrdU-ir cells only in the SVZ. Both acute and repeated cocaine exposure increased the number of cleaved caspase-3-, GFAP- and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus, and this effect was counteracted by AM630 or Rimonabant, which increased the number of BrdU-, GFAP-, and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that the changes in neurogenic, apoptotic and gliotic processes that were produced by repeated cocaine administration were normalized by pharmacological blockade of CB1 and CB2. The restorative effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on hippocampal cell proliferation were associated with the prevention of the induction of conditioned

  12. Pharmacological blockade of either cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Galeano, Pablo; Rubio, Leticia; Suárez, Juan; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to major drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, has recently been linked to alterations in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulates this proliferative response as demonstrated by the finding that pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors not only modulates neurogenesis but also modulates cell death in the brain. In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alterations in cell proliferation. To this end, we examined whether pharmacological blockade of either CB1 (Rimonabant, 3 mg/kg) or CB2 receptors (AM630, 3 mg/kg) would affect cell proliferation [the cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ). Additionally, we measured cell apoptosis (as monitored by the expression of cleaved caspase-3) and glial activation [by analyzing the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1] in the striatum and hippocampus during acute and repeated (4 days) cocaine administration (20 mg/kg). The results showed that acute cocaine exposure decreased the number of BrdU-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the SVZ and SGZ. In contrast, repeated cocaine exposure reduced the number of BrdU-ir cells only in the SVZ. Both acute and repeated cocaine exposure increased the number of cleaved caspase-3-, GFAP- and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus, and this effect was counteracted by AM630 or Rimonabant, which increased the number of BrdU-, GFAP-, and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that the changes in neurogenic, apoptotic and gliotic processes that were produced by repeated cocaine administration were normalized by pharmacological blockade of CB1 and CB2. The restorative effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on hippocampal cell proliferation were associated with the prevention of the induction of conditioned locomotion

  13. Effect of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor on some biochemical parameters in normal male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kalo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous cholesterol acts as a precursor of testosterone and other steroids hormones, this study was conducted to evaluate if there is a counterproductive effect associated with inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway specially in high doses and the degree of these effects in normal male rats. Forty eight adult Wistar rats divided into four groups, the first is control while the remaining three groups were treated with simvastatin (cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor in doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 respectively. Serum samples were observed at the baseline then every fifteen days while tissue samples were observed at day 30 and 60. Results of statistic refered to a significant decrease (p≤ 0.05 in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (by 24 and 49% ± 3 respectively, also serum testosterone was significantly decreased (by 71% ± 2 in all groups compared to control after thirty and sixty days. The activity of alanine aminotransferase was increased (57% ± 3 versus to aspartate aminotransferase. Liver cholesterol was significantly decreased (by 72% ± 2 while testicular cholesterol was decreased except the group of 100 mg.kg-1 which in turns to elevate (61% ± 4, in addition also there was a decrease in body weight gain percentage neither the weights of liver nor testis was affected. In conclusion, the inhibition of denovo pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis negatively affects testosterone level in addition to cholesterol concentration in the tissues, body weight gain and alanine aminotransferase with no successful compensatory mechanism as related with testosterone level.

  14. Androgens drive divergent responses to salt stress in male versus female rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, David; Bagchi, Ansuman; Lu, Meiqing; Figueroa, David; Keenan, Kevin; Holder, Dan; Wang, Yuhong; Jin, Hong; Connolly, Brett; Austin, Christopher; Alonso-Galicia, Magdalena

    2007-06-01

    Dahl-Iwai (DI) salt-sensitive rats were studied using microarrays to identify sex-specific differences in the kidney, both basal differences and differences in responses to a high-salt diet. In DI rat kidneys, gene expression profiles demonstrated inflammatory and fibrotic responses selectively in females. Gonadectomy of DI rats abrogated sex differences in gene expression. Gonadectomized female and gonadectomized male DI rats both responded to high salt with the same spectrum of gene expression changes as intact female DI rats. Androgens dominated the sex-selective responses to salt. Several androgen-responsive genes with roles potentiating the differential responses to salt were identified, including increased male expression of angiotensin-vasopressin receptor and prolactin receptor, decreased 5 alpha-reductase, and mixed increases and decreases in expression of Cyp4a genes that can produce eicosanoid hormones. These sex differences potentiate sodium retention by males and increase kidney function during gestation in females.

  15. A role for puberty in water maze performance in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Jari; Drzewiecki, Carly M; Cuenod, Bethany A; Cortes, Laura R; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by neuroanatomical changes that coincide with increased cognitive performance. This developmental period is particularly important for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which mediates higher-order cognitive functioning. The authors' laboratory has shown that puberty is associated with sex-specific changes in neuron number and the dendritic tree in the rat mPFC, but the effects of pubertal onset on cognitive performance remain relatively unexplored. Here, we use a water maze task to assess spatial memory for the location of an escape platform, followed by a test of reversal learning, when the platform is moved to an alternate quadrant in the maze. For both males and females, 2 groups of prepubertal animals were tested (postnatal day [P]30 and P33 for females, P40 and P43 for males), along with 1 group of newly (2 days) postpubertal animals and 1 group of young adults (P60). There were no group differences in learning the initial location of the platform or when the platform location changed, although grouping pre- and postpubertal ages did result in significantly better performance in postpubertal animals. In addition after the platform location changed, individual prepubertal males and females spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the quadrant of the maze where the platform was formerly located than the postpubertal animals. This collectively implies that pubertal onset in both males and females coincides with improved performance on a reversal task, which may be linked with the neuroanatomical changes occurring in the mPFC during this time. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054406

  16. Neurotoxic effects induced by gammahydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Carmen; García, Francisca Belén; Navarro, José Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Gammahydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous constituent of the central nervous system that has acquired great social relevance for its use as a recreational 'club drug'. GHB, popularly known as 'liquid ecstasy', is addictive when used continuously. Although the symptoms associated with acute intoxication are well known, the effects of prolonged use remain uncertain. We examined in male rats the effect of repeated administration of GHB (10 and 100 mg/kg) on various parameters: neurological damage, working memory and spatial memory, using neurological tests, the Morris water maze and the hole-board test. The results showed that repeated administration of GHB, especially at doses of 10 mg/kg, causes neurological damage, affecting the 'grasping' reflex, as well as alteration in spatial and working memories. Stereological quantification showed that this drug produces a drastic neuronal loss in the CA1 hippocampal region and in the prefrontal cortex, two areas clearly involved in cognitive and neurological functions. No effects were noted after quantification in the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), a region lacking GHB receptors. Moreover, NCS-382, a putative antagonist of GHB receptor, prevented both neurological damage and working- memory impairment induced by GHB. This suggests that the effects of administration of this compound may be mediated, at least partly, by specific receptors in the nervous system. The results show for the first time that the repeated administration of GHB, especially at very low doses, produces neurotoxic effects. This is very relevant because its abuse, especially by young persons, could produce considerable neurological alterations after prolonged abuse.

  17. Evaluation of the excopula ejaculatory potentials of Bersama engleriana in spinal male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Watcho; Miguel Carro-Juarez

    2009-01-01

    tive ejaculation in spinal male rat is mediated through dopaminergic and oxytocinergic pathways. This prolonged ejaculatory latency caused by B. Engleriana could support its potential use in patients with rapid ejaculation.

  18. The developmental inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Thompson, Britta S; Freund, Nadja; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-03-01

    Increased locomotion, novelty-seeking, and impulsivity are risk factors associated with substance use. In this study, the inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, were examined across three stages: juvenile/early adolescence (postnatal Day [P] 15, 19, and 42 for activity, novelty, and impulsivity, respectively), adolescent/late adolescent (P28, 32, 73), and adult (P90, 94, 137) in male and female rats. Our estimates of impulsive choice, where animals were trained to criterion, revealed an age × sex interaction where early adolescent females had the lowest levels of impulsivity. The relationships of activity and novelty to impulsivity significantly changed across age within each sex. Early adolescent males with high activity, but low novelty preferences, were more impulsive; however, low activity and high novelty preferences were related to high impulsivity in adult males. Female activity gradually increased across age, but did not show a strong relationship with impulsivity. Novelty preferences are moderately related to impulsivity into adulthood in females. These data show that males and females have different developmental trajectories for these behaviors. Males show greater sensation-seeking (e.g., activity) and risky behavior (e.g., novelty preferences) earlier in life, whereas these behaviors emerge during adolescence in females. PMID:26419783

  19. Increased depressive behaviour in females and heightened corticosterone release in males to swim stress after adolescent social stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Iva Z; Wilton, Aleena; Styles, Amy; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-06-26

    We previously reported that males undergoing chronic social stress (SS) (daily 1h isolation and new cage partner on days 30-45 of age) in adolescence habituated (decreased corticosterone release) to the homotypic stressor, but females did not. Here, we report that adolescent males exposed to chronic social stress had potentiated corticosterone release to a heterotypic stressor (15 min of swim stress) compared to acutely stressed and control males. The three groups of males did not differ in depressive-like behaviour (time spent immobile) during the swim stress. Corticosterone release in socially stressed females was elevated 45 min after the swim stress compared to acutely stressed and control females, and socially stressed females exhibited more depressive behaviour (longer durations of immobility and shorter durations of climbing) than the other females during the swim stress. Separate groups of rats were tested as adults several weeks after the social stress, and there were no group differences in corticosterone release after the swim stress. The only group difference in behaviour among the adults was more time spent climbing in socially stressed males than in controls. Thus, there are sex-specific effects of social stress in adolescence on endocrine responses and depressive behaviour to a heterotypic stressor, but, unlike for anxiety, substantial recovery is evident in adulthood in the absence of intervening stress exposures.

  20. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    With the increased use of mobile phones, their biological and health effects have become more important. Usage of mobile phones near the head increases the possibility of effects on brain tissue. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. In both male radio-frequency radiation exposed groups, the permeability of blood-brain barrier found to be increased with respect to the controls (pradiation exposure was found more effective on the male animals (p0.01). However 900MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency exposure was found effective on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of female animals. Results have shown that 20min pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure of 900MHz and 1800MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats. For females, 900MHz was found effective and it could be concluded that this result may due to the physiological differences between female and male animals. The results of this study suggest that mobile phone radation could lead to increase the permeability of blood-brain barrier under non-thermal exposure levels. More studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of that breakdown.

  1. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  2. Effects of Semelil (ANGIPARS™) on focal cerebral ischemia in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi-Shekaari, M; H Eftekhar Vaghefi; Talakoub, A; HR Khorram Khorshid

    2010-01-01

    "n  Background and the purpose of the study: Cerebral ischemia is one of the main causes of long term disability and death in aged populations. Many herbal drugs and extracts have been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemia induced insults. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM), a new herbal drug, on focal cerebral ischemia in male rats. Material and methods: Male rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated, ischemic anim...

  3. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

  4. Protective effects of Radix Pseudostellariae polysaccharides against exercise-induced oxidative stress in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, ZICHAO; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaoqin; ZHANG, CHUAN LONG

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Radix Pseudostellariae polysaccharides (RPPs) against swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in male rats. A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: the control (C), low-dose RPP supplementation (LRS), medium-dose RPP supplementation (MRS) and high-dose RPP supplementation (HRS) groups. The control group received saline solution and the supplementation groups received different doses of RPPs (100, 200 and 4...

  5. Intraperitoneal administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-PE40 induces castration in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu; Zhong-Fang Zhang; Chun-Xia Jing; Feng-Lin Wu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-based vaccine on levels of GnRH antibody and testosterone, and vaccine-induced immunocastration on sexual behavior of male rats.METHODS: The rats were treated with GnRH-PE40 intraperitoneally every other day for 12 wk. GnRH antibody and testosterone level in rat blood were determined by ELISA and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Morphological changes in testes and sexual behavior of rats were evaluated.RESULTS: GnRH-PE40 induced a high production in GnRH antibody, decreased the serum testosterone level, testis atrophy and sexual function in rats.CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal administration of GnRH-PE40 produces structural and functional castration of male rat reproductive system by inducing anti-GnRH antibody.

  6. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  7. Effects of tamoxifen citrate on gene expression during nuclear chromatin condensation in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Aleem; Varsha Padwal; Jyoti Choudhari; Nafisa Balasinor; Priyanka Parte; Manjeet Gill-Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of tamoxifen citrate on gene expression during nuclear chromatin condensation in male decondensation, acridine orange (AO) dye uptake, concentration of thiol-groups, levels and/or expression of transition proteins 1, 2 (TP1, TP2), protamine 1 (P1), cyclic AMP response element modulator-τ (CREMτ), androgenbinding protein (ABP) and cyclic adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cAMP) were evaluated after 60 days of exposure in adult male rats. Controls received the vehicle. Results: Tamoxifen citrate enhanced the rates of chromatin decondensation, increased AO dye uptake and reduced free thiols in caput epididymal sperms and reduced the levels of TP1, TP2, P1, and CREMτ in the testis, while cAMP was unaffected. P1 deposition was absent in the sperm. The transcripts of TP1, TP2 were increased, of P1 and ABP decreased, while those of CREMτ unaffected in the testis.Conclusion: Tamoxifen citrate reduced caput epididymal sperm chromatin compaction by reducing the testicular levels of proteins TP1, TP2 and P1 and the CREMτ involved in chromatin condensation during spermiogenesis.Tamoxifen citrate affects the expression of these genes at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  8. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  9. In vitro assessment ofROS on motility of epididymal sperm of male rat exposed to intraperitoneal administration of nonylphenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ansoumane Kourouma; Duan Peng; Hady Keita; Aidogie Osamuyimen; Qi Suqin; Quan Chao; Yu Tingting; Yang Kedi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male infertility through evaluation of its effects on epididymal sperm of adult male rats.Methods:Twenty four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as epididymal sperm donors. Previously rats were administrated with NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg) body weight respectively in corn oil every forty-eight hours by intraperitoneal injection for 30 days. Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used to determine parameters of sperm. The sperm morphology examination was conducted with a high resolution microscope.Results:Results indicated that exposure to NP has no effect on body weight, while testes weights were significantly decreased. Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) showed significant decline in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.001), STR and LIN (P<0.01), significant increase in ALH (P<0.001), while significant decline in BCF (P<0.001) respectively. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasmaγ-GT activity was significantly decreased. H2O2production and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased. The Plasma CAT, GSH-Px and SOD activities were significantly decreased.Conclusions:This concludes that NP leads oxidative stress in the epididymal sperm of rats. Moreover, NP can disrupt sperm motility and alterations in the sperm morphology.

  10. Short-term isolation increases social interactions of male rats: A parametric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1982-01-01

    Frequencies of social interactions were higher in pairs of short-term individually housed male Wistar rats as compared to group-housed animals. This was most pronounced when an individually housed rat and a group-housed conspecific were tested together in the morning under red light conditions. Then

  11. Non-acute effects of different doses of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on spatial memory in the Morris water maze in Sprague-Dawley male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Soleimani Asl; Mohammad Hassan Farhadi; Nasser Naghdi; Samira Choopani; Alireza Samzadeh-Kermani; Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2011-01-01

    3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; also known as 'ecstasy') has been shown to impair learning and spatial memory in adult and neonatal rats.Many studies have focused on the acute effects of MDMA on memory.In the present study, we intraperitoneally administered MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) to adult male rats to investigate the effects of different doses on rat spatial memory in the Morris water maze, body temperature, and mortality, twice a day, for 7 successive days.The results indicated that MDMA impaired spatial memory dose-dependently, with the highest dose (20 mg/kg) exerting the strongest effects.In addition, MDMA also caused hyperthermia and increased mortality in rats.

  12. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Andersen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone, competitive immunoassay (progesterone and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone. The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl, footshock (31.7 ng/dl and cold (35.2 ng/dl led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl and control (371.4 ng/dl groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml and PSD (5.4 ng/ml groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml, swimming (1.1 ng/ml, cold (2.3 ng/ml, and restrained (1.2 ng/ml animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml and footshock (169.6 ng/ml groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  13. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  14. Histopathology and histomorphometric investigation of bisphenol a and nonylphenol on the male rat reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisphenol A (BPA and nonylphenol (NP have harmful effects on the endocrine system of humans and animals. Aim: We sought to investigate the effect of three doses of BPA and NP on the reproductive parameters of rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats weighing 150–200 g were used for a consecutive 35-day study. BPA and NP were given as gavage in three doses (5, 25, and 125 μg/kg. At the end of the study, the rats were anesthetized and 2 ml blood sample was obtained from the auxiliary venous plexus for the assessment of sex hormone levels. The testes were removed and kept in 10% formalin for the histomorphometric and histopathologic analyses. Results: BPA and NP significantly decreased the body weight of the animals compared to the controls (P < 0.05. The seminiferous tubule diameter and thickness of the seminiferous epithelium were significantly decreased in the groups receiving BPA and NP compared to the control (P < 0.05. The number of seminiferous tubules in every experimental group increased, except for the highest dose of NP (125 μg/kg, which showed a significant difference compared to the controls (P < 0.05. The number of spermatocytes and spermatogonia (54.97 ± 5.824, 35.78 ± 3.956, respectively in the group receiving NP (125 μg/kg was significantly decreased compared to the other groups. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone did not show any significant change compared to the controls. Conclusion: Based on the results, all three doses of BPA and NP significantly produced weight loss, as well as destruction of the testis tissue and impairment of the spermatogenesis.

  15. Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

    2014-10-29

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism.

  16. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...... studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients.......The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and...... in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing...

  17. Effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on reproduction of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinusa Raji; Ahmed Kolade Oloyo; Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed (RCE) on male rats reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were gavaged with 0.2 mL of 2.5 % tween 80 (RCE vehicle; control) or 20 mg/(kg.d) and 40 mg/(kg.d) of RCE, respectively, for 30 days, and group 4 was also gavaged with 40 mg/(kg·d) of RCE, but was allowed a recovery periold of 30 days.Five untreated female rats were cohabited with male rats in each group from day 25 of RCE treatment for 5 days,except group 4, where cohabitation began on day 25 of the recovery period. All male rats were sacrificed 24 h after the experiments. The female rats were laparatomized on day 19 of pregnancy and the number and weight of litters were recorded. Results: There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of the reproductive organs,sperm functions and serum levels of testosterone in RCE treated rats. There was disorganization in the cytoarchitecture of the testes, disruption of the seminiferous tubules and erosion of the germinal epithelium. The number and weight of litters of rats in groups 2 and 4 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) but no changes were observed in group 3. RCE caused no changes in liver, kidney, heart or body weights in male rats. Conclusion: RCE has a reversible negative impact on male reproductive functions, which appears to be mediated via gonadal disruption in testosterone secretion.

  18.  The Effect of Amantadine on Clomipramine Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kumar Eswar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Several studies have reported that Clomipramine has the ability to suppress male rat sexual behavior. Literature indicatesthat the activation of brain D2 receptors causes facilitation of penile erection, and a number of reports have indicated dopamine’s involvement in sexual function. Hence this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Amantadine, a dopamine agonists on the Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction. Methods: The study subjects involved a total of 48 males and 48 females, 4 months old Sprague-Dawley albino rats, all housed in a group of six males and females separately in plexi glass cages in an acclimatized colony room (25±0.50C maintained on a 12/12 hr light/dark cycle. The male rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 male rats each. Group I served as controls. Group II, III, and IV were treated with Amantadine (9 mg/kg body weight, p.o 30 min, prior to the treatment with 13.5 mg/kg, 27 mg/Kg and 54 mg/Kg bodyweight p.o of Clomipramine respectively for 60 days. The control group received vehicle 1 ml/kg p.o. The sexual behavior of the male rats was observed to determine the following parameters: mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory pause, and intromission frequency. As well as the sexual behavior; serum testosterone and histopathology of the testes were also investigated in this study. Results: The results indicate that Amantadine in all aspects failed to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats. Even the sexual competence of male rats treated with 1/2 therapeutic dose (TD of Clomipramine failed to regain their sexual competence in the presence of Amantadine. Testicular damage and decline in testosterone levels continued in the presence of Amantadine. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that Amantadine could not be a safe antidote to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction.

  19. S-value of Radioiodine(131I) in Korean Reference Adult Male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand the effects of absorbed radioiodine upon Korean reference adult male, a mathematical phantom representation was contrived based on composite data of the physiology of Korean reference adult male. Using this, S-values of radioiodine() per each organ were calculated. The calculated S-values were compared to the existing data described in the TM-8381 report of ORNL calculated on the basis of an ICRP-23 reference male. The results indicated that S-values were higher for the phantom based on Korean reference adult male. The results of this study illustrate that, while the bio-chemical constitution of each source and target organ of the torso are important, the relative location of the organs and characteristics of the radionuclides also exert important influences.

  20. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males. PMID:25683788

  1. Self-administration of nicotine and cigarette smoke extract in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellner, Candice A; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2016-10-01

    Although smoking initiation typically occurs during adolescence, most preclinical studies of tobacco use involve adult animals. Furthermore, their focus is largely on nicotine alone, even though cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether aqueous constituents in cigarette smoke affect acquisition of nicotine self-administration during adolescence in rats. Adolescent and adult male rats, aged postnatal day (P) 25 and 85, respectively, were food trained on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule, then allowed to self-administer one of 5 doses of nicotine (0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, or 30 μg/kg) or aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) with equivalent nicotine content. Three progressively more difficult schedules of reinforcement, FR1, FR2, and FR5, were used. Both adolescent and adult rats acquired self-administration of nicotine and CSE. Nicotine and CSE similarly increased non-reinforced responding in adolescents, leading to enhanced overall drug intake as compared to adults. When data were corrected for age-dependent alterations in non-reinforced responding, adolescents responded more for low doses of nicotine and CSE than adults at the FR1 reinforcement schedule. No differences in adolescent responding for the two drugs were seen at this schedule, whereas adults had fewer responses for CSE than for nicotine. However, when the reinforcement schedule was increased to FR5, animals dose-dependently self-administered both nicotine and CSE, but no drug or age differences were observed. These data suggest that non-nicotine tobacco smoke constituents do not influence the reinforcing effect of nicotine in adolescents. PMID:27346207

  2. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10, 100mg/kg (S100, and 260 mg/kg (S260 while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats.

  3. Effects of Estradiol and Methoxychlor on Leydig Cell Regeneration in the Adult Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to determine whether methoxychlor (MXC exposure in adulthood affects rat Leydig cell regeneration and to compare its effects with estradiol (E2. Adult 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS to eliminate the adult Leydig cell population. Subsequently, rats were randomly assigned to four groups and gavaged with corn oil (control, 0.25 mg/kg E2 and 10 or 100 mg/kg MXC daily from days 5 to 30 post-EDS treatment. The results showed that MXC and E2 reduced serum testosterone levels on day 58 post-EDS treatment. qPCR showed Hsd17b3 mRNA levels were downregulated 7–15 fold by E2 and MXC, indicating that development of the new population of Leydig cells was arrested at the earlier stage. This observation was supported by the results of histochemical staining, which demonstrated that Leydig cells in MXC-treated testis on day 58 post-EDS treatment were mostly progenitor Leydig cells. However, Pdgfb mRNA levels were downregulated, while Lif transcript levels were increased by MXC. In contrast, E2 did not affect gene expression for these growth factors. In conclusion, our findings indicated that both MXC and E2 delayed rat Leydig cell regeneration in the EDS-treated model, presumably acting by different mechanisms.

  4. Effects of estradiol and methoxychlor on Leydig cell regeneration in the adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingbing; Chen, Dongxin; Jiang, Zheli; Li, Jingyang; Liu, Shiwen; Dong, Yaoyao; Yao, Wenwen; Akingbemi, Benson; Ge, Renshan; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-05-06

    The objective of the present study is to determine whether methoxychlor (MXC) exposure in adulthood affects rat Leydig cell regeneration and to compare its effects with estradiol (E2). Adult 90-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) to eliminate the adult Leydig cell population. Subsequently, rats were randomly assigned to four groups and gavaged with corn oil (control), 0.25 mg/kg E2 and 10 or 100 mg/kg MXC daily from days 5 to 30 post-EDS treatment. The results showed that MXC and E2 reduced serum testosterone levels on day 58 post-EDS treatment. qPCR showed Hsd17b3 mRNA levels were downregulated 7-15 fold by E2 and MXC, indicating that development of the new population of Leydig cells was arrested at the earlier stage. This observation was supported by the results of histochemical staining, which demonstrated that Leydig cells in MXC-treated testis on day 58 post-EDS treatment were mostly progenitor Leydig cells. However, Pdgfb mRNA levels were downregulated, while Lif transcript levels were increased by MXC. In contrast, E2 did not affect gene expression for these growth factors. In conclusion, our findings indicated that both MXC and E2 delayed rat Leydig cell regeneration in the EDS-treated model, presumably acting by different mechanisms.

  5. Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertia D Purves-Tyson

    Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen

  6. Effects of Microdesmis keayana roots on sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamblé, A; Sahpaz, S; Brunet, C; Bailleul, F

    2008-08-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of Microdesmis keayana J. Léonard root extract and major isolated alkaloids were evaluated by observing the sexual behavior of male rats. Aqueous extract (150mg/kg body weight) and pure alkaloids (3mg/kg body weight) were administered orally by gavage to male rats. Latent times of observation, intromission and ejaculation, mounting behavior, number of intromissions and mating performances were evaluated and compared to those obtained with untreated rats in the presence of receptive and non-receptive females. The results have shown that aqueous extract and alkaloids of M. keayana stimulate sexual parameters in rats' sexual behavior. A short-term toxicity study undertaken to establish the therapeutic index of aqueous extract, showed that a high dose of the extract (2g/kg body weight) caused no mortality or changes in rats' behavior. PMID:18061417

  7. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2011-04-18

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. In this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and for the corticosterone response to the test. Female Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or with fish oil, offered during pregnancy and lactation. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control or stress groups. Stress consisted of restraint and bright light for 45 min, three times per day, in the last week of pregnancy. The body weight of the adult offspring submitted to PNS was lower than that of controls. In the forced swimming test, time of immobility was reduced and swimming was increased in PNS rats fed fish oil and plasma corticosterone levels immediately after the forced swimming test were lower in PNS rats fed regular diet than their control counterparts; this response was reduced in control rats whose mothers were fed fish oil and coconut fat. The present results indicate that coconut fat and fish oil influenced behavioral and hormonal responses to the forced swimming test in both control and PNS adult male rats.

  8. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  9. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants....... The effect of in vivo carcinogen pretreatment was also studied. The explant culture from control untreated animals showed good epithelial differentiation with crypts until 6 weeks. In contrast, the explants from animals pretreated with 4 weekly doses of azoxymethane consistently showed epithelial...

  10. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  11. Low-intensity treadmill exercise and/or bright light promote neurogenesis in adult rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Jin Kwon; Jeongsook Park; So Yun Park; Kwang Seop Song; Sun Tae Jung; So Bong Jung; Ik Ryeul Park; Wan Sung Choi; Sun Ok Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus is a brain region responsible for learning and memory functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity exercise and bright light exposure on neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in adult rat hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, exercise, light, or exercise + light groups (n = 9 per group). The rats in the exercise group were subjected to treadmill exercise (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, over a 4-week period), the light group rats were irradiated (5 days per week, 30 minutes per day, 10 000 lx, over a 4-week period), the exercise + light group rats were subjected to treadmill exercise in combination with bright light exposure, and the control group rats remained sedentary over a 4-week period. Compared with the control group, there was a significant increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats in the exercise, light, and exercise + light groups. Moreover, the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly higher in the exercise group and light group than that in the control group. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression between the control group and exercise + light group. These results indicate that low-intensity treadmill exercise (first 5 minutes at a speed of 2 m/min, second 5 minutes at a speed of 5 m/min, and the last 20 minutes at a speed of 8 m/min) or bright-light exposure therapy induces positive biochemical changes in the brain. In view of these findings, we propose that moderate exercise or exposure to sunlight during childhood can be beneficial for neural development.

  12. Different Effects of Testosterone on Acute and Chronic Pain in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarifkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Nociception and behavioral responses to noxious stimuli are different in males and females. It seems that these differences are due to the effects of sex hormones on the pain mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone administration on nociception by formalin test in gonadectomized rats. Material & Methods: In this study 32 male wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=8 the control rats without receiving any drug or surgical operation, the sham – operated animals with surgical stress, the gonadectomized rats receiving 0.5 ml vehicle (olive oil i.p., and the gonadectomized rats receiving testosterone enantate (6 mg/100 gr body weight in 0.5 ml vehicle i.p.. On the sixth day after gonadectomy operation, formalin test was done in all rats. Pain scores in formalin test were statistically analyzed by SPSS and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that testosterone caused an increase in pain score in acute phase of formalin test in gonadectomized rats compared with sham-operated group (p<0.001. However, pain score in chronic phase was significantly reduced in testosterone received rats (p<0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that testosterone increases nociception in acute phase of formalin test in gonadectomized rats. On the other hand, testosterone relieved pain during chronic phase. Anti-nociceptive effects of testosterone in chronic phase may be through central nervous system by interacting with endogenous pain modulatory systems

  13. Estrogen has opposing effects on vascular reactivity in obese, insulin-resistant male Zucker rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Asplund, Esther M.; Shoukas, Artin A.; Kim, Soon-Yul; Burke, Sean A.; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that estradiol treatment would improve vascular dysfunction commonly associated with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. A sham operation or 17beta-estradiol pellet implantation was performed in male lean and obese Zucker rats. Maximal vasoconstriction (VC) to phenylephrine (PE) and potassium chloride was exaggerated in control obese rats compared with lean rats, but estradiol significantly attenuated VC in the obese rats. Estradiol reduced the PE EC50 in all groups. This effect was cyclooxygenase independent, because preincubation with indomethacin reduced VC response to PE similarly in a subset of control and estrogen-treated lean rats. Endothelium-independent vasodilation (VD) to sodium nitroprusside was similar among groups, but endothelium-dependent VD to ACh was significantly impaired in obese compared with lean rats. Estradiol improved VD in lean and obese rats by decreasing EC50 but impaired function by decreasing maximal VD. The shift in EC50 corresponded to an upregulation in nitric oxide synthase III protein expression in the aorta of the estrogen-treated obese rats. In summary, estrogen treatment improves vascular function in male insulin-resistant, obese rats, partially via an upregulation of nitric oxide synthase III protein expression. These effects are counteracted by adverse factors, such as hyperlipidemia and, potentially, a release of an endothelium-derived contractile agent.

  14. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin eTain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX exposure and high-fat (HF intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification.

  15. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuntha G; Prasanna Raju Y; Harini Chowdary V; Vandana KR; Arun Rasheed; Prasad KVSRG

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the aphrodisiac potentials of ethanol extract of Argemone mexicana L. (A. mexicana) of Papaveraceae family in sexually sluggish male Wistar rats. Methods:The sexually inactive male rats were divided into two groups of 8 rats each. The test group animals were treated with ethanol extract of A. mexicana (EEAM) at 1 g/kg daily oral dose for 28 days. Other group animals were treated with sildenafil citrate at an oral dose of 5 mg/kg. The latencies of mount, intromission, ejaculation;post ejaculatory pause and frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation were measured on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Serum testosterone levels were estimated using ELISA. Results: The EEAM was nonlethal even at dose of 4.0 g/kg. The oral dosing of EEAM has significantly enhanced the orientation of males towards female by increase in ano-genital investigatory behavior, frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation (P< 0.01). The latencies of mount, intromission and ejaculation were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The EEAM has produced marked variation in sexual behavior characteristics and was able to elevate the serum testosterone levels (P<0.01) on par to that of sildenafil citrate. Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  16. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IP Oyeyipo; Y Raji; AdeyomboF Bolarinwa

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase as a means of intervention in nicotine-induced infertility in male rats.Methods:Forty-eight male and thirty female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly assigned to six groups and treated orally for 30 days with saline (control), nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg) with or without NG Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L- NAME, 50 mg/kg). Treated male rats were cohabited with untreated females in ratio 1:2 for fertility studies. Sperm analysis was done by microscopy. Results:There was a significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility and count after nicotine treatment. However, the percentage of abnormality significantly increased in nicotine treatment groups. Fertility studies revealed that nicotine reduced libido in male rats and decreased litter weight and number delivered by the untreated female during the experiments. Co-treatment with L-NAME effectively reversed the nicotine-mediated alterations in the sperm functional parameters, fertility indexes and hormone when compared to nicotine only.Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of L-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  17. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  18. Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Sulaiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg; group II was given vitamin C only (100 mg/kg; group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg/kg; ~1/8th LD50, while group IV was pretreated with vitamin C and then exposed to CPF, 30 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for 15 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed by jugular venesection after light chloroform anesthesia, and sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone concentrations. Pituitary gland and the testicular tissues of each rat were quickly dissected, removed and assayed for the levels of glycogen and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity. The right caudal epididymis was evaluated for spermatozoa concentrations. The results showed that decrease in concentrations of spermatozoa, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, testicular glycogen, and inhibition of pituitary gland and testicular AChE activities caused by CPF were ameliorated by vitamin C. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1: 23-30

  19. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cohabitation between male rats after ejaculation: effects on conditioned partner preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge; García, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2014-04-10

    Male rats display a conditioned ejaculatory preference for females that bear olfactory cues associated with ejaculation+the postejaculatory interval (PEI), or with the PEI alone. This indicates that exposure to a partner during the PEI is necessary and sufficient 'for the development of conditioned sexual partner preference. In the present study we examined the effect of cohabitation between two males during the PEI on the possible development of same-sex partner preference. Males first copulated with an ovariectomized, E+P primed female to one ejaculation and were immediately removed from the female's chamber and placed in another chamber with a conspecific male scented with almond odor as a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Cohabitation lasted for 1 h and started immediately after ejaculation in the PEI group and 7h later in the control group. Conditioning occurred daily for a total of ten trials with different females, but cohabitation during the PEI occurred always with the same stimulus male partner. On trial 11, males were tested for social partner preference with two stimulus male partners. One was the familiar scented male and the other an unfamiliar unscented male. Results indicated that males did not develop any social or sexual preference for the male associated with the PEI. In fact, rats from the PEI group interacted significantly less with the scented male as compared to the unscented male, and displayed more agonistic behaviors towards the scented male than towards the unscented male. These data show that conditioned same-sex preference does not develop as a result of cohabitation during the PEI. We discuss the implications for conditioned hostility in intrasexual competition.

  1. Cohabitation between male rats after ejaculation: effects on conditioned partner preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge; García, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2014-04-10

    Male rats display a conditioned ejaculatory preference for females that bear olfactory cues associated with ejaculation+the postejaculatory interval (PEI), or with the PEI alone. This indicates that exposure to a partner during the PEI is necessary and sufficient 'for the development of conditioned sexual partner preference. In the present study we examined the effect of cohabitation between two males during the PEI on the possible development of same-sex partner preference. Males first copulated with an ovariectomized, E+P primed female to one ejaculation and were immediately removed from the female's chamber and placed in another chamber with a conspecific male scented with almond odor as a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Cohabitation lasted for 1 h and started immediately after ejaculation in the PEI group and 7h later in the control group. Conditioning occurred daily for a total of ten trials with different females, but cohabitation during the PEI occurred always with the same stimulus male partner. On trial 11, males were tested for social partner preference with two stimulus male partners. One was the familiar scented male and the other an unfamiliar unscented male. Results indicated that males did not develop any social or sexual preference for the male associated with the PEI. In fact, rats from the PEI group interacted significantly less with the scented male as compared to the unscented male, and displayed more agonistic behaviors towards the scented male than towards the unscented male. These data show that conditioned same-sex preference does not develop as a result of cohabitation during the PEI. We discuss the implications for conditioned hostility in intrasexual competition. PMID:24548684

  2. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  3. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  4. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Elaine MP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and

  5. Perinatal exposure to the fungicide prochloraz feminizes the male rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Christiansen, Sofie; Laier, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    . Behavioral studies showed that the activity level and sweet preference of adult males were significantly increased. Overall these results strongly indicate that prochloraz feminizes the male offspring after perinatal exposure, and that these effects are due, at least in part, to diminished fetal...

  6. Neuropeptides in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate central cardiovascular reflex responses in awake male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quagliotto, E. [Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde/Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Casali, K.R. [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Dal Lago, P. [Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rasia-Filho, A.A. [Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde/Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-11-21

    The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) links emotionally charged sensory stimuli to social behavior, and is part of the supramedullary control of the cardiovascular system. We studied the effects of microinjections of neuroactive peptides markedly found in the MePD, namely oxytocin (OT, 10 ng and 25 pg; n=6/group), somatostatin (SST, 1 and 0.05 μM; n=8 and 5, respectively), and angiotensin II (Ang II, 50 pmol and 50 fmol; n=7/group), on basal cardiovascular activity and on baroreflex- and chemoreflex-mediated responses in awake adult male rats. Power spectral and symbolic analyses were applied to pulse interval and systolic arterial pressure series to identify centrally mediated sympathetic/parasympathetic components in the heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial pressure variability (APV). No microinjected substance affected basal parameters. On the other hand, compared with the control data (saline, 0.3 µL; n=7), OT (10 ng) decreased mean AP (MAP{sub 50}) after baroreflex stimulation and increased both the mean AP response after chemoreflex activation and the high-frequency component of the HRV. OT (25 pg) increased overall HRV but did not affect any parameter of the symbolic analysis. SST (1 μM) decreased MAP{sub 50}, and SST (0.05 μM) enhanced the sympathovagal cardiac index. Both doses of SST increased HRV and its low-frequency component. Ang II (50 pmol) increased HRV and reduced the two unlike variations pattern of the symbolic analysis (P<0.05 in all cases). These results demonstrate neuropeptidergic actions in the MePD for both the increase in the range of the cardiovascular reflex responses and the involvement of the central sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on HRV and APV.

  7. Effect of naloxone on serum testosterone in adult male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrón, N; Pedroza, D; Calzada, L; Salazar, L; Fuentes, V

    1996-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that endogenous opioids may play an important role in the hypothalamic LH-releasing hormone. Administration of high doses of naloxone, an opiate antagonist, produces an increase in plasma concentration of LH. Naltrexone administration to healthy males produces an increase in both immunoactive and bioactive LH. The objective of the present work was to assess the effect of low doses of naloxone during 10 consecutive days on testosterone serum levels in rabbit. Three groups of five rabbits were injected with naloxone or saline. Naloxone was tested at 0.1 and 0.01 mg/kg day-1. Blood samples were taken at 90 min and 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days after starting naloxone administration. Plasma testosterone (T) levels were measured by RIA. T levels increased progressively through the study in the experimental groups. The differences were significant after days 4 and 7 for 0.01-mg/kg and 0.1-mg/kg doses, respectively. T levels in both groups peaked at day 10 and decreased at day 14 (4 days after treatment). PMID:8827343

  8. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients.

  9. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in...

  10. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,29,3,4,49,5,59- Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 ...

  11. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found tha...

  12. The Effect of Diazinon on Cholinesterase Activity in Plasma and Erythrocytes of Male and Female Rats and the Protective Role of Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rahimi Anbarkeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diazinon (DZN is an organophosphate insecticide that one of the mechanisms of toxicity is the inhibition of cholinesterase. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diazinon on cholinesterase activity in blood serum and erythrocytes of male and female rats and to assess the protective role of vitamin E. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 60 adult wistar rats including 30 male and 30 female rats were selected and divided into 5 groups (n = 6: control group (without any intervention, sham group (received only pure olive oil daily, experimental group 1 (DZN daily, 60 mg/kg, experimental group 2 (received DZN+ vitamin E daily, with the same dose and experimental group 3(received vitamin E daily 200 mg/kg. Diazinon and solvent were injected intraperitoneally and vitamin E was given by gavage. After 2 weeks 3 ml blood was taken from the heart tissue, and titrimetric and Ellman’s method respectively were used for serum and erythrocyte cholinesterases activity assay. Results: In both genders, due to administration of diazinon, we observed significant reduction in serum and erythrocytes cholinesterase activity. The use of vitamin E increased serum and erythrocytes cholinesterase activity in experimental group 2 of female rats but inhibition in erythrocyte and serum cholinesterase activity was not recovered in experimental group 2 of male rats. Conclusion: According to a further reduction of these enzymes activity in female rats with the use of diazinon, it can be concluded that female rats are more sensitive than male rats and it seems that vitamin E as an antioxidants has a protective effect on cholinesterase activity and reduces the toxicity of DZN. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21 (4:294-303

  13. Toxicity of the pesticide carbaryl in male rats maintained on contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pesticide carbaryl, used in a large scale, was chosen in the present study to evaluate its harmful effect on rats following successive treatment for a long period of time. Two groups of male rats were used for the present study, one group acts as control and the other was treated with daily oral dose of 28.3 mg/kg for three week. The results showed that there were no significant differences in organ/body weight ratios for both normal and treated male rats. The biochemical analysis of serum showed increased levels of AST, ALT, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine and decreased levels of T3, T4 and the male sex hormone testosterone while no changes were observed for both albumin and total proteins

  14. High Fiber Diet Effect On Haemopoietic And Endocrine System In Irradiated Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat bran was mixed with standard rat diet in order to assess the role of high fiber diet on the damage induced by 4 Gy gamma irradiation in male rats. Immediately after exposure to irradiation, the male albino rats were fed on diet containing 10% wheat bran ad libitum. After 15 days, the rats were decapitated then blood picture, levels of calcium, glucose, folic acid, vitamin B12 , triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone and insulin hormones were determined. The results denoted that wheat bran had an improvement effect on the radiation damage on blood picture, calcium level, vitamin B12 , folic acid and testosterone hormone, which most probably due to the effect of the high antioxidant action of wheat bran that might improve the gastro intestinal metabolism.

  15. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  16. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  17. Medial accumbens lesions attenuate testosterone-dependent aggression in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Petrovic, D M; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

    1989-10-01

    Male hooded rats were castrated and implanted with testosterone-filled Silastic tubes appropriate for maintaining a normal average serum testosterone concentration. They were then given lesions of the medial accumbens nucleus or sham lesions. Twenty-four hours postoperatively each male was housed with a female. Beginning 7 days following pairing and continuing once each week for 4 weeks, each lesioned or sham-lesioned male was observed for aggression toward an unfamiliar male intruder. On the day following each test of aggression toward an unfamiliar male, each lesioned and sham-lesioned male was assessed for defensiveness toward an experimenter. Rats with medial accumbens lesions displayed significantly less aggression toward an unfamiliar male intruder during each of the weekly tests than did sham-lesioned animals. The attenuation was most pronounced in animals with lesions damaging the posterior part of the medial accumbens nucleus (also designated as anterior portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) in the region of the crossover of the anterior commissure. Although medial accumbens lesions are known to make individually housed rats hyperdefensive toward an experimenter, lesion-induced hyperdefensiveness was not observed in the pair-housed animals in the present experiment. It is argued that the medial accumbens/bed nucleus of the stria terminalis area is an important region in the anterior forebrain for the modulation of hormone-dependent aggression.

  18. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  19. Impairment on sperm quality and fertility of adult rats after antiandrogen exposure during prepuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perobelli, Juliana Elaine; Alves, Thaís Regina; de Toledo, Fabíola Choqueta; Fernandez, Carla Dal Bianco; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Klinefelter, Gary R; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of antiandrogen exposure during the prepubertal period on reproductive development and reproductive competence in adults. Male rats were divided into two groups: flutamide, receiving 25 mg/kg/day of flutamide by oral gavage and control, receiving vehicle daily. Dosing continued from PND 21 to 44, and animals were killed on PND 50 or PND 75-80. The epididymis, prostate, vas deferens and seminal vesicle weights were lower in Flutamide group on PND 50, while on PND 80 only seminal vesicle weight was reduced. Fertility assessed by IUI revealed a decrease in the fertility potential in the flutamide-treated adults. Flutamide accelerated sperm transit time through the epididymis, impairing sperm motility and storage. A quantitative analysis of the cauda sperm membrane proteome revealed a few significant changes in protein expression. Thus, exposure to flutamide during the prepubertal period compromises the function of the epididymis along with epididymal sperm quality at adulthood.

  20. Function of the Serotonin Transporter in Vasculature of the Female Rat: comparison with the male

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, A. Elizabeth; Davis, Robert Patrick; Burnett, Robert; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) handles serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and is blocked by the antidepressant SERT inhibitors fluoxetine and fluvoxamine. While the importance of SERT in the central nervous system is clear, SERT also functions in the peripheral vasculature. We tested the hypothesis that vasculature from female rats has increased SERT function compared to male rats because females are more responsive to SERT inhibitors.In addition to in vitro experiments, we imposed the c...

  1. The Hypolipidemic Activity of Heterocyclic Thiosemicarbazones, Thioureas and Their Metal Complexes in Sprague Dawley Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Iris H.; Chen, S. Y.; Barnes, Betsy Jo; West, Douglas X.

    1999-01-01

    Heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, thioureas and their copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes were shown to be potent hypolipidemic agents in male Sprague Dawley rats at 8 mg/kg/day, orally. These agents lowered the activity of rat hepatic rate limiting enzymes for the synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides. The effects of these agnets on cytoplasmic ATP-dependent citrate lyase, acetyl CoA synthetase and HMG-CoA reductase activities were reduced by a magnitude to explain the reduction of seru...

  2. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lalanza, Jaume F.; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (s...

  3. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, A.; K. Syed Zameer Ahmed; Sundaresan, S.; A. Sivaraj; Devi, K; B Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile a...

  4. Effect of renal ischemia-reperfusion on lung injury and inflammatory responses in male rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Yousefi; Naser Ahmadiasl; Alireza Alihemmati; Parisa Habibi

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s):Acute kidney injury (AKI), a syndrome characterized by decreased glomerular filtration, occurs in every 1 of 5 hospitalized patients.  Renal ischemia-reperfusion, one of the main causes of AKI, is of particular importance in the setting of kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into four groups including control, nephrectomy, sham surgery and renal ischemia-reperfusion (IRI) group. The rats were anesthetized with intraperitonealketamin and ...

  5. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mirazi; N. Abdolmaleki; Mahmoodi, M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE) effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided...

  6. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    OpenAIRE

    Bolanle O Iranloye; Oludare, Gabriel O.; Ayodele O Morakinyo; Esume, Naomi A.; Ekeh, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were di...

  7. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar Jafari; Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour faizi; Fariba Askarian; Hassan Pourrazi

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-u...

    • Rehabilitation of masticatory function improves the alveolar bone architecture of the mandible in adult rats.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mavropoulos, Anestis; Odman, Anna; Ammann, Patrick; Kiliaridis, Stavros

      2010-09-01

      Masticatory functional changes have been shown to influence the quantity and quality of the alveolar bone during growth. This study was designed to investigate the effect of masticatory function rehabilitation on the morphology and the trabecular architecture of the mandibular alveolar bone after cessation of growth. Forty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats received soft diet in order to develop masticatory muscle hypofunction. After 21 weeks, after cessation of growth, the animals were divided into two groups: the first group continued receiving soft diet for six more weeks (hypofunction group), while the second group changed to ordinary (hard) diet with the aim to restore a normal masticatory function (rehabilitation group). A third group of 16 male rats (normal group) received ordinary (hard) diet during the whole experimental period and served as control. Micro-tomographic histomorphometry was used to evaluate the architecture of the mandibular alveolar bone (e.g. bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, etc.) at the end of the experiment (27 weeks). The height and width of the alveolar process were measured as well. The alveolar process trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) was lower for the animals of the hypofunctional group as compared to those of the normal (pTV was lower in comparison to the normal group (pled to a significant improvement of alveolar bone architecture in adult rats, although the negative effects of hypofunction were not totally reversed during the period under study. PMID:20601301

    • The Effect of Regular Moderate Exercise on miRNA-192 Expression Changes in Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

      OpenAIRE

      Hajar Oghbaei; Naser Ahmadi Asl; Farzam Sheikhzadeh; Mohammad Reza Alipour; Amir Mahdi Khamaneh

      2015-01-01

      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the regular moderate exercise effect on the miR-192 expression changes in kidney of Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 10, including Sedentary Control group, Healthy 60 days Exercise group, diabetic group and Diabetic 60 days Exercise. Diabetes was induced by injection of 60 mg/kg Streptozotocin and after 48 hour blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dl were in...

    • Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats

      OpenAIRE

      Maryam Hajimoradi; Mohammad Fazilati; Mohammad Kazem Gharib-Naseri; Alireza Sarkaki

      2015-01-01

      Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA) for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1) Control (Cont), 2) Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh), 3-5) Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA) (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally), ...

    • Persistence of the reproductive toxicity of chlorpiryphos-ethyl in male Wistar rat

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Augustave Kenfack; Tah Patience Nain; Pierre Kamtchouing; Joseph Tchoumbou; Narcisse Bertin Vemo; Ferdinand Ngoula; Paul Dsir Womeni Dzeufiet; Omer Bb Ngouateu; Judith Kegne Chombong; Guylne Marie Zambou Zeukeng; Isabelle Leinyuy Nyuysemo

      2015-01-01

      Objective: To study the effects of chlorpiryphos-ethyl (CE) on male fertility. Methods:Rats were gavaged daily from 30 to 120 days old with four doses of CE (10.50;5.25;3.50 and 0.00 mg/kg) and thereafter followed up for 90 additional days. Following this period of observation, each male rat was submitted to a fertility test with two virgin females. Male were then sacrificed and organs collected while females were followed up till delivery. Results:The weights of the testis and epididymis were lower (P<0.05) in rats treated with 10.50 mg/kg CE dose compared to controls. A decrease in the number of sperm per cauda epididymis was recorded in rat given the highest dose of CE with respect to the control value. The sperm motility was lower (P<0.05) in all CE-treated groups compared to the controls. Severe histological abnormalities were observed in testes of treated rats. The males exposed to the highest dose of CE did not produce any offspring. Conclusion:The effects of CE on reproductive system were persistent 90 days after the end of exposure.

    • Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Uduak Akpan Okon

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

    • Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

      2016-01-01

      Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

    • The effects of fluoride on testicular cell cycle and cell apoptosis of male rats

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      张筱文

      2014-01-01

      Objective To observe the effects of fluoride on testicular cell cycle and cell apoptosis of male rats.Methods Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats,weighting 150-180 g,were randomly divided into 4 groups by body weight using random number table,normal sodium(control),the low-dose,medium-dose and high-dose groups(100,200,300 mg·kg-1·d-1Na F,respectively)by intragastric administration for 90 days,and bodyweight

    • Effects of flavonoids from Semen Cuscutae on the reproductive system in male rats

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Da-NianQIN; Bai-RongSHE; Yun-ChuSHE; Jian-HongWANG

      2000-01-01

      Aim: To evaluate the effects of the flavonoids extracted from the Semen Cuscutae (FSC) on the reproductive and endocrine functions in male rats. Methods: (1) FSC were obtained from the semen of Cuscuta sinensis l_;am through solvent extraction and polyamide columnar chromatography; (2) Effect of FSC on the reproductive organs was assessed in immature rats. Rats were administered FSC through gastric garage at a dose of 300 mg/kg per day for 7 days and the weights of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and pituitary gland were then observed; (3) To observe the effect of FSC on the reproductive endocrine function: same dose level of FSC was given to male rats of different age groups for 7days; on day 8, the plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and LH were determined by RIA, the specific binding of LH was estimated and the testes were weighed. (4) Effect of FSC on LH secretion was assessed in vitro on cultured adenohypophysis. (5) Effect of FSC on T secretion was assessed in vitro on Leydig cell culture. Results: FSC increased the weights of testis, epididymis and pituitary gland, and stimulated T and LH secretion both in vitro and in immature rats. Conclusion: FSC invigorates the reproductive system and reproductive endocrine function in male rats.

    • Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sukach A. N.

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

    • Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on the sexual behaviour of male rats

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      IlayI; RatnWD

      2002-01-01

      Aim:To determine the effect of a methanolic extract of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal roots on sexual competence of male rats.Methods:Male rats were orally administered 3000 mg·kg-1·day-1 of root extract for 7 days.Their sexual behaviour was evaluated 7 days prior to treatment,day 3 and 7 of treatment,and day 7,14 and 30 posttreatment by pairing each male with a receptive female.Results:The root extract induced a marked impairment in libido,sexual performance,sexual vigour,and penile erectile dysfunction.These effects were partly reversible on cessation of treatment.These antimasculine effects ane not due to changes in testosterone levels or toxicity but may be attributed to hyperprolactinemic,GABAergic,serotonergic or sedative activities of the extract.Conclusion:Use of W.Somnifera roots may be detrimental to male sexual competence.

    • Age differences in fear retention and extinction in male Sprague-Dawley rats: effects of ethanol challenge during conditioning.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Broadwater, Margaret; Spear, Linda P

      2013-09-01

      Pavlovian fear conditioning is an ideal model to investigate how learning and memory are influenced by alcohol use during adolescence because the neural mechanisms involved have been studied extensively. In Exp 1, adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were non-injected or injected with saline, 1 or 1.5 g/kg ethanol intraperitoneally 10 min prior to tone or context conditioning. Twenty-four hours later, animals were tested for tone or context retention and extinction, with examination of extinction retention conducted 24h thereafter. In Exp 2, a context extinction session was inserted between the tone conditioning and the tone fear retention/extinction days to reduce pre-CS baseline freezing levels at test. Basal levels of acquisition, fear retention, extinction, and extinction retention after tone conditioning were similar between adolescent and adult rats. In contrast adolescents showed faster context extinction than adults, while again not differing from adults during context acquisition, retention or extinction retention. In terms of ethanol effects, adolescents were less sensitive to ethanol-induced context retention deficits than adults. No age differences emerged in terms of tone fear retention, with ethanol disrupting tone fear retention at both ages in Exp 1, but at neither age in Exp 2, a difference seemingly due to group differences in pre-CS freezing during tone testing in Exp 1, but not Exp 2. These results suggest that age differences in the acute effects of ethanol on cognitive function are task-specific, and provide further evidence for age differences cognitive functioning in a task thought to be hippocampally related.

    • Alterations in male sexual behaviour, attractiveness and testosterone levels induced by an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

      2008-06-26

      Despite an abundance of research on calorie restriction (CR) altering gonadal and appetite regulating hormones, the sexual behavioural consequences of CR remain to be examined systematically. This study compared the sexual behaviour, partner preference, serum testosterone and leptin levels of male adult Hooded Wistar rats administered a CR (continuous 25%, 50% CR or a temporary restriction) with ad libitum fed controls. The temporary restriction (Previous CR) failed to alter sexual behaviour, partner preference and levels of testosterone and leptin. The moderately 25% CR males did not demonstrate an impairment in sexual behaviour but did demonstrate a reduced level of attractiveness to females in one measure of partner preference. Sexual performance was affected by a substantial CR, as the CR 50% group exhibited a longer latency to the first intromission, indicating alteration in sexual arousal. Females also consistently demonstrated a clear preference for the control group compared to the CR 50% group. These findings indicate a possible reduction in the overall reproductive potential of the substantially CR animals. Testosterone levels were equally suppressed by both the 25% and 50% CR, while leptin levels were only reduced in the CR 50% group. Leptin, rather than testosterone, may have influenced the impairment in sexual behaviour only demonstrated by the substantially CR animals. Testosterone, may, however, play a role in modulating the preference of control over CR males, as attractiveness was totally reduced by a substantial CR, and partially reduced by a moderate restricted regimen.

    • Effects of estrogen on hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction in diabetic male rats

      OpenAIRE

      Ahmed, Marwa A; Hassanein, Khaled M A

      2012-01-01

      Objective: To study the possible beneficial effect of estrogen (17β-estradiol E2) on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and liver dysfunctions in STZ-induced diabetic rats. A total of 40 albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (I), a diabetic group (II), a group given 17β estradiol (E2) for 15 days (III), and a diabetic group given E2 for 30 days (IV). Diabetes was induced in the rats by 65 mg/kg streptozosin (STZ) via an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. E2 was ...

  1. Inhibition of Estradiol Synthesis Impairs Fear Extinction in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research has demonstrated that the sex hormone estradiol regulates fear extinction in female rodents and women. Estradiol may also regulate fear extinction in males, given its role in synaptic plasticity in both sexes. Here we report that inhibition of estradiol synthesis during extinction training, via the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole,…

  2. A study of male reproductive form and function in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Daniel Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation was undertaken in the hope of delineating the effects of four different treatments on male reproductive biology in a rat model. The effect of cryptorchidism, gonadectomy, pharmacological ablation of Leydig cell function and androgen-treatment was examined; these four treatments illustrate four different factors influencing and controlling male sexual function in a reproducible animal model. Methods: Total body weight, androgen concentration, gonad weight and s...

  3. Alcohol-Induced Suppression of Gluconeogenesis is Greater in Ethanol Fed Female Rat Hepatocytes Than Males

    OpenAIRE

    Sumida, Ken D.; Cogger, Alma A.; Matveyenko, Aleksey V.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of alcohol-induced suppression on hepatic gluconeogenesis (HGN) after chronic ethanol consumption between males and females is unknown. To determine the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (8 weeks) on HGN, the isolated hepatocyte technique was employed on 24 hr fasted male and female Wistar rats. Livers were initially perfused with collagenase and the hepatocytes were isolated. Aliquots of the cell suspension were placed in Krebs-Henseleit buffer and incubated for 30 minutes wi...

  4. Effect of methoprene application, adult food and feeding duration on male melon fly starvation survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of methoprene and access to protein in adult diet has been shown to enhance mating success in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their incorporation into operational area-wide programmes integrating the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). T...

  5. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Wilson; F. Happé; S.J. Wheelwright; C. Ecker; M.V. Lombardo; P. Johnston; E. Daly; C.M. Murphy; D. Spain; M-C. Lai; B Chakrabarti; D.A. Sauter; - MRC AIMS Consortium; S. Baron-Cohen; D.G.M. Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of c

  6. Long term effects of parenting and family characteristics on delinquency of male young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hoeve; W. Smeenk; R. Loeber; M. Southamer-Loeber; P.H. van der Laan; J.R. Gerris; J.S. Dubas

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from the criminology literature and family studies, we investigated the long-term effects of established family risk factors and parenting styles on male young adult delinquency. We used data sets from two longitudinal studies, the Pittsburgh Youth Study (N474) and the Child-Rearing and Fami

  7. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  8. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  9. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Lazareva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein.

  10. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Blessure preventie voor volwassen, mannelijke voetballers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of preventi

  11. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  12. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  13. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle O Iranloye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet. All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels were determined. Results: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. Conclusion: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats.

  14. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  15. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  16. Differences in behavior associated to anxiety in male and Female rats exposed to a chronic stress protocol: Early maternal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas Gómez, Zulma Janeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the first stages of life, the environment and maternal interactions are essential for normal mammalian neuronal maturity and behavior. In fact, it has been demonstrated that disruption of mother-pup interaction during early life exert long-lasting effects on the development of central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and behavioral responses. The principal aim of our work was to study the consequences of early maternal separation (EMS on adult male and female anxiety. The behaviors was evaluated using the Elavated Plus-Maze (EPM. Separation procedure was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21 twice daily: three hours in the morning and three hours in the afternoon. As a control group we used animals that stayed with the mother but were manipulated daily for one minute in the morning and in the afternoon. In postnatal day 22, animals were distributed by sex and then kept in standard lab conditions. Behavioral testing in the EPM was performed at 90/95 days of age. All subjects were videotaped. Records included number of entries, time spent in each arm, and the frequency and time stretching, deeping, rearing, and grooming. Our results showed that separated females have more open arm entries and spent more time there, and exhibit more deeping and less grooming compared to females in the control group and males of the experimental and control group. Thus, based on the anxiolytic profile that female rat shows in the EPM, these data suggest that EMS affects differentially male and female adult rats

  17. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Sharma

    Full Text Available Available instances of inheritance of epigenetic transgenerational phenotype are limited to environmental exposures during embryonic and adult gonadal development. Adult exposures can also affect gametogenesis and thereby potentially result in reprogramming of the germline. Although examples of epigenetic effects on gametogenesis exist, it is notable that transgenerational inheritance of environment-induced adult phenotype has not yet been reported. Epigenetic codes are considered to be critical in neural plasticity. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced long-term brain plasticity has recently been described. In this model, chronic PTZ treatment of adult males causes alterations in CNS transcriptome. Here, we describe our search for transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of PTZ induced gene expression phenotype acquired by adult Drosophila males. We generated CNS transcriptomic profiles of F(1 adults after treating F(0 adult males with PTZ and of F(2 adults resulting from a cross between F(1 males and normal females. Surprisingly, microarray clustering showed F(1 male profile as closest to F(1 female and F(0 male profile closest to F(2 male. Differentially expressed genes in F(1 males, F(1 females and F(2 males showed significant overlap with those caused by PTZ. Interestingly, microarray evidence also led to the identification of upregulated rRNA in F(2 males. Next, we generated microarray expression profiles of adult testis from F(0 and F(1 males. Further surprising, clustering of CNS and testis profiles and matching of differentially expressed genes in them provided evidence of a spermatogenic mechanism in the transgenerational effect observed. To our knowledge, we report for the first time detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult acquired somatic gene expression characteristic. The Drosophila systems model offers an excellent opportunity to understand the epigenetic mechanisms underlying

  18. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Bengtsson, Meghan S; Warren, James;

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site...... of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis...... of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme...

  19. Selective androgen receptor modulator RAD140 is neuroprotective in cultured neurons and kainate-lesioned male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Christensen, Amy; Moser, V Alexandra; Vest, Rebekah S; Miller, Chris P; Hattersley, Gary; Pike, Christian J

    2014-04-01

    The decline in testosterone levels in men during normal aging increases risks of dysfunction and disease in androgen-responsive tissues, including brain. The use of testosterone therapy has the potential to increase the risks for developing prostate cancer and or accelerating its progression. To overcome this limitation, novel compounds termed "selective androgen receptor modulators" (SARMs) have been developed that lack significant androgen action in prostate but exert agonist effects in select androgen-responsive tissues. The efficacy of SARMs in brain is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the SARM RAD140 in cultured rat neurons and male rat brain for its ability to provide neuroprotection, an important neural action of endogenous androgens that is relevant to neural health and resilience to neurodegenerative diseases. In cultured hippocampal neurons, RAD140 was as effective as testosterone in reducing cell death induced by apoptotic insults. Mechanistically, RAD140 neuroprotection was dependent upon MAPK signaling, as evidenced by elevation of ERK phosphorylation and inhibition of protection by the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126. Importantly, RAD140 was also neuroprotective in vivo using the rat kainate lesion model. In experiments with gonadectomized, adult male rats, RAD140 was shown to exhibit peripheral tissue-specific androgen action that largely spared prostate, neural efficacy as demonstrated by activation of androgenic gene regulation effects, and neuroprotection of hippocampal neurons against cell death caused by systemic administration of the excitotoxin kainate. These novel findings demonstrate initial preclinical efficacy of a SARM in neuroprotective actions relevant to Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.