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Sample records for adult male polar

  1. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Gormezano

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1 prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  2. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  3. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Relationships between POPs, biometrics and circulating steroids in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    ), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma....../estrogen ratios being approximately 60 times higher in adult males than in subadult males. PCA plots and OPLS models indicated that TS was positively related to biometrics, such as body condition index in male polar bears. A negative relationship was also observed between POPs and DHT. Consequently, POPs and body...

  5. Relationships between POPs, biometrics and circulating steroids in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma. Subsequently, associations between hormone concentrations (9 steroids), POPs (21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 8 OH-PCBs, 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and OCP metabolites, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) and biological variables (age, head length, body mass, girth, body condition index), capture date, location (latitude and longitude), lipid content and cholesterol levels were examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) modelling. Average concentrations of androgens, estrogens and progestagens were in the range of 0.57-83.7 (0.57-12.4 for subadults, 1.02-83.7 for adults), 0.09-2.69 and 0.57-2.44 nmol/L, respectively. The steroid profiles suggest that sex steroids were mainly synthesized through the Δ-4 pathway in male polar bears. The ratio between androgens and estrogens significantly depended on sexual maturity with androgen/estrogen ratios being approximately 60 times higher in adult males than in subadult males. PCA plots and OPLS models indicated that TS was positively related to biometrics, such as body condition index in male polar bears. A negative relationship was also observed between POPs and DHT. Consequently, POPs and body condition may potentially affect the endocrinological function of steroids, including development of reproductive tissues and sex organs and the

  6. Polar Bear Population Status in the Southern Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Polar bears depend entirely on sea ice for survival. In recent years, a warming climate has caused major changes in the Arctic sea ice environment, leading to concerns regarding the status of polar bear populations. Here we present findings from long-term studies of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) region of the U.S. and Canada, which are relevant to these concerns. We applied open population capture-recapture models to data collected from 2001 to 2006, and estimated there were 1,526 (95% CI = 1,211; 1,841) polar bears in the SBS region in 2006. The number of polar bears in this region was previously estimated to be approximately 1,800. Because precision of earlier estimates was low, our current estimate of population size and the earlier ones cannot be statistically differentiated. For the 2001-06 period, the best fitting capture-recapture model provided estimates of total apparent survival of 0.43 for cubs of the year (COYs), and 0.92 for all polar bears older than COYs. Because the survival rates for older polar bears included multiple sex and age strata, they could not be compared to previous estimates. Survival rates for COYs, however, were significantly lower than estimates derived in earlier studies (P = 0.03). The lower survival of COYs was corroborated by a comparison of the number of COYs per adult female for periods before (1967-89) and after (1990-2006) the winter of 1989-90, when warming temperatures and altered atmospheric circulation caused an abrupt change in sea ice conditions in the Arctic basin. In the latter period, there were significantly more COYs per adult female in the spring (P = 0.02), and significantly fewer COYs per adult female in the autumn (P adult males captured from 1990 to 2006 were smaller than those captured before 1990. The smaller stature of males was especially notable because it corresponded with a higher mean age of adult males. Male polar bears continue to grow into their teens, and if adequately nourished

  7. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Gorianovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age. The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval. The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males.

  8. Mass Loss Rates of Fasting Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Richardson, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014. Polar bears were given access to water but not food and held for a median length of 17 d. Median mass loss rates were 1.0 kg/d, while median mass-specific loss rates were 0.5%/d, similar to other species with high adiposity and prolonged fasting capacities. Mass loss by unfed captive adult males was identical to that lost by free-ranging individuals, suggesting that terrestrial feeding contributes little to offset mass loss. The inferred metabolic rate was comparable to a basal mammalian rate, suggesting that while on land, polar bears can maintain a depressed metabolic rate to conserve energy. Finally, we estimated time to starvation for subadults and adult males for the on-land period. Results suggest that at 180 d of fasting, 56%-63% of subadults and 18%-24% of adult males in this study would die of starvation. Results corroborate previous assessments on the limits of polar bear capacity to withstand lengthening ice-free seasons and emphasize the greater sensitivity of subadults to changes in sea ice phenology.

  9. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language–neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  10. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  11. File list: His.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male dm3 Histone Adult Adult male SRX013084,SRX013033,SRX013...032,SRX013013 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male dm3 Histone Adult Adult male SRX013084,SRX013033,SRX013...032,SRX013013 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male dm3 Histone Adult Adult male SRX013084,SRX013032,SRX013...033,SRX013013 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male.bed ...

  14. Attraction of Male Nymphs to Adult Male Volatiles in the Bronze Bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellape (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M V; Groba, H F; Martínez, G; Sellanes, C; Rossini, C; González, A

    2017-12-23

    The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellape (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), is an exotic emerging pest in Eucalyptus commercial forests in South America, Africa and southern Europe. Information on the chemical communication system and reproductive ecology of this insect is scant, and it may be relevant for designing management strategies for eucalypt plantations. Adults and nymphs usually aggregate in the field, possibly by means of chemical signals. Males emit large amounts of 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate, which attracts conspecific adult males but not females. The ecological role of this putative male aggregation pheromone remains unknown. Here, we report olfactometer bioassays showing that late-instar male nymphs are also attracted to synthetic 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate and to adult male volatile extracts, which contain this compound as the major component. As previously shown for adult females, nymphs that moulted into females were not attracted to either volatile stimulus. The intra-gender attraction of nymphs and adults may be related to the exploitation of food resources, or as a reproductive strategy for newly emerged males. Further studies on the reproductive behaviour and mating system of T. peregrinus will contribute to understanding the ecological significance of male-male, adult-nymph attraction, as well as the practical applications that may result from these findings.

  15. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  16. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male dm3 All antigens Adult Adult male SRX013049,SRX013050,S...RX013084,SRX013033,SRX013032,SRX013013 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male dm3 All antigens Adult Adult male SRX013049,SRX013084,S...RX013050,SRX013032,SRX013033,SRX013013 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male dm3 All antigens Adult Adult male SRX013049,SRX013033,S...RX013032,SRX013050,SRX013084,SRX013013 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male dm3 All antigens Adult Adult male SRX013084,SRX013049,S...RX013033,SRX013050,SRX013032,SRX013013 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 RNA polymerase Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 RNA polymerase Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 RNA polymerase Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 TFs and others Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 TFs and others Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 TFs and others Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 Unclassified Adult Adult male fatbody SRX04...2251,SRX042245,SRX042250 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 Unclassified Adult Adult male fatbody SRX04...2245,SRX042251,SRX042250 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 Unclassified Adult Adult male fatbody SRX04...2251,SRX042245,SRX042250 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 Unclassified Adult Adult male fatbody SRX04...2251,SRX042245,SRX042250 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 All antigens Adult Adult male fatbody SRX04...2251,SRX042245,SRX042250 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 All antigens Adult Adult male fatbody SRX04...2251,SRX042245,SRX042250 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 All antigens Adult Adult male fatbody SRX04...2251,SRX042245,SRX042250 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 Input control Adult Adult male fatbody http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 Input control Adult Adult male fatbody http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 Input control Adult Adult male fatbody http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 Input control Adult Adult male fatbody http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  17. Evaluation of an Anger Therapy Intervention for Incarcerated Adult Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoy, Steven D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2004-01-01

    An anger therapy intervention was developed for incarcerated adult males. The therapy was an extension of cognitive-behavioral approaches, incorporating principles and practices drawn from Buddhist psychology. Adult males from a Midwestern low-security prison were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (n= 16) or a waiting list control…

  18. File list: NoD.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 No description Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 No description Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 No description Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody dm3 No description Adult Adult male fatbody htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_male_fatbody.bed ...

  2. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, J N; Arzi, B; Leale, D M; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2016-01-01

    Museum specimens (maxillae and/or mandibles) from 317 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria and 249 specimens were included in this study. The specimens were acquired between 1906 and 2011. There were 126 specimens (50.6%) from male animals, 93 (37.3%) from female animals and 30 (12.1%) from animals of unknown sex. The ages of the animals ranged from neonate to adult, with 125 adults (50.2%) and 124 young adults (49.8%) included and neonates/juveniles excluded from the study. The number of teeth available for examination was 7,638 (73.5%); 12.3% of teeth were absent artefactually, 0.8% were deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 13.4% were absent congenitally. With respect to tooth morphology, 20 teeth (0.26% of available teeth) in 18 specimens (7.2% of available specimens) were small vestigial structures with crowns that were flush with the level of surrounding alveolar bone. One supernumerary tooth and one tooth with enamel hypoplasia were encountered. Persistent deciduous teeth and teeth with an aberrant number of roots were not found. Relatively few teeth (3.7%) displayed attrition/abrasion, 90% of which were the maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth, in 41 polar bears (16.5%). Nearly twice as many adult specimens exhibited attrition/abrasion as those from young adults; significantly more males were affected than females. Dental fractures were noted in 52 polar bears, affecting 20.9% of specimens and 1.3% of the total number of teeth present. More adult polar bears had dental fractures than young adults. There were 21 specimens (8.4%) that displayed overt periapical disease, affecting a total of 24 dental alveoli (0.23%). Some degree of periodontitis was seen in 199 specimens (79.9%); however, only 12.6% of dental alveoli had bony changes indicative of periodontitis. Lesions consistent with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) were found in 23 specimens (9.2%). TMJ-OA was significantly

  3. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  4. Hypopituitarism patterns among adult males with prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Junxiang; Qiu, Mingxing; Qi, Songtao; Li, Danling; Peng, Yuping

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize hypopituitarism in adult males with prolactinomas. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 102 consecutive patients, classified under three categories based on adenoma size at diagnosis: 1.0-2.0cm (group A), 2.1-4.0cm (group B), and >4.0cm (group C). Further, 76 patients had successful outcomes at follow-up. We compared different forms of pituitary hormone dysfunction (growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and hypocortisolism) based on the maximal adenoma diameter. Serum prolactin levels were significantly correlated with the maximal adenoma diameter (r=0.867; P=0.000). Of the patients, 89.2% presented with pituitary failure, which included 74.5% with growth hormone deficiency, 71.6% with hypogonadism, 28.4% with hypothyroidism, and 12.7% with hypocortisolism. The three groups did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in the incidence of hypopituitarism, including the extent of pituitary axis deficiency, at presentation and following treatment. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the degree of hypogonadism in cases of acquired pituitary insufficiency at diagnosis (P=0.000). In adult males with prolactin-secreting adenomas, the most common form of pituitary hormone dysfunction was growth hormone deficiency and hypogonadism, whereas hypocortisolism was less common. The maximal adenoma diameter and prolactin secretion did not determine hormone insufficiency in adult males with prolactinomas, but these factors did affect the degree of both hypogonadism and hypothyroidism. Smaller tumors were found to recur more frequently than large tumors, and recovery was more common in cases of growth hormone deficiency and hypogonadism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aggressive behaviour of an adult male Cape fur seal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a marine predator (the white shark) being threatened by a member of the species on which it preys (a male Cape fur seal). Although these events may be rarely observed or occur infrequently, they may have important implications for the predator and its prey.We suggest that shark mobbing by adult male ...

  6. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  7. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Lazareva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein.

  8. Occlusal status in Asian male adults : Prevalence and ethnic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soh, J; Sandham, John; Chin, Yeen

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal status in young Asian male adults of three ethnic groups. Study models of a sample of male army recruits (N = 339, age 1722 years) with no history of orthodontic treatment were assessed. The ethnic proportions of the sample were Chinese 76.1%

  9. Lumbar laminectomy in a captive, adult polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John F; Vakharia, Kunal; Moreland, Douglas B

    2017-01-01

    Animals held in captivity tend to live longer than do their wild counterparts, and as such, are prone to developing age-related degenerative injuries. Here, we present a case of an adult female polar bear with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. There is a paucity of literature on large mammalian spine surgery, and anatomical differences between humans and other vertebrates must be taken into consideration. A 24-year-old female polar bear residing at the zoo was found to have decreased motor function in her hind legs. Diagnostic myelography performed at the L7/S1 level demonstrated lumbar stenosis at L5/6 for which a laminectomy was performed. Postoperatively, she returned to premorbid functional level, with no apparent associated adverse sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spine surgery in a polar bear and demonstrates that neurosurgical diagnostic and operative techniques developed for humans can also be applied to large mammals with successful results.

  10. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  11. Effect of Amphetamine on Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Šlamberová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg or saline (1 ml/kg in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras, active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP, spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM, and levels of corticosterone (CORT were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  12. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  13. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males.

  14. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaak, J.B.; Yee, K.; Ackerman, C.R.; Zweig, G.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of 14 C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14 C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14 C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  15. Ephestia Kuehniella Z.: Gamma irradiation effects on the adult stage and mating competitiveness of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; El-Banby, M.A.; Salem, Y.S.; Abdel-Baky, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation dosages from 5 to 50 Krad on the adult stage of Ephestia Kuehielia Z. were studied. Irradiated adults paired with untreated adults produced fewer eggs than pairs of unirradiated adults, and these eggs had reduced hatch. This effect was more pronounced with irradiated females or when both parents were irradiated. Radiation greatly reduced life span of treated adults. Adult females were more sensitive to the sterilizing effect of gamma radiation than were males. Males were sterilized when irradiated at 50 Krad, but females at 25 Krad. Previous studies showed that males irradiated as fully grown pupae at 45 Krad were completely sterile. When irradiated (I) males were confined with unirradiated (U) males and females (1:1:1 ratio), infertility of eggs was 48%. Increasing the ratio to 5:1:1, 10:1:1 and 15:1:1 caused 77.9, 84.6 and 94.4 percent infertility of the resulting eggs, respectively. The calculated competitiveness values for the 4 ratios were 0.55, 0.52, 0.42 and 0.88, respectively. Thus I males were only competitive at the highest flooding ration (15:1:1)

  16. [Effect of tail-suspension on the reproduction of adult male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dang-xia; Qiu, Shu-dong; Wang, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Jie

    2006-04-01

    To study the effects on the male reproduction in adult male rats and its mechanisms through simulated weightlessness using tail-suspension, in order to do a basic works of exploring the effects on human being's reproduction in outer space. Forty Spraque-Dawley adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups, two experimental groups and two control groups. Rats in the two experimental groups were tail-suspended for 14 d and 28 d respectively, then we examined the weight and morphology of testis, the quality and amount of sperm, also tested the serum hormone by radioimmunoassay and analyzed apoptosis rate of testicular cells by TUNEL in the experimental rats and control rats. After tail-suspension, the weight of testis, the sperm count and sperm motility significantly decreased (P 0.05). These changes were not significant between two experimental groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the seminiferous tubules became atrophy with the reduction of the layers of seminiferous epithelium, and sperm amount in lumens of seminiferous tubules decreased in experimental groups. The above were more remarkable in the 28 d experimental group. Simulating weightlessness has a harmful effect on reproduction of adult male rats. These may be caused by inducing apoptosis. The blocking apoptosis of testicular cells may be useful in improving the harmful effect.

  17. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), ... Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Sharma

    Full Text Available Available instances of inheritance of epigenetic transgenerational phenotype are limited to environmental exposures during embryonic and adult gonadal development. Adult exposures can also affect gametogenesis and thereby potentially result in reprogramming of the germline. Although examples of epigenetic effects on gametogenesis exist, it is notable that transgenerational inheritance of environment-induced adult phenotype has not yet been reported. Epigenetic codes are considered to be critical in neural plasticity. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced long-term brain plasticity has recently been described. In this model, chronic PTZ treatment of adult males causes alterations in CNS transcriptome. Here, we describe our search for transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of PTZ induced gene expression phenotype acquired by adult Drosophila males. We generated CNS transcriptomic profiles of F(1 adults after treating F(0 adult males with PTZ and of F(2 adults resulting from a cross between F(1 males and normal females. Surprisingly, microarray clustering showed F(1 male profile as closest to F(1 female and F(0 male profile closest to F(2 male. Differentially expressed genes in F(1 males, F(1 females and F(2 males showed significant overlap with those caused by PTZ. Interestingly, microarray evidence also led to the identification of upregulated rRNA in F(2 males. Next, we generated microarray expression profiles of adult testis from F(0 and F(1 males. Further surprising, clustering of CNS and testis profiles and matching of differentially expressed genes in them provided evidence of a spermatogenic mechanism in the transgenerational effect observed. To our knowledge, we report for the first time detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult acquired somatic gene expression characteristic. The Drosophila systems model offers an excellent opportunity to understand the epigenetic mechanisms underlying

  19. Detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult male acquired CNS gene expression characteristics using a Drosophila systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhay; Singh, Priyanka

    2009-06-02

    Available instances of inheritance of epigenetic transgenerational phenotype are limited to environmental exposures during embryonic and adult gonadal development. Adult exposures can also affect gametogenesis and thereby potentially result in reprogramming of the germline. Although examples of epigenetic effects on gametogenesis exist, it is notable that transgenerational inheritance of environment-induced adult phenotype has not yet been reported. Epigenetic codes are considered to be critical in neural plasticity. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced long-term brain plasticity has recently been described. In this model, chronic PTZ treatment of adult males causes alterations in CNS transcriptome. Here, we describe our search for transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of PTZ induced gene expression phenotype acquired by adult Drosophila males. We generated CNS transcriptomic profiles of F(1) adults after treating F(0) adult males with PTZ and of F(2) adults resulting from a cross between F(1) males and normal females. Surprisingly, microarray clustering showed F(1) male profile as closest to F(1) female and F(0) male profile closest to F(2) male. Differentially expressed genes in F(1) males, F(1) females and F(2) males showed significant overlap with those caused by PTZ. Interestingly, microarray evidence also led to the identification of upregulated rRNA in F(2) males. Next, we generated microarray expression profiles of adult testis from F(0) and F(1) males. Further surprising, clustering of CNS and testis profiles and matching of differentially expressed genes in them provided evidence of a spermatogenic mechanism in the transgenerational effect observed. To our knowledge, we report for the first time detection of transgenerational spermatogenic inheritance of adult acquired somatic gene expression characteristic. The Drosophila systems model offers an excellent opportunity to understand the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the

  20. Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Geraldine E.; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

  1. Bone health measured using quantitative ultrasonography in adult males with muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, C I; Smith, J; Denny, A; Tweedale, J; Searle, N D; Winwood, K; Onambele-Pearson, G L

    2016-12-14

    To compare muscle and bone health markers in adult males (aged 20-59 yrs) with and without muscular dystrophy (MD). Participants included 11 Fascioscapulohumeral (FSH), 11 Becker's (Be), 9 limb girdle (LG), 11 Duchenne (DMD), and 14 non-dystrophic controls (CTRL). Physical activity was assessed using Bone (BPAQ) and disability specific (PASIPD) questionnaires. Bone QUS provided T- and Z scores from the Distal Radius (DR) and Mid-shaft tibia (MST). Tibialis anterior cross sectional area (TA ACSA ) was measured using B-mode ultrasound. Grip strength was measured in all but DMD. Physical activity was lower in DMD, FSH and BeMD than CTRL (PPASIPD correlated with grip strength (r=0.65, P<0.01) and TA ACSA (r=0.46, P<0.01). Muscle size, strength, and bone health was lower in adult males with MD compared to adult males without MD, the extent of this is partially determined by physical activity.

  2. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eLebreton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males.

  3. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n=1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2) =0.30, P=0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37). Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  4. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult male Oman is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed K.; Al-Rashdi, Zowaina T.; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets in serologically HIV-seronegative healthy male adults in Oman. A cohort, of 118 healthy male blood donors ranging in age from 18-51 years, was included in the study. The average was 25 years. Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. This study was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the year 2006. For the 118 males investigated, the mean percentage and absolute values of the lymphocyte subsets were as follows: Cd3: 68.53+-7.5%, 1701+-489 cells/ul; CD8: 25.8+-5.9%, 638+-225 cells/ul; CD19: 13.7+-4.7%, 349+-158 cells/ul, CD56: 12.2+-6.7%, 308+-204 cells/ul. The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.6. Immunophenotyping has been used to establish reference values of lymphocyte subsets in normal healthy adult males in Oman. The Omani male reference values obtained in this study show wide variations compared with kits values previously used as reference. (author)

  5. Citizenship in a time of HIV: Understanding medical adult male circumcision in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Payne, Lynlee; Bowman, Brett

    2018-05-01

    Medical adult male circumcision has been shown to offer men significant protection against HIV infection during peno-vaginal sex. This has resulted in calls for a national roll-out of medical adult male circumcision in South Africa, a rights-based constitutional democracy. This article explores the ways that the potential tensions between this call to circumcise as a practice of good health citizenship and the guaranteed right to bodily integrity are negotiated in interviews with 30 urban-based men in Johannesburg. The results suggest that despite its demonstrable biological efficacy, these tensions may paralyse decision- and policy-makers in grappling with the potential scaling up of medical adult male circumcision for HIV prevention in South Africa.

  6. Voracious male spiders that kill adult females of their own species (genera Walckenaeria, Diplostyla, Neriene, Meta, Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; Brunt, T.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to the popular belief that adult female spiders often kill and eat their adult male partners in the context of copulation, we present a few instances of adult male spiders killing and eating adult females of their own species in the laboratory. However, in line with the popular belief,

  7. Ecological change drives a decline in mercury concentrations in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd C.; Pedro, Sara; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations and trends in polar bears from the southern Beaufort Sea subpopulation from 2004 to 2011. Hair THg concentrations ranged widely among individuals from 0.6 to 13.3 μg g–1 dry weight (mean: 3.5 ± 0.2 μg g–1). Concentrations differed among sex and age classes: solitary adult females ≈ adult females with cubs ≈ subadults > adult males ≈ yearlings > cubs-of-the-year ≈ 2 year old dependent cubs. No variation was observed between spring and fall samples. For spring-sampled adults, THg concentrations declined by 13% per year, contrasting recent trends observed for other Western Hemispheric Arctic biota. Concentrations also declined by 15% per year considering adult males only, while a slower, nonsignificant decrease of 4.4% per year was found for adult females. Lower THg concentrations were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and higher proportions of lower trophic position food resources consumed. Because BMI and diet were related, and the relationship to THg was strongest for BMI, trends were re-evaluated adjusting for BMI as the covariate. The adjusted annual decline was not significant. These findings indicate that changes in foraging ecology, not declining environmental concentrations of mercury, are driving short-term declines in THg concentrations in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears.

  8. The clinical phenotype in institutionalised adult males with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Trommelen, J.C.M.; Brunner, H.G.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 22 males (i.e. 5 % of the male population) had XLMR, accounting for 36.1 % of the residents diagnosed with a monogenic disorder (n = 61). Fragile X syndrome (FRAXA) was diagnosed in 16 residents,

  9. Effect of Consuming Iodized Salt on Fertility Indices in Male Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehrabani Natanzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today about 27.4 percent of female 15-44 years and 1 percent of female in fertility age are affected by infertility. Iodine is a rare element that is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Concentration of the thyroid hormones in blood under the influence of iodine intake and changes in thyroid hormones levels interact with reproductive system. Today, all the people of Iran consuming iodized salt regardless of iodine status in their body. In this study according to high prevalence of the infertility among young couples, iodized salt intake on fertility in male rats were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this study 20 male and 20 female adult Wistar rats were used. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Including the control group and treatment group that received iodine and female adult Wistar were fed with a regular diet. Five male rats from each group were killed at the end of the fourth weeks in order to evaluate the possible effect of iodized salt on sperm analysis and weight of testis. After a month, male and female rats were placed in pairs in separate cages and their offspring were investigated in terms of number, gender and health. Results: The result of this study showed that the number of healthy offspring of treated male rats was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Due to the negative effect of excessive iodine intake on fertility rate, it is recommended to couples to perform functional tests of their thyroid glands before intake of iodized salts.

  10. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  11. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options.

  13. Radio-sterilization effects on adult males of Glossina tachinoides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced sterility of adult males of Glossina tachiniodes irradiated with gamma doses of 130, 150 and 160 Gy, respectively, in air was investigated. The flies were irradiated at horizontal distances of 50 cm and 70 cm, respectively from the Gamma Facility. The mean percentage insemination of spermathecae ranged between ...

  14. Peripubertal castration of male rats, adult open field ambulation and partner preference behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Slob, A K

    1988-09-15

    The validity of the hypothesis put forward earlier, that testicular secretions during puberty have an organizing effect on open field ambulation was examined. Male rats were castrated or sham-operated at days 21, 43 or 70. At the age of 17 weeks the males were tested in an automated, octagonal open field (3 consecutive days, 3 min/day) for locomotor activity. Male rats castrated at day 21 or day 43 ambulated more than sham-castrated controls. Males castrated at day 70 did not differ from sham-castrated controls. It thus appears that pubertal testicular secretion(s) organize adult open field locomotor activity in male rats. From 18 weeks of age partner preference behavior was tested in the same open field apparatus with one adjacent cage containing an ovariectomized female and an opposite one containing an ovariectomized female brought into heat. The females in the adjacent cages were separated from the experimental males in the octagonal cage by wire mesh. Peripubertally castrated males did not show a clear-cut partner preference, whereas the intact males preferred the vicinity of the estrous female. There were no differences among the males castrated either before, during or after puberty. Testosterone treatment (crystalline T in silastic capsules) caused peripubertally castrated males to prefer the estrous female. Thus, adult partner preference behavior does not seem to be organized by peripubertal testicular androgens.

  15. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Pilfold

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650 and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida lairs (n=1396 observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation.Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2% while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344 of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344. Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344 of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121, and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78. The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2 =0.30, P=0.04, but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37.Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  16. Alaska northern fur seal adult male satellite telemetry data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...

  17. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  18. Polar bear attacks on humans: Implications of a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, James; Vongraven, Dag; Atwood, Todd C.; Hansen, Bob; Jessen, Amalie; Kochnev, Anatoly A.; York, Geoff; Vallender, Rachel; Hedman, Daryll; Gibbons, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding causes of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) attacks on humans is critical to ensuring both human safety and polar bear conservation. Although considerable attention has been focused on understanding black (U. americanus) and grizzly (U. arctos) bear conflicts with humans, there have been few attempts to systematically collect, analyze, and interpret available information on human-polar bear conflicts across their range. To help fill this knowledge gap, a database was developed (Polar Bear-Human Information Management System [PBHIMS]) to facilitate the range-wide collection and analysis of human-polar bear conflict data. We populated the PBHIMS with data collected throughout the polar bear range, analyzed polar bear attacks on people, and found that reported attacks have been extremely rare. From 1870–2014, we documented 73 attacks by wild polar bears, distributed among the 5 polar bear Range States (Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia, and United States), which resulted in 20 human fatalities and 63 human injuries. We found that nutritionally stressed adult male polar bears were the most likely to pose threats to human safety. Attacks by adult females were rare, and most were attributed to defense of cubs. We judged that bears acted as a predator in most attacks, and that nearly all attacks involved ≤2 people. Increased concern for both human and bear safety is warranted in light of predictions of increased numbers of nutritionally stressed bears spending longer amounts of time on land near people because of the loss of their sea ice habitat. Improved conflict investigation is needed to collect accurate and relevant data and communicate accurate bear safety messages and mitigation strategies to the public. With better information, people can take proactive measures in polar bear habitat to ensure their safety and prevent conflicts with polar bears. This work represents an important first step towards improving our understanding of factors influencing

  19. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukoha, Ukoha Ukoha; Udemezue, Onochie Okwudili; Oranusi, Chidi Kingsley; Asomugha, Azuoma Lasbrey; Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Nzeukwu, Lynda Chinenye

    2012-01-01

    Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of their faces were taken and traced out on tracing papers. On these, two vertical distances, nasion to subnasal and subnasale to menton, and four angles, nasofrontal (NF), nasofacial, nasomental (NM) and mentocervical, were measured. Results: The result showed that the Igbo Nigerian adult male had a middle face that was shorter than the lower one (41.76% vs.58.24%), a moderate glabella (NF=133.97°), a projected nose (NM=38.68°) and a less prominent chin (NM=125.87°). Conclusion: This study is very important in medical practice as it can be used to compare the pre- and post-operative results of plastic surgery and other related surgeries of the face. PMID:23661886

  20. Effect of footwear on standing balance in healthy young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Zafar, Hamayun; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of footwear on standing balance in healthy young adult males. Thirty healthy male participants aged 20-30 years were tested for standing balance on the Balance Master on three occasions, including wearing a sandal, standard shoe, or no footwear (barefoot). The tests of postural stability include; "Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance" (mCTSIB), "Unilateral Stance" (US), and the "Limits of Stability" (LOS). The balance scores (mCTSIB, US, and LOS) was analyzed. There was a significant effect between footwear conditions for mCTIB with eye closed on a firm surface (p=0.002). There was a significant effect between footwear conditions for the US with eye open and closed (p⟨0.05). There was a significant effect between footwear conditions for LOS reaction time during forward movement (p=0.02). Similarly, there was a significant effect between footwear conditions for LOS reaction time during left side movement (p=0.01). Wearing sandals compared to bare feet significantly increased postural sway and reduced stability in healthy young adult males. However, wearing a standard shoe compared to bare feet did not significantly affect balance scores in standing.

  1. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J. J. M.; Knijnenburg, S. L.; van der Pal, H. J. H.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Caron, H. N.; Beerendonk, C. C. M.; Kremer, L. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for assisted

  2. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J.J.M.; Knijnenburg, S.L.; Pal, H.J. van der; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Caron, H.N.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Kremer, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for

  3. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain a value for perception threshold and taste identification threshold using sucrose solution of 0.0006 M-0.06 M concentration. Research results indicate that the perception threshold and identification threshold of young, male adult smokers are 0.0119 M and 0.0292 M. Young, male adult clove cigarette smokers have a perception threshold and identification threshold of 0.0151 M and 0.0348 M. The conclusion of this research is that the perception threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are the same, whereas the identification threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are different, that is, the identification threshold of clove cigarette smokers is higher than that of white cigarette smokers.

  4. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients

  5. Acute gastric dilatation and volvulus in a free-living polar bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Nielsen, Carol A.

    1989-01-01

    A large, adult male polar bear (Ursus maritimus) was found dead on a barrier island north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (USA), in June 1987. There were no external signs of trauma. A twisted distended stomach, distinctive parenchymal and fascial congestion, and significant difficulty in repositioning the anterior abdominal organs, indicated that gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) was the proximate cause of death. Polar bears frequently consume large quantities of food at one time and have large stomachs that are well adapted to periodic gorging. The scarcity of food in winter and early spring, combined with voluntary fasting and protracted vigorous activity during the breeding season in late spring may have predisposed this bear to GDV. The relationship between GDV and postprandial exercise emphasizes the need for a better understanding of how the present human invasion of arctic habitats may influence polar bear activities.

  6. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  7. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Fatal drink-driving accidents of young adult and middle-aged males--a risky driving style or risky lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laapotti, Sirkku; Keskinen, Esko

    2008-01-01

    A range of situational and lifestyle-related factors in drink-driving fatal accidents were studied involving young adult and middle-aged male drivers in Finland. Fatal drink-driving accidents were compared to fatal accidents in which the driver had been sober. The study included all 18-to 59-year-old male drivers' fatal car and van accidents investigated by the Road Accident Investigation Teams in Finland between 2000 and 2002 (n = 366 accidents). The variables describing the situation included the time of the accident, the road condition, the speed, possession of a valid licence, seat-belt usage, and the presence of passengers. The study found that among young adult males most of the studied situational factors bore no relation to the state of the driver (sober or drink driver). Only the time of day, seat-belt, usage, and possession of a valid licence were related to the state of the driver. Among middle-aged male drivers, drink-driving and sober driving accidents differed more clearly. Further, when the social situation in the car was examined, it was found that accidents of sober and drink drivers differed from each other within the group of middle-aged drivers but not within the group of young adult drivers. Heavy alcohol usage was found to characterize the lifestyle of the studied middle-aged drink drivers. It was concluded that for young adult males drink-driving was a part of a more general risky driving style. Among middle-aged males drink-driving was more related to a risky lifestyle with drinking problems. Possible countermeasures are discussed with regard to drink-driving among young adult and middle-aged males.

  9. Increased Arctic sea ice drift alters adult female polar bear movements and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M; Douglas, David C; Albeke, Shannon E; Whiteman, John P; Amstrup, Steven C; Richardson, Evan; Wilson, Ryan R; Ben-David, Merav

    2017-09-01

    Recent reductions in thickness and extent have increased drift rates of Arctic sea ice. Increased ice drift could significantly affect the movements and the energy balance of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) which forage, nearly exclusively, on this substrate. We used radio-tracking and ice drift data to quantify the influence of increased drift on bear movements, and we modeled the consequences for energy demands of adult females in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas during two periods with different sea ice characteristics. Westward and northward drift of the sea ice used by polar bears in both regions increased between 1987-1998 and 1999-2013. To remain within their home ranges, polar bears responded to the higher westward ice drift with greater eastward movements, while their movements north in the spring and south in fall were frequently aided by ice motion. To compensate for more rapid westward ice drift in recent years, polar bears covered greater daily distances either by increasing their time spent active (7.6%-9.6%) or by increasing their travel speed (8.5%-8.9%). This increased their calculated annual energy expenditure by 1.8%-3.6% (depending on region and reproductive status), a cost that could be met by capturing an additional 1-3 seals/year. Polar bears selected similar habitats in both periods, indicating that faster drift did not alter habitat preferences. Compounding reduced foraging opportunities that result from habitat loss; changes in ice drift, and associated activity increases, likely exacerbate the physiological stress experienced by polar bears in a warming Arctic. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants, skull size and bone density of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland 1892–2015 and Svalbard 1964–2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard-Petersen, Tobias; Langebæk, Rikke; Rigét, Frank F.

    2018-01-01

    that the skull size of adult East Greenland females was negatively correlated with collection year 1892–2015 (linear regression: p = 0.06). No temporal change was found for BMD or skull size in Svalbard polar bears (ANOVA: all p > 0.05) nor was there any significant difference in BMD between Svalbard and East...... Greenland subpopulations. Skull size was larger in polar bears from Svalbard than from East Greenland (two-way ANOVA: p = 0.003). T-scores reflecting risk of osteoporosis showed that adult males from both East Greenland and Svalbard are at risk of developing osteopenia. Finally, when correcting for age...

  11. Femoral fracture repair using a locking plate technique in an adult captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Dew, Terry; Douglass, Michael; Perez, Edward

    2010-02-01

    To report successful femoral fracture repair in a polar bear. Case report. Female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) 5 years and approximately 250 kg. A closed, complete, comminuted fracture of the distal midshaft femur was successfully reduced and stabilized using a compression plating technique with 2 specialized human femur plates offering axial, rotational, and bending support, and allowing the bone to share loads with the implant. Postoperative radiographs were obtained at 11.5 weeks, 11 months, and 24 months. Bone healing characterized by marked periosteal reaction was evident at 11 months with extensive remodeling evident at 24 months. No complications were noted. Distal mid shaft femoral fracture was reduced, stabilized, and healed in an adult polar bear with a locking plate technique using 2 plates. Previously, femoral fractures in polar bears were considered irreparable. Use of 2 plates applied with a locking plate technique can result in successful fracture repair despite large body weight and inability to restrict postoperative activity.

  12. Xenoendocrine pollutants May Reduce Size of Sexual Organs in East Greenland Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Pall S.; Dietz, Rune

    2006-01-01

    .01) and uterine horn length and HCB (p = 0.02). The study suggests thatthere is an impact from xenoendocrine pollutants on the size of East Greenland polar bear genitalia. This may pose a riskto this polar bear subpopulation in the future because of reduced sperm and egg quality/quantity and uterus and penis size......Reproductive organs from 55 male and 44 female East Greenland polar bears were examined to investigate the potential negative impact from organohalogen pollutants (OHCs). Multiple regressions normalizing for age showed a significant inverse relationship between OHCs and testis length and baculum...... length and weight, respectively, and was found in both subadults (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes, dieldrin, chlordanes, hexacyclohexanes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) and adults (hexachlorobenzene [HCB]) (all p

  13. Assessment of specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons using average adult Japanese male phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2014-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is revising dose coefficients, which are effective and equivalent doses per unit intake of radionuclides, based on the 2007 Recommendations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of voxel phantoms having standard physiques and organ masses (physical characteristics) of Caucasian are used for calculation of the new dose coefficients. SAFs depend on physical characteristics of a phantom used for assessment of the SAFs. Therefore, the SAFs and the dose coefficients developed by ICRP reflect physical characteristics of Caucasian. On the other hand, physiques of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian, and organ masses are also different from each other. Consequently, it is expected that SAFs and dose coefficients with physical characteristics of adult Japanese are different from those of ICRP. It is important to understand the influence of the differences in physical characteristics between both races on SAFs and dose coefficients when using the SAFs and dose coefficients of ICRP for radiation protection for Japanese. In order to evaluate internal doses considering the physical characteristics of adult Japanese, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency plans to develop a comprehensive data set of SAFs for photons, electrons, alpha particles and neutrons using average adult Japanese male and female phantoms (male: JM-103, female: JF-103). This report presents a data set of photon and electron SAFs for JM-103. JM-103 was incorporated into the general purpose radiation transport code, MCNPX 2.6.0, and the SAFs were calculated by the MCNPX 2.6.0 for 25 energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV and for combinations of 67 source regions and 41 target organs. Influences of differences in physical characteristics between adult Japanese and Caucasian on SAFs was also examined by comparison between the calculated SAFs in this study and the SAFs of the reference adult male phantom of ICRP. The photon and electron

  14. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.; Happé, F.; Wheelwright, S.J.; Ecker, C.; Lombardo, M.V.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.; Murphy, C.M.; Spain, D.; Lai, M-C.; Chakrabarti, B; Sauter, D.A.; MRC AIMS Consortium, [Unknown; Baron-Cohen, S.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of

  15. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremer Sylvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless (“ergatoid” males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. Results We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Conclusion Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection

  16. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter R; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with psoriasis have increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but data on atopic dermatitis (AD) are less clear-cut. However, it is well-established that erectile dysfunction (ED) can serve as a risk marker for coronary disease. AIM: To investigate the incidence, prevalence...... population for men with AD. Egeberg A, Hansen PR, Gislason GH, et al. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis. J Sex Med 2017;14:380-386....

  17. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  18. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, smoking cessation idea and education level among young adult male smokers in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-02-16

    In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18-45 years old. The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364) in the sample of higher education young adult males Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers.

  19. Larger corpus callosum and reduced orbitofrontal cortex homotopic connectivity in codeine cough syrup-dependent male adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying-Wei; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Gui-Hua; Su, Huan-Huan; Ma, Xiao-Fen; Tian, Jun-Zhang; Zhuo, Fu-Zhen

    2017-03-01

    To characterize interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity and their relationships with impulsive behaviour in codeine-containing cough syrup (CCS)-dependent male adolescents and young adults. We compared volumes of corpus callosum (CC) and its five subregion and voxel-mirrored homotopic functional connectivity (VMHC) in 33 CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults and 38 healthy controls, group-matched for age, education and smoking status. Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS.11) was used to assess participant impulsive behaviour. Abnormal CC subregions and VMHC revealed by group comparison were extracted and correlated with impulsive behaviour and duration of CCS use. We found selective increased mid-posterior CC volume in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults and detected decreased homotopic interhemispheric functional connectivity of medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Moreover, impairment of VMHC was associated with the impulsive behaviour and correlated with the duration of CCS abuse in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults. These findings reveal CC abnormalities and disruption of interhemispheric homotopic connectivity in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults, which provide a novel insight into the impact of interhemispheric disconnectivity on impulsive behaviour in substance addiction pathophysiology. • CCS-dependent individuals (patients) had selective increased volumes of mid-posterior corpus callosum • Patients had attenuated interhemispheric homotopic FC (VMHC) of bilateral orbitofrontal cortex • Impairment of VMHC correlated with impulsive behaviour in patients • Impairment of VMHC correlated with the CCS duration in patients.

  20. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Male-Male Mounting Behaviour in Free-Ranging Golden Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Dixson, Alan F; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2018-01-01

    An all-male band of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) was observed for 3 months in the Qinling Mountains of China, in order to collect data on the frequencies and contextual significance of male-male mounting behaviour. Mounts occurred in a variety of affiliative, dominance-related and sexual contexts, which differed depending upon the ages of the males involved. Mounting behaviour in this group was mainly initiated by adults. Juveniles mounted each other in affiliative contexts (during play and prior to grooming). Adult males mounted subadult and juvenile partners in a greater variety of sociosexual contexts (dominance/rank-related interactions; reconciliation following agonistic encounters, and sometimes as a prelude to receiving grooming). However, subadults and juveniles were never observed to mount adults. In one dyad, involving an adult male and a subadult partner, mounting was more frequent and prolonged, and included bouts of deep pelvic thrusting. Two mounts resulted in anal intromissions and, in 1 case, the subadult partner exhibited seminal emission. Given that the study took place during the annual mating peak period of R. roxellana, it is possible that this unusual male-male sexual activity was related to the absence of mating opportunities for those adults that were excluded from 1-male units. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Maternal resveratrol intake during lactation attenuates hepatic triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis in adult male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Tanaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene is a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine and has been shown to exert protective effects on the liver preventing lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet. However, no studies have shown that the nutritional resveratrol intake by the parental generation has modified lipogenesis in an adult offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal resveratrol intake during lactation affects lipogenesis in adult male rat offspring, and if it does, what is the molecular mechanistic basis. Six male pups born from mothers given a control diets during lactation (CC group and six male pups born from mothers given a control diet as well as resveratrol during lactation (CR group were fed a standard diet until sacrifice at 36 weeks. Adult male offspring from mothers given resveratrol during lactation (CR group had lower body weight from the fourth week of lactation until adulthood, but no significant change was observed in the relative food intake. Low levels of plasma triacylglycerol were found in the CR group compared to the CC group. Histopathological analysis of the livers of adult male rat offspring revealed lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in the CC group, whereas lipid droplets were rare in the CR group. Hepatic protein levels of AMPK-phosphorylated at ser403, Sirt1, and Nampt in the CR group were upregulated significantly compared to the CC group. These results indicated the maternal resveratrol intake during lactation-induced activation of AMPK through Sirt1 upregulation. In this study, significant upregulation of the levels of precursor of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c and downregulation of the ratio of active-SREBP-1c/precusor-SREBP-1c were observed in the CR group compared to the CC group. These results suggested that proteolytic processing of SREBP-1c was suppressed by AMPK in the livers of the CR group. It is well known that SREBP-1c

  3. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANGOOD, S.A.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  4. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  5. Late gestational intermittent hypoxia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in male adult offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Cortese, Rene; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Ye, Honggang; Bao, Riyue; Andrade, Jorge; Gozal, David

    2017-04-15

    Late gestation during pregnancy has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia, a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis and metabolic function in offspring. Here we show that late gestation intermittent hypoxia induces metabolic dysfunction as reflected by increased body weight and adiposity index in adult male offspring that is paralleled by epigenomic alterations and inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue. Fetal perturbations by OSA during pregnancy impose long-term detrimental effects manifesting as metabolic dysfunction in adult male offspring. Pregnancy, particularly late gestation (LG), has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation. At 24 weeks, blood samples were collected from offspring mice for lipid profiles and insulin resistance, indirect calorimetry was performed and visceral white adipose tissues (VWAT) were assessed for inflammatory cells as well as for differentially methylated gene regions (DMRs) using a methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on chip (MeDIP-chip). Body weight, food intake, adiposity index, fasting insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels were all significantly higher in LG-IH male but not female offspring. LG-IH also altered metabolic expenditure and locomotor activities in male offspring, and increased number of pro-inflammatory macrophages emerged in VWAT along with 1520 DMRs (P < 0.0001), associated with 693

  6. East Greenland and Barents Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus): adaptive variation between two populations using skull morphometrics as an indicator of environmental and genetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Sonne, Christian; Wiig, Øystein; Baagøe, Hans J; Loeschcke, Volker; Bechshøft, Thea Østergaard

    2012-06-01

    A morphometric study was conducted on four skull traits of 37 male and 18 female adult East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) collected 1892-1968, and on 54 male and 44 female adult Barents Sea polar bears collected 1950-1969. The aim was to compare differences in size and shape of the bear skulls using a multivariate approach, characterizing the variation between the two populations using morphometric traits as an indicator of environmental and genetic differences. Mixture analysis testing for geographic differentiation within each population revealed three clusters for Barents Sea males and three clusters for Barents Sea females. East Greenland consisted of one female and one male cluster. A principal component analysis (PCA) conducted on the clusters defined by the mixture analysis, showed that East Greenland and Barents Sea polar bear populations overlapped to a large degree, especially with regards to females. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) showed no significant differences in morphometric means between the two populations, but differences were detected between clusters from each respective geographic locality. To estimate the importance of genetics and environment in the morphometric differences between the bears, a PCA was performed on the covariance matrix derived from the skull measurements. Skull trait size (PC1) explained approx. 80% of the morphometric variation, whereas shape (PC2) defined approx. 15%, indicating some genetic differentiation. Hence, both environmental and genetic factors seem to have contributed to the observed skull differences between the two populations. Overall, results indicate that many Barents Sea polar bears are morphometrically similar to the East Greenland ones, suggesting an exchange of individuals between the two populations. Furthermore, a subpopulation structure in the Barents Sea population was also indicated from the present analyses, which should be considered with regards to future management

  7. Intra-community coalitionary lethal attack of an adult male southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, M G; Beltrão-Mendes, R; Lee, P C

    2009-10-01

    We report on the first evidence of intra-community coalitionary lethal aggression in muriquis (Brachyteles). The event occurred in southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) during a long-term study (>15 years) of two social groups inhabiting mostly pristine Atlantic forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, southern São Paulo State, Brazil. The attack took place deep in the core area of the Group Caetê home range. Tense agonistic behaviors and vocalizations preceded the lethal coalitionary attack, and the tension increased over a 36-48 hr period. One adult female and two unidentified individuals also took part in a coalition led by six adult males. The members of the coalition collectively approached, embraced, immobilized and repeatedly bit the entire body of an adult male, resulting in severe bleeding injuries and the victim's death in less than 1 hr after the attack commenced. Combined ecological, behavioral and spatial data related to the event indicate that this was an intra-community attack and suggest social tensions related to mating competition as the proximate trigger of the coalitionary killing. The attack resembled those reported for chimpanzees, with clear numeric superiority and a low risk of injury to aggressors, resulting in the death of a lone conspecific victim. This observation (n=1) is suggestive of a capacity for escalated aggression in muriquis and reinforces arguments for the potential adaptive significance of intra-community aggression in male philopatric societies, as reported for spider monkeys and chimpanzees. These characteristics challenge the view of the muriquis as a peaceful primate and support the general hypothesis that imbalances of power contribute to intra-specific killing in primates, such as chimpanzees and humans.

  8. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Blessure preventie voor volwassen, mannelijke voetballers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  9. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p < 0.0001). Social gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p < 0.0001). Syndemics were associated with sexual risk in TMSM who had socially affirmed their gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p < 0.001), but not among those TMSM who had not (aOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.63-1.19; p = 0.37). Findings suggest that syndemic pathways to sexual risk are similar for TMSM who have socially gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  12. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the ‘The11’ injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. Results In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4–11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5–11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. Conclusions This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players. PMID:22878257

  13. Adolescent TBI-induced hypopituitarism causes sexual dysfunction in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Tiffany; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2015-02-01

    Adolescents are at greatest risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been documented in both adults and juveniles and despite the necessity of pituitary function for normal physical and brain development, it is still unrecognized and untreated in adolescents following TBI. TBI induced hormonal dysfunction during a critical developmental window has the potential to cause long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits and the topic currently remains unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to determine if four mild TBIs delivered to adolescent male rats disrupts testosterone production and adult behavioral outcomes. Plasma testosterone was quantified from 72 hrs preinjury to 3 months postinjury and pubertal onset, reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors were assessed at 1 and 2 months postinjury. RTBI resulted in both acute and chronic decreases in testosterone production and delayed onset of puberty. Significant deficits were observed in reproductive organ growth, erectile function and reproductive behaviors in adult rats at both 1 and 2 months postinjury. These data suggest adolescent RTBI-induced hypopituitarism underlies abnormal behavioral changes observed during adulthood. The impact of undiagnosed hypopituitarism following RTBI in adolescence has significance not only for growth and puberty, but also for brain development and neurobehavioral function as adults. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  16. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  17. Long term effects of parenting and family characteristics on delinquency of male young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Smeenk, W.; Loeber, R.; Southamer-Loeber, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Gerris, J.R.; Dubas, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from the criminology literature and family studies, we investigated the long-term effects of established family risk factors and parenting styles on male young adult delinquency. We used data sets from two longitudinal studies, the Pittsburgh Youth Study (N474) and the Child-Rearing and

  18. Modification of male adult simulator posture of ICRP 110 reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeano, Diego C.; Souza, Divanizia N.; Santos, Willian S.; Carvalho Junior, Alberico B.

    2014-01-01

    Voxel simulators are usually constructed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance, so the supine position (lying) is the most used. This may result in a overestimated or underestimated the radiation dose, depending on the exposure scenario adopted. Thus, the objective was to change the attitude of the male adult simulator reference ICRP 110, AM (Adult Male), to a sitting posture. For change of posture were possible, it was necessary increasing the number of slices that comprise AM simulator by reducing the height of the voxel of 8.0 mm to 2.0 mm, thus making each voxel approximately cubic. A subroutine was created in Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the simulator and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. The ScionImage software was used to rebuild and soften the contours of the knee and hip of the simulator in a sitting posture, and 3D visualization of the simulator was used VolView software. The AM simulator in the seated position has the same anatomical features of the simulator in the standing posture. Using the MCNPX code [ref] was carried out the conversion coefficients for calculating the AP irradiation geometry (anteroposterior) comparing the AM simulator standing and sitting in order to evaluate the difference scattering and absorption of radiation by the two simulators. The result shows a difference up to 100% in the fluency conversion coefficients in nearby organs located in the pelvic region and in organs with distribution in the whole body (such as skin, muscle, lymph nodes and skeletal)

  19. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  20. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socio-economic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahly, Darren L; Adair, Linda S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that lower birth order amplifies the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult males from a lower-income, developing country context. Design The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is an ongoing community-based, observational study of a one year birth cohort (1983). Subjects 970 young adult males, mean age 21.5 y (2005). Measurements Central adiposity measured by waist circumference; birth order; perinatal...

  1. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 μg/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 μg/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p polar bears.

  2. Male circumcision for HIV prevention - a cross-sectional study on awareness among young people and adults in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizaamu Ramadhan NB

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical male circumcision is now part of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. It has been shown that awareness of the protective effect of male circumcision leads to high acceptability towards the introduction of medical male circumcision services within countries. The objective of this survey was to identify factors determining awareness of male circumcision for HIV prevention. Methods We interviewed 452 participants (267 adults >24 years of age; 185 youths 14-24 years living in three rural Ugandan districts in 2008. Using a standardized questionnaire, we assessed socio-demographic parameters, awareness of MC for HIV prevention, general beliefs/attitudes regarding MC and MC status. Determinants for awareness of MC for HIV prevention were examined with multiple logistic regression models. Results Out of all adults, 52.1% were male (mean ± SD age 39.8 ± 11 years, of whom 39.1% reported to be circumcised. Out of all youths, 58.4% were male (18.4 ± 2.5, 35.0% circumcised. Adults were more aware of MC for HIV prevention than youths (87.1% vs. 76.5%; p = 0.004. In adults, awareness was increased with higher educational level compared to no school: primary school (adjusted OR 9.32; 95%CI 1.80-48.11, secondary (5.04; 1.01-25.25, tertiary (9.91; 0.76-129.18, university education (8.03; 0.59-109.95. Younger age and male sex were further significant determinants of increased awareness, but not marital status, religion, district, ethnicity, employment status, and circumcision status. In youths, we found a borderline statistically significant decrease of awareness of MC for HIV prevention with higher educational level, but not with any other socio-demographic factors. Conclusions Particularly Ugandans with low education, youths, and women, playing an important role in decision-making of MC for their partners and sons, should be increasingly targeted by information campaigns about positive health effects of MC.

  3. The Effect of Larval Diet on Adult Survival, Swarming Activity and Copulation Success in Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Bethan J; Idugboe, Stefano; McManus, Kirelle; Drury, Florence; Qureshi, Alima; Cator, Lauren J

    2018-01-10

    Control of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations is vital for reducing the transmission of several pervasive human diseases. The success of new vector control technologies will be influenced by the fitness of laboratory-reared transgenic males. However, there has been relatively little published data on how rearing practices influence male fitness in Aedes mosquitoes. In the laboratory, the effect of larval food availability on adult male fitness was tested, using a range of different fitness measures. Larval food availability was demonstrated to be positively correlated with adult body size. Larger males survived longer and exhibited greater swarming activity. As a consequence, larger males may have more mating opportunities in the wild. However, we also found that within a swarm larger males did not have an increased likelihood of copulating with a female. The outcome of the mating competition experiments depended on the methodology used to mark the males. These results show that fitness assessment can vary depending on the measure analyzed, and the methodology used to determine it. Continued investigation into these fitness measures and methodologies, and critically, their utility for predicting male performance in the field, will increase the efficiency of vector control programs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Ruff, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA.

  5. Recent observations of intraspecific predation and cannibalism among polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.; Smith, T.S.; Perham, C.; Thiemann, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    Intraspecific killing has been reported among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus). Although cannibalism is one motivation for such killings, the ecological factors mediating such events are poorly understood. Between 24 January and 10 April 2004, we confirmed three instances of intraspecific predation and cannibalism in the Beaufort Sea. One of these, the first of this type ever reported for polar bears, was a parturient female killed at her maternal den. The predating bear was hunting in a known maternal denning area and apparently discovered the den by scent. A second predation event involved an adult female and cub recently emerged from their den, and the third involved a yearling male. During 24 years of research on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea region of northern Alaska and 34 years in northwestern Canada, we have not seen other incidents of polar bears stalking, killing, and eating other polar bears. We hypothesize that nutritional stresses related to the longer ice-free seasons that have occurred in the Beaufort Sea in recent years may have led to the cannibalism incidents we observed in 2004. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  6. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  7. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Hock Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%, which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9% and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%. Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60, primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30, secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11, with tertiary education as the reference group. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28, with married as the reference group, ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91, Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91, with Indian as the reference group, age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94; 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28; 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20 ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51, with 60 year-old and above as the reference group and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22 urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population

  8. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  9. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  10. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  11. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae) - A comparison with haploid males, queens and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andreia A; Humann, Fernanda C; Oliveira Campos, Lucio A; Tavares, Mara G; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid) on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i) gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii) in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  12. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  13. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of s...

  14. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  15. Ovulation induction and artificial insemination of a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus) using fresh semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Erin; Wyatt, Jeff; Sorel, Lawrence J; MacKinnon, Katherine M; Roth, Terri L

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, polar bears were listed as a species threatened with extinction by the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Unfortunately, reproductive success has been poor despite breeding recommendations for almost every reproductively viable bear by the Species Survival Plan. Assisted reproductive technologies could complement breeding efforts by overcoming the challenges of behavioral incompatibilities and deficiencies, facilitating genetic management and increasing cub production. The goal of this study was to artificially inseminate a female polar bear after inducing ovarian activity and ovulation with exogenous hormones (equine chorionic gonadotropin and porcine luteinizing hormone). Fresh semen collected from an adult male via electroejaculation/urethral catheterization was used for the insemination. Fecal steroid monitoring indicated that the female ovulated following the exogenous hormone treatment. Progestin concentrations increased in late summer, at the time implantation was expected to occur; however, no cubs were produced. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ovulation induction and artificial insemination in a polar bear.

  16. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  17. Adult Connection in Assault Injury Prevention among Male Youth in Low-Resource Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison J; Miller, Elizabeth; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Branas, Charles C; Guo, Wensheng; Fein, Joel A; Richmond, Therese S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2018-04-26

    Strengths-based strategies to reduce youth violence in low-resource urban communities are urgently needed. Supportive adolescent-adult relationships may confer protection, but studies have been limited by self-reported composite outcomes. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 10- to 24-year-old males in low-resource neighborhoods to examine associations between supportive adult connection and severe assault injury. Cases were victims of gunshot assault injury (n = 143) and non-gun assault injury (n = 206) from two level I trauma centers. Age- and race-matched controls (n = 283) were recruited using random digit dial from the same catchment. Adolescent-adult connections were defined by: (1) brief survey questions and (2) detailed family genograms. Analysis used conditional logistic regression. There were no significant associations between positive adult connection, as defined by brief survey questions, and either gunshot or non-gun assault injury among adolescents with high prior violence involvement (GSW OR = 2.46, 95% CI 0.81-7.49; non-gun OR = 1.59, 95% CI 0.54-4.67) or low prior violence involvement (GSW OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.34-2.44; non-gun OR = 1.96, 95% CI 0.73-5.28). In contrast, among adolescents with high levels of prior violence involvement, reporting at least one supportive adult family member in the family genogram was associated with higher odds of gunshot assault injury (OR = 4.01, 95% CI 1.36-11.80) and non-gun assault injury (OR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.48-12.04). We were thus unable to demonstrate that positive adult connections protected adolescent males from severe assault injury in this highly under-resourced environment. However, at the time of injury, assault-injured adolescents, particularly those with high prior violence involvement, reported high levels of family support. The post-injury period may provide opportunities to intervene to enhance and leverage family connections to explore how to

  18. Bone health measured using quantitative ultrasonography in adult males with muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, C.I.; Smith, J.; Denny, A.; Tweedale, J.; Searle, N.D.; Winwood, K.; Onambele-Pearson, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare muscle and bone health markers in adult males (aged 20-59 yrs) with and without muscular dystrophy (MD). Methods: Participants included 11 Fascioscapulohumeral (FSH), 11 Becker?s (Be), 9 limb girdle (LG), 11 Duchenne (DMD), and 14 non-dystrophic controls (CTRL). Physical activity was assessed using Bone (BPAQ) and disability specific (PASIPD) questionnaires. Bone QUS provided T- and Z scores from the Distal Radius (DR) and Mid-shaft tibia (MST). Tibialis anterior cross ...

  19. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  20. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; De Melo Lima, V J

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI A M and female RPI A F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  1. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  2. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  3. α-Lipoic Acid Mitigates Arsenic-Induced Hematological Abnormalities in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic toxicity is a major global health problem and exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with hematological and other systemic disorders. The present investigation has been conducted in adult male rats to evaluate the protective ability of α-lipoic acid (ALA against such hematological disorders. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wister rats (b.wt.130±10g were grouped and accordingly group I (control received the normal diet, group II (treated was given arsenic orally for 28 consecutive days as arsenic trioxide (3 mg/kgbw/rat/day whereas group III (supplemented received the same dose of arsenic along with ALA (25 mg/kgbw/rat/day as oral supplement. Hematological profile, plasma oxidant/antioxidant status, and erythrocyte morphology were assessed. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results: Arsenic exposure caused reduction of erythrocyte (P=0.021, leucocyte (P<0.001, and hemoglobin (P=0.031 associated with echinocytic transformation as evidenced by light and scanning electron microscopic studies. The other significantly altered parameters include increased mean corpuscular volume (P=0.041 and lymphocytopenia (P<0.001 with insignificant neutropenia and eosinophilia. Altered serum oxidative balance as evidenced by decreased TAS (P<0.001 and increased TOS (P<0.001 with OSI (P<0.001 was also noted. The dietary supplementation of ALA has a beneficial effect against the observed (P<0.05 arsenic toxicities. It brings about the protection by restoring the hematological redox and inflammatory status near normal in treated rats. Arsenic-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes was also partially attenuated by ALA supplementation. Conclusion: It is concluded that arsenicosis is associated with hematological alterations and ALA co-supplementation can partially alleviate these changes in an experimental male rat model.

  4. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

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    Andrew D Lowther

    Full Text Available The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  5. Divergent hypoxia tolerance in adult males and females of the plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Christophe M R; Bucking, Carol; Craig, Paul M; Walsh, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    In the summer, the plainfin midshipman (Poricththys notatus) migrates to reproduce in the nearshore environment, where oxygen levels are influenced by the tidal cycles. Parental males establish nests under rocks in the intertidal zone, where they reside until the eggs they guard are fully developed. In contrast, females and sneaker males leave the nests shortly after spawning. We examined the physiological resistance and metabolic response of parental male and female adult midshipman to hypoxia to test whether they exhibited sex-specific differences reflecting their reproductive strategies. Further, we assessed whether metabolic enzymes and metabolites were differentially enriched in tissues of parental males and females to explain the differences observed in their hypoxia tolerance. While parental males and females exhibited similar depression of their oxygen consumption in response to graded hypoxia, parental males could withstand significantly longer exposures to severe hypoxic stress. At the biochemical level, parental males showed higher hepatic glycogen reserves and higher glycolytic enzyme capacities in gills and skeletal muscles than females. Although some of these enzymatic variations could be explained by differences in body size, we also observed a significant effect of sex on some of these factors. These results suggest that parental male midshipman may benefit from sexual dimorphism at the whole-organismal (larger body size) and biochemical (enzyme activities) levels, conferring on them a higher glycolytic potential to sustain the extensive hypoxia bouts they experience in nature.

  6. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  7. Adult Attachment, Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation, and Depression in Gay Males: Examining the Mediation and Moderation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen

    2006-01-01

    This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…

  8. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  9. Eccentric Exercises Reduce Hamstring Strains in Elite Adult Male Soccer Players: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Ian B; Cacolice, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Hamstring strains are a common sport-related injury, which may limit athletic performance for an extended period of time. These injuries are common in the soccer setting. As such, it is important to determine an appropriate prevention program to minimize the risk of such an injury for these athletes. Eccentric hamstring training may be an effective and practical hamstring strain prevention strategy. What is the effect of eccentric exercises on hamstring strain prevention in adult male soccer players? Summary of Key Findings: Current literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effect of eccentric exercises in preventing hamstring strains in adult male soccer players. Three articles returned from the literature search met the inclusion criteria. A fourth article looked at differences in strength gains between eccentric and concentric hamstring strengthening exercises, but did not record hamstring strain incidence. A fifth article, a systematic review, met all the criteria except for the correct population. Of the 3 studies, 2 were randomized control trails and 1 was a cohort study. Clinical Bottom Line: There is robust supportive evidence that eccentric hamstring exercises can prevent a hamstring injury to an elite adult male soccer player. Therefore, it is recommended that athletic trainers and other sports medicine providers evaluate current practices relating to reducing hamstring strains and consider implementing eccentric exercise based prevention programs. Strength of Recommendation: All evidence was attained from articles with a level of evidence 2b or higher, based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) criteria, stating that eccentric exercises can decrease hamstring strains.

  10. Salivary adiponectin concentration in healthy adult males in relation to anthropometric measures and fat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Mona Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and body mass index (BMI may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF, visceral fat level (VF, and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF. We aimed also to investigate the potential use of the anthropometric measures and fat distribution as predictors for the salivary adiponectin level in the healthy adult males. Subjects. A total of 88 adult males aged between 18−25 years with a wide range of BMI were studied. Anthropometric indices were measured using standardized methods and salivary adiponectin level was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In path analysis of the Structural Equation Model (SEM using IBM@SPSS AMOS, version22, BMI and WC, but not WHR, were strong predictors for WF and SCWBF (p<0.05. BMI but not WC was a strong predictor for VF (p<0.001. WF was strong predictor for SCWBF (p<0.001, but not for VF. BMI, WC, WHR, WF, VF, and SCWBF were poor predictors of the salivary adiponectin level. Conclusion. BMI is the best predictor for the total body fat and fat distribution. However, WHR seems to be of a little value and the salivary adiponectin level independent of BMI and body fat in healthy adult Malay males.

  11. Polar bear use of a persistent food subsidy: insights from non-invasive genetic sampling in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Herreman, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Remains of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) harvested by Iñupiat whalers are deposited in bone piles along the coast of Alaska and have become persistent and reliable food sources for polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The importance of bone piles to individuals and the population, the patterns of use, and the number, sex, and age of bears using these resources are poorly understood. We implemented barbed-wire hair snaring to obtain genetic identities from bears using the Point Barrow bone pile in winter 2010–11. Eighty-three percent of genotyped samples produced individual and sex identification. We identified 97 bears from 200 samples. Using genetic mark–recapture techniques, we estimated that 228 bears used the bone pile during November to February, which would represent approximately 15% of the Southern Beaufort Sea polar bear subpopulation, if all bears were from this subpopulation. We found that polar bears of all age and sex classes simultaneously used the bone pile. More males than females used the bone pile, and males predominated in February, likely because 1/3 of adult females would be denning during this period. On average, bears spent 10 days at the bone pile (median  =  5 days); the probability that an individual bear remained at the bone pile from week to week was 63% for females and 45% for males. Most bears in the sample were detected visiting the bone pile once or twice. We found some evidence of matrilineal fidelity to the bone pile, but the group of animals visiting the bone pile did not differ genetically from the Southern Beaufort Sea subpopulation, nor did patterns of relatedness. We demonstrate that bowhead whale bone piles may be an influential food subsidy for polar bears in the Barrow region in autumn and winter for all sex and age classes.

  12. Diffusion-weighted MRI of adult male pelvic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its superior soft-tissue delineation, plays a pivotal role in the staging and surveillance of cancers affecting adult males, in particular, rectal, urinary bladder, and prostate cancers. There has been much recent interest in the complementary roles of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for imaging of pelvic cancers. DWI measures the diffusivity of water molecules in biological tissue. Cancer, with its high cellular density and nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, and extracellular disorganization, typically shows significant restricted diffusivity compared with surrounding normal tissue. In theory, diffusivity of water molecules may vary according to degree of tumour aggressiveness and changes in cell density and extracellular fluid content after treatment. Information regarding these variations may be used to study the histological grades of cancers and their response to treatment. In this article, we present the currently available evidence on the potential roles of DWI for the assessment of pelvic cancers in men, and demonstrate with imaging examples how this knowledge may be applied to daily clinical practice.

  13. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  14. Urethral calibre measurements on micturition cystourethrograms in adult males. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoliu, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The calibres of six different parts of the urethra were measured on micturition cystourethrograms in 92 normal adult males. The results are graphically displayed as frequency distribution histograms. The narrowest segment of the visualized urethra appeared to be the membranous part in 89 per cent of the cases. In the rest of the cases more distal regions were less distended than the membranous urethra. The bladder neck was always wider than the membranous part. Comparison of the diameters of the same segments measured in different planes suggest that during micturition the cross-sectional shape of the urethral tube is round. (orig.)

  15. Abstinence environment contributes to age differences in reinstatement of cocaine seeking between adolescent and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J

    2017-07-01

    Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels. Conversely, we also tested whether environmental enrichment could further decrease reinstatement among adolescents, and whether we could replicate effects of environmental enrichment to decrease reinstatement among adults down to adolescent levels (positive controls). Adolescent and adult male Wistar rats self-administered cocaine intravenously for 12days (fixed ratio 1; 0.36mg/kg per infusion; 2h sessions). Rats were then moved into enriched (grouped, large cages, novel toys), standard (pair-housed, shoebox cages), or impoverished (isolated, hanging cages) housing conditions. After 60days, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking were tested, followed by drug-primed reinstatement (0, 5, 10mg/kg cocaine, i.p.). Consistent with previous results, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement were attenuated in adolescent-onset groups compared with adults; this age difference also extended to drug-primed reinstatement. In support of the present hypothesis, an impoverished environment during abstinence increased reinstatement among adolescents to levels that were not different from adult standard-housing levels. These data suggest that abstinence environment influences the enduring effects of cocaine among adolescents as well as adults

  16. Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kagawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW measured using single-frequency (SF and multi-frequency (MF modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF and intra-cellular fluid (ICF values differed significantly (p < 0.01 between the different postures in both groups. In addition, while estimated TBW in adult males using the MF mode was significantly (p < 0.01 greater than the result from the dilution technique, TBW estimated using the SF mode and prediction equation was significantly (p < 0.01 lower in boys. Measurement posture may not affect estimation of TBW in boys and adult males, however, body fluid shifts may still occur. In addition, technical factors, including selection of prediction equation, may be important when TBW is estimated from measured impedance.

  17. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, E.V.; Lunn, N.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most pronounced ecological responses to climatic warming are expected to occur in polar marine regions, where temperature increases have been the greatest and sea ice provides a sensitive mechanism by which climatic conditions affect sympagic (i.e., with ice) species. Population-level effects of climatic change, however, remain difficult to quantify. We used a flexible extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture models to estimate population size and survival for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), one of the most ice-dependent of Arctic marine mammals. We analyzed data for polar bears captured from 1984 to 2004 along the western coast of Hudson Bay and in the community of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The Western Hudson Bay polar bear population declined from 1,194 (95% CI = 1,020-1,368) in 1987 to 935 (95% CI = 794-1,076) in 2004. Total apparent survival of prime-adult polar bears (5-19 yr) was stable for females (0.93; 95% CI = 0.91-0.94) and males (0.90; 95% CI = 0.88-0.91). Survival of juvenile, subadult, and senescent-adult polar bears was correlated with spring sea ice breakup date, which was variable among years and occurred approximately 3 weeks earlier in 2004 than in 1984. We propose that this correlation provides evidence for a causal association between earlier sea ice breakup (due to climatic warming) and decreased polar bear survival. It may also explain why Churchill, like other communities along the western coast of Hudson Bay, has experienced an increase in human-polar bear interactions in recent years. Earlier sea ice breakup may have resulted in a larger number of nutritionally stressed polar bears, which are encroaching on human habitations in search of supplemental food. Because western Hudson Bay is near the southern limit of the species' range, our findings may foreshadow the demographic responses and management challenges that more northerly polar bear populations will experience if climatic warming in the Arctic continues as

  18. Simulating polar bear energetics during a seasonal fast using a mechanistic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Mathewson

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the ability of a mechanistic model (Niche Mapper™ to accurately model adult, non-denning polar bear (Ursus maritimus energetics while fasting during the ice-free season in the western Hudson Bay. The model uses a steady state heat balance approach, which calculates the metabolic rate that will allow an animal to maintain its core temperature in its particular microclimate conditions. Predicted weight loss for a 120 day fast typical of the 1990s was comparable to empirical studies of the population, and the model was able to reach a heat balance at the target metabolic rate for the entire fast, supporting use of the model to explore the impacts of climate change on polar bears. Niche Mapper predicted that all but the poorest condition bears would survive a 120 day fast under current climate conditions. When the fast extended to 180 days, Niche Mapper predicted mortality of up to 18% for males. Our results illustrate how environmental conditions, variation in animal properties, and thermoregulation processes may impact survival during extended fasts because polar bears were predicted to require additional energetic expenditure for thermoregulation during a 180 day fast. A uniform 3°C temperature increase reduced male mortality during a 180 day fast from 18% to 15%. Niche Mapper explicitly links an animal's energetics to environmental conditions and thus can be a valuable tool to help inform predictions of climate-related population changes. Since Niche Mapper is a generic model, it can make energetic predictions for other species threatened by climate change.

  19. Simulating polar bear energetics during a seasonal fast using a mechanistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Paul D; Porter, Warren P

    2013-01-01

    In this study we tested the ability of a mechanistic model (Niche Mapper™) to accurately model adult, non-denning polar bear (Ursus maritimus) energetics while fasting during the ice-free season in the western Hudson Bay. The model uses a steady state heat balance approach, which calculates the metabolic rate that will allow an animal to maintain its core temperature in its particular microclimate conditions. Predicted weight loss for a 120 day fast typical of the 1990s was comparable to empirical studies of the population, and the model was able to reach a heat balance at the target metabolic rate for the entire fast, supporting use of the model to explore the impacts of climate change on polar bears. Niche Mapper predicted that all but the poorest condition bears would survive a 120 day fast under current climate conditions. When the fast extended to 180 days, Niche Mapper predicted mortality of up to 18% for males. Our results illustrate how environmental conditions, variation in animal properties, and thermoregulation processes may impact survival during extended fasts because polar bears were predicted to require additional energetic expenditure for thermoregulation during a 180 day fast. A uniform 3°C temperature increase reduced male mortality during a 180 day fast from 18% to 15%. Niche Mapper explicitly links an animal's energetics to environmental conditions and thus can be a valuable tool to help inform predictions of climate-related population changes. Since Niche Mapper is a generic model, it can make energetic predictions for other species threatened by climate change.

  20. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  1. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; de Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. PMID:28678925

  2. Protein-Energy Malnutrition Causes Deficits in Motor Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Li, Xue; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2015-11-01

    Adult protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) often occurs in combination with neurological disorders affecting hand use and walking ability. The independent effects of PEM on motor function are not well characterized and may be obscured by these comorbidities. Our goal was to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of sensorimotor function with the onset and progression of PEM in an adult male rat model. In Expt. 1 and Expt. 2, male Sprague-Dawley rats (14-15 wk old) were assigned ad libitum access for 4 wk to normal-protein (NP) or low-protein (LP) diets containing 12.5% and 0.5% protein, respectively. Expt. 1 assessed muscle strength, balance, and skilled walking ability on days 2, 8, and 27 by bar-holding, cylinder, and horizontal ladder walking tasks, respectively. In addition to food intake and body weight, nutritional status was determined on days 3, 9, and 28 by serum acute-phase reactant and corticosterone concentrations and liver lipids. Expt. 2 addressed the effect of an LP diet on hindlimb muscle size. PEM evolved over time in rats consuming the LP diet. Total food intake decreased by 24% compared with the NP group. On day 28, body weight and serum albumin decreased by 31% and 26%, respectively, and serum α2-macroglobulin increased by 445% (P malnutrition. This model can be used in combination with disease models of sensorimotor deficits to examine the interactions between nutritional status, other treatments, and disease progression. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. White-beaked dolphins trapped in the ice and eaten by polar bears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice, where they hunt ice-associated seals. However, they are opportunistic predators and scavengers with a long list of known prey species. Here we report from a small fjord in Svalbard, Norwegian High Arctic, a sighting of an adult male polar bear preying on two white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris on 23 April 2014. This is the first record of this species as polar bear prey. White-beaked dolphins are frequent visitors to Svalbard waters in summer, but have not previously been reported this far north in early spring. We suggest they were trapped in the ice after strong northerly winds the days before, and possibly killed when forced to surface for air at a small opening in the ice. The bear had consumed most parts of one dolphin. When observed he was in the process of covering the mostly intact second dolphin with snow. Such caching behaviour is generally considered untypical of polar bears. During the following ice-free summer and autumn, at least seven different white-beaked dolphin carcasses were observed in or near the same area. We suggest, based on the area and the degree to which these dolphins had decayed, that they were likely from the same pod and also suffered death due to entrapment in the ice in April. At least six different polar bears were seen scavenging on the carcasses.

  4. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Oyinloye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies.

  5. A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males--a guide for intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Pennie J; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Mummery, W Kerry; George, Emma S; Karunanithi, Mohanraj; Noakes, Manny J

    2013-01-29

    Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1) published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2) male only studies (≥18 years) or 3) where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i) a significant change (pstudies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg) and/or BMI (kg/m2) changes (p≤0.05). Four studies had effective interventions (pself-monitoring and tailored feedback. Uncertainty remains as to the features of successful nutrition interventions for males due to limited details provided for nutrition intervention protocols, variability in mode of delivery and comparisons between delivery modes as well as content of information provided to participants between studies. This review offers knowledge to guide researchers in making informed decisions on how to best utilise resources in interventions to engage adult males while highlighting the need for improved reporting of intervention protocols.

  6. Ultrastructural changes in the flight muscle mitochondria of adult male mosquito Culex Pipiens L I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmeguid, A.; Elmoursy, A.A.; Rouchdy, H.; Elzahraa, F.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrastructural differences between differentiating myoblasts of 1-day old pupae and 2-day old pupae and between well developed flight muscles in newly emerged 1-day old and 2-day old and ageing 21-day old adult male Culex Pipiens were studied. Ageing mosquitoes showed various signs of deterioration, vocalization, fusion and disorientation of cristae. 6 figs

  7. Severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with smoking, not with alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol use can affect the presentation and course of psoriasis. There is a paucity of data on this subject from India. Aims: To find out whether increased severity of psoriasis in adult Indian males is associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the Department of Dermatology of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Male patients above 18 years of age attending a psoriasis clinic between March 2007 and May 2009 were studied. Severity of psoriasis (measured using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI among smokers and non-smokers was compared. We also studied the correlation between severity of psoriasis and nicotine dependence (measured using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and alcohol use disorders (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test- AUDIT. Statistical Analysis: Z-test, Odd′s ratio, Chi-square test, Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 338 patients, 148 were smokers and 173 used to consume alcohol. Mean PASI score of smokers was more than that of non-smokers (Z-test, z = −2.617, P = 0.009. Those with severe psoriasis were more likely to be smokers (χ2 = 5.47, P = 0.02, OR = 1.8, Confidence Interval 1.09-2.962. There was a significant correlation between PASI scores and Fagerström score (Spearman′s correlation coefficient = 0.164, P 0.05. Conclusions: Increased severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with tobacco smoking, but not with alcohol use.

  8. 违法犯罪成年男性个性特征调查%A Survey of Personality Characteristics of Male Adult Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳琳; 潘勇; 姚家斌

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study relationship between personality characteristics and criminal offences in male adult prisoners.Methods: Personality of 175 male adult in prisoners was assessed by Eysenk Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results:(1) P,N,E scores of prisoners were higher than those of the norms; (2) P score of the 18~29 age group was considerably higher than that of the 30~45 age group,whereas L score of the 18~29 age group was lower than that of the 30~45 age group;(3) scores on extroversion and emotional unstability were significantly higher , whereas scores on introversion and emotional stability were significantly lower when compared to the norms;(4) a percentage of 43.43% of male adult prisoners showed typical psychotic traits (T>61.5). Conclusion: There was significant relationship between personality and criminal offences.

  9. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 μm resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 μm endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 μm shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  10. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States); Lee, Choonsik, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 {mu}m resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 {mu}m endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 {mu}m shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  11. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  12. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K. Robinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137 responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31 participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  13. Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): biomarker for an Arctic ecosystem health sentinel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cassandra M; Amstrup, Steven; Swor, Rhonda; Holcomb, Darce; O'Hara, Todd M

    2010-09-01

    Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ≥5, than lactating adult females ages ≥5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel.

  14. Ultrasonic vocalizations of adult male Foxp2-mutant mice: behavioral contexts of arousal and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaub, S; Fisher, S E; Ehret, G

    2016-02-01

    Adult mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) occur in multiple behavioral and stimulus contexts associated with various levels of arousal, emotion and social interaction. Here, in three experiments of increasing stimulus intensity (water; female urine; male interacting with adult female), we tested the hypothesis that USVs of adult males express the strength of arousal and emotion via different USV parameters (18 parameters analyzed). Furthermore, we analyzed two mouse lines with heterozygous Foxp2 mutations (R552H missense, S321X nonsense), known to produce severe speech and language disorders in humans. These experiments allowed us to test whether intact Foxp2 function is necessary for developing full adult USV repertoires, and whether mutations of this gene influence instinctive vocal expressions based on arousal and emotion. The results suggest that USV calling rate characterizes the arousal level, while sound pressure and spectrotemporal call complexity (overtones/harmonics, type of frequency jumps) may provide indices of levels of positive emotion. The presence of Foxp2 mutations did not qualitatively affect the USVs; all USV types that were found in wild-type animals also occurred in heterozygous mutants. However, mice with Foxp2 mutations displayed quantitative differences in USVs as compared to wild-types, and these changes were context dependent. Compared to wild-type animals, heterozygous mutants emitted mainly longer and louder USVs at higher minimum frequencies with a higher occurrence rate of overtones/harmonics and complex frequency jump types. We discuss possible hypotheses about Foxp2 influence on emotional vocal expressions, which can be investigated in future experiments using selective knockdown of Foxp2 in specific brain circuits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Gillespie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring and secondary (impulsive, antisocial psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, was associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  16. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in an insect (milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, David C; Dorn, August

    2008-01-01

    Knowing the structure opens a door for a better understanding of function because there is no function without structure. Male germline stem cells (GSCs) of the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus) exhibit a very extraordinary structure and a very special relationship with their niche, the apical cells. This structural relationship is strikingly different from that known in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) -- the most successful model system, which allowed deep insights into the signaling interactions between GSCs and niche. The complex structural polarity of male GSCs in the milkweed bug combined with their astonishing dynamics suggest that cell morphology and dynamics are causally related with the most important regulatory processes that take place between GSCs and niche and ensure maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of GSCs in accordance with the temporal need of mature sperm. The intricate structure of the GSCs of the milkweed bug (and probably of some other insects, i.e., moths) is only accessible by electron microscopy. But, studying singular sections through the apical complex (i.e., GSCs and apical cells) is not sufficient to obtain a full picture of the GSCs; especially, the segregation of projection terminals is not tangible. Only serial sections and their overlay can establish whether membrane ingrowths merely constrict projections or whether a projection terminal is completely cut off. To sequence the GSC dynamics, it is necessary to include juvenile stages, when the processes start and the GSCs occur in small numbers. The fine structural analysis of segregating projection terminals suggests that these terminals undergo autophagocytosis. Autophagosomes can be labeled by markers. We demonstrated acid phosphatase and thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase). Both together are thought to identify autophagosomes. Using the appropriate substrate of the enzymes and cerium chloride, the precipitation of electron-dense cerium phosphate granules

  17. Effects of maternal stress and perinatal fluoxetine exposure on behavioral outcomes of adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryanova, V; Meunier, S J; Vecchiarelli, H A; Hill, M N; Dyck, R H

    2016-04-21

    Women of child-bearing age are the population group at highest risk for depression. In pregnant women, fluoxetine (Flx) is the most widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of depression. While maternal stress, depression, and Flx exposure have been shown to effect neurodevelopment of the offspring, separately, combined effects of maternal stress and Flx exposure have not been extensively examined. The present study investigated the effects of prenatal maternal stress and perinatal exposure to the SSRI Flx on the behavior of male mice as adults. C57BL/6 dams exposed to chronic unpredictable stress from embryonic (E) day 4 to E18 and non-stressed dams were administered Flx (25 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water from E15 to postnatal day 12. A separate control group consisted of animals that were not exposed to stress or Flx. At 12 days of age, brain levels of serotonin were assessed in the male offspring. At two months of age, the male offspring of mothers exposed to prenatal stress (PS), perinatal Flx, PS and Flx, or neither PS or Flx, went through a comprehensive behavioral test battery. At the end of testing brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed in the frontal cortex of the offspring. Maternal behavior was not altered by either stress or Flx treatment. Treatment of the mother with Flx led to detectible Flx and NorFlx levels and lead to a decrease in serotonin levels in pup brains. In the adult male offspring, while perinatal exposure to Flx increased aggressive behavior, prenatal maternal stress decreased aggressive behavior. Interestingly, the combined effects of stress and Flx normalized aggressive behavior. Furthermore, perinatal Flx treatment led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in male offspring. PS led to hyperactivity and a decrease in BDNF levels in the frontal cortex regardless of Flx exposure. Neither maternal stress or Flx altered offspring performance in tests of cognitive

  18. Social cliques in male northern muriquis Brachyteles hypoxanthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcos TOKUDA; Jean P. BOUBLI; Patrícia IZAR; Karen B. STRIER

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of spatial relationships and social interactions provide insights into the social structure of animal societies and the ways in which social preferences among and between dyads affect higher order social relationships.In this paper we describe the patterns of spatial associations and social interactions among adult male northern muriquis in order to evaluate the dynamics of their social networks above the dyadic levels.Systematic observations were made on the 17 adult males present in a multi-male/multi-female group from April 2004 through February 2005,and in July 2005.Analyses of their spatial relationships identified two distinct male cliques; some adult males (called "N" males) were more connected to the females and immatures than other adult males ("MU" males),which were more connected to one another.Affiliative interactions were significantly higher among dyads belonging to the same clique than to different cliques.Although frequencies of dyadic agonistic interactions were similarly low among individuals within and between cliques,MU males appeared to be subordinate to N males.Nonetheless,there were no significant differences in the copulation rates estimated for MU males and N males.Mutual benefits of cooperation between MU and N cliques in intergroup encounters might explain their ongoing associations in the same mixed-sex group [Current Zoology 58 (2):342-352,2012].

  19. Differential Effects of Family Structure on Religion and Spirituality of Emerging Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Paul J; Lace, John W

    2017-08-01

    This study examined measures of religion and spirituality in a sample of male and female emerging adult college students whose parents were either divorced or intact using the Personal Religious Inventory, the Duke University Religion Index, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Data were collected online, and 66% of participants received extra credit for participating. A main effect of sex was found, as females reported significantly higher scores than men on all but one measure of religion and spirituality, and the dataset was separated by sex. No differences were found between males from divorced and intact families. However, females from intact families scored significantly higher on all religion and spirituality measures than females from divorced families. This study suggests that females may respond differently than males to their parents' divorce in the context of religion and spirituality, and discusses possible reasons.

  20. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  1. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal complexity of southern Beaufort Sea polar bear diets during a period of increasing land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd C.; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    From 2000 to 2013, use of land as a seasonal habitat by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea (SB) subpopulation substantially increased. This onshore use has been linked to reduced spatial and temporal availability of sea ice, as well as to the availability of subsistence‐harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) bone piles. Here, we evaluated the role of climate conditions on consumption of traditional ice‐associated prey relative to onshore bowhead whale bone piles. We determined seasonal and interannual trends in the diets of SB polar bears using fatty acid‐based analysis during this period of increasing land use. Diet estimates of 569 SB polar bears from 2004 to 2012 showed high seasonal fluctuations in the proportions of prey consumed. Higher proportions of bowhead whale, as well as ringed seal (Pusa hispida) and beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), were estimated to occur in the winter–spring diet, while higher proportions of bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) were estimated for summer–fall diets. Trends in the annual mean proportions of individual prey items were not found in either period, except for significant declines in the proportion of beluga in spring‐sampled bears. Nonetheless, in years following a high winter Arctic oscillation index, proportions of ice‐associated ringed seal were lower in the winter–spring diets of adult females and juveniles. Proportions of bowhead increased in the winter–spring diets of adult males with the number of ice‐free days over the continental shelf. In one or both seasons, polar bears that were in better condition were estimated to have consumed less ringed seal and/or more bowhead whale than those in worse condition. Therefore, climate variation over this recent period appeared to influence the extent of onshore vs. on‐ice food use, which in turn, appeared to be linked to fluctuating condition of SB polar bears.

  3. Why don't urban youth in Zambia use condoms? The influence of gender and marriage on non-use of male condoms among young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Pinchoff

    Full Text Available Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%. This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia.A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18-24 years. A random walk strategy was implemented in urban areas; eligible, enrolled participants were administered a survey on household characteristics, health access, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Relative risk regression models were built to determine factors associated with the decision to not use a male condom (non-use at most recent sexual intercourse.A total of 2,388 individuals were interviewed; 69% were female, 35% were married, and average lifetime sex partners was 3.45 (SD±6.15. Non-use of male condoms was 59% at most recent sexual intercourse. In a multivariate model, women were more likely to report non-use of a male condom compared with men (aRR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.38], married individuals were more likely to report non-use compared with unmarried individuals (aRR = 1.59 [1.46, 1.73], and those residing in the highest poverty wards were more likely to report non-use compared with those in the lowest poverty wards (aRR = 1.31 [1.16, 1.48]. Those with more negative perceptions of male condom use were 6% more likely to report non-use (aRR = 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]. Discussion regarding contraception with a partner decreased non-use 13% (aRR = 0.87 [0.80, 0.95] and agreement regarding male condom use with a partner decreased non-use 16% (aRR = 0.84 [0.77, 0.91].Non-use of male condoms is high among young, married adults, particularly women, who may be interested in contraception for family planning but

  4. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    , deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis.......After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related...

  5. Galanin-like peptide stimulates feeding and sexual behavior via dopaminergic fibers within the medial preoptic area of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A; Madison, F N; Fraley, G S

    2009-03-01

    Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is located in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus and is known to regulate both food intake and sexual behaviors in adult male rats. We have previously demonstrated that ICV GALP administration elicits a significant fos response within the medial preoptic area (mPOA). GALP is known to stimulate both food intake and male-typical sex behavior, presumably by direct actions within the mPOA. Recent data from our and other labs have led us to suspect that GALP effects on sex behaviors are due to activation of incertohypothalamic dopaminergic neurons that terminate within the mPOA. To test the hypothesis that GALP activates mPOA dopaminergic systems, we utilized an immunolesion technique to eliminate dopaminergic fiber input to the mPOA via a dopamine transporter-specific toxin (DATSAP, n=8) and compared to control injections (SAP, n=8). All animals were sexually experienced adult male Long-Evans rats. DATSAP-treated male rats showed a significant (psexual behaviors compared to SAP controls. We found that elimination of dopaminergic fibers within the mPOA significantly (psexual behavior under normal mating paradigms. Injections of GALP (5.0 nmol) significantly increased (psexual behaviors in male rats by stimulating dopaminergic neurons that terminate within the mPOA.

  6. Reproductive health in young male adults with chronic diseases in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin

    2013-01-01

    The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist

  7. Allee effect in polar bears: a potential consequence of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Grimm, Volker

    2016-11-30

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland and Svalbard exhibited very high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the 1980s and 1990s. In Svalbard, slow population growth during that period was suspected to be linked to PCB contamination. In this case study, we explored how PCBs could have impacted polar bear population growth and/or male reproductive success in Svalbard during the mid-1990s by reducing the fertility of contaminated males. A dose-response relationship linking the effects of PCBs to male polar bear fertility was extrapolated from studies of the effects of PCBs on sperm quality in rodents. Based on this relationship, an individual-based model of bear interactions during the breeding season predicted fertilization success under alternative assumptions regarding male-male competition for females. Contamination reduced pregnancy rates by decreasing the availability of fertile males, thus triggering a mate-finding Allee effect, particularly when male-male competition for females was limited or when infertile males were able to compete with fertile males for females. Comparisons of our model predictions on age-dependent reproductive success of males with published empirical observations revealed that the low representation of 10-14-year-old males among breeding males documented in Svalbard in mid-1990s could have resulted from PCB contamination. We conclude that contamination-related male infertility may lead to a reduction in population growth via an Allee effect. The magnitude of the effect is largely dependent on the population-specific mating system. In eco-toxicological risk assessments, appropriate consideration should therefore be given to negative effects of contaminants on male fertility and male mating behaviour. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  9. Excessive dietary calcium in the disruption of structural and functional status of adult male reproductive system in rat with possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Chandra, Amar; Sengupta, Pallav; Goswami, Haimanti; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2012-05-01

    Calcium is essential for functioning of different systems including male reproduction. However, it has also been reported as chemo-castrative agent. The study has been undertaken to elucidate the effect of excessive dietary calcium on male reproductive system in animals with possible action. Adult male healthy rats fed CaCl(2) at different doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g%) in diet for 13 and 26 days to investigate reproductive parameters as well as the markers of oxidative stress. Significant alteration was found (P male reproduction.

  10. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  11. Effects of chronic treatment with fluvoxamine and paroxetine during adolescence on serotonin-related behavior in adult male rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T.R. de; Snaphaan, L.J.A.E.; Pattij, T.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.; Cools, A.R.; Olivier, B.

    2006-01-01

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to treat adults, but are increasingly prescribed for adolescents. SSRIs might cause permanent changes in serotonin-related behavior in adolescents, since their serotonergic system is still developing. Male Wistar rats were treated with

  12. Social cliques in male northern muriquis Brachyteles hypoxanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos TOKUDA, Jean P. BOUBLI, Patrícia IZAR, Karen B. STRIER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of spatial relationships and social interactions provide insights into the social structure of animal societies and the ways in which social preferences among and between dyads affect higher order social relationships. In this paper we describe the patterns of spatial associations and social interactions among adult male northern muriquis in order to evaluate the dynamics of their social networks above the dyadic levels. Systematic observations were made on the 17 adult males present in a multi-male/multi-female group from April 2004 through February 2005, and in July 2005. Analyses of their spatial relationships identified two distinct male cliques; some adult males (called “N” males were more connected to the females and immatures than other adult males (“MU” males, which were more connected to one another. Affiliative interactions were significantly higher among dyads belonging to the same clique than to different cliques. Although frequencies of dyadic agonistic interactions were similarly low among individuals within and between cliques, MU males appeared to be subordinate to N males. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in the copulation rates estimated for MU males and N males. Mutual benefits of cooperation between MU and N cliques in intergroup encounters might explain their ongoing associations in the same mixed-sex group [Current Zoology 58 (2: 342-352, 2012].

  13. Comparison of the effects of bisphenol A alone and in a combination with X-irradiation on sperm count and quality in male adult and pubescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa A; Tyrkiel, Ewa J; Gajowik, Aneta; Radzikowska, Joanna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is employed in the manufacturing of epoxy, polyester-styrene, and polycarbonate resins, which are used for the production of baby and water bottles and reusable containers, food and beverage packing, dental fillings and sealants. The study was designed to examine the effects of 8-week exposure (a full cycle of spermatogenesis) to BPA alone and in a combination with X-irradiation on the reproductive organs and germ cells of adult and pubescent male mice. Pzh:Sfis male mice were exposed to BPA (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or X-rays (0.05 Gy) or to a combination of both (0.05 Gy + 5 mg/kg bw BPA). The following parameters were examined: sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and DNA damage in male gametes. Both BPA and X-rays alone diminished sperm quality. BPA exposure significantly reduced sperm count in pubescent males compared to adult mice, with degenerative changes detected in seminiferous epithelium. This may suggest a higher susceptibility of germ cells of younger males to BPA action. Combined BPA with X-ray treatment enhanced the harmful effect induced by BPA alone in male germ cells of adult males, whereas low-dose irradiation showed sometimes protective or additive effects in pubescent mice. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  14. The organizational effects of pubertal testosterone on sexual proficiency in adult male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-10-15

    Social proficiency requires making appropriate behavioral adaptations as a result of social experience. For example, male rodents become sexually proficient with experience as demonstrated by a reduction in ectopic (misdirected) mounts, mount-to-intromission ratio, and latency to ejaculation. We previously found that over a series of timed tests with a receptive female, male hamsters deprived of testosterone specifically during puberty (NoT@P) have overall lower levels of sexual behavior and continue to display high levels of ectopic mounts, compared with males that experienced endogenous testosterone during puberty (T@P). These results suggested that pubertal testosterone programs sexual proficiency in adulthood, but because NoT@P males engaged in less sexual behavior than T@P males in these tests, the amount of sexual experience may have been insufficient to improve sexual proficiency. To more rigorously test the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is necessary for social proficiency in adulthood, the present study compared the behavior of NoT@P and T@P males in a series of 4 trials with a 48-h interval between each trial. Sexual experience was equated by limiting each trial to 5 intromissions. Sexually-naïve males were either gonadectomized prepubertally (NoT@P) or in adulthood (T@P) and received subcutaneous testosterone capsules four weeks later. Two weeks after testosterone replacement, these groups and a group of adult gonad-intact controls began sexual behavior testing. We found that NoT@P males had more ectopic mounts/min across all four tests compared to gonad-intact and T@P males. Moreover, both gonad-intact and T@P males, but not NoT@P males, showed an increase in the number of mounts and intromissions/min between trials 1 and 3. Unexpectedly, both gonad-intact and T@P, but not NoT@P, males showed a decrease in sexual behaviors during trial 4. Thus, T@P males display multiple behavioral adaptations to sexual experience that are not observed in No

  15. Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): Biomarker for an arctic ecosystem health sentinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cassandra M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Swor, Rhonda; Holcomb, Darce; O'Hara, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ???5, than lactating adult females ages ???5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel. ?? 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  16. Sex identification of polar bears from blood and tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Garner, G.W.; Cronin, M.A.; Patton, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be adversely affected by hunting and other human perturbations because of low population densities and low reproduction rates. The sustainable take of adult females may be as low as 1.5% of the population. Females and accompanying young are most vulnerable to hunting, and hunters have not consistently reported the sex composition of the harvest, therefore a method to confirm the sexes of polar bears harvested in Alaska is needed. Evidence of the sex of harvested animals is often not available, but blood or other tissue samples often are. We extracted DNA from tissue and blood samples, and amplified segments of zinc finger (ZFX and ZFY) genes from both X and Y chromosomes with the polymerase chain reaction. Digestion of amplified portions of the X chromosome with the restriction enzyme HaeIII resulted in subdivision of the original amplified segment into four smaller fragments. Digestion with HaeIII did not subdivide the original segment amplified from the Y chromosome. The differing fragment sizes produced patterns in gel electrophoresis that distinguished samples from male and female bears 100% of the time. This technique is applicable to the investigation of many wildlife management and research questions.

  17. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  18. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  19. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  20. Neurosteroids in Adult Hippocampus of Male and Female Rodents: Biosynthesis and Actions of Sex Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Hojo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo. Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice, a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1–CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids. Liquid chromatography with tandem-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS enabled us to accurately determine the levels of hippocampal sex steroids including 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, testosterone (T, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which are much higher than those in blood. Next, we review the steroid synthesis in the hippocampus of female rats, since previous knowledge had been biased toward the data from males. Recently, we clarified that the levels of hippocampal steroids fluctuate in adult female rats across the estrous cycle. Accurate determination of hippocampal steroids at each stage of the estrous cycle is of importance for providing the account for the fluctuation of female hippocampal functions, including spine density, long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD, and learning and memory. These functional fluctuations in female had been attributed to the level of circulation-derived steroids. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the dendritic spine density in CA1 of adult female hippocampus correlates with the levels of hippocampal progesterone and 17β-E2. Finally, we introduce the direct evidence of the role of hippocampus-synthesized steroids in hippocampal function including neurogenesis, LTP, and memory consolidation. Mild exercise (2 week of treadmill running elevated

  1. A terrified-sound stress induced proteomic changes in adult male rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Hu, Lili; Wu, Qiuhua; Liu, Liying; Zhao, Lingyu; Zhao, Xiaoge; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2014-04-10

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms in the adult rat hippocampus underlying the relationship between a terrified-sound induced psychological stress and spatial learning. Adult male rats were exposed to a terrified-sound stress, and the Morris water maze (MWM) has been used to evaluate changes in spatial learning and memory. The protein expression profile of the hippocampus was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics analysis. The data from the MWM tests suggested that a terrified-sound stress improved spatial learning. The proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of 52 proteins was down-regulated, while that of 35 proteins were up-regulated, in the hippocampus of the stressed rats. We identified and validated six of the most significant differentially expressed proteins that demonstrated the greatest stress-induced changes. Our study provides the first evidence that a terrified-sound stress improves spatial learning in rats, and that the enhanced spatial learning coincides with changes in protein expression in rat hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavior of ergatoid males in the ant, Cardiocondyla nuda

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Jürgen; Künholz, S.; Schilder, K.; Hölldobler, B.

    1993-01-01

    Ergatoid males of the ant, Cardiocondyla nuda, attack and frequently kill young males during or shortly after eclosion. Smaller colonies therefore contain typically only one adult male, which may inseminate all alate queens which are reared in the colony over a few weeks. In larger colonies, several males may be present, however, fighting among adult males was not observed. We discuss the significance of male fighting behavior in ants.

  3. Some effects of gamma irradiation on adults males of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgrillo, R.B.; Wiendl, F.M.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of checking some effects of gamma radiation on the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis (F.)), one-day ald adult males were irradiated with doses from 0-50 krad at 5 krad intervals. The insects were submitted to gamma irradiation in a 60 Co source, with a dose rate of 350 krad/hour. No significant difference was found in male longevity between treatments. Also no significant difference as found in sexual activity, represented by number of spermatophores per female, and in fertility. Fertility and egg viability decreased significantly with the dose, the viability reaching 0 at 50 krad. Occurrence of dominant lethal mutation, induced by radiation, was noted, which resulted in the death of the embryo before larvae emergence. (Author) [pt

  4. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Andrea; Sansone, Massimiliano; Proietti, Marco; Ciocca, Giacomo; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Romanelli, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    male sexuality, specifically for ejaculatory response and sexual desire. Sansone A, Sansone M, Proietti M, et al. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males. J Sex Med 2017;14:898-903. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing a system to predict laboratory-confirmed chlamydial and/or gonococcal urethritis in adult male emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; DePalo, Dina M; Liu, Tao; Rich, Josiah D; Stein, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to create a system for predicting which male emergency department (ED) patients with suspected chlamydial and/or gonococcal urethritis would have laboratory-confirmed infections based on clinical factors available at the initial ED encounter. We used statistical models to develop a system to predict either the presence or absence of laboratory-confirmed chlamydial and/or gonorrheal urethritis based on patient demographics and presenting symptoms. Data for the system were extracted from a retrospective chart review of adult male patients who were suspected of having, and were tested for, chlamydial and/or gonococcal urethritis at an adult, urban, northeastern United States, academic ED from January 1998 to December 2004. Among the 822 patients tested, 29.2% had chlamydia, gonorrhea, or both infections; 13.8% were infected with chlamydia alone, 12.1% were infected with gonorrhea alone, and 3.3% were infected with both. From the statistical models, the following factors were predictive of a positive laboratory test for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea: age urethritis, paired with baseline ED prevalence of these infections, was confirmed through internal validation testing to modestly predict which patients had or did not have a laboratory-confirmed infection. This system of a combination of risk factors available during the clinical encounter in the ED modestly predicts which adult male patients suspected of having chlamydial and/or gonorrheal urethritis are more likely to have or not have a laboratory-confirmed infection. A prospective study is needed to create and validate a clinical prediction rule based on the results of this system.

  6. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  7. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 2: brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; Bechshøft, Thea; McKinney, Melissa A; Drimmie, Robert J; Muir, Derek C G; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Significant linear increases were found for sum polybrominated diphenyl ether (ΣPBDE), BDE100, BDE153, and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Average increases of 5.0% per year (range: 2.9-7.6%/year) were found for the subadult polar bears. BDE47 and BDE99 concentrations did not show a significant linear trend over time, but rather a significant non-linear trend peaking between 2000 and 2004. The average ΣPBDE concentrations increased 2.3 fold from 25.0ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 15.3-34.7ng/g lw) in 1983-1986 to 58.5ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 43.6-73.4ng/g lw) in 2006-2010. Similar but fewer statistically significant trends were found for adult females and adult males likely due to smaller sample size and years. Analyses of δ(15)N and δ(13)C stable isotopes in hair revealed no clear linear temporal trends in trophic level or carbon source, respectively, and non-linear trends differed among sex and age groups. These increasing concentrations of organobromine contaminants contribute to complex organohalogen mixture, already causing health effects to the East Greenland polar bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Postnatal nutrition influences male attractiveness and promotes plasticity in male mating preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José C.; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat

    2017-12-01

    Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of male zebra finches, we show for the first time (1) that males reared on a poor (low) micronutrient diet had less complex songs as adults; (2) that these males, in contrast to the high micronutrient diet group, were more selective in their mating strategies, discriminating against those females most likely to reduce their clutch size when paired with males having less complex songs; and (3) that by following different mating strategies, males reared on the contrasting diets obtained similar reproductive benefits. These results suggest that early-life dietary conditions can induce multiple and long-lasting effects on male and female reproductive traits. Moreover, the results seem to reflect a previously unreported case of adaptive plasticity in mate choice in response to a nutritionally mediated reduction in sexual attractiveness.

  9. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cognitive and Emotional Factors Affecting Avoidable Decision-Making Delay in Acute Myocardial Infarction Male Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vidotto, Giulio; Bertolotti, Giorgio; Zotti, AnnaMaria; Marchi, Stefano; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Background: To study the potentially avoidable decision-making delay in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) adults male with different psychological characteristics a nationwide multicentre study was conducted in Italy by the 118 Coronary Care Units (CCUs). Method: 929 AMI patients consecutively presented to the CCU in a conscious condition less than two hours, 2-6 hours, 6-12 hours, and more than 12 hours after symptom onset and completing the Disease Distress Questionnaire (DDQ) were enrolled...

  11. Quercetin-induced changes in femoral bone microstructure of adult male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Babosová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites with antioxidant effects. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet is quercetin. It is found widely in fruits, vegetables and has a lot of beneficial effects on human health. Quercetin has a positive pharmacological effect on bone metabolism and it prevents the organism against bone loss. However, its impact on the size of basic structural units of the compact bone is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the impact of the quercetin on femoral bone microstructure in 5-month-old male rabbits. Five rabbits of Californian broiler line were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (E group; n=3, animals were intramuscularly injected with quercetin at dose 1000 μg.kg-1 body weight (bw for 90 days, 3 times per week. Two rabbits without quercetin administration served as a control group (C group. According to our results, intramuscular application of quercetin had an insignificant effect on cortical bone thickness in male rabbits. In these rabbits, changes in qualitative histological characteristics were present in the middle part of the compacta, where primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was present and expanded there from the periosteum. Also, a lower number of secondary osteons was found in these animals. From the histomorphometrical point of view, significantly decreased sizes of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons (p <0.05 were found in rabbits administered by quercetin. Our findings indicate that subchronic administration of quercetin at the dose used in our study had considerable impact on both qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone in adult male rabbits.

  12. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  13. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-01-01

    Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  14. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the

  15. A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Pennie J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1 published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2 male only studies (≥18 years or 3 where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i a significant change (p Results Nine studies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg and/or BMI (kg/m2 changes (p≤0.05. Four studies had effective interventions (p Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self-monitoring and tailored feedback. Conclusion Uncertainty remains as to the features of successful nutrition interventions for males due to limited details provided for nutrition intervention protocols, variability in mode of delivery and comparisons between delivery modes as well as content of information provided to participants between studies. This review offers knowledge to

  16. Estimation of the adult male population of sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) at its low-density period on Kikai Island in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatono, T.; Izumi, S.; Nishihara, S.; Kimura, K.; Torigoe, H.; Tanaka, T.; Miyaji, K.; Hara, Y.; Ueda, A.; Shigei, F.

    2008-01-01

    The sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) is a major insect pest of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We estimated the entire adult male population of C. formicarius at its low-density period on Kikai Island, Kagoshima Pref., Japan. The population of adult males at the high-density period in September was about 5 times larger than that at its low-density period in May, both of which were estimated by Yamamura's method. Using this calculation in combination with an estimate of the maximal population size (4 x 10E6) by Sugimoto et al. in 1994, the total number of male weevils at their low-density period can be assumed to be less than 8 x 10E5

  17. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanin, M.M.; Zaki, Z.T.; Emarah, E.A.M.; Hussein, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  18. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  19. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooka, Minako; Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature.

  20. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooka, Minako; Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature

  1. Serum corticosteroid binding globulin expression is modulated by fasting in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Obbard, Martyn E; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from several subpopulations undergo extended fasting during the ice-free season. However, the animals appear to conserve protein despite the prolonged fasting, though the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We hypothesized that elevated concentrations of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary cortisol binding protein in circulation, lead to cortisol resistance and provide a mechanism for protein conservation during extended fasting. The metabolic state (feeding vs. fasting) of 16 field sampled male polar bears was determined based on their serum urea to creatinine ratio (>25 for feeding vs. polar bears sampled. Serum CBG expression was greater in lactating females relative to non-lactating females and males. CBG expression was significantly higher in fasting males when compared to non-fasting males. This leads us to suggest that CBG expression may serve as a mechanism to conserve protein during extended fasting in polar bears by reducing systemic free cortisol concentrations. This was further supported by a lower serum glucose concentration in the fasting bears. As well, a lack of an enhanced adrenocortical response to acute capture stress supports our hypothesis that chronic hunger is not a stressor in this species. Overall, our results suggest that elevated serum CBG expression may be an important adaptation to spare proteins by limiting cortisol bioavailability during extended fasting in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  3. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  4. Estimating the resources needed and savings anticipated from roll-out of adult male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Auvert (Bertran); E. Marseille (Elliot); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); J. Lloyd-Smith (James); R. Sitta (Remi); D. Taljaard (Dirk); C. Pretorius (Carel); B. Williams (Brian); J.G. Kahn (James)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Trials in Africa indicate that medical adult male circumcision (MAMC) reduces the risk of HIV by 60%. MAMC may avert 2 to 8 million HIV infections over 20 years in sub-Saharan Africa and cost less than treating those who would have been infected. This paper estimates the

  5. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  6. E-cadherin is required for centrosome and spindle orientation in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Inaba

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many adult stem cells reside in a special microenvironment known as the niche, where they receive essential signals that specify stem cell identity. Cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin and integrin plays a crucial role in maintaining stem cells within the niche. In Drosophila melanogaster, male germline stem cells (GSCs are attached to niche component cells (i.e., the hub via adherens junctions. The GSC centrosomes and spindle are oriented toward the hub-GSC junction, where E-cadherin-based adherens junctions are highly concentrated. For this reason, adherens junctions are thought to provide a polarity cue for GSCs to enable proper orientation of centrosomes and spindles, a critical step toward asymmetric stem cell division. However, understanding the role of E-cadherin in GSC polarity has been challenging, since GSCs carrying E-cadherin mutations are not maintained in the niche. Here, we tested whether E-cadherin is required for GSC polarity by expressing a dominant-negative form of E-cadherin. We found that E-cadherin is indeed required for polarizing GSCs toward the hub cells, an effect that may be mediated by Apc2. We also demonstrated that E-cadherin is required for the GSC centrosome orientation checkpoint, which prevents mitosis when centrosomes are not correctly oriented. We propose that E-cadherin orchestrates multiple aspects of stem cell behavior, including polarization of stem cells toward the stem cell-niche interface and adhesion of stem cells to the niche supporting cells.

  7. The Effects of Lead Acetate on Sexual Behavior and the Level of Testosterone in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Mokhtari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, the oral effect of lead acetate on the parameters related to sexualbehavior as well as changes in the level of testosterone hormone in adult male rats have beeninvestigated.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated into five equal groups. Thecontrol group received nothing, the sham group received distilled water and the experimentalgroups received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg lead acetate orally, respectively for 28 days. The changesin testosterone hormone level and following sexual behavior parameters were investigated: mountlatency (ML, intromission latency (IL, post ejaculatory interval (PEI, mount frequency (MF,ejaculatory latency (EL, intromission frequency (IF, copulatory efficacy (CE and intercopulatoryinterval (ICI.Results: The levels of testosterone hormone in the groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kg leadacetate showed significant decreases in compared to the control group. Additionally, the same dosesof lead acetate caused significant increases in ML, IL, PEI and EL compared to the control group.No significant change was observed in MF, but a significant decrease was detected in IF and CEin the experimental group that received 100 mg/kg lead acetate when compared with the controlgroup. ICI showed significant decreases in the experimental groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kglead acetate compared to the control group.Conclusion: It can be concluded that ingestion of lead acetate affects some behavioral activitiesand the testosterone level of male rats. These effects might be conducted via the alteration of leydigcells following lead acetate poisoning.

  8. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  9. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Sterling

    Full Text Available Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon, and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1 are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2 ease environmental

  10. Adolescent Female Cannabinoid Exposure Diminishes the Reward-Facilitating Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and d-Amphetamine in the Adult Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Panagis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ9-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ9-THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle during postnatal days 28–50. As adults, females were mated with drug-naïve males. We then assessed potential alterations of the Δ9-THC’s (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p. and d-amphetamine’s (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p. reward-modifying effects using the curve-shift variant of the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS procedure in their adult male F1 offspring. The reward-facilitating effect of the 0.1 mg dose of Δ9-THC was abolished in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ9-THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, whereas the reward-attenuating effect of the 1 mg dose of Δ9-THC remained unaltered. The reward-facilitating effects of 0.5 and 1 mg of d-amphetamine were significantly decreased in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ9-THC (1 mg/kg and 0.1 or 1 mg, respectively. The present results reveal that female Δ9-THC exposure during adolescence can diminish the reward-facilitating effects of Δ9-THC and d-amphetamine in the adult male offspring. These transgenerational effects occur in the absence of in utero exposure. It is speculated that Δ9-THC exposure during female adolescence may affect neural mechanisms that are shaping reward-related behavioral responses in a subsequent generation, as indicated by the shifts in the reward-facilitating effects of commonly used and abused drugs.

  11. FijiWingsPolarity: An open source toolkit for semi-automated detection of cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobens, Leonard L; Shipman, Anna; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-02

    Epithelial cells are defined by apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the latter of which establishes an orthogonal plane of polarity in the epithelial sheet. PCP signaling is required for normal cell migration, differentiation, stem cell generation and tissue repair, and defects in PCP have been associated with developmental abnormalities, neuropathologies and cancers. While the molecular mechanism of PCP is incompletely understood, the deepest insights have come from Drosophila, where PCP is manifest in hairs and bristles across the adult cuticle and organization of the ommatidia in the eye. Fly wing cells are marked by actin-rich trichome structures produced at the distal edge of each cell in the developing wing epithelium and in a mature wing the trichomes orient collectively in the distal direction. Genetic screens have identified key PCP signaling pathway components that disrupt trichome orientation, which has been measured manually in a tedious and error prone process. Here we describe a set of image processing and pattern-recognition macros that can quantify trichome arrangements in micrographs and mark these directly by color, arrow or colored arrow to indicate trichome location, length and orientation. Nearest neighbor calculations are made to exploit local differences in orientation to better and more reliably detect and highlight local defects in trichome polarity. We demonstrate the use of these tools on trichomes in adult wing preps and on actin-rich developing trichomes in pupal wing epithelia stained with phalloidin. FijiWingsPolarity is freely available and will be of interest to a broad community of fly geneticists studying the effect of gene function on PCP.

  12. Intersex and liver alterations induced by long-term sublethal exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol in adult male Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brian Jonathan; López, Gabriela Carina; Cristos, Diego Sebastián; Crespo, Diana Cristina; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the responses of the gonopodium morphology and the gonadal and liver histology of adult male Cnesterodon decemmaculatus to sublethal long-term exposure concentrations of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Two experiments were conducted exposing the fish to waterborne concentrations of EE2 ranging from 20 ng/L to 200 ng/L for 8 wk, 12 wk, and 16 wk. Intersex gonads were observed after 8 wk and 16 wk in fish exposed to 200 ng EE2/L and 100 ng EE2/L, respectively. Oocytes' development from testis germ cells and replacement of the efferent duct periodic acid-Schiff-positive secretion surrounding spermatozeugmata by parenchymal tissue and duct structure alterations were the major observed changes in the gonads. In contrast, no response was observed in the gonopodium morphology. Liver histology was also altered, showing increasing steatosis, single-cell necrosis to generalized necrosis, and disruption of acinar organization from 100 ng EE2/L to 200 ng EE2/L. In summary, the present results showed that although EE2 was not able to alter the morphology of a developed gonopodium, it was capable of inducing development of testicular oocytes in adult male C. decemmaculatus at environmentally relevant concentrations. Thus, externally normal but intersex C. decemmaculatus males would be expected in the wastewater-receiving streams that the species inhabits. According to the literature, the present study would be the first indicating estrogen-induced intersex in adult male poeciliid. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1738-1745. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Ladies first: Female and male adult height in Switzerland, 1770-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Nikola; Floris, Joël; Pfister, Christian; Rühli, Frank J; Staub, Kaspar

    2018-05-01

    When investigating the well-being of a society, the living conditions of females are of special importance, not only due to the immediate impact for those directly involved, but also because of the potential intergenerational effects. Studying the dimorphism in the mean height helps to depict variation in the basic biological sex difference due to gender-related factors that potentially determine net nutrition. To expand knowledge of diachronic development in Swiss well-being conditions we investigate changes in the height of adult females born 1770-1930, and compare the series with data on contemporary males from the same sources: We employ a sample of N = 21'028 women and N = 21'329 men from passport-, convict-, maternity hospital-, and voluntary World War II army auxiliary records. The secular height trend is found both in males, from the 1870s/1880s, and in females starting with the 1840s/1850s birth cohorts. During the decades under study, mean height increased from 157 cm to 164 cm in female and 167 cm to 172 cm in male passport applicants, 154 cm to 159 cm in female and 167 cm to 169 cm in male convicts, 159 cm to 163 cm in female auxiliaries, and 155 cm to 159 cm in females giving birth in the maternity hospital of Basel. Because females seem to have started the secular trend in height earlier than their male contemporaries, the height dimorphism decreased during the second half of the 19th century. Differences between socio-economic status (SES) and data sources are found in both females and males: Women with low SES were significantly shorter than those of the other SES groups in all sources (on average 1.40 cm, p-values between 0.00 and 0.03). In men we found individuals of upper SES to be significantly taller (on average 1.96 cm, p-value = 0.00-0.10). Concerning differences between the sources, overall, passport applicants were the tallest for men as well as women; in females the individuals measured at the

  14. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Brian P; Craig, Michael C; Toal, Fiona; Daly, Eileen M; Moore, Caroline J; Ambikapathy, Anita; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  16. Exposure to mixtures of organohalogen contaminants and associative interactions with thyroid hormones in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanger, Gro D; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Fjeldberg, Rita R; Letcher, Robert J; Muir, Derek C G; Kirkegaard, Maja; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the multivariate relationships between adipose tissue residue levels of 48 individual organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and circulating thyroid hormone (TH) levels in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (1999-2001, n=62), using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression for four groupings of polar bears; subadults (SubA), adult females with cubs (AdF_N), adult females without cubs (AdF_S) and adult males (AdM). In the resulting significant PLS models for SubA, AdF_N and AdF_S, some OHCs were especially important in explaining variations in circulating TH levels: polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE)-99, PBDE-100, PBDE-153, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-52, PCB-118, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, trichlorobenzene (TCB) and pentachlorobenzene (QCB), and both negative and positive relationships with THs were found. In addition, the models revealed that DDTs had a positive influence on total 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (TT3) in AdF_S, and that a group of 17 higher chlorinated ortho-PCBs had a positive influence on total 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine, TT4) in AdF_N. TH levels in AdM seemed less influenced by OHCs because of non-significant PLS models. TH levels were also influenced by biological factors such as age, sex, body size, lipid content of adipose tissue and sampling date. When controlling for biological variables, the major relationships from the PLS models for SubA, AdF_N and AdF_S were found significant in partial correlations. The most important OHCs that influenced TH levels in the significant PLS models may potentially act through similar mechanisms on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, suggesting that both combined effects by dose and response addition and perhaps synergistic potentiation may be a possibility in these polar bears. Statistical associations are not evidence per se of biological cause-effect relationships. Still, the results of the present study indicate that OHCs may affect circulating

  17. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A Strickland

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17 on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their

  18. Scale-dependent habitat selection and size-based dominance in adult male American alligators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  19. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from an adult male with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS with 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype is a rare sex chromosome disorder with an occurrence of 0.15‰ at birth. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a Chinese adult male with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The iPSC line retains the original 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. Therefore, it offers an unprecedented cellular model to investigate the profound symptoms like infertility of TS in the male, and serve as a useful tool to develop therapies for the disease.

  20. Genitalia morphometry and testicular characteristics of male white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to evaluate genitalia morphometry of the male white Japanese quails at three different age groups. Fifty-four male Japanese quails were allotted to 3 treatment groups (Pubertal, Mature and Adult) in a completely randomized design. Pubertal (7-10 weeks), mature (15-20 weeks) and the adults ...

  1. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone induced impairment in social recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E.; Mena, Jesus D.; Auger, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for three days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial CSF (aCSF) into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin dependent behavior within the male brain. PMID:23639881

  2. Effects of perinatal daidzein exposure on subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α expression in the adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjun; Tai, Fadao; Zeng, Shuangyan; Zhang, Xia

    2013-06-03

    Daidzein is one of the most important isoflavones present in soy and it is unique as it can be further metabolized to equol, a compound with greater estrogenic activity than other isoflavones. The potential role of daidzein in the prevention of some chronic diseases has drawn public attention and increased its consumption in human, including in pregnant women and adolescent. It is unclear whether perinatal exposure to daidzein through maternal diets affects subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in male adults. Following developmental exposure to daidzein through maternal diets during perinatal period, subsequent anxiety-like behavior, social behavior, spatial learning and memory of male mice at adulthood were assessed using a series of tests. The levels of central ER α expression were also examined using immunocytochemistry. Compared with the controls, adult male mice exposed to daidzein during the perinatal period showed significantly less exploration, higher levels of anxiety and aggression. They also displayed more social investigation for females and a tendency to improve spatial learning and memory. The mice with this early daidzein treatment demonstrated significantly higher levels of ERα expression in several brain regions such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and central amygdaloid mucleus, but decreased it in the lateral septum. Our results indicated that perinatal exposure to daidzein enhanced masculinization on male behaviors which is assocciated with alterations in ERα expression levels led by perinatal daidzein exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spacing behaviour of juvenile corn mice, Calomys musculinus , at the beginning of the breeding period, in absence of adult males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Andrea; Priotto, José; Sommaro, Lucia; Polop, Jaime

    2006-05-01

    This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the absence of fathers promotes a different spacing behaviour in juveniles Calomys musculinus at the beginning of the breeding period. The study was carried out in four 0.25-ha enclosures (two control and two experimental), in a natural pasture, between November 2003 and February 2004. In this study the fathers were removed from the experimental enclosures after juveniles were born. Home-range size depended on sex of juveniles and treatment (father removal). In control and experimental enclosures, female home-range sizes were always smaller than male home-ranges. Male home-ranges were always larger in experimental enclosures than in control enclosures. Treatment and overlap type (intra- and inter-sexual) were not independent. The overlap proportions of male home-ranges were greatest in experimental enclosures than in control enclosures, in both the overlap types (male/male, males/females). The intra- (females/females) and inter-sexual (females/males) overlap proportions of female home-ranges were independent of treatment. In C. musculinus, at the beginning of the breeding period and in absence of adult males, juvenile males increase their home-range size and therefore the degree of inter- and intra-sexual home-range overlap as a mechanism for enlarging the number of receptive females that they encounter.

  4. Sexually Explicit Media on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Sexual Behaviors, Risk, and Media Characteristics in Gay Male Adult Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex perfor...

  5. Dyadic Qualitative Analysis of Condom Use Scripts Among Emerging Adult Gay Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Pawson, Mark; Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2018-04-03

    Sexual risk reduction among gay male couples has received increasing attention in light of evidence that primary partners account for many-and possibly most-new HIV infections. This study examined the content of condom use scripts in interviews conducted with both members of 17 HIV-negative gay male couples. In each couple, at least one partner was an emerging adult (aged 18 to 29). Three scripts were identified: romantic love, unanticipated condomless anal intercourse (CAI), and negotiated safety. Scripts varied in their emphasis on emotional factors versus HIV risk reduction, the salience of sexual agreements, and the presence of an explicit communication goal. Results indicated that condom use may vary for couples as a result of script content and from the fluid adoption of scripts across contexts. Results highlighted potential tensions between emotional closeness and HIV prevention. Condom use cessation and sexual agreements-a potential mechanism for HIV risk reduction-may also serve as expressions of intimacy. This implies interventions that facilitate direct communication about sexual and relational goals-as well as those that expand couples' repertoires for expressing emotional closeness-may enhance sexual health for gay couples, particularly during the period of emerging adulthood.

  6. Are 1994 alcohol production and the sales deregulation policy in Japan associated with increased road traffic fatalities among adult and teenage males and females in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Fujiwara, Takeo; Scime, Giulia; Sasges, Deborah; Pike, Ian; Shimizu, Shinji

    2009-10-01

    International studies have shown a significant association between alcohol availability and traffic crashes that involve alcohol-impaired drivers. A key limitation to previous alcohol availability and motor vehicle crash (MVC) evaluation research is the assumption of population homogeneity in responding to the policies. The present analysis focuses on the evaluation of the impact of alcohol availability on different segments of the Japanese population by comparing MVC fatality rates from before and after implementation of the alcohol deregulation policy in 1994. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to model the before-to-after change in incidence rate ratios (IRR) in adult males, adult females, teenage males and teenage females. To control potential confounders, unemployment rate, vehicle miles of travel (VMT), vehicle registration, and number of drivers licensed in Japan were added to the model. The exponents of the fitted coefficients are equivalent to incidence rate ratios. Implementation of the policy deregulating alcohol sales and production did not appear to increase traffic fatalities among adult or teenage males or females in Japan. We found that male adult fatalities demonstrated a statistically significant decline following enactment of the deregulation policy in 1994. Contrary to previous research, the findings of this study demonstrated lower rates of fatalities and higher compliance with alcohol-related driving legislation in Japanese society following implementation of the deregulation policy in 1994. Further well designed, nonaligned studies on alcohol availability and traffic fatalities in other countries are urgently needed.

  7. Reversing song behavior phenotype: testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Farrah N.; Rouse, Melvin L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2014-01-01

    In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8 weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12 mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12 mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1 week or 3 weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels a suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. PMID:25260250

  8. Peer Influence on IPV by Young Adult Males: Investigating the Case for a Social Norms Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKool, Marissa; Stephenson, Rob; Winskell, Kate; Teten Tharp, Andra; Parrott, Dominic

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 32% of women report experiencing physical violence from an intimate partner and more than 8% report being raped by a significant other in their lifetime. Young people's perceptions that their peers perpetrate relationship violence have been shown to increase the odds of self-reported perpetration. Yet, limited research has been conducted on this relationship as individuals begin to age out of adolescence. The present study sought to examine the link between the perception of peer perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and self-reported IPV perpetration among a sample of predominately young adult (21-35 years) males. This study also explored the discordance between the perception of peer IPV behavior and self-reported perpetration. Data from 101 male peer dyads ( n = 202) were taken from a study on the effects of alcohol and bystander intervention in Atlanta, Georgia. Thirty-six percent ( n = 73) of men reported perpetrating physical IPV and 67% ( n = 135) reported perpetrating sexual IPV in the past 12 months. Nearly 35% ( n = 55) of the sample reported that none of their peers had perpetrated physical IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of physical IPV perpetration. Similarly, 68% ( n = 115) of the men perceived none of their peers to have perpetrated sexual IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of sexual IPV perpetration. Discordance variables were significantly associated with self-reported perpetration for both physical (χ 2 = 152.7, p peer IPV perpetration among young adult males. Findings suggest a traditional social norms approach to IPV prevention, which seeks to persuade individuals that negative behaviors are less common than perceived, may not be the best approach given a significant number of men believed their friends were nonviolent when they had perpetrated violence.

  9. Plasma riboflavin is a useful marker for studying riboflavin requirement in Chinese male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changjiang; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Tang, Zhenchuang; Li, Lingyan

    2016-06-01

    Urinary riboflavin excretion and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient are frequently applied in determining riboflavin requirement. Previously, we found that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker in the assessment of riboflavin status in rat models. Here, we hypothesize that plasma riboflavin is a useful maker in studying riboflavin requirement. This study examines the changes of fasting plasma riboflavin and urinary riboflavin excretion in response to different riboflavin intake levels in Chinese male adults. The estimated average requirement (EAR) of riboflavin was extrapolated. Seventy-eight participants were randomly divided into the control and 5 riboflavin-supplemented groups. A 6-week riboflavin supplementation was performed at the doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, or 1.0 mg daily. The energy expenditure was 15.4 ± 1.9 MJ/d, as estimated by the 24-hour physical activity recording method. Dietary riboflavin intake was 1.0 ± 0.2 mg/d, based on chemical analysis. The fasting plasma riboflavin was increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.4 mg/d and the EAR of riboflavin was suggested to be between 1.3 and 1.5 mg/d. In addition, we found a significant increase in fasting urinary riboflavin excretion when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.6 mg/d. The critical point was calculated as 1.4 mg/d, based on the intersecting point of the 2 regression lines at lower and higher riboflavin intakes. These findings demonstrate that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker for riboflavin status, and the EAR of riboflavin for Chinese male adults is 1.4 mg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  11. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahly, D L; Adair, L S

    2010-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that lower birth order amplifies the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult males from a lower income, developing country context. The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is an ongoing community-based, observational study of a 1-year birth cohort (1983). 970 young adult males, mean age 21.5 years (2005). Central adiposity measured by waist circumference; birth order; perinatal maternal characteristics including height, arm fat area, age and smoking behavior; socioeconomic status at birth and in young adulthood. Lower birth order was associated with higher waist circumference and increased odds of high waist circumference, even after adjustment for socioeconomic status in young adulthood and maternal characteristics that could impact later offspring adiposity. Furthermore, the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity was amplified in individuals characterized by lower birth order. This research has failed to reject the mismatch hypothesis, which posits that maternal constraint of fetal growth acts to program developing physiology in a manner that increases susceptibility to the obesogenic effects of modern environments.

  12. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  13. Enlarged clitoris in wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be misdiagnosed as pseudohermaphroditism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.; Leifsson, Páll Skuli; Dietz, R.

    2005-01-01

    A 23-year-old female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) killed in an Inuit hunt in East Greenland on July 9, 1999 had a significantly enlarged clitoris resembling, in size, form and colour, those of previously reported 'pseudohermaphroditic' polar bears from Svalbard. It has been suggested that an enzyme...... and internal reproductive organs of the present were similar to a reference group of 23 normal adult female polar bears from East Greenland collected in 1999-2002. The aberrant bear was a female genotype, and macroscopic examination of her internal reproductive organs indicated that she was reproductively....... It is hence possible that the previously reported adult female polar bear pseudohermaphrodites from Svalbard are in fact misdiagnoses. Therefore, future studies examining pseudohermaphroditism in wildlife should consider that certain occurrences are natural events, e.g., enlarged clitoris in the present East...

  14. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  15. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Jennifer L.; Anderson, Marissa M.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consis...

  16. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  17. Voxel-based models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult - the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.; Eckerman, K.F.; Bolch, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    For the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will use voxel-based computational phantoms due to their improved anatomical realism compared with the class of mathematical or stylized phantoms used previously. According to the ICRP philosophy, these phantoms should be representative of the male and female reference adults with respect to their external dimensions, their organ topology and their organ masses. To meet these requirements, reference models of an adult male and adult female have been constructed at the GSF, based on existing voxel models segmented from tomographic images of two individuals whose body height and weight closely resemble the ICRP Publication 89 reference values. The skeleton is a highly complex structure of the body, composed of cortical bone, trabecular bone, red and yellow bone marrow and endosteum ('bone surfaces' in their older terminology). The skeleton of the reference phantoms consists of 19 individually segmented bones and bone groups. Sub-division of these bones into the above-mentioned constituents would be necessary in order to allow a direct calculation of dose to red bone marrow and endosteum. However, the dimensions of the trabeculae, the cavities containing bone marrow and the endosteum layer lining these cavities are clearly smaller than the resolution of a normal CT scan and, thus, these volumes could not be segmented in the tomographic images. As an attempt to represent the gross spatial distribution of these regions as realistically as possible at the given voxel resolution, 48 individual organ identification numbers were assigned to various parts of the skeleton: every segmented bone was subdivided into an outer shell of cortical bone and a spongious core; in the shafts of the long bones, a medullary cavity was additionally segmented. Using the data from ICRP Publication 89 on elemental tissue composition, from ICRU Report 46 on material

  18. Males collectively defend their one-male units against bachelor males in a multi-level primate society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Yang, Bang-He; Yu, Yang; Yao, Hui; Grueter, Cyril C; Garber, Paul A; Li, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Group-level male-male co-operation, which has been documented in several primate and non-primate societies, may be mutualistically advantageous to the participants when confronted with threats such as takeovers and cuckoldry by external males. Co-operation among members of distinct social units-while universal among humans-is extremely rare in non-human primates. We present the first observations of collective action or co-operation among males of different one-male units (OMU) in a multi-level society of Rhinopithecus roxellana. A total of 59 instances of male co-operation were recorded. Male co-operation included coordinated chasing, joint vigilance, and patrolling behavior directed at lone adult males trying to enter an OMU. Male co-operation was significantly more frequent during the mating season when the risk of incursions and extra-group paternity was higher. Paternity of infants born in the subsequent birth season and kin relationships among resident males were identified using microsatellite genotype. All infants were sired by OMU males, which we interpret as possible evidence for their success at thwarting mating attempts by satellite males. OMU males were principally unrelated suggesting that male co-operation is best understood in terms of the mutual direct benefits individuals obtain through collective action. Our findings lend support to the bachelor threat hypothesis in which the cooperative behavior of several individuals is more effective than the lone action of a single individual in providing mate defense. Our research has implications for understanding male bonding, higher-level collective action, and the evolution of social co-operation in human societies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, M E; Mena, J D; Auger, C J

    2013-08-29

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for 3 days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial cerebrospinal fluid into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin-dependent behavior within the male brain. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stimuli eliciting sexual arousal in males who offend adult women: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolárský, A; Madlafousek, J; Novotná, V

    1978-03-01

    The sexually arousing effects of short film scenes showing a naked actress's seductive behavior were phalloplethysmographically measured in 14 sexual deviates. These were males who had offended adult women, predominantly exhibitionists. Controls were 14 normal men. Deviates responded positively to the scenes and differentiated strong and weak seduction scenes similarly to normals. Consequently, the question arises of why deviates avoid their victim's erotic cooperation and why they do not offend their regular sexual partners. Post hoc analysis of five scenes which elicited a strikingly higher response in deviates than in normals suggested that these scenes contained reduced seductive behavior but unrestrained presentation of the genitals. This finding further encourages the laboratory study of stimulus conditions for abnormal sexual arousal which occurs during the sexual offense.

  1. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training Stephanie Adrianse, MD1, Lance M. Pollack, Ph.D2, Cherrie B...keywords: unintended pregnancy, prevention, contraceptive use, adolescents /young adults, psychosocial factors Purpose: Over 50% of pregnancies among

  2. Oxytocin mediates rodent social memory within the lateral septum and the medial amygdala depending on the relevance of the social stimulus: male juvenile versus female adult conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Michael; Toth, Iulia; Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D

    2013-06-01

    Brain oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in short-term social memory in laboratory rodents. Here we monitored local release of OXT and its functional involvement in the maintenance and retrieval of social memory during the social discrimination test. We further assessed, if the local effects of OXT within the medial amygdala (MeA) and lateral septum (LS) on social discrimination abilities were dependent on the biological relevance of the social stimulus, thus comparing male juvenile versus adult female conspecifics. OXT release was increased in the LS of male rats during the retrieval, but not during the acquisition or maintenance, of social memory for male juvenile stimuli. Blockade of OXT activity by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of a specific OXT receptor antagonist (OXTR-A, rats: 0.75 μg/5 μl, mice: 2 μg/2 μl) immediately after acquisition of social memory impaired the maintenance of social memory, and consequently discrimination abilities during retrieval of social memory. In contrast, ICV OXTR-A was without effect when administered 20 min prior to retrieval of social memory in both species. Non-social memory measured in the object discrimination test was not affected by ICV OXTR-A in male mice, indicating that brain OXT is mainly required for memory formation in a social context. The biological relevance of the social stimulus seems to importantly determine social memory abilities, as male rats recognized a previously encountered female adult stimulus for at least 2h (versus 60 min for male juveniles), with a region-dependent contribution of endogenous OXT; while bilateral administration of OXTR-A into the MeA (0.1 μg/1 μl) impaired social memory for adult females only, administration of OXTR-A into the LS via retrodialysis (10 μg/ml, 1.0 μl/min) impaired social memory for both male juveniles and female adults. Overall, these results indicate that brain OXT is a critical mediator of social memory in male rodents and that, depending

  3. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Histological and immunohistochemical characterization of the inflammatory and glial cells in the central nervous system of goat fetuses and adult male goats naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael Carneiro; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Abreu, Camila Costa; Nakagaki, Karen Yumi Ribeiro; Mesquita, Leonardo Pereira; Nascimento, Lismara Castro; Silva, Aline Costa; Maiorka, Paulo César; Peconick, Ana Paula; Raymundo, Djeison Lutier; Varaschin, Mary Suzan

    2014-12-14

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that is considered one of the main agents responsible for abortion in ruminants. The lesions found in the central nervous system (CNS) of aborted fetuses show multifocal necrosis, gliosis, and perivascular cuffs of mononuclear cells, but the inflammatory and glial cells have not been immunophenotypically characterized. The lesions in the CNS of infected adult animals have rarely been described. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the lesions, the immunophenotypes of the inflammatory and glial cells and the expression of MHC-II and PCNA in the CNS of goats infected with N. caninum. The CNS of eight aborted fetuses and six adult male goats naturally infected with N. caninum were analyzed with lectin histochemistry (RCA1) and immunohistochemistry (with anti-CD3, -CD79α, -GFAP, -MHC-II, and -PCNA antibodies). All animals were the offspring of dams naturally infected with N. caninum. The microscopic lesions in the CNS of the aborted fetuses consisted of perivascular cuffs composed mainly of macrophages (RCA1(+)), rare T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), and rare B lymphocytes (CD79α(+)). Multifocal necrosis surrounded by astrocytes (GFAP(+)), gliosis composed predominantly of monocytic-lineage cells (macrophages and microglia, RCA1(+)), and the cysts of N. caninum, related (or not) to the lesions were present. Similar lesions were found in four of the six male goats, and multinucleate giant cells related to focal gliosis were also found in three adult goats. Anti-GFAP immunostaining showed astrocytes characterizing areas of glial scarring. Cysts of N. caninum were found in three adult male goats. The presence of N. caninum was evaluated with histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated anti-PCNA labeling of macrophages and microglia in the perivascular cuffs and the expression of MHC-II by microglia and endothelial cells in the CNS of the aborted fetuses and adult male goats. Macrophages and

  5. Sexually explicit media on the internet: a content analysis of sexual behaviors, risk, and media characteristics in gay male adult videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy.

  6. The effects of cinnamon on glycemic indexes and insulin resistance in adult male diabetic rats with streptozotocin

    OpenAIRE

    SEbrahim Hosseini; STaereh Shojaei; SAli Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats,...

  7. The UV-absorber benzophenone-4 alters transcripts of genes involved in hormonal pathways in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos and adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, Sara; Bluethgen, Nancy; Ieronimo, Andrea; Fent, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) is frequently used as UV-absorber in cosmetics and materials protection. Despite its frequent detection in the aquatic environment potential effects on aquatic life are unknown. In this study, we evaluate the effects of BP-4 in eleuthero-embryos and in the liver, testis and brain of adult male fish on the transcriptional level by focusing on target genes involved in hormonal pathways to provide a more complete toxicological profile of this important UV-absorber. Eleuthero-embryos and males of zebrafish were exposed up to 3 days after hatching and for 14 days, respectively, to BP-4 concentrations between 30 and 3000 μg/L. In eleuthero-embryos transcripts of vtg1, vtg3, esr1, esr2b, hsd17ss3, cyp19b cyp19a, hhex and pax8 were induced at 3000 μg/L BP-4, which points to a low estrogenic activity and interference with early thyroid development, respectively. In adult males BP-4 displayed multiple effects on gene expression in different tissues. In the liver vtg1, vtg3, esr1 and esr2b were down-regulated, while in the brain, vtg1, vtg3 and cyp19b transcripts were up-regulated. In conclusion, the transcription profile revealed that BP-4 interferes with the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways and steroidogenesis. The effects of BP-4 differ in life stages and adult tissues and point to an estrogenic activity in eleuthero-embryos and adult brain, and an antiestrogenic activity in the liver. The results indicate that BP-4 interferes with the sex hormone system of fish, which is important for the risk assessment of this UV-absorber.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M.; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R.; Loveren, Henk van; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2012-01-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  10. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  11. Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesom, Sarah M; Finton, Caitlyn J; Sell, Gabrielle L; Hurley, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities. Here, we tested the prediction that social isolation during early life would influence ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by adult male mice during same-sex social encounters. Starting at three weeks of age, male mice were housed individually or in social groups of four males for five weeks, after which they were placed in one of three types of paired social encounters. Pair types consisted of: two individually housed males, two socially housed males, or an individually housed and a socially housed male ("mixed" pairs). Vocal behavior (USVs) and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of at least one individually housed male emitted more and longer USVs, with a greater proportional use of USVs containing frequency jumps and 50-kHz components. Individually housed males in the mixed social pairs exhibited increased levels of mounting behavior towards the socially housed males. Mounting in these pairs was positively correlated with increased number and duration of USVs as well as increased proportional use of spectrally more complex USVs. These findings demonstrate that USVs are part of the suite of social behaviors influenced by early-life social isolation, and suggest that altered vocal communication following isolation reflects reduced social competence.

  12. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) thyroxine (T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body γ-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T 3 and T 4 levels were recorded after γ-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of γ-irradiation on serum T 3 and T 4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by γ-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  13. Early Intranasal Vasopressin Administration Impairs Partner Preference in Adult Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster

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    Trenton C. Simmons

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. But, very little is known about the long-term effects of IN-AVP during early development. In this experiment, we explored whether a single week of early juvenile administration of IN-AVP (low = 0.05 IU/kg, medium = 0.5 IU/kg, high = 5.0 IU/kg could impact behavior across life in prairie voles. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.

  14. Morphology of the adult male and pupal exuviae of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Diptera, Chironomidae) using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva; Czaplicka, Anna

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a study of the morphology of the pupa and male imago of Glyptotendipes (G.) glaucus (Meigen 1818) was carried out, with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM provided additional valuable information on the morphology of the species. Adult male head, antenna, wing, leg, abdomen, hypopygium, pupal cephalothorax and abdomen were examined. It is emphasized that SEM was not often used in Chironomidae studies. The present results confirm SEM as a suitable approach in carrying out morphological and taxonomical descriptions of Chironomidae species.

  15. Establishment of detailed eye model of adult chinese male and dose conversion coefficients calculation under neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Qiu, Rui; Ren, Li; Zhang, Hui; Li, Junli; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    The human eye lens is sensitive to radiation. ICRP-118 publication recommended a reduction of the occupational annual equivalent dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv, averaged over defined periods of 5 y. Therefore, it is very important to build a detailed eye model for the accurate dose assessment and radiation risk evaluation of eye lens. In this work, a detailed eye model was build based on the characteristic anatomic parameters of the Chinese adult male. This eye model includes seven main structures, which are scleral, choroid, lens, iris, cornea, vitreous body and aqueous humor. The lens was divided into sensitive volume and insensitive volume based on different cell populations. The detailed eye model was incorporated into the converted polygon-mesh version of the Chinese reference adult male whole-body surface model. After the incorporation, dose conversion coefficients for the eye lens were calculated for neutron exposure at AP, PA and LAT geometries with Geant4, the neutron energies were from 0.001 eV to 10 MeV. The calculated lens dose coefficients were compared with those of ICRP-116 publication. Significant differences up to 97.47% were found at PA geometry. This could mainly be attributed to the different geometry characteristic of eye model and parameters of head in different phantom between the present work and ICRP-116 publication. (authors)

  16. Brain serotonin synthesis in adult males characterized by physical aggression during childhood: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Booij

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults exhibiting severe impulsive and aggressive behaviors have multiple indices of low serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. It remains unclear though whether low 5-HT mediates the behavior or instead reflects a pre-existing vulnerability trait.In the present study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ((11C-AMT was used to compare 5-HT synthesis capacity in two groups of adult males from a 21-year longitudinal study (mean age +/- SD: 27.1+/-0.7: individuals with a history of childhood-limited high physical aggression (C-LHPA; N = 8 and individuals with normal (low patterns of physical aggression (LPA; N = 18. The C-LHPA males had significantly lower trapping of (11C-AMT bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex and self-reported more impulsiveness. Despite this, in adulthood there were no group differences in plasma tryptophan levels, genotyping, aggression, emotional intelligence, working memory, computerized measures of impulsivity, psychosocial functioning/adjustment, and personal and family history of mood and substance abuse disorders.These results force a re-examination of the low 5-HT hypothesis as central in the biology of violence. They suggest that low 5-HT does not mediate current behavior and should be considered a vulnerability factor for impulsive-aggressive behavior that may or may not be expressed depending on other biological factors, experience, and environmental support during development.

  17. Usher syndrome Type I in an adult Nepalese male: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sabin; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Usher syndrome, also known as retinitis pigmentosa-dysacusis syndrome, is an extremely rare genetic disorder, characterized by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. It has been estimated to account for 3-6% of the congenitally deaf population, upto 8-33% of individuals with RP and half of all cases with combined deafness and blindness (Vernon M,1969; Boughman JA et al,1983). The prevalence of Usher syndrome have been reported to range from 3.5 to 6.2 per 100,000 in different populations (Vernon M,1969; Boughman JA et al,1983; Yan D et al, 2010). We report a case of Usher syndrome type I in an adult Nepalese male with typical congenital profound hearing loss, and night blindness secondary to retinitis pigmentosa. © NEPjOPH.

  18. High prevalence of polyclonal hypergamma-globulinemia in adult males in Ghana, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buadi, Francis; Hsing, Ann W; Katzmann, Jerry A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Waxman, Adam; Yeboah, Edward D; Biritwum, Richard B; Tettey, Yao; Adjei, Andrew; Chu, Lisa W; DeMarzo, Angelo; Netto, George J; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Landgren, Ola

    2011-07-01

    Chronic antigenic stimulation is associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. Higher rates of hypergamma-globulinemia in tropical populations are maintained even with migration to temperate regions. We conducted a population-based screening study to assess the prevalence and risk factors for hypergamma-globulinemia in Ghana, Africa. 917 Ghanaian males (50-74 years) underwent in-person interviews and health examinations. Serum from all persons was analyzed by electrophoresis performed on agarose gel; serum with a discrete/localized band was subjected to immunofixation. 54 persons with monoclonal proteins were excluded and 17 samples were insufficient for analysis. Using logistic regression and Chi-square statistics we analyzed patterns of hypergamma-globulinemia. Among 846 study subjects, the median γ-globulin level was 1.86 g/dL. On the basis of a U.S. reference, 616 (73%) had hypergamma-globulinemia (>1.6 g/dL) and 178 (21%) had γ-globulin levels >2.17 gm/dl. On multivariate analyses, lower education status (P = 0.0013) and never smoking (P = 0.038) were associated with increased γ-globulin levels. Self-reported history of syphilis was associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. We conclude that three quarters of this population-based adult Ghanaian male sample had hypergamma-globulinemia with γ-globulin levels >1.6 g/dL. Future studies are needed to uncover genetic and environmental underpinnings of our finding, and to define the relationship between hypergamma-globulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Differences in male and female spino-pelvic alignment in asymptomatic young adults: a three-dimensional analysis using upright low-dose digital biplanar X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Michiel M A; Drevelle, Xavier; Humbert, Ludovic; Skalli, Wafa; Castelein, René M

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of spino-pelvic alignment in 60 asymptomatic young adult males and females. To analyze the differences in sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in a group of asymptomatic young adult males and females and describe gender specific reference values. Several spinal disorders like idiopathic scoliosis and Scheuermann's disease have a well-known sex-related prevalence ratio. As spino-pelvic alignment plays an important role in spinal biomechanics, it is imperative to analyze possible differences between the male and female spino-pelvic alignment. Furthermore, in spinal fusion surgery, normal sagittal balance should be recreated as closely as possible. An innovative biplanar ultra low-dose radiographic technique was used to obtain three-dimensional reconstructions of the spine (T1-L5), sacrum, and pelvis in a freestanding position of 30 asymptomatic young male and 30 young female adults. Values were calculated for thoracic kyphosis (T4-T12), lumbar lordosis (L1-S1), total and regional lumbopelvic lordosis (PRT12, PRL2, PRL4, and PRL5), sagittal plumb line of T1, T4, and T9 (HAT1, HAT4, and HAT9), T1-L5 sagittal spinal inclination, T9 sagittal offset, and pelvic parameters (pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and pelvic incidence). In addition, vertebral inclination in the sagittal plane of each vertebra was measured. Differences in spino-pelvic alignment between the sexes were analyzed. The female spine was more dorsally inclined (11 degrees vs. 8 degrees ; P = 0.003). High thoracic and thoracolumbar vertebrae were more dorsally inclined in women than in men. Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, regional lumbopelvic lordosis, sagittal plumb lines, T9 sagittal offset, and pelvic parameters were not statistically different between the sexes. These results indicate that the female spine is definitely different from the male spine. The spine as whole and individual vertebrae in certain regions of the normal spine is more backwardly inclined in females than in

  20. Effect of Simultaneous Use of Ritalin with Grape Seed Extract on Passive Avoidance Learning in Adult Male Rats

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    Tooba Karimizadeh Moneh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ritalin is one of the drugs used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of Ritalin with grape seed extract on passive avoidance learning in adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats including control, sham and three experimental groups. The control group received no treatment. The sham group received 1 ml of distilled water per day. At the same time the experimental groups received 100 mg/kg grape seed extract, 1 mg/kg Ritalin or 100 mg/kg grape seed extract together with 1 mg/kg of Ritalin by gavage for 28 days. For measuring the amount of avoidance learning, Shuttle box was used. Data analyzed by ANOVA and consistent Tukey's tests using SPSS-18 software and p>0.05 considered as significant. Results: The results showed that Ritalin decreases the passive avoidance learning, while the grape seed extract alone or together with Ritalin increases passive avoidance learning. Conclusion:  The outcome of this research shows that taking Ritalin leads to decreasing passive avoidance learning. However, the simultaneous taking Ritalin with grape seed extract inhibits the Ritalin effect and increasing the learning.

  1. Adult Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ Male and Female Mice Display a Spectrum of Genital Malformation.

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    Fei He

    Full Text Available Disorders of sexual development (DSD encompass a broad spectrum of urogenital malformations and are amongst the most common congenital birth defects. Although key genetic factors such as the hedgehog (Hh family have been identified, a unifying postnatally viable model displaying the spectrum of male and female urogenital malformations has not yet been reported. Since human cases are diagnosed and treated at various stages postnatally, equivalent mouse models enabling analysis at similar stages are of significant interest. Additionally, all non-Hh based genetic models investigating DSD display normal females, leaving female urogenital development largely unknown. Here, we generated compound mutant mice, Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+, which exhibit a spectrum of urogenital malformations in both males and females upon birth, and also carried them well into adulthood. Analysis of embryonic day (E18.5 and adult mice revealed shortened anogenital distance (AGD, open ventral urethral groove, incomplete fusion of scrotal sac, abnormal penile size and structure, and incomplete testicular descent with hypoplasia in male mice, whereas female mutant mice displayed reduced AGD, urinary incontinence, and a number of uterine anomalies such as vaginal duplication. Male and female fertility was also investigated via breeding cages, and it was identified that male mice were infertile while females were unable to deliver despite becoming impregnated. We propose that Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ mice can serve as a genetic mouse model for common DSD such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and incomplete fusion of the scrotal sac in males, and a spectrum of uterine and vaginal abnormalities along with urinary incontinence in females, which could prove essential in revealing new insights into their equivalent diseases in humans.

  2. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Chaudhari; Jessica M. Wong; Philip H. Vann; Nathalie Sumien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if antioxidant supplementation, moderate exercise, and the combination of both treatments could ameliorate cognitive performance in adult mice and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype as well as sex could influence the functional outcomes of the treatments. Methods: For a period of 16 weeks, separate groups of male and female mice expressing either the human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms were fed either a control diet (NIH-31) or the co...

  3. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

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    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  4. Hematological alterations and splenic T lymphocyte polarization at the crest of snake venom induced acute kidney injury in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Farhat; Das, Sreyasi; Mishra, Roshnara; Mishra, Raghwendra

    2017-08-01

    Snake venom induced acute kidney injury (SAKI) is of great clinical relevance in tropical countries. Involvement of T cell, a key mediator of AKI and its remission, is least explored in SAKI. In the present study the in vivo hematological alterations and associated splenic T cell polarization is probed in order to investigate the immune response at the crest of Russell's viper venom (RVV) induced AKI in experimental murine model. Based on a dose and time kinetic study intra muscular injection dose of 20 μg RVV/100 gm body weight of mice and incubation period of 60 h was selected for induction of SAKI. Renal involvement in SAKI group was confirmed from oliguria, significantly elevated urinary microprotein (p < 0.001), decreased urinary creatinine (p = 0.003) and creatinine clearance (p < 0.001) compared to control. Hematological analyses revealed a significant neutrophilic leukocytosis (p < 0.001) associated with a reduced lymphocyte percentage (p < 0.001) favoring a state of acute inflammation in SAKI group. Immunophenotyping study of splenocytes showed a significant decrease in CD4 + /CD8 + ratio (p < 0.001) with a significant increase in regulatory (CD25 + FoxP3 + ) helper and cytotoxic subset of T cell (p < 0.001). Significant increase in IL-10+ regulatory helper and cytotoxic T cell (p < 0.001) further confirmed the internal milieu favoring immunosuppression. Apart from these the CD25 - FoxP3 + reservoir regulatory T cells were also found to be significantly elevated in SAKI group compared to that of control (p < 0.001). Taken together, the results of the present study clearly indicated a state of acute inflammation and splenic T cell polarization towards regulatory subset at the crest of SAKI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

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    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  6. Effects of sense of coherence on depressive symptoms after employment in the Japan Self-Defense Force among male young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to explore the effects of sense of coherence (SOC) on depressive symptoms after employment in the Japan Self-Defense Force among male young adults.Methods In April 2013, 953 new male members of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF; age range: 18-24 years) participated in this study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D), which defines a score of 16 or greater as indicating the presence of depressive symptoms. The SOC score was assessed using a 13-item version (SOC-13), in which a score of 59 or greater is as assigned to the high score group. A second survey was conducted two months later, in June of 2013. For the analysis, we selected participants without depressive symptoms at the baseline survey. The association between SOC scores at baseline and the onset of depressive symptoms was examined using a logistic regression analysis.Results The final analysis was conducted on data on 389 new male members of the JGSDF. The logistic regression analysis showed a significant reduction in the onset of depressive symptoms among the group with high SOC scores (odds ratios: 0.59, 95% confidence interval=0.35-0.98) as compared with that observed in the group with low SOC scores.Conclusions The present study clarified that SOC among male young adults has a buffering effect on the risk of developing depressive symptoms after employment in the Japan Self-Defense Force. Our results may be useful for improving the mental health of new employees.

  7. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu; Edeh Rolleta Haroen; Rosiliwati Wihardja

    2008-01-01

    The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain ...

  8. Genome-Wide Search Identifies 1.9 Mb from the Polar Bear Y Chromosome for Evolutionary Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidon, Tobias; Schreck, Nancy; Hailer, Frank; Nilsson, Maria A.; Janke, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The male-inherited Y chromosome is the major haploid fraction of the mammalian genome, rendering Y-linked sequences an indispensable resource for evolutionary research. However, despite recent large-scale genome sequencing approaches, only a handful of Y chromosome sequences have been characterized to date, mainly in model organisms. Using polar bear (Ursus maritimus) genomes, we compare two different in silico approaches to identify Y-linked sequences: 1) Similarity to known Y-linked genes and 2) difference in the average read depth of autosomal versus sex chromosomal scaffolds. Specifically, we mapped available genomic sequencing short reads from a male and a female polar bear against the reference genome and identify 112 Y-chromosomal scaffolds with a combined length of 1.9 Mb. We verified the in silico findings for the longer polar bear scaffolds by male-specific in vitro amplification, demonstrating the reliability of the average read depth approach. The obtained Y chromosome sequences contain protein-coding sequences, single nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites, and transposable elements that are useful for evolutionary studies. A high-resolution phylogeny of the polar bear patriline shows two highly divergent Y chromosome lineages, obtained from analysis of the identified Y scaffolds in 12 previously published male polar bear genomes. Moreover, we find evidence of gene conversion among ZFX and ZFY sequences in the giant panda lineage and in the ancestor of ursine and tremarctine bears. Thus, the identification of Y-linked scaffold sequences from unordered genome sequences yields valuable data to infer phylogenomic and population-genomic patterns in bears. PMID:26019166

  9. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transport Mechanisms in Gastrocnemius Muscles of Adult Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Sathishkumar, Kunju; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet–exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet–fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor

  10. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players.

  12. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Análisis del ataque posicional de balonmano playa masculino y femenino mediante coordenadas polares. [Analysis of positional attack in beach handball male and female with polar coordinates].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Reigal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo aportar una perspectiva novedosa en la comprensión y diferenciación de las conductas de juego en la fase de ataque posicional en el balonmano playa masculino y femenino. Para ello se analizaron 28 partidos de alto nivel con el programa informático Hoisan. Se utilizó un diseño Observacional de carácter nomotético, de seguimiento y multidimensional con un sistema taxonómico metodológicamente validado. Los datos fueron sometidos a un análisis de coordenadas polares en su versión genuina. Para llevar a cabo estos análisis se escogieron siete conductas focales relativas, principalmente, a los jugadores que finalizan el ataque y el modo de realizarlo. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las conductas de apareo en la categoría masculina y femenina. Destaca que el ataque posicional en la categoría femenina se orienta hacia zonas de finalización izquierdas ante un sistema defensivo abierto y depende más de la jugadora que adquiere el rol de doble portera (especialista que en la categoría masculina, donde las responsabilidades están más repartidas y el ataque se dirige hacia la banda derecha ante un sistema defensivo cerrado. El lanzamiento en giro se ha mostrado como el principal recurso ofensivo en ambas categorías. Abstract This research aims to provide a new perspective on understanding and differentiation of play behavior in the phase of positional attack in the male and female beach handball. 28 high-level games with Hoisan software were analyzed. The observational design used is nomothetic, monitoring and multidimensional. The taxonomic system has been validated methodologically. Data were subjected to analysis of polar coordinates in its genuine version. To carry out these analyzes on seven focal behaviors were chosen mainly for players who complete the attack and how to create it. The results showed differences in mating behavior in the male and female category. Emphasizes

  14. Adult-onset obesity reveals prenatal programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male sheep nutrient restricted during late gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rhodes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity invokes a range of metabolic disturbances, but the transition from a poor to excessive nutritional environment may exacerbate adult metabolic dysfunction. The current study investigated global maternal nutrient restriction during early or late gestation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the adult offspring when lean and obese. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pregnant sheep received adequate (1.0M; CE, n = 6 or energy restricted (0.7M diet during early (1-65 days; LEE, n = 6 or late (65-128 days; LEL, n = 7 gestation (term approximately 147 days. Subsequent offspring remained on pasture until 1.5 years when all received glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT & ITT and body composition determination by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. All animals were then exposed to an obesogenic environment for 6-7 months and all protocols repeated. Prenatal dietary treatment had no effect on birth weight or on metabolic endpoints when animals were 'lean' (1.5 years. Obesity revealed generalised metabolic 'inflexibility' and insulin resistance; characterised by blunted excursions of plasma NEFA and increased insulin(AUC (from 133 to 341 [s.e.d. 26] ng.ml(-1.120 mins during a GTT, respectively. For LEL vs. CE, the peak in plasma insulin when obese was greater (7.8 vs. 4.7 [s.e.d. 1.1] ng.ml(-1 and was exacerbated by offspring sex (i.e. 9.8 vs. 4.4 [s.e.d. 1.16] ng.ml(-1; LEL male vs. CE male, respectively. Acquisition of obesity also significantly influenced the plasma lipid and protein profile to suggest, overall, greater net lipogenesis and reduced protein metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates generalised metabolic dysfunction with adult-onset obesity which also exacerbates and 'reveals' programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male offspring prenatally exposed to maternal undernutrition during late gestation. Taken together, the data suggest that metabolic function appears little compromised in young

  15. The Impact of a Training Intervention Program on Fall-related Psychological Factors Among Male Older Adults in Arak

    OpenAIRE

    Daryoush Khajavi; Ahmad Farokhi; Ali Akbar Jaberi Moghadam; Anooshirvan Kazemnejad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Falls and fall-related physiological and psychological events are major problems for elderly people. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of an interventional training program on fall-related psychological factors among the elderly men in Arak. Methods & Materials: In this quasi experiment research on male older adults in Arak, 27 participants randomly assigned to Control group (mean age=70.21±6.65) and Experimental group (mean age=66.07±4.38)...

  16. Visual perceptions of male obesity: a cross-cultural study examining male and female lay perceptions of obesity in Caucasian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-05-16

    Obesity is now common and this may have altered visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' and therefore healthy weight. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in male and female participants' ability to visually identify the weight status of photographed Caucasian males. Five hundred and fifty three male and female young adults from the US (high obesity prevalence), UK and Sweden (lower obesity prevalence) participated in an online study. Participants judged the weight status of a series of photographed healthy weight, overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males and rated the extent to which they believed each male should consider losing weight. There was a strong tendency for both male and female participants to underestimate the weight status of the photographed overweight and obese males. Photographed males were frequently perceived as being of healthier weight than they actually were. Some modest cross-cultural differences were also observed; US participants were worse at recognising obesity than UK participants (p cross-cultural differences were observed for perceptions or attitudes towards the photographed healthy weight or overweight males. The weight status of overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males is underestimated when judged by males and females using visual information alone. This study provides initial evidence of modest cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward, and the ability to recognise, obesity in Caucasian males.

  17. Probable gamma-aminobutyric acid involvement in bisphenol A effect at the hypothalamic level in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nancy; Pandolfi, Matías; Lavalle, Justina; Carbone, Silvia; Ponzo, Osvaldo; Scacchi, Pablo; Reynoso, Roxana

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the neuroendocrine mechanism of control of the reproductive axis in adult male rats exposed to it during pre- and early postnatal periods. Wistar mated rats were treated with either 0.1% ethanol or BPA in their drinking water until their offspring were weaned at the age of 21 days. The estimated average dose of exposure to dams was approximately 2.5 mg/kg body weight per day of BPA. After 21 days, the pups were separated from the mother and sacrificed on 70 day of life. Gn-RH and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from hypothalamic fragments was measured. LH, FSH, and testosterone concentrations were determined, and histological and morphometrical studies of testis were performed. Gn-RH release decreased significantly, while GABA serum levels were markedly increased by treatment. LH serum levels showed no changes, and FSH and testosterone levels decreased significantly. Histological studies showed abnormalities in the tubular organization of the germinal epithelium. The cytoarchitecture of germinal cells was apparently normal, and a reduction of the nuclear area of Leydig cells but not their number was observed. Taken all together, these results provide evidence of the effect caused by BPA on the adult male reproductive axis when exposed during pre- and postnatal period. Moreover, our findings suggest a probable GABA involvement in its effect at the hypothalamic level.

  18. ESTABLISHMENT OF DETAILED EYE MODEL OF ADULT CHINESE MALE AND DOSE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS CALCULATION UNDER NEUTRON EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Ren, Li; Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Hui; Li, Junli

    2017-12-01

    The human eye lens is sensitive to radiation. ICRP-118 publication recommended a reduction of the occupational annual equivalent dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv, averaged over defined periods of 5 y. Therefore, it is very important to build a detailed eye model for the accurate dose assessment and radiation risk evaluation of eye lens. In this work, a detailed eye model was build based on the characteristic anatomic parameters of the Chinese adult male. This eye model includes seven main structures, which are scleral, choroid, lens, iris, cornea, vitreous body and aqueous humor. The lens was divided into sensitive volume and insensitive volume based on different cell populations. The detailed eye model was incorporated into the converted polygon-mesh version of the Chinese reference adult male whole-body surface model. After the incorporation, dose conversion coefficients for the eye lens were calculated for neutron exposure at AP, PA and LAT geometries with Geant4, the neutron energies were from 0.001 eV to 10 MeV. The calculated lens dose coefficients were compared with those of ICRP-116 publication. Significant differences up to 97.47% were found at PA geometry. This could mainly be attributed to the different geometry characteristic of eye model and parameters of head in different phantom between the present work and ICRP-116 publication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of colorectal cancer screening among young adult African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric analysis of the Arabic version of the oxford knee score in adult male with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Al-Eisa, Einas S; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2017-05-15

    There are varieties of self-assessment questionnaire used for the evaluation of pain, functional disability, and health related quality of life in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The present study intended to adapt and translate the oxford knee score into the Arabic and investigated its psychometric properties in adult male with knee OA. Ninety-seven adult male (mean age 57.55 ± 11.49 years) with knee OA participated. Patients were requested to complete the adapted Arabic version of the Oxford knee score (OKS-Ar), reduced "Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC)", and the Visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients were requested to complete 2 nd form of OKS-Ar at least 1 week apart to assess the reproducibility of the score. The OKS was adapted and translated into Arabic by two independent Arabic native speakers (one rehabilitation professional having experience of knee OA patients and another one a trained translator) according to the international guidelines. All the participants completed the 2 nd form of OKS-Ar (Response rate 100%). Reliability and internal consistency was high with an ICC of 0.97, and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.987, respectively. A significant relationship between the OKS-Ar and the WOMAC and VAS scores confirmed the construct validity (p < 0.001). The standard error of measurement (SEM) and the minimum detectable change (MDC) were 2.2 and 6.2, respectively. The adapted Arabic version of the OKS demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, including reliability, internal consistency, and the validity. The present study indicates that the OKS-Ar is a suitable questionnaire to measure pain and physical function in the Arabic speaking adult male patients with knee OA.

  1. Evaluation of radiation sensitivity and mating performance of Glossina brevipalpis males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel J de Beer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Area-wide integrated pest management strategies that include a sterile insect technique component have been successfully used to eradicate tsetse fly populations in the past. To ensure the success of the sterile insect technique, the released males must be adequately sterile and be able to compete with their native counterparts in the wild.In the present study the radiation sensitivity of colonised Glossina brevipalpis Newstead (Diptera; Glossinidae males, treated either as adults or pupae, was assessed. The mating performance of the irradiated G. brevipalpis males was assessed in walk-in field cages. Glossina brevipalpis adults and pupae were highly sensitive to irradiation, and a dose of 40 Gy and 80 Gy induced 93% and 99% sterility respectively in untreated females that mated with males irradiated as adults. When 37 to 41 day old pupae were exposed to a dose of 40 Gy, more than 97% sterility was induced in untreated females that mated with males derived from irradiated pupae. Males treated as adults with a dose up to 80 Gy were able to compete successfully with untreated fertile males for untreated females in walk-in field cages.The data emanating from this field cage study indicates that, sterile male flies derived from the colony of G. brevipalpis maintained at the Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa are potential good candidates for a campaign that includes a sterile insect technique component. This would need to be confirmed by open field studies.

  2. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sohrabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

    p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

  3. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ieraci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice.

  4. Cytotoxic potentials of thiocyanate administration on the liver of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence this study was performed to elucidate the consequence(s)of thiocyanate administration on the liver of adult male wistar rats. Twenty adult male wistar rats with an average weight of 234.5g were used. The rats were grouped into four (A, B, C & D) with five animals in each group. Group A represented the control and ...

  5. Genome-Wide Search Identifies 1.9 Mb from the Polar Bear Y Chromosome for Evolutionary Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidon, Tobias; Schreck, Nancy; Hailer, Frank; Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel

    2015-05-27

    The male-inherited Y chromosome is the major haploid fraction of the mammalian genome, rendering Y-linked sequences an indispensable resource for evolutionary research. However, despite recent large-scale genome sequencing approaches, only a handful of Y chromosome sequences have been characterized to date, mainly in model organisms. Using polar bear (Ursus maritimus) genomes, we compare two different in silico approaches to identify Y-linked sequences: 1) Similarity to known Y-linked genes and 2) difference in the average read depth of autosomal versus sex chromosomal scaffolds. Specifically, we mapped available genomic sequencing short reads from a male and a female polar bear against the reference genome and identify 112 Y-chromosomal scaffolds with a combined length of 1.9 Mb. We verified the in silico findings for the longer polar bear scaffolds by male-specific in vitro amplification, demonstrating the reliability of the average read depth approach. The obtained Y chromosome sequences contain protein-coding sequences, single nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites, and transposable elements that are useful for evolutionary studies. A high-resolution phylogeny of the polar bear patriline shows two highly divergent Y chromosome lineages, obtained from analysis of the identified Y scaffolds in 12 previously published male polar bear genomes. Moreover, we find evidence of gene conversion among ZFX and ZFY sequences in the giant panda lineage and in the ancestor of ursine and tremarctine bears. Thus, the identification of Y-linked scaffold sequences from unordered genome sequences yields valuable data to infer phylogenomic and population-genomic patterns in bears. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Quintana

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  7. Genomic evidence for island population conversion resolves conflicting theories of polar bear evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James A; Green, Richard E; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Jay, Flora; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Salamzade, Rauf; St John, John; Stirling, Ian; Slatkin, Montgomery; Shapiro, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis, the evolutionary relationship between polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and brown bears (U. arctos) remains unclear. The two most recent comprehensive reports indicate a recent divergence with little subsequent admixture or a much more ancient divergence followed by extensive admixture. At the center of this controversy are the Alaskan ABC Islands brown bears that show evidence of shared ancestry with polar bears. We present an analysis of genome-wide sequence data for seven polar bears, one ABC Islands brown bear, one mainland Alaskan brown bear, and a black bear (U. americanus), plus recently published datasets from other bears. Surprisingly, we find clear evidence for gene flow from polar bears into ABC Islands brown bears but no evidence of gene flow from brown bears into polar bears. Importantly, while polar bears contributed bear, they contributed 6.5% of the X chromosome. The magnitude of sex-biased polar bear ancestry and the clear direction of gene flow suggest a model wherein the enigmatic ABC Island brown bears are the descendants of a polar bear population that was gradually converted into brown bears via male-dominated brown bear admixture. We present a model that reconciles heretofore conflicting genetic observations. We posit that the enigmatic ABC Islands brown bears derive from a population of polar bears likely stranded by the receding ice at the end of the last glacial period. Since then, male brown bear migration onto the island has gradually converted these bears into an admixed population whose phenotype and genotype are principally brown bear, except at mtDNA and X-linked loci. This process of genome erosion and conversion may be a common outcome when climate change or other forces cause a population to become isolated and then overrun by species with which it can hybridize.

  8. Genomic evidence for island population conversion resolves conflicting theories of polar bear evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Cahill

    Full Text Available Despite extensive genetic analysis, the evolutionary relationship between polar bears (Ursus maritimus and brown bears (U. arctos remains unclear. The two most recent comprehensive reports indicate a recent divergence with little subsequent admixture or a much more ancient divergence followed by extensive admixture. At the center of this controversy are the Alaskan ABC Islands brown bears that show evidence of shared ancestry with polar bears. We present an analysis of genome-wide sequence data for seven polar bears, one ABC Islands brown bear, one mainland Alaskan brown bear, and a black bear (U. americanus, plus recently published datasets from other bears. Surprisingly, we find clear evidence for gene flow from polar bears into ABC Islands brown bears but no evidence of gene flow from brown bears into polar bears. Importantly, while polar bears contributed <1% of the autosomal genome of the ABC Islands brown bear, they contributed 6.5% of the X chromosome. The magnitude of sex-biased polar bear ancestry and the clear direction of gene flow suggest a model wherein the enigmatic ABC Island brown bears are the descendants of a polar bear population that was gradually converted into brown bears via male-dominated brown bear admixture. We present a model that reconciles heretofore conflicting genetic observations. We posit that the enigmatic ABC Islands brown bears derive from a population of polar bears likely stranded by the receding ice at the end of the last glacial period. Since then, male brown bear migration onto the island has gradually converted these bears into an admixed population whose phenotype and genotype are principally brown bear, except at mtDNA and X-linked loci. This process of genome erosion and conversion may be a common outcome when climate change or other forces cause a population to become isolated and then overrun by species with which it can hybridize.

  9. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  10. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  11. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  12. Are adolescents more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis than adults? A placebo-controlled study in human males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrysz, C; Freeman, T P; Korkki, S; Griffiths, K; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16–17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24–28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, ‘stoned', ‘want to have cannabis'). Results showed that on active cannabis, adolescents felt less stoned and reported fewer psychotomimetic symptoms than adults. Further, adults but not adolescents were more anxious and less alert during the active cannabis session (both pre- and post-drug administration). Following cannabis, cognitive impairment (reaction time on spatial working memory and prose recall following a delay) was greater in adults than adolescents. By contrast, cannabis impaired response inhibition accuracy in adolescents but not in adults. Moreover, following drug administration, the adolescents did not show satiety; instead they wanted more cannabis regardless of whether they had taken active or placebo cannabis, while the opposite was seen for adults. These contrasting profiles of adolescent resilience (blunted subjective, memory, physiological and psychotomimetic effects) and vulnerability (lack of satiety, impaired inhibitory processes) show some degree of translation from preclinical findings, and may contribute to escalated cannabis use by human adolescents. PMID:27898071

  13. Developing an attitude towards bullying scale for prisoners: structural analyses across adult men, young adults and women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; Power, Christina L; Bramhall, Sarah; Flowers, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to explore attitudes towards bullying among prisoners, despite acknowledgement that attitudes may play an important role. To evaluate the structure of a new attitudinal scale, the Prison Bullying Scale (PBS), with adult men and women in prison and with young male prisoners. That attitudes would be represented as a multidimensional construct and that the PBS structure would be replicated across confirmatory samples. The PBS was developed and confirmed across four independent studies using item parceling and confirmatory factor analysis: Study I comprised 412 adult male prisoners; Study II, 306 adult male prisoners; Study III, 171 male young offenders; and Study IV, 148 adult women prisoners. Attitudes were represented as a multidimensional construct comprising seven core factors. The exploratory analysis was confirmed in adult male samples, with some confirmation among young offenders and adult women. The fit for young offenders was adequate and improved by factor covariance. The fit for women was the poorest overall. The study notes the importance of developing ecologically valid measures and statistically testing these measures prior to their clinical or research use. The development of the PBS holds value both as an assessment and as a research measure and remains the only ecologically validated measure in existence to assess prisoner attitudes towards bullying.

  14. Dominance relationships among siamang males living in multimale groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Intense intolerance among males is considered to be an important mechanism maintaining the uni-male organization traditionally attributed to socially monogamous gibbons. Long-term field work, however, has revealed the existence of stable, socially polyandrous groups in at least two populations, raising questions about the mechanism that allows two adult males to co-reside in the same group. I collected 21 months of behavioral data on 7 two-male groups of wild siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) in southern Sumatra (Indonesia) to test the hypothesis that dominance relationships regulate the interactions of adult male siamangs and ultimately facilitate multi-male social groups. A dominant male could clearly be identified in each dyad, based on a consistent direction of agonistic interactions, displacements and the maintenance of an advantageous position in the canopy. Males identified as dominant enjoyed greater social access to the resident female and monopolized copulations. These results suggest that gibbons possess the psycho-social flexibility to regulate intra-sexual aggression and live in multi-male social units under certain social conditions. I discuss the effects that relatedness between males and female choice have in determining this grouping pattern, and the role of male intolerance in the maintenance of primate mating systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of testosterone dose on spatial memory among castrated adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Benjamin A; Braddick, Valerie C; Batson, Christopher G; Cullen, Brendan H; Miller, L Erin; Spritzer, Mark D

    2018-03-01

    Previous research on the activational effects of testosterone on spatial memory has produced mixed results, possibly because such effects are dose-dependent. We tested a wide range of testosterone doses using two spatial memory tasks: a working-reference memory version of the radial-arm maze (RAM) and an object location memory task (OLMT). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated or sham-castrated and given daily injections of drug vehicle (Oil Sham and Oil GDX) or one of four doses of testosterone propionate (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, and 1.000 mg T) beginning seven days before the first day of behavioral tests and continuing throughout testing. For the RAM, four arms of the maze were consistently baited on each day of testing. Testosterone had a significant effect on working memory on the RAM, with the Oil Sham, 0.125 mg T, and 0.500 mg T groups performing better than the Oil GDX group. In contrast, there was no significant effect of testosterone on spatial reference memory on the RAM. For the OLMT, we tested long-term memory using a 2 h inter-trial interval between first exposure to two identical objects and re-exposure after one object had been moved. Only the 0.125 and 0.500 mg T groups showed a significant increase in exploration of the moved object during the testing trials, indicating better memory than all other groups. Testosterone replacement restored spatial memory among castrated male rats on both behavioral tasks, but there was a complex dose-response relationship; therefore, the therapeutic value of testosterone is likely sensitive to dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  17. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Esther D; Dorn, August

    2004-11-01

    The male germline stem cells (GSCs) of the milkweed bug present an extraordinary structural polarity that is, to our knowledge, unequalled by any other type of stem cells. They consist of a perikaryon and numerous projections arising from the cell pole directed toward the apical cells, the proposed niche of the GSCs. The projections can traverse a considerable distance until their terminals touch the apical cells. From hatching until death, the GSC projections undergo conspicuous changes, the sequence of which has been deduced from observations of all developmental stages. Projection formation starts from lobular cell protrusions showing trabecular ingrowths of the cell membrane. Finger-like projections result from a process of growth and "carving out". The newly formed projections contain mostly only free ribosomes other than a few mitochondria. A stereotyped degradation process commences in the projection terminals: profiles of circular, often concentric, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum appear and turn into myelin bodies, whereas mitochondria become more numerous. The cytoplasm vesiculates, lysosomal bodies appear, and mitochondria become swollen. At the same time, the projection terminals are segregated by transverse ingrowths of the cell membrane. Finally, autophagic vacuoles and myelin bodies fill the segregated terminals, which then rupture. Simultaneously, new projections seem to sprout from the perikaryon of the GSCs. These dynamics, which are not synchronized among the GSCs, indicate that a novel type of signal exchange and transduction between the stem cells and their niche is involved in the regulation of asymmetric versus symmetric division of GSCs.

  18. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  19. Perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David

    2015-01-01

    Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour.

  20. Euphausiid population structure and grazing in the Antarctic Polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily ration estimates of autotrophic carbon for the euphausiids suggest that phytoplankton represent a minor component in their diets, with only the sub-adult E. vallentini consuming sufficient phytoplankton to meet their daily carbon requirements. Keywords: euphausiid; ingestion; Polar Frontal Zone; population ...

  1. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  2. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on `Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantit...

  3. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. PoLAR Voices: Informing Adult Learners about the Science and Story of Climate Change in the Polar Regions Through Audio Podcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinney, A.; Murray, M. S.; Gobroski, K. A.; Topp, R. M.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The resurgence of audio programming with the advent of podcasting in the early 2000s spawned a new medium for communicating advances in science, research, and technology. To capitalize on this informal educational outlet, the Arctic Institute of North America partnered with the International Arctic Research Center, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the UA Museum of the North to develop a podcast series called PoLAR Voices for the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership. PoLAR Voices is a public education initiative that uses creative storytelling and novel narrative structures to immerse the listener in an auditory depiction of climate change. The programs will feature the science and story of climate change, approaching topics from both the points of view of researchers and Arctic indigenous peoples. This approach will engage the listener in the holistic story of climate change, addressing both scientific and personal perspectives, resulting in a program that is at once educational, entertaining and accessible. Feedback is being collected at each stage of development to ensure the content and format of the program satisfies listener interests and preferences. Once complete, the series will be released on thepolarhub.org and on iTunes. Additionally, blanket distribution of the programs will be accomplished via radio broadcast in urban, rural and remote areas, and in multiple languages to increase distribution and enhance accessibility.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation in size of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sexual organs and its use in pollution and climate change studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W; Riget, Frank F; Leifsson, Pall S; Bechshøft, Thea Ø; Kirkegaard, Maja

    2007-11-15

    Sexual organs and their development are susceptible to atmospheric transported environmental xenoendocrine pollutants and climate change (food availability). We therefore investigated sexual organs from 55 male and 44 female East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to obtain information about growth/size and sexual maturity. Then, the genitalia size was compared with those previously reported from Canadian and Svalbard polar bears. Growth models showed that East Greenland male polar bears reached sexual maturity around 7 years of age and females around 4 years of age. When comparing East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears, the size of baculum and uterus were significantly lower in the East Greenland polar bears (ANOVA: all p polar bears, a similar baculum pattern was found for East Greenland vs. Canadian polar bears. It is speculated whether this could be a result of the general high variation in polar bear body size, temporal distribution patterns of anthropogenic long-range transported persistent organic pollutants or climate change (decreasing food availability). The present investigation represents conservation and background data for future spatial and temporal assessments of hunting, pollution and climate change scenarios.

  6. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  7. The International Polar Year in Portugal: A New National Polar Programme and a Major Education and Outreach project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Victor, L.; Vieira, G.; Xavier, J.; Canario, A.

    2008-12-01

    Before the International Polar Year, in Portugal polar research was conducted by a very small group of scientists integrated in foreign projects or research institutions. Portugal was not member of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the European Polar Board (EPB), neither a subscriber of the Antarctic Treaty. In 2004 Portuguese Polar researchers considered the IPY as an opportunity to change this situation and organized the national Committee for the IPY. The objectives were ambitious: to answer the aforementioned issues in defining and proposing a National Polar Programme. In late 2008, close to the end of the IPY, the objectives were attained, except the Antarctic Treaty signature that is, however, in an advanced stage, having been approved by consensus at the National Parliament in early 2007. Portugal joined SCAR in July 2006, the EPB in 2007 and a set of 5 Antarctic research projects forming the roots of the National Polar Programme (ProPolar) have been approved by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT-MCTES). Scientifically, the IPY can already be considered a major success in Portugal with an improvement in polar scientific research, in the number of scientists performing field work in the Antarctic, organizing polar science meetings and producing an expected increase in the number of polar science peer- reviewed papers. The Portuguese IPY scientific activities were accompanied by a major education and outreach project funded by the Agencia Ciência Viva (MCTES): LATITUDE60! Education for the Planet in the IPY. This project lead by the universities of Algarve, Lisbon and by the Portuguese Association of Geography Teachers is heavily interdisciplinary, programmed for all ages, from kindergarten to adults, and hoped to bring together scientists and society. LATITUDE60! was a major success and focussed on showing the importance of the polar regions for Earth's environment, emphasising on the implications of polar change for

  8. Coffee consumption and periodontal disease in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nathan; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul I

    2014-08-01

    Coffee is a major dietary source of antioxidants as well as of other anti-inflammatory factors. Given the beneficial role of such factors in periodontal disease, whether coffee intake is associated with periodontal disease in adult males was explored. Existing data collected by a prospective, closed-panel cohort study of aging and oral health in adult males was used. Participants included the 1,152 dentate males in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Dental Longitudinal Study who presented for comprehensive medical and dental examinations from 1968 to 1998. Mean age at baseline was 48 years; males were followed for up to 30 years. Participants are not VA patients; rather, they receive their medical and dental care in the private sector. Periodontal status was assessed by probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, and radiographic alveolar bone loss (ABL), measured on intraoral periapical radiographs with a modified Schei ruler method. Moderate-to-severe periodontal disease was defined as cumulative numbers of teeth exhibiting PD ≥4 mm or ABL ≥40%. Coffee intake was obtained from participant self-reports using the Cornell Medical Index and food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate repeated-measures generalized linear models estimated mean number of teeth with moderate-to-severe disease at each examination by coffee intake level. It was found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a small but significant reduction in number of teeth with periodontal bone loss. No evidence was found that coffee consumption was harmful to periodontal health. Coffee consumption may be protective against periodontal bone loss in adult males.

  9. Genetic and Cytogenetic Basis of Radiation-Induced Sterility in the Adult Male Cabbage Looper Trichoplusia Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, D. T.; Holt, G. G. [Metabolism and Radiation Research Laboratory, Entomology Research Division, ARS, United States Department of Agriculture, Fargo, ND (United States)

    1968-06-15

    The relationship of egg hatch as a function of radiation dose is of a two-hit nature when irradiated adult males are mated to non-irradiated virgin females. Sterility as a function of dose is usually linear in insects. However, other species of moths respond similarly to irradiation, so it is indicative that the mechanism involved in producing sterility in Lepidoptera is basically different from that in other insects. The significance of the two-hit kinetics is discussed in relation to the chromosome structure and possible mechanisms for the induction of sterility in Lepidoptera. Many workers using Lepidoptera have reported that females mated to irradiated males oviposit substantially fewer eggs than normally. This response has been correlated to a lack of sperm transfer by irradiated males, even though they pass a spermatophore. The phenomenon is dose-dependent. Although Lepidoptera are far more radioresistant than other insect species when measured by the induction of sterility in the male, there appears to be very little difference when longevity is used as the criterion. The radiation dose required to reduce the lifespan of a newly emerged cabbage looper male by 50% was found to be approximately the same as that for the house fly. High doses of radiation have no immediate effect on the mating behaviour of the irradiated male. With a recessive eye-colour mutant as a sperm marker, it was determined in tests utilizing double matings that the second mating is the effective mating. Sperm mixing is not prevalent; rather it appears to be a 'sperm flushing' phenomenon in that sperm from the first mating are displaced by sperm from the second mating. Radiation studies with the cabbage looper have demonstrated that the progeny of a cross where the male parent receives a sub-sterilizing dose of gamma radiation are often semi-sterile when mated to non-irradiated individuals. The amount of inherited sterility is directly dependent on the amount of radiation given the

  10. What is the impingement-free range of motion of the asymptomatic hip in young adult males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Brian; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Koueiter, Denise; Zaltz, Ira

    2015-04-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement is a recognized cause of chondrolabral injury. Although surgical treatment for impingement seeks to improve range of motion, there are very little normative data on dynamic impingement-free hip range of motion (ROM) in asymptomatic people. Hip ultrasound demonstrates labral anatomy and femoral morphology and, when used dynamically, can assist in measuring range of motion. The purposes of this study were (1) to measure impingement-free hip ROM until labral deflection is observed; and (2) to measure the maximum degree of sagittal plane hip flexion when further flexion is limited by structural femoroacetabular abutment. Forty asymptomatic adult male volunteers (80 hips) between the ages of 21 and 35 years underwent bilateral static and dynamic hip ultrasound examination. Femoral morphology was characterized and midsagittal flexion passive ROM was measured at two points: (1) at the initiation of labral deformation; and (2) at maximum flexion when the femur impinged on the acetabular rim. The mean age of the subjects was 28 ± 3 years and the mean body mass index was 25 ± 4 kg/m(2). Mean impingement-free hip passive flexion measured from full extension to initial labral deflection was 68° ± 17° (95% confidence interval [CI], 65-72). Mean maximum midsagittal passive flexion, measured at the time of bony impingement, was 96° ± 6° (95% CI, 95-98). Using dynamic ultrasound, we found that passive ROM in the asymptomatic hip was much less than the motion reported in previous studies. Measuring ROM using ultrasound is more accurate because it allows anatomic confirmation of terminal hip motion. Surgical procedures used to treat femoroacetabular impingement are designed to restore or increase hip ROM and their results should be evaluated in light of precise normative data. This study suggests that normal passive impingement-free femoroacetabular flexion in the young adult male is approximately 95°.

  11. The protective role of melatonin on L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, A S; Khattab, R T

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease that has an increasing incidence worldwide. AP is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates ranging 15-40% in its severe form. Oxidative stress plays an important role in pancreatic acinar cell injury in case of AP. Melatonin (Mel) is proven to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the work was to investigate the protective role of Mel against L-arginine (L-arg)-induced AP in adult male albino rats. Thirty-six adult male albino rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into four groups; Control group (Group A; n = 6), Mel group (Group B; n = 6), L-arg group (Group C; n = 12) receiving two doses of L-arg injection with 1 h interval in-between, and L-arg+Mel group (Group D; n = 12) receiving Mel 1 h after each L-arg injection. 24 h after the second L-arg injection, the serum levels of amylase (AM), lipase (LP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined. Then, pancreatic specimens were processed for histological and immunohistochemical staining with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the area percentage of VEGF and collagen content were measured by digital image analysis. Microscopic examination revealed that animals received L-arg only (Group C) showed loss of the pancreatic lobular architecture with marked fibrosis, acinar degeneration, inflammatory reaction and marked oedema with vascular congestion. Also, L-arg-induced AP caused a significant elevation of the serum levels of AM, LP, IL-6. All these histo-pathological and serological parameters were markedly improved by Mel administration. Melatonin exhibits strong therapeutic effects in the course of AP. Hence, the use of Mel as adjuvant treatment in AP is recommended.

  12. Generational differences in male sexuality that may affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine generational differences in male sexuality, which could predispose men's female sexual partners to STDs/HlV. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Harare, Zimbabwe. Subjects: Three hundred and ninety seven male adults aged eighteen years and above. Main outcome measures: Number of ...

  13. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Mark D; Fox, Elliott C; Larsen, Gregory D; Batson, Christopher G; Wagner, Benjamin A; Maher, Jack

    2013-05-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats' strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of celioscopy and histological examinations to assess male gonadal health and functionality in adults and immature wild raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogliero, Andrea; Rossi, Giacomo; Mauthe von Degerfeld, Mitzy; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Rota, Ada

    2017-10-15

    Celioscopy is routinely used in birds for sex determination and diagnostic purposes. Aim of this work was to validate celioscopy for the assessment of male gonads functionality in wild raptors, comparing the results of direct observation with morphometrical and histological characteristics. The work was done at the 'Centro Animali Non Convenzionali' of the University of Turin, Italy, on 31 endoscopically evaluated raptors that died or were euthanized. Through celioscopic observation, the birds were classified in adults or immatures and maturity categories were defined according to the adrenal-gonad size ratio and to the degree of blood filling of testicular vessels. The gonads were removed immediately after death/euthanasia and measured. Albuginea tunic thickness, diameter of seminiferous tubules, number of meiosis figures, tubular development degree, tubular degeneration degree and germinal cells production degree were evaluated. Testicular size tended to increase from immature to adult birds and from 'out of' to 'in' breeding season; albuginea tunic thickness tended to be higher out of the reproductive season while diameter of the seminiferous tubules, germinative epithelium thickness and number of meiosis figures were higher in the breeding season. In season adults generally showed higher values in tubular development and germinal cells production, and lower degrees of tubular cells degeneration and fibrosis. From the interpretation of all the morphometrical and histological aspects, a general reproductive degree of activity was given to the birds and compared with celioscopic results. A perfect concordance was found in 23 out of 31 cases and a good concordance in six ones; histology could describe obviously better sub-clinical conditions undetectable at direct observation. These preliminary results suggest that celioscopy could be a useful tool to assess male gonads functionality in wild raptors, with the future goal to select the better potential semen donors

  15. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Eun

    2018-04-01

    Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008-December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07-1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence ( P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking.

  16. EEG power and coherence while male adults watch emotional video films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellberg, D; Besthorn, C; Klos, T; Gasser, T

    1990-10-01

    Quantitative EEG analysis recorded at F3, F4, T3, T4, P3, P4 was performed for a group of healthy right-handed male adults (n = 9) viewing video films varying in their inductiveness on the affective valence dimension. Digital EOG-correction permitted the inclusion of trials with eye movements. Muscle artifacts were statistically treated by means of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The configuration of topographically motivated EEG parameters corresponded to the subjective valence rating of different video films. Low broad band coherences (COHs) ranked films along the subjective ratings within each hemisphere by the fronto-temporal COHs and interhemispherically by the T4-T3 COH, as did, restricted to the right hemisphere, similarity of beta 2 band power topography over time. High frequencies may be involved in the processing and low frequencies in the transmission of differential affective information, which to integrate seemed to utilize resources of both hemispheres. Alpha 2 and beta 1 COHs were sensitive to variations in an integrality/disassociation dimension with regard to the arrangement of verbal-visual affective cues. Power fluctuations at frontal leads pointed to difficulties in interpreting interhemispheric EEG asymmetries in emotion research, if information on time dynamics is discarded.

  17. Maturation of polarization and luminance contrast sensitivities in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartron, Lelia; Dickel, Ludovic; Shashar, Nadav; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie

    2013-06-01

    Polarization sensitivity is a characteristic of the visual system of cephalopods. It has been well documented in adult cuttlefish, which use polarization sensitivity in a large range of tasks such as communication, orientation and predation. Because cuttlefish do not benefit from parental care, their visual system (including the ability to detect motion) must be efficient from hatching to enable them to detect prey or predators. We studied the maturation and functionality of polarization sensitivity in newly hatched cuttlefish. In a first experiment, we examined the response of juvenile cuttlefish from hatching to the age of 1 month towards a moving, vertically oriented grating (contrasting and polarized stripes) using an optomotor response apparatus. Cuttlefish showed differences in maturation of polarization versus luminance contrast motion detection. In a second experiment, we examined the involvement of polarization information in prey preference and detection in cuttlefish of the same age. Cuttlefish preferentially chose not to attack transparent prey whose polarization contrast had been removed with a depolarizing filter. Performances of prey detection based on luminance contrast improved with age. Polarization contrast can help cuttlefish detect transparent prey. Our results suggest that polarization is not a simple modulation of luminance information, but rather that it is processed as a distinct channel of visual information. Both luminance and polarization sensitivity are functional, though not fully matured, in newly hatched cuttlefish and seem to help in prey detection.

  18. Effect of obesity on oxygen uptake and cardiovascular dynamics during whole-body and leg exercise in adult males and females.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Green, Simon

    2018-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with a slowing of V˙O2 dynamics in children and adolescents, but this problem has not been studied in adults. Cardiovascular mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. In this study, 48 adults (18 males, 30 females) grouped according to body mass index (BMI) (lean < 25 kg·m-2 , overweight = 25-29.9 kg·m-2 , obese ≥30 kg·m-2 ) provided a fasting blood sample, completed a maximal graded exercise test and six bouts of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, and performed two protocols of calf exercise. Dynamic response characteristics of V˙O2 and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were assessed during cycling (80% ventilatory threshold) and calf exercise (30% MVC), respectively. Dynamic responses of cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and total systemic vascular conductance were also assessed during cycling based on measurements at 30 and 240 sec. The time constant of the second phase of the V˙O2 response was significantly greater in obese than lean subjects (39.4 (9.2) vs. 29.1 (7.6) sec); whereas dynamic responses of cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance were not affected by BMI. For calf exercise, the time constant of the second growth phase of LVC was slowed significantly in obese subjects (22.1 (12.7) sec) compared with lean and overweight subjects (11.6 (4.5) sec and 13.4 (6.7) sec). These data show that obesity slows dynamic responses of V˙O2 during cycling and the slower phase of vasodilation in contracting muscles of male and female adults.

  19. Incomplete urethral duplication in an adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-09-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly with less than 200 cases reported. It predominantly occurs in males and is nearly always diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. It is defined as a complete second passage from the bladder to the dorsum of the penis or as an accessory pathway that ends blindly on the dorsal or ventral surface.

  20. Development of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Brachyura: Portunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Aparecida do Nascimento

    Full Text Available This study describes the histology and histochemistry of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus, comparing juvenile and adult developmental stages. We also analyzed changes in the gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, and the weights of the testis and vas deferens during the development. The results showed that all stages, beginning with the juvenile (JUV, through developing (DEV and mature (MAT adult males of C. ornatus produce sperm and spermatophores. During development, testicular lobes showed the same characteristics of production and release of sperm into the seminiferous duct. The vas deferens showed little histological and histochemical change in the epithelium in juvenile and adult males. The differences consisted of the larger amount of secretion in MAT males compared to JUV and DEV ones. The chemical composition of the seminal fluid was similar, but MAT males produced a more homogeneous secretion. Morphological and physiological maturation are not synchronized in C. ornatus, since JUV males produced spermatophores similar to those in DEV and MAT males. However, these JUV are not yet able to reproduce, since they still have the abdomen attached to the cephalothoracic sternum. The increase of the GSI during development was significant for MAT males, and is related to the production of sufficient volume of seminal fluid to form the sperm "plug" in the female seminal receptacle. The HSI decreased from DEV to MAT adult stages, indicating that reserves from the hepatopancreas are used to develop the reproductive system after the pubertal molt.

  1. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Mepham, Kathryn, E-mail: katherine.mepham@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Sebag, Igal A., E-mail: igal.sebag@mcgill.ca [Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  2. The ethical concerns of using medical male circumcision in HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that medical male circumcision raises ethical questions among implementers .... the 'adult-adult model' which facilitates effective communication between the .... HIV prevention through the media, men from non-circumcising societies could ...

  3. Maternal High-Fat and High-Salt Diets Have Differential Programming Effects on Metabolism in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl, high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl, high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet and were culled on postnatal day 130 for plasma and tissue collection. Adipocyte histology and adipose tissue, liver, and gut gene expression were examined in adult male offspring. HF offspring had significantly greater body weight, impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperleptinemia compared to CD offspring, but these increases were blunted in HFSD offspring. HF offspring had moderate adipocyte hypertrophy and increased expression of the pre-adipocyte marker Dlk1. There was a significant effect of maternal salt with increased hepatic expression of Dgat1 and Igfb2. Gut expression of inflammatory (Il1r1, Tnfα, Il6, and Il6r and renin–angiotensin system (Agtr1a, Agtr1b markers was significantly reduced in HFSD offspring compared to HF offspring. Therefore, salt mitigates some adverse offspring outcomes associated with a maternal HF diet, which may be mediated by altered adipose tissue morphology and gut inflammatory and renin–angiotensin regulation.

  4. Evaluation of the safety of the Taraklamp male circumcision device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Male circumcision has been proved to be an effective additional means of preventing transmission of the HIV virus from females to males in heterosexual relationships with efficacy of up to 60%. Many methods and devices for adult male circumcision have now been developed. However, there are still concerns ...

  5. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Its prevalence is on the increase, being as high as 23.7% among adult citizens. Misconceptions and wrong beliefs regarding DM and its management among those attending primary health care centres (PHCCs) can result in poor control, ...

  6. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Robson Brown, K [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  7. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  8. Sexual Dysfunction in Males: Significance of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 301 male college students found that occasional sexual dysfunction was frequent in young male adults, and long-lasting adverse familial relationships to attachment figures were more influential in later sexual dysfunction than were childhood sexual abuse experiences. (Author/DB)

  9. Allee effect in polar bears: A potential consequence of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlová, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Dietz, R.; Sonne, C.; Grimm, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1843 (2016), č. článku 20161883. ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : allee effect * polychlorinated biphenyls * polar bears * male reproduction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016

  10. Xenoendocrine pollutants may reduce size of sexual organs in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Páll Skuli; Dietz, Rune

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive organs from 55 male and 44 female East Greenland polar bears were examined to investigate the potential negative impact from organohalogen pollutants (OHCs). Multiple regressions normalizing for age showed a significant inverse relationship between OHCs and testis length and baculum.......01) and uterine horn length and HCB (p = 0.02). The study suggests thatthere is an impact from xenoendocrine pollutants on the size of East Greenland polar bear genitalia. This may pose a riskto this polar bear subpopulation in the future because of reduced sperm and egg quality/quantity and uterus and penis size...

  11. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloko Matshipi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  12. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, Erich H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  13. Polarization of lanthanum nucleus by dynamic polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshikazu; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Kimio

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been carried out concerning the application of a dynamic polarization method to polarizing lanthanum fluoride single crystal to be employed as target in experiments with time reversal invariance. The present report briefly outlines the dynamic polarization method and describes some preliminary studies carried out so far. Dynamic polarization is of particular importance because no techniques are currently available that can produce highly polarized static nucleus. Spin interaction between electrons and protons (nuclei) plays a major role in the dynamic polarization method. In a thermal equilibrium state, electrons are polarized almost completely while most protons are not polarized. Positively polarized proton spin is produced by applying microwave to this system. The most hopeful candidate target material is single crystal of LaF 3 containing neodymium because the crystal is chemically stable and easy to handle. The spin direction is of great importance in experiments with time reversal invariance. The spin of neutrons in the target can be cancelled by adjusting the external magnetic field applied to a frozen polarized target. In a frozen spin state, the polarity decreases slowly with a relaxation time that depends on the external magnetic field and temperature. (N.K.)

  14. Life-long Maternal Cafeteria Diet Promotes Tissue-Specific Morphological Changes in Male Offspring Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLYNE D.S. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we evaluated whether the exposure of rats to a cafeteria diet pre- and/or post-weaning, alters histological characteristics in the White Adipose Tissue (WAT, Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT, and liver of adult male offspring. Female Wistar rats were divided into Control (CTL; fed on standard rodent chow and Cafeteria (CAF; fed with the cafeteria diet throughout life, including pregnancy and lactation. After birth, only male offspring (F1 were maintained and received the CTL or CAF diets; originating four experimental groups: CTL-CTLF1; CTL-CAFF1; CAF-CTLF1; CAF-CAFF1. Data of biometrics, metabolic parameters, liver, BAT and WAT histology were assessed and integrated using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. According to PCA analysis worse metabolic and biometric characteristics in adulthood are associated with the post-weaning CAF diet compared to pre and post weaning CAF diet. Thus, the CTL-CAFF1 group showed obesity, higher deposition of fat in the liver and BAT and high fasting plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Interestingly, the association between pre and post-weaning CAF diet attenuated the obesity and improved the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides compared to CTL-CAFF1 without avoiding the higher lipid accumulation in BAT and in liver, suggesting that the impact of maternal CAF diet is tissue-specific.

  15. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  16. Self-regulation strategies of white young adult male students who grew up with emotionally absent fathers / Dirk Wouter Jacobus Ackermann

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Dirk Wouter Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    Young men who grew up with emotionally absent fathers seem to find it difficult to attain equilibrium through dedication to both personal and relational concerns, probably because they tend to have low self-esteem, struggle to establish intimate relationships and may be at greater risk of engaging in antisocial or violent behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore the self-regulation strategies that white young adult male students employ to deal with the emotions and cognitions related t...

  17. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008–December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12–2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07–1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence (P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking. PMID:29629034

  18. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  19. Gender-disturbed males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S B

    1993-01-01

    Adolescent and adult cross-dressing or "transvestism" is the most common antecedent behavioral pattern among those who request sex reassignment surgery. Transvestites are actually a diverse group of men who differ in their gender identities, orientation, and intention. They do, however, have in common a soothing image of themselves as women. Because of this, whether cross-dressing occurs among masculine or feminine males or heterosexuals, homosexuals, bisexuals, or asexuals, or among those with paraphilia, the behavior should be considered the expression of their consciously felt femininity. The confusing differences among cross-dressing males may be explained by their diversity along three dimensions: 1) the ambition for heterosexual intercourse; 2) the natural history of their sexual arousal to female clothing; 3) their current capacity to integrate their masculine and feminine strivings into separate compartments. When cross-dressers give up all vestiges of male gender role behaviors and successfully live and work full time as women, the appropriate descriptive term for them becomes "transsexual."

  20. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  1. Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Nigella sativa Linn (NsL oil against subacute tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in adult male albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control group; 30 rats equally subdivided into: Ia; −ve control group, Ib; +ve control group received saline, Ic; +ve control group received corn oil. Group II: 10 rats received NsL oil; 1 mg/kg in 1 ml corn oil/day, group III: 10 rats received tramadol; 30 mg/kg/day, group IV: 10 rats received tramadol + NsL oil in the previous doses. Treatments were given by gavage for 30 days. Then rats were sacrificed and specimens from the livers and kidneys were taken for biochemical and histopathological study. Biochemical data showed elevated liver enzymes; alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, bilirubin as well as urea and creatinine in tramadol group. A significant increase in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels were also noticed. Histological analysis of the liver showed vacuolated hepatocyte cytoplasm indicating hydropic degeneration with binucleated cells, apoptotic nuclei, congested central veins, cellular infiltration and hemorrhage. Kidney sections revealed atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts and wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules, hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration. There was also an increase in area % of collagen fibers in both organs. Concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol induced partial improvement in the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects. In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential.

  2. Prenatal Metformin Therapy Attenuates Hypertension of Developmental Origin in Male Adult Offspring Exposed to Maternal High-Fructose and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Widespread consumption of a Western diet, comprised of highly refined carbohydrates and fat, may play a role in the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can take origin from early life. Metformin is the preferred treatment for type 2 diabetes. We examined whether prenatal metformin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose plus post-weaning high-fat diets-induced hypertension of developmental origins via regulation of nutrient sensing signals, uric acid, oxidative stress, and the nitric oxide (NO pathway. Gestating Sprague–Dawley rats received regular chow (ND or chow supplemented with 60% fructose diet (HFR throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were onto either the ND or high-fat diet (HFA from weaning to 12 weeks of age. A total of 40 male offspring were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HFR/ND, ND/HFA, HFR/HFA, and HFR/HFA+metformin. Metformin (500 mg/kg/day was administered via gastric gavage for three weeks during the pregnancy period. Combined maternal HFR plus post-weaning HFA induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which prenatal metformin therapy prevented. The protective effects of prenatal metformin therapy on HFR/HFA-induced hypertension, including downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system, decrease in uric acid level, and reduction of oxidative stress. Our results highlighted that the programming effects of metformin administered prenatally might be different from those reported in adults, and that deserves further elucidation.

  3. Eye contrast polarity is critical for face recognition by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Hill, Harold C; Kobayashi, Megumi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2013-07-01

    Just as faces share the same basic arrangement of features, with two eyes above a nose above a mouth, human eyes all share the same basic contrast polarity relations, with a sclera lighter than an iris and a pupil, and this is unique among primates. The current study examined whether this bright-dark relationship of sclera to iris plays a critical role in face recognition from early in development. Specifically, we tested face discrimination in 7- and 8-month-old infants while independently manipulating the contrast polarity of the eye region and of the rest of the face. This gave four face contrast polarity conditions: fully positive condition, fully negative condition, positive face with negated eyes ("negative eyes") condition, and negated face with positive eyes ("positive eyes") condition. In a familiarization and novelty preference procedure, we found that 7- and 8-month-olds could discriminate between faces only when the contrast polarity of the eyes was preserved (positive) and that this did not depend on the contrast polarity of the rest of the face. This demonstrates the critical role of eye contrast polarity for face recognition in 7- and 8-month-olds and is consistent with previous findings for adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  5. Free-ranging male koalas use size-related variation in formant frequencies to assess rival males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Although the use of formant frequencies in nonhuman animal vocal communication systems has received considerable recent interest, only a few studies have examined the importance of these acoustic cues to body size during intra-sexual competition between males. Here we used playback experiments to present free-ranging male koalas with re-synthesised bellow vocalisations in which the formants were shifted to simulate either a large or a small adult male. We found that male looking responses did not differ according to the size variant condition played back. In contrast, male koalas produced longer bellows and spent more time bellowing when they were presented with playbacks simulating larger rivals. In addition, males were significantly slower to respond to this class of playback stimuli than they were to bellows simulating small males. Our results indicate that male koalas invest more effort into their vocal responses when they are presented with bellows that have lower formants indicative of larger rivals, but also show that males are slower to engage in vocal exchanges with larger males that represent more dangerous rivals. By demonstrating that male koalas use formants to assess rivals during the breeding season we have provided evidence that male-male competition constitutes an important selection pressure for broadcasting and attending to size-related formant information in this species. Further empirical studies should investigate the extent to which the use of formants during intra-sexual competition is widespread throughout mammals.

  6. Sexualities on the Move: A Comparison of the Work Experiences of Gay Male Educators Teaching Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzi, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper expands on the extant research on gay male educators by comparing two research projects on such educators who taught in international settings. One study focused on five gay, male, adult educators who relocated to Canada from countries in the Global South and the second study focused on eight gay, male, adult educators who relocated to…

  7. Young-Adult Male Rats’ Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Pérez José Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal’s vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals’ body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests; meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1 did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2 decreased body weight gain; and (3 increased the rat’s entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats’ vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors.

  8. Studies on the bionomics of male Anopheles gambiae Giles and male Anopheles funestus Giles from southern Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlwood, J D

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the fitness of wild male mosquitoes, the females of which are vectors of malaria. The problem of studying male biology has been exacerbated by difficulties associated with catching them. In southern Mozambique, however, almost the entire adult population of An. funestus and An...... strategies of sterile or genetically modified mosquitoes....

  9. Life history in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): physical development, dominance rank, and group association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A

    2006-12-01

    We assess life history from birth to death in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semifree-ranging colony in Gabon, using data collected for 82 males that attained at least the age of puberty, including 33 that reached adulthood and 25 that died, yielding data for their entire lifespan. We describe patterns of mortality and injuries, dominance rank, group association, growth and stature, and secondary sexual character expression across the male lifespan. We examine relationships among these variables and investigate potential influences on male life history, including differences in the social environment (maternal rank and group demography) and early development, with the aim of identifying characteristics of successful males. Sons of higher-ranking females were more likely to survive to adulthood than sons of low-ranking females. Adolescent males varied consistently in the rate at which they developed, and this variation was related to a male's own dominance rank. Males with fewer peers and sons of higher-ranking and heavier mothers also matured faster. However, maternal variables were not significantly related to dominance rank during adolescence, the age at which males attained adult dominance rank, or whether a male became alpha male. Among adult males, behavior and morphological development were related to a male's own dominance rank, and sons of high-ranking females were larger than sons of low-ranking females. Alpha males were always the most social, and the most brightly colored males, but were not necessarily the largest males present. Finally, alpha male tenure was related to group demography, with larger numbers of rival adult males and maturing adolescent males reducing the time a male spent as alpha male. Tenure did not appear to be related to characteristics of the alpha male himself. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The Effect of Myrtus communis Extract on Liver Enzymes and Blood Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out experimentally and completely random. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided in 7 groups including: control which received no treatment, sham who received 2 mL of distilled water, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd experimental groups which received 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Myrtus communis leaf extract respectively, the 4th experimental group as the diabetic control group who received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and the 5th experimental group as the diabetic treatment group who received 3 mg/kg of extract. This experiment lasted 14 days with prescript orally. After this period, all the rats, were weighted, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart centrifuged and sera were evaluated for the concentration of various factors. In addition liver were removed and sliced. Results: According to the obtained results, the plasma concentration of liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol and glucose presented a significant decrease at (p≤0.05. Whereas no significant change were seen in body weight, triglyceride, urea, albumin and total protein. Histological studies of the liver tissue showed no significant difference among various groups. Conclusion: Myrtus communis is comprise of collections of flavonoids and other various components with antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Thence it can effective in treatment of liver diseases and decrease of blood sugar and cholesterol in diabetes mellitus patients.

  11. Rapid, minimally invasive adult voluntary male circumcision: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a priority HIV preventive intervention. To facilitate VMMC scale-up, the World Health Organization is seeking circumcision techniques that are faster, easier, and safer than open surgical methods. Objective. To compare open surgical circumcision with suturing v.

  12. Correlation of Index Finger Length (2D with Height, Weight and BMI in Adult Bangladeshi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rezwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human hand is one of the most versatile parts of the human body which plays an important role in modern medical science and evolutionary biology. By virtue of evolution and genetic arrangements, digital lengths vary from person to person according to age, sex, races, occupation or even environmental influences. It has been found that the digital lengths and their ratios are not same in different sexes and even in both hands of same individual. Specially, index to ring digit lengths and their ratios which already have been proved to represent sexual dimorphism may differ in both hands of an individual and show positive correlations with other morphological attributes like height, weight and BMI. Objectives: To analyze the variation of index finger (2D length and its correlation with height, weight and BMI in adult Bangladeshi male. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013 on 100 male MBBS students (20−25 years of age. With the help of digital vernier caliper measurements of index finger length (2D was recorded. Height and weight were measured by the stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. BMI was calculated from height and weight. Pearson’s correlation analysis was done to find out the correlation of index finger length with height, weight and BMI. Results: Significant correlation has been found between the lengths of index fingers (2D and height (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, we found variation in index finger lengths of both hands of Bangladeshi male subjects, which needs further study and comparison.

  13. Does Halitosis Effect Sexual Life in Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Halitosis is an unpleasant alteration of the halitus. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of sexual life of males with and without halitosis. Material and Method: Males between 20-50 years old; with a complaint of halitosis; married and able to complete the study were included in the study. The control group were healthy, adult, married males who have normal otorhinolaryngologic examination. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire(IIEF were used to assess the quality of sexual life  of males with halitosis and the results were compared with a similar group of healthy men. Results: A total of 80 adult subjects completed the study. When the groups were compared in terms of age, body mass index(BMI and duration of marriage, they were similar (p=0.65, p= 0.20, p= 0.08 respectively.The halitosis group had significantly lower scores for all function domains (p=0.0001.There was no correlation between degree of halitosis and the scores of IIEF (p< 0.05. Discussion: This is the first study investigating the sexual health of males with halitosis. Halitosis not only effects oral health status but also strongly declines quality of life. The otorhinolaryngologist must not only treat halitosis but also help the patient to stand up to social and sexual problems concomitting halitosis.

  14. The importance of open- and closed-skill agility for team selection of adult male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, A T; Tucker, P S; Dalbo, V J

    2015-05-01

    Open-skill agility qualities have yet to be described in adult male basketball players. Further, the importance of open- and closed-skill agility for team selection remains unknown. Thus, this study aimed to: 1) describe the open- and closed-skill agility of adult male basketball players; and 2) compare these properties between starting and non-starting players. A cross-sectional between-group design was used. Six starting (playing time: 30.1 ± 8.8 min; age: 30.5 ± 4.8 years; height: 192.1 ± 7.7 cm; body mass: 100.5 ± 15.0 kg; VO(2max): 48.4 ± 6.6 mL∙kg⁻¹∙min⁻¹) and six non-starting (4.3 ± 3.6 min; 21.3 ± 5 years; 185.7 ± 7.4 cm; 94.4 ± 17.9 kg; 50.6 ± 3.9 mL∙kg⁻¹∙min⁻¹) state-level basketball players completed multiple trials for the Change of Direction Speed Test (CODST) and Reactive Agility Test (RAT). No statistically significant between-group differences were evident for CODST movement time (starters: 1.652 ± 0.047 s; non-starters: 1.626 ± 0.040 s, P=0.68), RAT response time (starters: 307.5 ± 100.5 ms; non-starters: 426.5 ± 140.7 ms, P=0.12), and RAT decision-making time (starters: 110.7 ± 11.0 ms; non-starters: 147.3 ± 14.2 ms, P=0.08). However, starters (2.001 ± 0.051 s) possessed significantly (P=0.02) faster RAT total movement times than non-starters (2.182 ± 0.040 s). These data support the utility of perceptual and cognitive components of agility performance in distinguishing starting from non-starting players in basketball. Consequently, basketball coaching and conditioning staff should incorporate sport-specific reactive training drills for all players during the annual conditioning plan.

  15. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  16. Haemorrhagic SLE In A Young Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease that tends to occur in early adult life. The peak age of onset of the first symptom or sign in females is about 38 years and later in men, at about 44 years. Females outnumber men in this illness in a ratio of about 8 : 1. Cutaneous lesions in male have not been properly investigated and some studies in male with SLE have shown that the illness may present with atypical skin lesions. A case of SLE in a 20 year male who developed sudden onset of haemorrhagic vesiculobullous butterfly rash is described.

  17. Cypris settlement and dwarf male formation in the barnacle Scalpellum scalpellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spremberg, U.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Buhl-Mortensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Cypris settlement and metamorphosis into dwarf males were studied in the androdioecious barnacle Scalpellum scalpellum using field collected samples from the North Sea, and experiments with laboratory reared larvae, observed with video. In the field sample, dwarf males were always situated...... surfaces of the adults, or on their hydroid substratum, always developed into hermaphrodites. The numbers settling as males did not differ significantly from those settling as hermaphrodites, suggesting that genetic sex determination may operate in S. scalpellum. The N. Sea sample comprised 52 adult...

  18. Mating competitiveness of irradiated males and females of the indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    One-day-old adults of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Huebner), were irradiated (I) with either 35 krad (a partially sterilizing dose) or 50 krad (a sterilizing dose) and combined with untreated (U) adults at numbers of 1, 5, 10, 15, or 25 treated males or females per pair of untreated adults. At 25 males per pair, egg hatch was reduced to 4.8 and 22.2% at 35 and 50 krad, respectively. The calculated degree of competitiveness showed that both males and females were more competitive after treatment with 35 krad than after treatment with 50 krad and that treated females were more competitive (based on percentage egg hatch) at both doses than corresponding males. Irradiated females were fully competitive at most release ratios, but I males were not fully competitive even at the higher release ratios, although the decreases were not large enough to seriously affect their use for field control. (author)

  19. Cardiovascular responses in sedentary adult men, following a 12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body vibration training intervention on cardiovascular performance of apparently healthy, but sedentary male adults. Fifty (50) adult males (age 18 – 40 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups to participate in a 12-week ...

  20. Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome in an adult Indian male-case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C G Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMMS is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by multiple melanocytic nevi, usually more than 50, and a family history of melanoma. It is known to be associated with carcinoma of pancreas and other malignancies involving gastrointestinal tract, breast, lung, larynx, and skin in the kindred. There is no published report of FAMMMS in dark-skinned individuals. We report a case of FAMMMS in a dark-skinned adult Indian male, who had multiple extensive nevi all over the body and oral mucosa; associated with malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (Marjolin′s ulcer, and carcinoma of pancreas. His father had died of carcinoma of lung and his sister had a partial phenotypic expression. The clinical presentation of the case is discussed with review of literature.

  1. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Ian; McDonald, Trent L; Richardson, E S; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steven C

    2011-04-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture-recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2-4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 +/- 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (polar bear population in the northern Beaufort Sea will eventually decline. Management and conservation practices for polar bears in relation to both aboriginal harvesting and offshore industrial activity will need to

  2. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, I.; McDonald, T.L.; Richardson, E.S.; Regehr, E.V.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture–recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2–4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 ± 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (polar bear population in the northern Beaufort Sea will eventually decline. Management and conservation practices for polar bears in relation to both aboriginal harvesting and offshore industrial activity will need

  3. Analysis of plant height between male sterile plants obtained by space flight and male fertile plants in Maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Moju; Huang Wenchao; Pan Guangtang; Rong Tingzhao; Zhu Yingguo

    2004-01-01

    F 2 fertility segregation population and the sister-cross fertility segregation population, which descended from the male sterile material, were analysed by their plant height of different growing stage between 2 populations of male sterile plants and male fertile plants. The plant height of different fertility plants come to the significance at 0.01 level in different stage through the whole growing period. The differences become more and more large with the development of plants, the maximum difference happens in adult stage. The increasing amount of different stage also shows significance at 0.01 level between two kinds of different fertility plants

  4. Anabolic agent use in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Heather D; Barry, Peter J; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    The use of non-prescribed anabolic agents amongst non-athletes is increasing with young, adult males with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the highest risk demographic. There is evidence that anabolic agents increase weight and muscle mass in adults with a variety of catabolic conditions but there is no evidence for their use in hormone sufficient adults with CF. We report a case of anabolic agent use in a male adult with CF and review the clinical features of anabolic agent use with a focus on adults with CF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early life stress impairs social recognition due to a blunted response of vasopressin release within the septum of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Michael; Bredewold, Remco; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Veenema, Alexa H

    2011-07-01

    Early life stress poses a risk for the development of psychopathologies characterized by disturbed emotional, social, and cognitive performance. We used maternal separation (MS, 3h daily, postnatal days 1-14) to test whether early life stress impairs social recognition performance in juvenile (5-week-old) and adult (16-week-old) male Wistar rats. Social recognition was tested in the social discrimination test and defined by increased investigation by the experimental rat towards a novel rat compared with a previously encountered rat. Juvenile control and MS rats demonstrated successful social recognition at inter-exposure intervals of 30 and 60 min. However, unlike adult control rats, adult MS rats failed to discriminate between a previously encountered and a novel rat after 60 min. The social recognition impairment of adult MS rats was accompanied by a lack of a rise in arginine vasopressin (AVP) release within the lateral septum seen during social memory acquisition in adult control rats. This blunted response of septal AVP release was social stimulus-specific because forced swimming induced a rise in septal AVP release in both control and MS rats. Retrodialysis of AVP (1 μg/ml, 3.3 μl/min, 30 min) into the lateral septum during social memory acquisition restored social recognition in adult MS rats at the 60-min interval. These studies demonstrate that MS impairs social recognition performance in adult rats, which is likely caused by blunted septal AVP activation. Impaired social recognition may be linked to MS-induced changes in other social behaviors like aggression as shown previously. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of adult onset hypothyroidism on behavioral parameters and acetylcholinesterase isoforms activity in specific brain regions of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Giompres, Panagiotis; Margarity, Marigoula

    2016-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal development and function of mammalian central nervous system (CNS); TH dysregulation has been implicated in several cognitive and behavioral deficits related to dysfunctions of neurotransmitter systems. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adult onset hypothyroidism on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and on related behavioral parameters. For this purpose we used adult male Balb/cJ mice that were divided randomly into euthyroid and hypothyroid animal groups. Animals were rendered hypothyroid through administration of 1% w/v KClO4 in their drinking water for 8weeks. At the end of the treatment, learning/memory procedures were examined through step-through passive avoidance task while fear/anxiety was assessed using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open-field (OF) tests. AChE activity was determined colorimetrically in two different fractions, salt-soluble fraction (SS) (containing mainly the G1 isoform) and detergent-soluble fraction (DS) (containing mainly the G4 isoform) in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, midbrain, hippocampus and striatum. Our results indicate that adult onset hypothyroidism caused significant memory impairment and increased fear/anxiety. Moreover, the activity of both isoforms of AChE was reduced in all brain regions examined in a brain region- and isoform-specific manner. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effects of diuron on male rat reproductive organs: a developmental and postnatal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Glaura S A; Favareto, Ana Paula A; Fernandez, Carla D B; Bellentani, Fernanda F; Arena, Arielle C; Grassi, Tony F; Kempinas, Wilma G; Barbisan, Luís F

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine whether developmental exposure (perinatal and juvenile) to the herbicide diuron exerted adverse effects on adult rat male reproductive system. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received basal diet or diet containing diuron at 500 or 750 ppm from gestational day 12 (GD 12) until the end of lactation period (postnatal day 21, PND 21). After weaning male offspring received basal diet or diet containing diuron until PND 42 (peripubertal age). At PND 90, adult male rats from each experimental group were anesthetized and euthanized for evaluation of body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma testosterone levels, and testicular and epididymal histopathology. Male offspring exposed to diuron at 750 ppm displayed reduced body weight at PND 10, 21, 42, and 90 compared to controls. At PND 90, diuron treatment did not induce significant change in daily sperm production, sperm morphology and motility, and testosterone levels compared to controls. In conclusion, diuron at 750 ppm induced male offspring toxicity but these alterations were not permanent, as evidenced by absence of reproductive-system alterations in adult Sprague Dawley rats.

  8. Neutron polarization in polarized 3He targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.; Bernstein, A.M.; Chupp, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple formulas for the neutron and proton polarizations in polarized 3 He targets are derived assuming (1) quasielastic final states; (2) no final-state interactions; (3) no meson-exchange currents; (4) large momentum transfers; (5) factorizability of 3 He SU(4) response-function components. Numerical results from a wide variety of bound-state solutions of the Faddeev equations are presented. It is found that this simple model predicts the polarization of neutrons in a fully polarized 3 He target to be 87%, while protons should have a slight residual polarization of -2.7%. Numerical studies show that this model works very well for quasielastic electron scattering

  9. Reproductive Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption in Adult Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular tissues harvested at day 14 were fixed in glutaraldehyde and processed for transmission electron microscopy according to standard procedures. All the treated groups ... Carbendazim, at sub-lethal dose, induced histological and ultrastructural changes in the testes of the male African catfish. It also led to altered ...

  10. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  11. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  12. Radiographic comparison between male and female patients with lumbar spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Shoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Kondo, Tadashi; Ueno, Junji; Yasui, Natsuo; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2010-02-01

    We studied the lumbar spines of 117 adults (39 women and 78 men) with spondylolysis unrelated to low back pain using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Of the 117 subjects with spondylolysis, including five with multiple-level spondylolysis, there were 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis. In adult lumbar spines with unilateral spondylolysis, there was no significant difference between the incidence of spondylolisthesis in female and male subjects. However, in those with bilateral spondylolysis, there was a significantly higher incidence of spondylolisthesis in female subjects (90.9%) than in males (66.2%). Furthermore, females with bilateral spondylolysis had significant more slippage than males. Lumbar index and lumbar lordosis were not significantly different between male and female subjects, and did not significantly correlate with slippage. In conclusion, to treat acute spondylolysis in adolescents, it is important to obtain bony union at least unilaterally, especially in female subjects, to prevent further slippage.

  13. Sex-specific signaling in the blood-brain barrier is required for male courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Hoxha

    Full Text Available Soluble circulating proteins play an important role in the regulation of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. However, how these factors signal through the blood-brain barrier (bbb to interact with the sex-specific brain circuits that control courtship is unknown. Here we show that male identity of the blood-brain barrier is necessary and that male-specific factors in the bbb are physiologically required for normal male courtship behavior. Feminization of the bbb of adult males significantly reduces male courtship. We show that the bbb-specific G-protein coupled receptor moody and bbb-specific Go signaling in adult males are necessary for normal courtship. These data identify sex-specific factors and signaling processes in the bbb as important regulators of male mating behavior.

  14. Rapid, minimally invasive adult voluntary male circumcision: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted a non-blinded randomised controlled trial comprising 200 male volunteers >18 years of age, seen at the outpatient university teaching clinic of the ... Adverse events were similar except that wound disruption was greater in the Gomco/tissue adhesive group, with no difference in wound healing at 4 weeks.

  15. The evolution of humor from male aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15-69 years, with 2-40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.

  16. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  17. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  18. Avoiding escalation from play to aggression in adult male rats: The role of ultrasonic calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Candace J; Kisko, Theresa M; Pellis, Sergio M; Euston, David R

    2017-11-01

    Play fighting is most commonly associated with juvenile animals, but in some species, including rats, it can continue into adulthood. Post-pubertal engagement in play fighting is often rougher and has an increased chance of escalation to aggression, making the use of play signals to regulate the encounter more critical. During play, both juvenile and adult rats emit many 50-kHz calls and some of these may function as play facilitating signals. In the present study, unfamiliar adult male rats were introduced in a neutral enclosure and their social interactions were recorded. While all pairs escalated their playful encounters to become rougher, only the pairs in which one member was devocalized escalated to serious biting. A Monte Carlo shuffling technique was used for the analysis of the correlations between the overt playful and aggressive actions performed and the types and frequencies of various 50-kHz calls that were emitted. The analysis revealed that lower frequency (20-30kHz) calls with a flat component maybe particularly critical for de-escalating encounters and so allowing play to continue. Moreover, coordinating calls reciprocally, with either the same call mimicked in close, temporal association or with complementary calls emitted by participants as they engage in complementary actions (e.g., attacking the nape, being attacked on the nape), appeared to be ways with which calls could be potentially used to avoid escalation to aggression and so sustain playful interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-Related Increase in Electromyography Burst Activity in Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Theou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of electromyography (EMG technology facilitates measurement of muscle activity outside the laboratory during daily life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bursts in EMG recorded over a typical 8-hour day differed between young and old males and females. Muscle activity was recorded from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris of 16 young and 15 old adults using portable surface EMG. Old muscles were active 16–27% of the time compared to 5–9% in young muscles. The number of bursts was greater in old than young adults and in females compared to males. Burst percentage and mean amplitude were greater in the flexor muscles compared with the extensor muscles. The greater burst activity in old adults coupled with the unique activity patterns across muscles in males and females provides further understanding of how changes in neuromuscular activity effects age-related functional decline between the sexes.

  20. Research on generating various polarization-modes in polarized illumination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinping; Lin, Wumei; Fan, Zhenjie

    2013-08-01

    With the increase of the numerical aperture (NA), the polarization of light affects the imaging quality of projection lens more significantly. On the contrary, according to the mask pattern, the resolution of projection lens can be improved by using the polarized illumination. That is to say, using the corresponding polarized beam (or polarization-mode) along with the off-axis illumination will improve the resolution and the imaging quality of the of projection lens. Therefore, the research on the generation of various polarization modes and its conversion methods become more and more important. In order to realize various polarization modes in polarized illumination system, after read a lot of references, we provide a way that fitting for the illumination system with the wavelength of 193nm.Six polarization-modes and a depolarized mode are probably considered. Wave-plate stack is used to generate linearly polarization-mode, which have a higher degree polarization. In order to generate X-Y and Y-X polarization mode, the equipment consisting of four sectors of λ/2 wave plate was used. We combined 16 sectors of λ/2 wave plate which have different orientations of the "slow" axis to generate radial and azimuthal polarization. Finally, a multi-polarization control device was designed. Using the kind of multi-polarization control device which applying this method could help to choose the polarization modes conveniently and flexibility for the illumination system.

  1. Construction of Chinese adult male phantom library and its application in the virtual calibration of in vivo measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yizheng; Qiu, Rui; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli

    2016-01-01

    In vivo measurement is a main method of internal contamination evaluation, particularly for large numbers of people after a nuclear accident. Before the practical application, it is necessary to obtain the counting efficiency of the detector by calibration. The virtual calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation usually uses the reference human computational phantom, and the morphological difference between the monitored personnel with the calibrated phantom may lead to the deviation of the counting efficiency. Therefore, a phantom library containing a wide range of heights and total body masses is needed. In this study, a Chinese reference adult male polygon surface (CRAM-S) phantom was constructed based on the CRAM voxel phantom, with the organ models adjusted to match the Chinese reference data. CRAM-S phantom was then transformed to sitting posture for convenience in practical monitoring. Referring to the mass and height distribution of the Chinese adult male, a phantom library containing 84 phantoms was constructed by deforming the reference surface phantom. Phantoms in the library have 7 different heights ranging from 155 cm to 185 cm, and there are 12 phantoms with different total body masses in each height. As an example of application, organ specific and total counting efficiencies of Ba-133 were calculated using the MCNPX code, with two series of phantoms selected from the library. The influence of morphological variation on the counting efficiency was analyzed. The results show only using the reference phantom in virtual calibration may lead to an error of 68.9% for total counting efficiency. Thus the influence of morphological difference on virtual calibration can be greatly reduced using the phantom library with a wide range of masses and heights instead of a single reference phantom. (paper)

  2. Construction of Chinese adult male phantom library and its application in the virtual calibration of in vivo measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizheng; Qiu, Rui; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli

    2016-03-01

    In vivo measurement is a main method of internal contamination evaluation, particularly for large numbers of people after a nuclear accident. Before the practical application, it is necessary to obtain the counting efficiency of the detector by calibration. The virtual calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation usually uses the reference human computational phantom, and the morphological difference between the monitored personnel with the calibrated phantom may lead to the deviation of the counting efficiency. Therefore, a phantom library containing a wide range of heights and total body masses is needed. In this study, a Chinese reference adult male polygon surface (CRAM_S) phantom was constructed based on the CRAM voxel phantom, with the organ models adjusted to match the Chinese reference data. CRAMS phantom was then transformed to sitting posture for convenience in practical monitoring. Referring to the mass and height distribution of the Chinese adult male, a phantom library containing 84 phantoms was constructed by deforming the reference surface phantom. Phantoms in the library have 7 different heights ranging from 155 cm to 185 cm, and there are 12 phantoms with different total body masses in each height. As an example of application, organ specific and total counting efficiencies of Ba-133 were calculated using the MCNPX code, with two series of phantoms selected from the library. The influence of morphological variation on the counting efficiency was analyzed. The results show only using the reference phantom in virtual calibration may lead to an error of 68.9% for total counting efficiency. Thus the influence of morphological difference on virtual calibration can be greatly reduced using the phantom library with a wide range of masses and heights instead of a single reference phantom.

  3. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  4. Safety of a disposable male circumcision kit. results from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... disposable instruments, consumables and pharmaceutical products needed to perform one single male circumcision among young male adults according to the most common technique used in South Africa (the Forceps Guided technique). The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of this new circumcision kit.

  5. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  6. Does taurine deficiency cause metabolic bone disease and rickets in polar bear cubs raised in captivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail E; Rogers, Quinton R; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Hollis, Bruce E; Derocher, Andrew; Andersen, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Rickets and fractures have been reported in captive polar bears. Taurine (TAU) is key for the conjugation of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid unique to bears. Since TAU-conjugated UDCA optimizes fat and fat-soluble vitamin absorption, we asked if TAU deficiency could cause vitamin D malabsorption and lead to metabolic bone disease in captive polar bears. We measured TAU levels in plasma (P) and whole blood (WB) from captive and free-ranging cubs and adults, and vitamin D3 and TAU concentrations in milk samples from lactating sows. Plasma and WB TAU levels were significantly higher in cubs vs captive and free-ranging adult bears. Vitamin D in polar bear milk was 649.2 +/- 569.2 IU/L, similar to that found in formula. The amount of TAU in polar bear milk is 3166.4 +/- 771 nmol/ml, 26-fold higher than in formula. Levels of vitamin D in bear milk and formula as well as in plasma do not indicate classical nutritional vitamin D deficiency. Higher dietary intake of TAU by free-ranging cubs may influence bile acid conjugation and improve vitamin D absorption.

  7. Interaction of Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality on Hypertension Prevalence in Adult Chinese Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Ji; Hu, Dayi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated conflicting results about the association of sleep duration and hypertension. Given the potential relationship between sleep quality and hypertension, this study aimed to investigate the interaction of self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality on hypertension prevalence in adult Chinese males. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of 4144 male subjects. Sleep duration were measured by self-reported average sleep time during the past month. Sleep quality was evaluated using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure level ≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive treatment. The association between hypertension prevalence, sleep duration, and sleep quality was analyzed using logistic regression after adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics. Sleep duration shorter than 8 hours was found to be associated with increased hypertension, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03-1.52) for 7 hours, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.14-1.73) for 6 hours, and 2.38 (95% CI, 1.81-3.11) for quality as the reference, good, poor, and very poor sleep quality were associated with hypertension, with odds ratios of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.01-1.42), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.32-2.11), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.67-3.21), respectively. More importantly, further investigation of the association of different combinations of sleep duration and quality in relation to hypertension indicated an additive interaction. There is an additive interaction of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration on hypertension prevalence. More comprehensive measurement of sleep should be performed in future studies.

  8. Neural androgen receptors affect the number of surviving new neurones in the adult dentate gyrus of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, A; Duarte-Guterman, P; Hamson, D K; Ibrahim, M; Monks, D A; Galea, L A M

    2018-04-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs in many mammalian species. In rats, the survival of new neurones within the hippocampus is modulated by the action of androgen via the androgen receptor (AR); however, it is not known whether this holds true in mice. Furthermore, the evidence is mixed regarding whether androgens act in neural tissue or via peripheral non-neural targets to promote new neurone survival in the hippocampus. We evaluated whether the action of androgen via AR underlies the survival of new neurones in mice, and investigated whether increasing AR selectively in neural tissue would increase new neurone survival in the hippocampus. We used the cre-loxP system to overexpress AR only in neural tissues (Nestin-AR). These males were compared with wild-type males, as well as control males with 1 of the 2 mutations required for overexpression. Mice were gonadectomised and injected with the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and for 37 days (following BrdU injection), mice were treated with oil or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Using immunohistochemistry, proliferation (Ki67) and survival (BrdU) of new neurones were both evaluated in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus. Dihydrotestosterone treatment increased the survival of new neurones in the entire hippocampus in wild-type mice and control mice that only have 1 of 2 necessary mutations for transgenic expression. However, DHT treatment did not increase the survival of new neurones in mice that overexpressed AR in neural tissue. Cell proliferation (Ki67) and cell death (pyknotic cells) were not affected by DHT treatment in wild-type or transgenic males. These results suggest that androgens act via neural AR to affect hippocampal neurogenesis by promoting cell survival; however, the relationship between androgen dose and new neurone survival is nonlinear. © 2018 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Obstacles to the take-up of mental health-care provision by adult males in rural and remote areas of Australia: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Peter; Lockwood, Craig

    The objective is to identify and synthesise the best available evidence on the obstacles to the take-up of health-care provision by adult rural and remote dwelling males in Australia seeking mental health services. Men's health, in general health-care practice, is defined as the global management of mental, emotional, and physical health conditions, and related risk factors, that are specific to men in order to promote and generate optimal health.Research and practice tends to suggest that health-care and mental-health care practitioners seem to be confronted with obstacles such as distance clients need to travel and rurality in delivering care to adult rural males. Possible issues might be whether, or to what extent, care providers are conscious of these obstacles. Another issue might be how care providers work with these obstacles in practice, and whether or not they may, also to some extent, share some of the responsibility for the existence of these obstacles, on their own, or in conjunction with other factors which might be said to exist purely in the rural context. There is also a need to explore the contributions to obstacles from the adult rural male side as well. There may also be factors at work in the particular unique nature of rural and remote health-care and mental-health care as well, which could also be involved in the creation of obstacles.The structure and functioning of rural care available to adult males of all cultural backgrounds and the obstacles to the take-up of that care represents an area which warrants further exploration and understanding. A foundation paper in this field by Karoski suggests that obstacles exist in health-care provision, particularly in the field of mental-health care to adult males. Other research suggests that, while obstacles in service provision are common to all areas, some obstacles are more significant for rural and remote areas.The reasons for framing this review in terms of the adult rural and remote male (ARRM

  10. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle fibers in their wall, commonly encountered in adults, and involve the posterior urethra. Differential diagnosis for UD includes syringoceles (cystic dilatation of the Cowper's gland), sequestration cysts, epidermoid and epithelial inclusion cysts. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones. Mohanty D, Garg PK, ...

  11. The effect of age on encounters between male crab spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Helen H. Hu; Douglass H. Morse

    2004-01-01

    In males that compete aggressively for females, size and age may determine which males obtain access to these females. In the present study, we use the crab spider, Misumena vatia, a species with males that do not grow after becoming sexually mature adults, to test the hypothesis that age affects the success of males competing for access to females. M. vatia is an excellent species to test this hypothesis because it is possible to disentangle age from size, characters that typically vary toge...

  12. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ($\\sim$100 Hz) polarization reversal, and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  13. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: a prot?g? and potential threat towards mans extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Isaiah, Ibeh Nnana; Nche, Bikwe Thomas; Nwagu, Ibeh Georgina; Nnanna, Ibeh Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. Aim: To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis Materi...

  14. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-01-01

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future

  15. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyoun [Department of radiation oncology, Inha University, 7-206, 3-ga, Shinheumg-dong, Jung-gu, Incheon, 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Choonsik [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Chung, Min Suk [Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5 Wonchon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr

    2008-08-07

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  16. Assessment of Polyscias fruticosa (L. Harm (Araliaceae leaf extract on male fertility in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEX BOYE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polyscias fruticosa is used widely as food, disease remedy and as an ornamental across Afro-Asian countries. For instance, P. fruticosa is used traditionally as an anti-asthma, anti-tussive, and a muco-suppressant herbal remedy for asthmatics in Ghana. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological basis of the ethnobotanical uses of P. fruticosa, however, its effect on the reproductive system remains completely unknown. Aim of study: This study assessed effects of Polyscias fruticosa leaf extract (PFE on male fertility and toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: after crude preparation of PFE, it was subjected to qualitative phytochemical, thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Effect of PFE was assessed on male fertility and toxicity by using healthy adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to: normal saline (5 ml/kg po, n = 5, Clomiphene Citrate (50 mg/kg po; n = 5 and PFE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg po; n = 5 respectively groups and treated for 21 days. On day 22 rats were sacrificed and male fertility parameters (left testis weight, relative testis weight, caudal epididymal weight, caudal epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and assessment of male sex hormones and testicular histology were assessed. Results: There were no significant changes in bodyweight, weight of left testis, weights of right and left caudal epididymides between treatments groups (PFE and clomiphene citrate and control. Caudal epididymal sperm count increased in PFE (100 and 500 mg/kg-treated rats relative to control. Sperm motility relatively increased in PFE-treated rats compared to control. Sperm abnormality decreased in PFE-treated rats; especially in PFE (100 mg/kg group compared to control. Serum testosterone levels decreased inversely with serum luteinizing hormone (LH levels in PFE-treated rats compared to control. There were minimal

  17. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V; Hunter, Christine M; Caswell, Hal; Amstrup, Steven C; Stirling, Ian

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0.96-0.99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0.73-0.79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings therefore are

  18. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 7, Adult male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for an adult male (70-kg Reference Man). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Experimental studies on the sterile male technique of Spodoptera litura (F.) by the gamma radiation from 137Cs, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukuda, Ritsuko; Kiyoku, Masao

    1975-01-01

    Present studies have been carried out to examine two phenomena by the mating experiment under laboratory conditions. One was the influence of age of adult males or females on the mating behaviour, the number of eggs laid by females and the percentage of egg hatching. The other was the mating capacity of males when a male was confined with three or five females in a mating cage during fixed periods. Younger and middle ages have no influence on the mating. The influence of old age on females was greater than on males. When one day old females were mated with more than eight day old males, the mating was delayed slightly, both the number of eggs laid by females and percentage of egg hatching were decreased, respectively. When one day old males were combined with more than seven day old females, however, the mating was hindered and no viable eggs were laid. One adult male was confined with three adult females in a mating cage. At each mating experiment, one male was able to mate with one from three females during one night, or with two or three females during three nights. One spermatophore was always observed in a female mated already. When one adult male was confined with five adult females, he mated with one female during one night, with two females during three nights, or with three or four females during five nights. (author)

  20. The evolution of male traits in social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus J; Baer, Boris; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Pair formation in social insects mostly happens early in adult life and away from the social colony context, which precludes promiscuity in the usual sense. Termite males have continuous sperm production, but males of social Hymenoptera have fixed complements of sperm, except for a few species...... that mate before female dispersal and show male-fighting and lifelong sperm production. We develop an evolutionary framework for testing sexual selection and sperm competition theory across the advanced eusocial insects (ants, wasps, bees, termites) and highlight two areas related to premating sexual...

  1. Homosexual Fellatio: Erect Penis Licking between Male Bonin Flying Foxes Pteropus pselaphon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    A recent focus of interest has been on the functional significance of genital licking (fellatio and cunnilingus) in relation to sexual selection in Pteropodid bats. In the present paper, a form of fellatio in wild Bonin flying foxes, Pteropus pselaphon, performed between adult males has been reported. During the mating season, adult flying foxes roost in same-sex groups, forming ball-shaped clusters which provide warmth. The female clusters may also contain a few males. Unassociated with allogrooming, same-sex genital licking occurred among males in the all male clusters. As such, male-male fellatio can be considered as homosexual behavior, two functional explanations could account for this behavior; the social bonding and the social tension regulation hypotheses suggested in a previous review. Given that neither the simpler alternative that in all male groups such fellatio may represent misdirected sexual behavior, nor the two previously proposed functional hypotheses were supported by the data, I propose another functional hypothesis. Homosexual fellatio in this species could help males solve inconsistent situations in the roost when there are conflicts between cooperative behavior for social thermoregulation and competition for mating.

  2. Homosexual Fellatio: Erect Penis Licking between Male Bonin Flying Foxes Pteropus pselaphon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Sugita

    Full Text Available A recent focus of interest has been on the functional significance of genital licking (fellatio and cunnilingus in relation to sexual selection in Pteropodid bats. In the present paper, a form of fellatio in wild Bonin flying foxes, Pteropus pselaphon, performed between adult males has been reported. During the mating season, adult flying foxes roost in same-sex groups, forming ball-shaped clusters which provide warmth. The female clusters may also contain a few males. Unassociated with allogrooming, same-sex genital licking occurred among males in the all male clusters. As such, male-male fellatio can be considered as homosexual behavior, two functional explanations could account for this behavior; the social bonding and the social tension regulation hypotheses suggested in a previous review. Given that neither the simpler alternative that in all male groups such fellatio may represent misdirected sexual behavior, nor the two previously proposed functional hypotheses were supported by the data, I propose another functional hypothesis. Homosexual fellatio in this species could help males solve inconsistent situations in the roost when there are conflicts between cooperative behavior for social thermoregulation and competition for mating.

  3. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)

  4. A self-adjusting expandable GPS collar for male elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Dick; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenge to use collars on male cervids because their neck size can increase substantially during the rut and also because of growth as the animal matures. We describe how to build a self-adjusting expandable collar for yearling or adult male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to which very high frequency transmitters and global...

  5. Plasma vitamin D is associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in young adult males, but not females, of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy; Hochner, Hagit; Sitlani, Colleen M; Williams, Michelle A; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Siscovick, David S; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine cross-sectional relationships between plasma vitamin D and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in young adults. Design Data were collected from interviews, physical examinations, and biomarker measurements. Total plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations between 25[OH]D and CMR were modeled using weighted linear regression with robust standard error estimates. Setting Individuals born in Jerusalem during 1974-1976. Subjects Participants of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (n = 1,204) interviewed and examined at age 32 years. Participants were oversampled for low and high birthweight and for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity. Results Mean total 25[OH]D concentration among participants was 21.7 ng/mL (SD 8.9). Among males, 25[OH]D was associated with Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (natural log-transformed, β = -0.011, p = 0.004) after adjustment for body mass index. However, these associations were not present among females (p for sex interaction = 0.005). Conclusions We found evidence for inverse associations of 25[OH]D with markers of insulin resistance among males, but not females, in a health, young adult Caucasian population. Prospective studies and studies conducted on other populations investigating sex specific effects of vitamin D on CMR are warranted. PMID:25145881

  6. DOES FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTAKE DIFFER IN ADULT FEMALES AND MALES IN ISFAHAN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Mohammadifard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: Adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (at least five servings a day isrecommended as a nutritional behavior of great importance in prevention of chronicdiseases. This study aimed to compare the intake of fruits and vegetables in adult malesand females of Isfahan and to assess its association with personal and demographic factors,as well as seasons.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 123 healthy adults (64 malesand 59 females during the cold season (fall and winter and warm seasons (spring andsummer. Study samples were aged 30 to 60 years and were residents of Isfahan. Fruit andvegetable consumption was assessed using a 110-item semi-quantitative food frequencyquestionnaire on fruits and vegetables. Validity of the questionnaire was evaluated in a pilotstudy through comparison with two 24-hour food recalls and four food diaries. Meanconsumption of fruits and vegetables was analyzed in males and females, as well as in ageand educational groups. The relationship between the amount of fruit and vegetableconsumption and different factors including age, sex, level of education and occupation wasdetermined through stepwise linear regression.RESULTS: Mean fruit consumption in men and women in cold seasons was 275.3±100.8and 234.5±116.5 grams per day, respectively (P<0.05, and in warm seasons 217.6±95.5and 185.3±77.1 grams per day, respectively (P<0.05. Vegetable consumption in men andwomen in cold seasons was 291.5±93.5 and 245.7±76.6 grams per day, respectively(P<0.05 and in warm season 197±76.3 and 166.4±60.7 grams per day, respectively(P<0.05. The proportion of men who consumed more than 5 servings of fruits andvegetables in a day was significantly greater than women (P<0.05. Fruit and vegetableintake in men educated below junior school and high school was significantly higher than intheir female counterparts (P<0.05. Fruit and vegetable intake in single men wassignificantly lower than in their female

  7. Assessment of body perception among Swedish adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, E; Stenlund, H; Svedjehäll, B

    2000-01-01

    To assess body perception in adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa. Using a visual size estimation technique, perceived body size was estimated in four groups of Swedish adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa (86 males and 95 females). Perceived body size was estimated at nine different body sites comparing these estimations to real body size. The results show that 95% of males and 96% of females overestimated their body size (mean overestimation: males +22%, females +33%). The overestimations were greatest in females. The greatest overestimations were made of the waist (males +31%, females +46%), buttocks (males +22%, females +42%), and thighs (males +27%, females +41%). The results indicate that overestimation of body size may be a general phenomenon in adolescents and young adults in a country such as Sweden, implying a similar, but less pronounced distortion of body image as in individuals with anorexia nervosa.

  8. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77 ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Programs the Hypothalamus of Adult Male Rats: Integrated Analysis of Proteomic and Metabolomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Amanda P; Souza, Adriana P; Dornellas, Ana P S; Oyama, Lila M; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Santos, Gianni M S; Rosa, José C; Bertolla, Ricardo P; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe; Tashima, Alexandre K; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2017-04-07

    Programming of hypothalamic functions regulating energy homeostasis may play a role in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)-induced adulthood obesity. The present study investigated the effects of IUGR on the hypothalamus proteome and metabolome of adult rats submitted to 50% protein-energy restriction throughout pregnancy. Proteomic and metabolomic analyzes were performed by data independent acquisition mass spectrometry and multiple reaction monitoring, respectively. At age 4 months, the restricted rats showed elevated adiposity, increased leptin and signs of insulin resistance. 1356 proteins were identified and 348 quantified while 127 metabolites were quantified. The restricted hypothalamus showed down-regulation of 36 proteins and 5 metabolites and up-regulation of 21 proteins and 9 metabolites. Integrated pathway analysis of the proteomics and metabolomics data indicated impairment of hypothalamic glucose metabolism, increased flux through the hexosamine pathway, deregulation of TCA cycle and the respiratory chain, and alterations in glutathione metabolism. The data suggest IUGR modulation of energy metabolism and redox homeostasis in the hypothalamus of male adult rats. The present results indicated deleterious consequences of IUGR on hypothalamic pathways involved in pivotal physiological functions. These results provide guidance for future mechanistic studies assessing the role of intrauterine malnutrition in the development of metabolic diseases later in life.

  10. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders.

  11. Fusion of a polarized projectile with a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christley, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Thompson, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for a polarized target with both unpolarized and polarized projectiles are studied. Expressions for the observables are given for the case when both nuclei are polarized. Calculations for fusion of an aligned 165 Ho target with 16 O and polarized 7 Li beams are presented

  12. The Puzzle of Male Chronophilias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I return to the idea that pedophilia, a sexual interest in prepubescent children, can be considered a sexual orientation for age, in conjunction with the much more widely acknowledged and discussed sexual orientation for gender. Here, I broaden the scope to consider other chronophilias, referring to paraphilias for age/maturity categories other than young sexually mature adults. The puzzle of chronophilias includes questions about etiology and course, how chronophilias are related to each other, and what they can tell us about how human (male) sexuality is organized. In this article, I briefly review research on nepiophilia (infant/toddlers), pedophilia (prepubescent children), hebephilia (pubescent children), ephebophilia (postpubescent, sexually maturing adolescents), teleiophilia (young sexually mature adults, typically 20s and 30s), mesophilia (middle-aged adults, typically 40s and 50s), and gerontophilia (elderly adults, typically 60s and older) in the context of a multidimensional sexual orientations framework. Relevant research, limitations, and testable hypotheses for future work are identified.

  13. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  14. The Impact of a Training Intervention Program on Fall-related Psychological Factors Among Male Older Adults in Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Khajavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Falls and fall-related physiological and psychological events are major problems for elderly people. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of an interventional training program on fall-related psychological factors among the elderly men in Arak. Methods & Materials: In this quasi experiment research on male older adults in Arak, 27 participants randomly assigned to Control group (mean age=70.21±6.65 and Experimental group (mean age=66.07±4.38. Experimental group members participated in a 12 week interventional training program. Results: The findings showed that training intervention program improved fall-related psychological factors (Fall Self-Efficacy/Fear of Fall and Activities-specific Balance Confidence/Balance Self-Efficacy in experimental group. No significant changes appeared in fall-related psychological factors in control group members who did not perform any regular training program. Conclusion: According to the findings, regular interventional training program can decrease fear of fall and increase balance confidence in performing the activities of everyday life by improving physical and motor fitness levels. These improvements can lead to physical and psychological health, increase in quality of life among older adults, and eventually successful aging.

  15. Impact of experimental hypothyroidism on monoamines level in discrete brain regions and other peripheral tissues of young and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wafaa A; Aly, Mona S; Rahman, Taghride Abdel; Shahat, Asmaa S

    2013-06-01

    The levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in different brain regions as well as in blood plasma, cardiac muscle and adrenal gland of young and adult male albino rats were measured following experimentally induced hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism induced by daily oral administration of propylthiouracil (PTU, 5mg/kg body wt) caused a significant reduction in DA levels in most of the tissues examined of both young and adult rats after 21 and 28 days, in NE levels after all the time intervals studied in young rats, and after 21 and 28 days in adult rats. 5-HT exhibited a significant reduction in the selected brain regions and blood plasma after 21 and 28 days and in cardiac muscle after all the time intervals in the two age groups of animals. It may be suggested that the changes in monoamine levels induced by hypothyroidism may be due to disturbance in the synthesis and release of these amines through the neurons impairment or may be due to an alteration pattern of their synthesizing and/or degradative enzymes. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Attenuated Maternal High-Fructose Combined with Post-Weaning High-Salt Diets-Induced Hypertension in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of food high in fructose and salt is associated with the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can originate from early life. Melatonin, a pleiotropic hormone, regulates blood pressure. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose combined with post-weaning high-salt diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND or a 60% fructose diet (HF during pregnancy and the lactation period. Male offspring were on either the ND or a high-salt diet (HS, 1% NaCl from weaning to 12 weeks of age and were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HF/ND, ND/HS, HF/HS, and HF/HS+melatonin. Melatonin (0.01% in drinking water was administered during pregnancy and lactation. We observed that maternal HF combined with post-weaning HS diets induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which was attenuated by maternal melatonin therapy. The beneficial effects of maternal melatonin therapy on HF/HS-induced hypertension related to regulating several nutrient-sensing signals, including Sirt1, Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkab2, Pparg, and Ppargc1a. Additionally, melatonin increased protein levels of mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR, decreased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine levels, and increased the l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. The reprogramming effects by which maternal melatonin therapy protects against hypertension of developmental origin awaits further elucidation.

  17. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  18. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, I.; McDonald, T.L.; Richardson, E.S.; Regehr, E.V.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture–recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2–4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 ± 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (Sea will eventually decline. Management and conservation practices for polar bears in relation to both aboriginal harvesting and offshore industrial activity will need to adapt.

  19. Clinical characteristics of older male military veterans seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Sherry A; Rideaux, Tiffany; Zeiss, Robert A

    2011-02-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a significant international public health issue affecting both middle-aged and older adults. To date, however, no studies have compared age differences in psychiatric issues, frequency of sexual activity and treatment recommendations between older and middle-aged male military Veterans seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) in the U.S.A. Data were collected between 1982 and 2003 at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Andrology Clinic. The 1,250 participants, aged 22 to 87 years (median = 63), completed a semi-structured interview. Using multiple linear regressions, we examined age differences in five domains: medical and endocrine risk factors; psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors; frequency of sexual behaviors; self-reported and objectively measured erectile function; and treatment recommendations. Compared with middle-aged adults, older adults were more likely to present for ED treatment with medical risk factors and were more often recommended a vacuum pump treatment. Middle-aged male Veterans were more likely to experience psychiatric risk factors for ED and were more sexually active than older Veterans. Despite greater objective erectile ability in middle-aged adults, there were no age differences in maximum self-reported erectile functioning. These results provide some evidence of age-related characteristics and treatment needs of male patients seeking treatment for sexual dysfunction. We encourage health care professionals working with adults across the lifespan to consider ways to individualize psychoeducation and brief psychotherapy for the treatment of ED to the specific needs of the patient, which may vary between middle-aged and older cohorts of patients.

  20. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-07-01

    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  1. Postnatal nutrition influences male attractiveness and promotes plasticity in male mating preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera, José C; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of m...

  2. The diagnostic utility of the Rarely Missed Index of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition in detecting response bias in an adult male incarcerated setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Christopher P; Denney, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a known-group research design to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the Rarely Missed Index (RMI) of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition [Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-3rd Edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation] in assessing response bias in an adult male incarcerated setting. Archival data from a sample of 60 adult male inmates who presented for neuropsychological testing were reviewed. Evaluees were assigned to one of two groups; probable malingerers (PM; n=30) and a group of valid test responders (n=30) (1999). Using the recommended cut-off score of 136 or less, the sensitivity of the RMI was extremely low at 33%. Its specificity was 83%. The positive predictive power of the RMI with the published base rate of 22.8 was 38%; with a negative predictive power of 81%. The positive predictive power of the RMI with a published base rate of 70.5 was 82%. The negative predictive power using a base rate of 70.5% was 34%. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis indicated that the RMI score with a cut-off 136 or less performed only slightly better than chance in delineating probable malingerers from valid responders in this setting. Overall, the findings suggest that the RMI may not be a reliable index for detecting response bias in this setting and perhaps in similar settings.

  3. DISPROPORTIONATE MORTALITY OF MALES IN A POPULATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than 83 per cent of the male skulls were from young adults 19 - 30 months old, and nearly 83 per cent of the ... Territorial springbok advertising display (Bigalke 1972). 3. ... food, which is utilized by its owner, conspecifics and other herbivores.

  4. Influencers and preference predictors of HPV vaccine uptake among US male and female young adult college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scott LaJoie

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of male and female college students in Kentucky about HPV associated diseases and vaccines, and to determine which parameters predicted self-reported uptake of HPV vaccination. Materials and methods: A self-selected cross-sectional sample of college students completed an evidence-based online survey. Results: Of approximately 1200 potential respondents, 585 completed the survey. The average age was 20.6 (SD 3.15 and 78% were female; 84% of the population had had one or more sexual partners. Concern for HPV vaccine safety and potential need for boosters did not significantly deter vaccine uptake. Likewise, knowledge about HPV associated cancers was not predictive of vaccine uptake. On the other hand, parental influence for vaccination was a strong predictor for vaccine uptake (aOR = 5.32, 2.71–13.03, and free vaccine nearly doubled the likelihood of being vaccinated (aOR 1.90, 1.05–3.41. In addition, the strong preference for the respondent's partner to be HPV vaccinated predicted vaccine uptake (aOR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.31–7.05, but the lack of preference for partner vaccination predicted an unvaccinated self (aOR = 0.50, 0.27–0.93. Conclusions: HPV vaccination has been successful in young adult college students in Kentucky. Young adults prefer their partners to be HPV vaccinated regardless of whether they themselves are vaccinated. Parental influence and free vaccine were positive predictors for vaccine uptake in this population. Keywords: Knowledge, HPV vaccine, Young adults, Preferences, Safety

  5. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  6. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a

  7. Three-photon polarization ququarts: polarization, entanglement and Schmidt decompositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, M V; Miklin, N I

    2015-01-01

    We consider polarization states of three photons, propagating collinearly and having equal given frequencies but with arbitrary distributed horizontal or vertical polarizations of photons. A general form of such states is a superposition of four basic three-photon polarization modes, to be referred to as the three-photon polarization ququarts (TPPQ). All such states can be considered as consisting of one- and two-photon parts, which can be entangled with each other. The degrees of entanglement and polarization, as well as the Schmidt decomposition and Stokes vectors of TPPQ are found and discussed. (paper)

  8. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  9. Competitiveness values of irradiated adults of callosobruchus maculatus (F.) irradiated as mature pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.

    1981-01-01

    When mature pupae of Callosobruchus maculatus were treated with 3 Krad, the resulting adults were sterile when they were paired with untreated opposite sex. Males and females both treated with a sterilizing dose (3 Krad) and confined with untreated (U) males and females at a I male: I female: U male: U female (irradiated males: irradiated females: unirradiated males: unirradiated females) ratio caused 69.1% infertility in the resulting eggs. When the ratio of sterile males and females was increased to 5.5:1:1; 10:10:1:1 or 15:1:1 (I male: female: U male: U female) the percentage infertility reached 82.5, 95.0 and 100.0, respectively. The percentage of observed infertility was less than the expected infertility for the ratios 1:1:1:1:5:5:1:1 and 10:10:1:1, but it was exceeded with the highest ratio used (15:15:1:1). Competitiveness values for irradiated adults increased with an increasing ratio of irradiated to unirradiated adults. Since the ratio of 15:15:1:1 gave rise to 100% egg infertility (the expected infertility was 99.6%), no F 1 adults was produced; and the competitiveness value slightly exceeded 1.0 (i.e. the sterile adults were fully competitive with the normal ones). These results indicated that irradiation with 3 Krad, a sterilizing dose, did not decrease sexual competitiveness of irradiated adults. Also, the release of (I) females together with (I) males could give good results in controlling a population of C. maculatus in a autocidal control program; and, therefore, separation of the sexes prior to release is probably unnecessary. (author)

  10. Polarization splitter and polarization rotator designs based on transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H

    2008-11-10

    The transformation optics technique is employed in this paper to design two optical devices - a two-dimensional polarization splitter and a three-dimensional polarization rotator for propagating beams. The polarization splitter translates the TM- and the TE-polarized components of an incident beam in opposite directions (i.e., shifted up or shifted down). The polarization rotator rotates the polarization state of an incoming beam by an arbitrary angle. Both optical devices are reflectionless at the entry and exit interfaces. Design details and full-wave simulation results are provided.

  11. Central dopamine D2 receptors regulate growth-hormone-dependent body growth and pheromone signaling to conspecific males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaín, Daniela; Pérez-Millán, M Inés; Bello, Estefanía P; Luque, Guillermina M; Casas Cordero, Rodrigo; Gelman, Diego M; Peper, Marcela; Tornadu, Isabel García; Low, Malcolm J; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2013-03-27

    Competition between adult males for limited resources such as food and receptive females is shaped by the male pattern of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion that determines body size and the production of urinary pheromones involved in male-to-male aggression. In the brain, dopamine (DA) provides incentive salience to stimuli that predict the availability of food and sexual partners. Although the importance of the GH axis and central DA neurotransmission in social dominance and fitness is clearly appreciated, the two systems have always been studied unconnectedly. Here we conducted a cell-specific genetic dissection study in conditional mutant mice that selectively lack DA D2 receptors (D2R) from pituitary lactotropes (lacDrd2KO) or neurons (neuroDrd2KO). Whereas lacDrd2KO mice developed a normal GH axis, neuroDrd2KO mice displayed fewer somatotropes; reduced hypothalamic Ghrh expression, pituitary GH content, and serum IGF-I levels; and exhibited reduced body size and weight. As a consequence of a GH axis deficit, neuroDrd2KO adult males excreted low levels of major urinary proteins and their urine failed to promote aggression and territorial behavior in control male challengers, in contrast to the urine taken from control adult males. These findings reveal that central D2Rs mediate a neuroendocrine-exocrine cascade that controls the maturation of the GH axis and downstream signals that are critical for fitness, social dominance, and competition between adult males.

  12. Polarization dynamics and polarization time of random three-dimensional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voipio, Timo; Setaelae, Tero; Shevchenko, Andriy; Friberg, Ari T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the polarization dynamics of random, stationary three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic fields. For analyzing the time evolution of the instantaneous polarization state, two intensity-normalized polarization autocorrelation functions are introduced, one based on a geometric approach with the Poincare vectors and the other on energy considerations with the Jones vectors. Both approaches lead to the same conclusions on the rate and strength of the polarization dynamics and enable the definition of a polarization time over which the state of polarization remains essentially unchanged. For fields obeying Gaussian statistics, the two correlation functions are shown to be expressible in terms of quantities characterizing partial 3D polarization and electromagnetic coherence. The 3D degree of polarization is found to have the same meaning in the 3D polarization dynamics as the usual two-dimensional (2D) degree of polarization does with planar fields. The formalism is demonstrated with several examples, and it is expected to be useful in applications dealing with polarization fluctuations of 3D light.

  13. POLAR-PALOOZA Polar Researchers and Arctic Residents Engage, Inform and Inspire Diverse Public Audiences by sharing Polar Science and Global Connections during the International Polar Year, using a New Model of Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2006-12-01

    . The resulting HD footage will be cataloged, archived and made available as public domain material, accessible to government research agencies for media releases, to the researchers and their home universities, and to science centers and museums. (3) POLAR- PALOOZA will edit short video and audio podcasts from this archive, and distribute them non-exclusively through an open network of websites, including iTunes, YouTube, Google, Yahoo, and the official IPY, US-IPY, NSF and NASA websites. Project design targets underserved groups and regions, and has developed a detailed strategy by which to reach out to under-served minorities and mid-sized and smaller communities over the entire two years of IPY. A balanced cadre of researchers, both male and female, young and old, ethnically-diverse and representing the many disciplines engaged in polar research, has already been identified, and over twenty five scientists, engineers, artists and journalists have committed to participating. The project's Advisors include members of the National Academy's Polar Research Board, and the two U.S. representatives to the international IPY Education and Outreach Committee.

  14. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  15. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on fertility of potato tuber moth males and study of inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    1996-01-01

    Newly emerged adult males (0-18 h) potato tuber moth (PTM) phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were irradiated with various doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 45 krad. Sterility in order of 91% was induced when males were irradiated with a dose of 45 Krad. Longevity of male PTM was not affected by the application of irradiation, while mating ability and frequency of mating of the males irradiated with 25, 35 and 45 Krad were decreased. The mean number of eggs laid by females mated with males irradiated at 35 and 45 Krad was lower than the control. When males PTM were irradiated with high doses their competitiveness values were reduced, while the competitiveness was increased when the sex ratio of irradiated males to normal males was increased, specially with ration 1 : 10 : 1 (Normal male: Irradiated males: Normal female). Application of 15 Krad dose permitted, the ability to obtain a desired level of male sterility with acceptable reduction in its competitiveness. The inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males irradiated with 10-15 and 20 Krad was studied. Sterility in F1 progeny was higher than that in their irradiated male parents. The sex ratio of F1 progeny was distorted in favour of the males. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on fertility of potato tuber moth males and study of inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saour, G; Makee, H [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1996-01-01

    Newly emerged adult males (0-18 h) potato tuber moth (PTM) phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were irradiated with various doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 45 krad. Sterility in order of 91% was induced when males were irradiated with a dose of 45 Krad. Longevity of male PTM was not affected by the application of irradiation, while mating ability and frequency of mating of the males irradiated with 25, 35 and 45 Krad were decreased. The mean number of eggs laid by females mated with males irradiated at 35 and 45 Krad was lower than the control. When males PTM were irradiated with high doses their competitiveness values were reduced, while the competitiveness was increased when the sex ratio of irradiated males to normal males was increased, specially with ration 1 : 10 : 1 (Normal male: Irradiated males: Normal female). Application of 15 Krad dose permitted, the ability to obtain a desired level of male sterility with acceptable reduction in its competitiveness. The inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males irradiated with 10-15 and 20 Krad was studied. Sterility in F1 progeny was higher than that in their irradiated male parents. The sex ratio of F1 progeny was distorted in favour of the males. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wohltmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs and Earth system models (ESMs to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx, HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect

  19. Early effects of neutering on energy expenditure in adult male cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfreda Wei

    Full Text Available The initial cause of post-neutering weight gain in male cats is not entirely known. There is evidence that energy intake (EI increases rapidly post-neutering, but it is not clear if neutering also decreases energy expenditure (EE prior to weight gain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if a decrease in EE contributes to the initial shift toward positive energy balance in neutered male cats. To determine the influence of neutering on EE independent of changes in EI and body weight (BW, male cats were fed at their pre-neutering maintenance EI and EE was measured at 4 days pre-neutering, 3-4 days post-neutering, and 9 days post- neutering. Ad libitum food access was then provided for 6 months. Body composition was measured and blood samples collected for serum chemistry at pre-neutering and 7 days, 13 days and 6 months post-neutering. Total energy expenditure (TEE adjusted for lean body mass (LBM did not change in cats from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. However, TEE adjusted for BW and resting energy expenditure adjusted for either LBM or BW showed a small, but significant (P<0.05 increase from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. When allowed free choice food access, cats showed significant increases of food intake (FI and BW. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin increased, while adiponectin levels decreased following neutering. The results of this study indicate that initial post-neutering weight gain in male cats results from increased FI and not decreased EE. Long-term control of FI should be initiated after neutering to prevent hyperphagia and weight gain in male cats.

  20. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: A protégé and potential threat towards mans extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeh Nnana Isaiah; Bikwe Thomas Nche; Ibeh Georgina Nwagu; Ibeh Isaiah Nnanna

    2011-01-01

    Background: The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. Aim: To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis Materi...

  1. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin in human male infertility in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeh, I N; Uraih, N; Ogonar, J I

    1994-01-01

    To discover the relationship between aflatoxin levels, if any, in serum of infertile men in comparison with random controls from the community. In a parallel experiment, adult male rats were given an aflatoxin-contaminated diet. 100 adult males, yielding 50 semen samples, from men attending Infertility Clinics at a university teaching hospital and 50 normal men in the same community. The staple foods of the men were assayed for aflatoxin content. The rats were given the aflatoxin-rich diet, and their spermatozoa were examined and their ability to reproduce assessed. A random sampling of semen from 100 adult males comprising 50 samples drawn from infertile men and 50 drawn from normal individuals within the same community revealed the presence of aflatoxins in 20 semen samples from the infertile group (40.0%) and four samples from the fertile group (8.0%). The mean aflatoxin concentrations were 1.660 +/- 0.04 micrograms/mL (infertile men) and 1.041 +/- 0.01 micrograms/mL (fertile men). Infertile men with aflatoxin in their semen showed a higher percentage of spermatozoal abnormality (50.0%) than the fertile men (10.0-15.0%). Dietary exposure of adult male Albino rats to aflatoxin (8.5 micrograms AF1/g of Guinea growers feed for 14 days) produced deleterious effects on the spermatozoa of the affected rats, producing features that resemble those seen in semen of infertile men exposed to aflatoxin.

  2. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Diana

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F 1 generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F 1 male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from heritable

  3. Male fighting and ``territoriality'' within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend “territories” against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  4. Male fighting and "territoriality" within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend "territories" against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  5. The Effects of Sex-Labelling on Adult-Infant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Suzy; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The influence of sex-labelling on adult-infant interactions is explored in this study. It is hypothesized that, when introduced to a single infant identified as either male or female, adults will (1) offer more masculine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to be male; (2) offer more feminine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to…

  6. Promoting Diversity Through Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (Polar ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. D.; Hotaling, L. A.; Garza, C.; Van Dyk, P. B.; Hunter-thomson, K. I.; Middendorf, J.; Daniel, A.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Schofield, O.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) is an education and outreach program designed to provide public access to the Antarctic and Arctic regions through polar data and interactions with the scientists. The program provides multi-faceted science communication training for early career scientists that consist of a face-to face workshop and opportunities to apply these skills. The key components of the scientist training workshop include cultural competency training, deconstructing/decoding science for non-expert audiences, the art of telling science stories, and networking with members of the education and outreach community and reflecting on communication skills. Scientists partner with educators to provide professional development for K-12 educators and support for student research symposia. Polar ICE has initiated a Polar Literacy initiative that provides both a grounding in big ideas in polar science and science communication training designed to underscore the importance of the Polar Regions to the public while promoting interdisciplinary collaborations between scientists and educators. Our ultimate objective is to promote STEM identity through professional development of scientists and educators while developing career awareness of STEM pathways in Polar science.

  7. Polarization-independent broadband meta-holograms via polarization-dependent nanoholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Li, Xiong; Jin, Jinjin; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Jun; Guo, Yinghui; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-05-17

    Composed of ultrathin metal or dielectric nanostructures, metasurfaces can manipulate the phase, amplitude and polarization of electromagnetic waves at a subwavelength scale, which is promising for flat optical devices. In general, metasurfaces composed of space-variant anisotropic units are sensitive to the incident polarization due to the inherent polarization dependent geometric phase. Here, we implement polarization-independent broadband metasurface holograms constructed by polarization-dependent anisotropic elliptical nanoholes by elaborate design of complex amplitude holograms. The fabricated meta-hologram exhibits a polarization insensitive feature with an acceptable image quality. We verify the feasibility of the design algorithm for three-dimensional (3D) meta-holograms with simulation and the feasibility for two-dimensional (2D) meta-holograms is experimentally demonstrated at a broadband wavelength range from 405 nm to 632.8 nm. The effective polarization-independent broadband complex wavefront control with anisotropic elliptical nanoholes proposed in this paper greatly promotes the practical applications of the metasurface in technologies associated with wavefront manipulation, such as flat lens, colorful holographic displays and optical storage.

  8. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF FIVE ADULT DIETS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND GAMMA IRRADIATED ADULT MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-AKHDAR, E.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    To improve the sterile insect technique for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), experiments were carried out to test the effect of four new adult protein sources on the insect vitality. Different yeasts consisting of almost the same nutritive components but differ in the quantity of protein were mixed with sugar as carbohydrate sources (2:3) and compared to the standard adult diet (enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3). Adults reared on each diet were evaluated biologically for their response to gamma radiation (90 Gy). The weight and size of the produced pupae from parents fed on the tested diets, percent of adult emergence, sex ratio, adults survival, egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) for the following generations were taken as monitors for the insect vitality. The results showed that adult male and female survival for 5, 10 and 15 days from emergence, percent egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) showed no sharp differences between three tested diets D3(Af), D4(YE300) and D5(YE00) as compared to the standard diet D1(YH, enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3) for parents and F1 progeny. However, when the second tested diet D2(Ay150) was used, the results showed a significant decreases in most of the tested biological aspects, especially in the male mating competitiveness value (C.V.), which is considered the most important monitor for male insect vitality

  9. Effect of chronic administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on the histology of the retina and optic nerve of adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltony, Sohair A; Abdelhameed, Sally Y

    2017-04-01

    Abnormal vision has been reported by 3% of patients treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra). Although many men use Viagra for an extended period for treatment of erectile dysfunction, the implications of the long term-daily use of it on the retina and optic nerve are unclear. To investigate the effect of chronic daily use of sildenafil citrate in a dose equivalent to men preferred therapeutic dose on the histology of the retina and optic nerve of adult male rat. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into three groups. Group I: control. Group II: treated with sildenafil citrate orally (10mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Group III (withdrawal): treated as group II and then left for 4 weeks without treatment. Specimens from the retina and optic nerve were processed for light and electron microscopy. In sildenafil citrate treated group, the retina and optic nerve revealed vacuolations and congested blood capillaries with apoptotic endothelial and pericytic cells, and thickened basal lamina. Caspase-3 (apoptotic marker) and CD31 (endothelial marker) expression increased. Glial cells revealed morphological changes: Müller cells lost their processes, activated microglia, astrocytic clasmatodendrosis, degenerated oligodendrocytes surrounded by disintegrated myelin sheathes of the optic nerve fibers. The retina and optic nerve of the withdrawal group revealed less vacuolations and congestion, and partial recovery of the glial cells. Chronic treatment with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) caused toxic effect on the structure of the retina and optic nerve of the rat. Partial recovery was observed after drug withdrawal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of erectile dysfunction in adult male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Rusli Bin; Soni, Trived; Kaur, Amrina; Loh, Kean Por; Miranda, Shashi

    2018-05-18

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a serious burden globally that affects men as well as their partners. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of ED among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study of Malaysian men aged 18 and older attending two major outpatient clinics in Johor Bahru and Segamat between 1 January and 31 March 2016 was undertaken. Subjects were chosen via simple random sampling and a sample size of 400 was recruited. The study instrument was a survey form that consisted of three sections: sociodemographic and comorbid profile, validated English and Malay version of the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) and 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The overall prevalence of self-reported ED was 81.5%. The prevalence of ED according to severity was as follows: mild (17%), mild to moderate (23.8%), moderate (11.3%), and severe (29.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was associated with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 4.023, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.633-9.913), Indians as compared to Malays (OR 3.252, 95% CI 1.280-8.262), secondary as compared to tertiary education (OR 2.171, 95% CI 1.203-3.919), single as compared to married status (OR 6.119, 95% CI 2.542-14.734), and stress (OR 4.259, 95% CI 1.793-10.114). There is significant prevalence and severity of ED among adult male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Increasing age, Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, being single, and stress were significant predictors of ED.

  11. Stress responses of adolescent male and female rats exposed repeatedly to cat odor stimuli, and long-term enhancement of adult defensive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lisa D; Muir, Katherine E; Perrot, Tara S

    2013-07-01

    In order to characterize the short- and long-term effects of repeated stressor exposure during adolescence, and to compare the effects of using two sources of cat odor as stressor stimuli, male and female adolescent rats (postnatal day (PND) ∼ 38-46) were exposed on five occasions to either a control stimulus, a cloth stimulus containing cat hair/dander, or a section of cat collar previously worn by a cat. Relative to control stimulus exposure, activity was suppressed and defensive behavior enhanced during exposure to either cat odor stimulus (most pervasively in rats exposed to the collar). Only cloth-exposed rats showed elevated levels of corticosterone (CORT), and only after repeated stressor exposure, but interestingly, rats exposed to the collar stimulus during adolescence continued to show increased behavioral indices of anxiety in adulthood. In this group, the time an individual spent in physical contact with a cagemate during the final adolescent exposure was negatively related to stress-induced CORT output in adulthood, which suggests that greater use of social support during adolescent stress may facilitate adult behavioral coping, without necessitating increased CORT release. These findings demonstrate that adolescent male and female rats respond defensively to cat odor stimuli across repeated exposures and that exposure to such stressors during adolescence can augment adult anxiety-like behavior in similar stressful conditions. These findings also suggest a potential role for social behavior during adolescent stressor exposure in mediating long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  13. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, E.V.; Hunter, C.M.; Caswell, H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0 ∙ 96-0 ∙ 99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0 ∙ 73-0 ∙ 79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings

  14. Ancestral polymorphisms and sex-biased migration shaped the demographic history of brown bears and polar bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Nakagome

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported discordant gene trees in the evolution of brown bears and polar bears. Genealogical histories are different among independent nuclear loci and between biparentally inherited autosomal DNA (aDNA and matrilineal mit