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Sample records for adult male mice

  1. Mass mortality of adult male subantarctic fur seals: are alien mice the culprits?

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    P J Nico de Bruyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass mortalities of marine mammals due to infectious agents are increasingly reported. However, in contrast to previous die-offs, which were indiscriminate with respect to sex and age, here we report a land-based mass mortality of Subantarctic fur seals with apparent exclusivity to adult males. An infectious agent with a male-predilection is the most plausible explanation for this die-off. Although pathogens with gender-biased transmission and pathologies are unusual, rodents are known sources of male-biased infectious agents and the invasive Mus musculus house mouse, occurs in seal rookeries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular screening for male-biased pathogens in this potential rodent reservoir host revealed the absence of Cardiovirus and Leptospirosis genomes in heart and kidney samples, respectively, but identified a novel Streptococcus species with 30% prevalence in mouse kidneys. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Inter-species transmission through environmental contamination with this novel bacterium, whose congenerics display male-bias and have links to infirmity in seals and terrestrial mammals (including humans, highlights the need to further evaluate disease risks posed by alien invasive mice to native species, on this and other islands.

  2. Maternal immune activation differentially impacts mature and adult-born hippocampal neurons in male mice.

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    Zhang, Zhi; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus develops both before and after birth. To study the relative contribution of mature and adult-born DG granule cells to disease etiology, we compared both cell populations in a mouse model of psychiatric illness resulting from maternal immune activation. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyIC, 5mg/kg) or saline was given on gestation day 15 to pregnant female C57Bl/6 mice. Male offspring (n=105), was administered systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 50mg/kg) (n=52) or intracerebral retroviral injection into the DG (n=53), to label dividing cells at one month of age. Two months later behavioral tests were performed to evaluate disease phenotype. Immunohistochemistry and whole-cell patch clamping were used to assess morphological and physiological characteristics of DG cells. Three-month-old PolyIC exposed male offspring exhibited deficient pre-pulse inhibition, spatial maze performance and motor coordination, as well as increased depression-like behavior. Histological analysis showed reduced DG volume and parvalbumin positive interneuron number. Both mature and new hippocampal neurons showed modifications in intrinsic properties such as increased input resistance and lower current threshold, and decreased action potential number. Reduced GABAergic inhibitory transmission was observed only in mature DG neurons. Differential impairments in mature DG cells and adult-born new neurons may have implications for behavioral deficits associated with maternal immune activation. PMID:25449671

  3. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

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    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  4. Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB/c mice

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    Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude

    In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.

  5. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

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    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  6. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  7. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

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    Motoi Tamura; Chigusa Hoshi; Sachiko Hori

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0....

  8. Effects of fetal exposure to gamma rays on aggressive behavior in adult male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior (AB) in first generation (F1) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated on the 14th day of gestation was studied at 100-135 days of age. Gravid female mice were irradiated with 1.0 or 2.0 Gy of gamma rays to the whole body. The AB of pairs of mice were recorded with a capacitance-induction motility monitor and on videotape. Recordings were continued for 90 min, starting at 2:00 PM. Vigorous wrestling, boxing and biting were regarded as AB. Data recorded at 15-min intervals were stored on micro-computer discs. The body weight for the irradiated group was significantly lower than that for the control group. The number of instances of AB was significantly higher in the irradiated group. The AB of the 2.0 Gy group was significantly more intensive than that of the control group. No difference in the duration of AB was found for the 2 irradiated and the control groups. Results demonstrate that male mice irradiated prenatally show increased aggressiveness. (author)

  9. Short-term treatment with bisphenol-A leads to metabolic abnormalities in adult male mice

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    Batista, Thiago M.; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Maria Esmeria C.; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Nef, Serge; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adu...

  10. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight) were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01). The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health. PMID:24336061

  11. Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Tamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05. The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01. The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05. This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health.

  12. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

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    Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Mepham, Kathryn, E-mail: katherine.mepham@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Sebag, Igal A., E-mail: igal.sebag@mcgill.ca [Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  13. Desensitization and Incomplete Recovery of Hepatic Target Genes After Chronic Thyroid Hormone Treatment and Withdrawal in Male Adult Mice.

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    Ohba, Kenji; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Lesmana, Ronny; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Ghosh, Sujoy; Refetoff, Samuel; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee; Yen, Paul Michael

    2016-04-01

    Clinical symptoms may vary and not necessarily reflect serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels during acute and chronic hyperthyroidism as well as recovery from hyperthyroidism. We thus examined changes in hepatic gene expression and serum TH/TSH levels in adult male mice treated either with a single T3 (20 μg per 100 g body weight) injection (acute T3) or daily injections for 14 days (chronic T3) followed by 10 days of withdrawal. Gene expression arrays from livers harvested at these time points showed that among positively-regulated target genes, 320 were stimulated acutely and 429 chronically by T3. Surprisingly, only 69 of 680 genes (10.1%) were induced during both periods, suggesting desensitization of the majority of acutely stimulated target genes. About 90% of positively regulated target genes returned to baseline expression levels after 10 days of withdrawal; however, 67 of 680 (9.9%) did not return to baseline despite normalization of serum TH/TSH levels. Similar findings also were observed for negatively regulated target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of representative positively regulated target genes suggested that acetylation of H3K9/K14 was associated with acute stimulation, whereas trimethylation of H3K4 was associated with chronic stimulation. In an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism since birth, adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 knockout mice also demonstrated desensitization of most acutely stimulated target genes that were examined. In summary, we have identified transcriptional desensitization and incomplete recovery of gene expression during chronic hyperthyroidism and recovery. Our findings may be a potential reason for discordance between clinical symptoms and serum TH levels observed in these conditions. PMID:26866609

  14. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice

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    NOHARA, Masakatsu; TOHEI, Atsushi; SATO, Takumi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva—collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents—we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (P<0.001). Monitoring the results of individual mice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (P<0.001) than in the others (P<0.05). These results suggest that the corticosterone levels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments. PMID:26852731

  15. Postanesthetic Effects of Isoflurane on Behavioral Phenotypes of Adult Male C57BL/6J Mice

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    Yonezaki, Kumiko; Uchimoto, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Asakura, Ayako; Kobayashi, Ayako; Takase, Kenkichi; Goto, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Isoflurane was previously the major clinical anesthetic agent but is now mainly used for veterinary anesthesia. Studies have reported widespread sites of action of isoflurane, suggesting a wide array of side effects besides sedation. In the present study, we phenotyped isoflurane-treated mice to investigate the postanesthetic behavioral effects of isoflurane. We applied comprehensive behavioral test batteries comprising sensory test battery, motor test battery, anxiety test battery, depressio...

  16. Chronic minocycline treatment improves social recognition memory in adult male Fmr1 knockout mice.

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    Yau, Suk Yu; Chiu, Christine; Vetrici, Mariana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation in the Fmr1 gene that leads to silencing of the gene and a loss of its gene product, Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Some of the key behavioral phenotypes for FXS include abnormal social anxiety and sociability. Here we show that Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice exhibit impaired social recognition when presented with a novel mouse, and they display normal social interactions in other sociability tests. Administering minocycline to Fmr1 KO mice throughout critical stages of neural development improved social recognition memory in the novel mouse recognition task. To determine if synaptic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could have played a role in this improvement, we examined PSD-95, a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family, and signaling molecules (ERK1/2, and Akt) linked to synaptic plasticity in the PFC. Our analyses indicated that while minocycline treatment can enhance behavioral performance, it does not enhance expression of PSD-95, ERK1/2 or Akt in the PFC. PMID:27291517

  17. Adult but Not Aged C57BL/6 Male Mice Are Capable of Using Geometry for Orientation

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    Schachner, Melitta; Morellini, Fabio; Fellini, Laetitia

    2006-01-01

    Geometry, e.g., the shape of the environment, can be used by numerous animal species to orientate, but data concerning the mouse are lacking. We addressed the question of whether mice are capable of using geometry for navigating. To test whether aging could affect searching strategies, we compared adult (3- to 5-mo old) and aged (20- to 21-mo old)…

  18. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

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    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders. PMID:21093519

  19. Evaluation of toxic effects of CdTe quantum dots on the reproductive system in adult male mice.

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    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangrong; Yuwen, Lihui; Yang, Wenjing; Weng, Lixing; Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are highly promising nanomaterials for various biological and biomedical applications because of their unique optical properties, such as robust photostability, strong photoluminescence, and size-tunable fluorescence. Several studies have reported the in vivo toxicity of QDs, but their effects on the male reproduction system have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs at a high dose of 2.0 nmol per mouse and a low dose of 0.2 nmol per mouse. Body weight measurements demonstrated there was no overt toxicity for both dose at day 90 after exposure, but the high dose CdTe affected body weight up to 15 days after exposure. CdTe QDs accumulated in the testes and damaged the tissue structure for both doses on day 90. Meanwhile, either of two CdTe QDs treatments did not significantly affect the quantity of sperm, but the high dose CdTe significantly decreased the quality of sperm on day 60. The serum levels of three major sex hormones were also perturbed by CdTe QDs treatment. However, the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those mated with untreated male mice. These results suggest that CdTe QDs can cause testes toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The low dose of CdTe QDs is relatively safe for the reproductive system of male mice. Our preliminary result enables better understanding of the reproductive toxicity induced by cadmium-containing QDs and provides insight into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological and environmental systems. PMID:27135714

  20. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

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    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  1. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has developmental and adult forms in mice, with the male bias in the developmental form being dependent on testicular AMH.

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    Wittmann, Walter; McLennan, Ian S

    2013-09-01

    Canonically, the sexual dimorphism in the brain develops perinatally, with adult sexuality emerging due to the activating effects of pubescent sexual hormones. This concept does not readily explain why children have a gender identity and exhibit sex-stereotypic behaviours. These phenomena could be explained if some aspects of the sexual brain networks have childhood forms, which are transformed at puberty to generate adult sexuality. The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is a dimorphic nucleus that is sex-reversed in transsexuals but not homosexuals. We report here that the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp) of mice has developmental and adult forms that are differentially regulated. In 20-day-old prepubescent mice, the male bias in the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp) was moderate (360 ± 6 vs 288 ± 12 calbindin(+ve) neurons, p social development. The reported observations provide a rationale for examining AMH levels in children with gender identity disorders and disorders of socialization that involve a male bias. PMID:24012942

  2. Sleep fragmentation during late gestation induces metabolic perturbations and epigenetic changes in adiponectin gene expression in male adult offspring mice.

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    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Mutskov, Vesco; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Ahamed A; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

    2014-10-01

    Sleep fragmentation (SF) is a common condition among pregnant women, particularly during late gestation. Gestational perturbations promote the emergence of adiposity and metabolic disease risk in offspring, most likely through epigenetic modifications. Adiponectin (AdipoQ) expression inversely correlates with obesity and insulin resistance. The effects of SF during late gestation on metabolic function and AdipoQ expression in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) of offspring mice are unknown. Male offspring mice were assessed at 24 weeks after dams were exposed to SF or control sleep during late gestation. Increased food intake, body weight, VWAT mass, and insulin resistance, with reductions in AdipoQ expression in VWAT, emerged in SF offspring. Increased DNMT3a and -b and global DNA methylation and reduced histone acetyltransferase activity and TET1, -2, and -3 expression were detected in VWAT of SF offspring. Reductions in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and H3K4m3 and an increase in DNA 5-methylcytosine and H3K9m2 in the promoter and enhancer regions of AdipoQ emerged in adipocytes from VWAT and correlated with AdipoQ expression. SF during late gestation induces epigenetic modifications in AdipoQ in male offspring mouse VWAT adipocytes along with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Thus, altered gestational environments elicited by SF impose the emergence of adverse, long-lasting metabolic consequences in the next generation. PMID:24812424

  3. Two weeks of predatory stress induces anxiety-like behavior with co-morbid depressive-like behavior in adult male mice.

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    Burgado, Jillybeth; Harrell, Constance S; Eacret, Darrell; Reddy, Renuka; Barnum, Christopher J; Tansey, Malú G; Miller, Andrew H; Wang, Huichen; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2014-12-15

    Psychological stress can have devastating and lasting effects on a variety of behaviors, especially those associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression. Animal models of chronic stress are frequently used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between stress and mental health disorders and to develop improved treatment options. The current study expands upon a novel chronic stress paradigm for mice: predatory stress. The predatory stress model incorporates the natural predator-prey relationship that exists among rats and mice and allows for greater interaction between the animals, in turn increasing the extent of the stressful experience. In this study, we evaluated the behavioral effects of exposure to 15 days of predatory stress on an array of behavioral indices. Up to 2 weeks after the end of stress, adult male mice showed an increase of anxiety-like behaviors as measured by the open field and social interaction tests. Animals also expressed an increase in depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test. Notably, performance on the novel object recognition task, a memory test, improved after predatory stress. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that 15 exposures to this innovative predatory stress paradigm are sufficient to elicit robust anxiety-like behaviors with evidence of co-morbid depressive-like behavior, as well as changes in cognitive behavior in male mice. PMID:25200517

  4. Altered gene expression and spine density in nucleus accumbens of adolescent and adult male mice exposed to emotional and physical stress.

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    Warren, Brandon L; Sial, Omar K; Alcantara, Lyonna F; Greenwood, Maria A; Brewer, Jacob S; Rozofsky, John P; Parise, Eric M; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Stressful early life experiences are implicated in lifelong health. However, little is known about the consequences of emotional stress (ES) or physical stress (PS) on neurobiology. Therefore, the following set of experiments was designed to assess changes in transcription and translation of key proteins within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male adolescent (postnatal day 35) or adult (8-week-old) mice were exposed to ES or PS using a witness social defeat paradigm. Then, 24 h after the last stress session, we measured levels of specific mRNAs and proteins within the NAc. Spine density was also assessed in separate groups of mice. Exposure to ES or PS disrupted extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2), reduced transcription of ΔFosB and had no effect on cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) mRNA. Western blots revealed that exposure to ES or PS decreased ERK2 phosphorylation in adolescents, whereas the same stress regimen increased ERK2 phosphorylation in adults. Exposure to ES or PS had no effect on ΔFosB or CREB phosphorylation. ES and PS increased spine density in the NAc of adolescent exposed mice, but only exposure to PS increased spine density in adults. Together, these findings demonstrate that exposure to ES or PS is a potent stressor in adolescent and adult mice and can disturb the integrity of the NAc by altering transcription and translation of important signaling molecules in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to ES and PS induces substantial synaptic plasticity of the NAc. PMID:24943326

  5. The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Aerial Parts of the Mentha piperita in the Acquisition, Tolerance Expression and Dependence to Morphine in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khajeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Morphine dependence is a compulsive pattern of drug taking, resulting from the positive reinforcement of the rewarding effects of drug taking and the negative reinforcement of withdrawal syndrome that accompanies the cessation of drug taking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of aerial parts of the Mentha piperita in the acquisition, tolerance expression and dependence to morphine in adult male mice Methods: In the present study, 75 NMRI mice were divided into fifiteen groups. The Hot-plate test was used to survey the morphine activity. Morphine was injected (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg, i.p. twice daily for seven days, except in 8th day in which morphine was administrated at a single dose (50 mg/kg. The extract (50, 75, 100 mg/kg was injected for eight days. The control animals were intact, and sham animals only received morphine. Naloxone was injected (10 mg/kg five hours after the final dose of morphine and the withdrawal signs were recorded during a 30 minute period. The data were expressed as mean values ± SEM and tested, using analysis of one-way ANOVA test. Results: Peppermint extract at doses of 75 and 100 kg significantly improved the tolerance expression and dependence to morphine in animals and significantly reduced the symptoms of withdrawal. Conclusion: Peppermint extract was commuted morphine tolerance and dependence in mice.The plant contained component(s that alleviate morphine withdrawal syndrome. The extract possibly be effective in improving tolerance to morphine.

  6. Hepatic PPARγ Is Not Essential for the Rapid Development of Steatosis After Loss of Hepatic GH Signaling, in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kineman, Rhonda D; Majumdar, Neena; Subbaiah, Papasani V; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose

    2016-05-01

    Our group has previously reported de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and hepatic triglyceride content increases in chow-fed male mice within 7 days of hepatocyte-specific GH receptor knockdown (aLivGHRkd). Here, we report that these changes are associated with an increase in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), consistent with previous reports showing steatosis is associated with an increase in PPARγ expression in mice with congenital loss of hepatic GH signaling. PPARγ is thought to be an important driver of steatosis by enhancing DNL, as well as increasing the uptake and esterification of extrahepatic fatty acids (FAs). In order to determine whether hepatic PPARγ is critical for the rapid development of steatosis in the aLivGHRkd mouse model, we have generated aLivGHRkd mice, with or without PPARγ (ie, adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific double knockout of GHR and PPARγ). Hepatic PPARγ was not required for the rapid increase in liver triglyceride content or FA indexes of DNL (16:0/18:2 and 16:1/16:0). However, loss of hepatic PPARγ blunted the rise in fatty acid translocase/CD36 and monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 expression induced by aLivGHRkd, and this was associated with a reduction in the hepatic content of 18:2. These results suggest that the major role of PPARγ is to enhance pathways critical in uptake and reesterification of extrahepatic FA. Because FAs have been reported to directly increase PPARγ expression, we speculate that in the aLivGHRkd mouse, the FA produced by DNL enhances the expression of PPARγ, which in turn increases extrahepatic FA uptake, thereby further enhancing PPARγ activity and exacerbating steatosis overtime. PMID:26950202

  7. The effect of ficus carica l. (anjir) leaf extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside isolated from Micromonospora purpurea known for its nephrotoxicity. Ficus carica L is known to treat many ailments. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ficus carica L. (Anjir) leaf extract on renal oxidative stress induced by gentamicin in albino mice. Methods: In this laboratory based experimental study 30 mice were divided into three groups, containing 10 mice each. Group A being the control; groups B and C were experimental and treated with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally and, Ficus carica L. leaf extract 400 mg/kg/day orally with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally respectively for a period of 8 days. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after completion of the experimental period by cardiac puncture under anesthesia and kidneys of each mouse were taken out for microscopic examination. Results: Gentamicin treatment increased serum urea and creatinine levels (group B). Ficus carica L. leaf extract treated animals showed significant reduction in biochemical markers of kidney functions in group C. The histopathological examination of group A showed normal renal structure which was deranged in group B treated with only gentamicin, whereas, group C exhibited marked improvement in histological structure. Conclusion: Ficus carica L. leaf extract is effective in preventing gentamicin induced functional and structural changes in kidney of albino mice. (author)

  8. Sertoli Cells Modulate Testicular Vascular Network Development, Structure, and Function to Influence Circulating Testosterone Concentrations in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebourcet, Diane; Wu, Junxi; Cruickshanks, Lyndsey; Smith, Sarah E.; Milne, Laura; Fernando, Anuruddika; Wallace, Robert J.; Gray, Calum D.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.; Mitchell, Rod T.; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The testicular vasculature forms a complex network, providing oxygenation, micronutrients, and waste clearance from the testis. The vasculature is also instrumental to testis function because it is both the route by which gonadotropins are delivered to the testis and by which T is transported away to target organs. Whether Sertoli cells play a role in regulating the testicular vasculature in postnatal life has never been unequivocally demonstrated. In this study we used models of acute Sertoli cell ablation and acute germ cell ablation to address whether Sertoli cells actively influence vascular structure and function in the adult testis. Our findings suggest that Sertoli cells play a key role in supporting the structure of the testicular vasculature. Ablating Sertoli cells (and germ cells) or germ cells alone results in a similar reduction in testis size, yet only the specific loss of Sertoli cells leads to a reduction in total intratesticular vascular volume, the number of vascular branches, and the numbers of small microvessels; loss of germ cells alone has no effect on the testicular vasculature. These perturbations to the testicular vasculature leads to a reduction in fluid exchange between the vasculature and testicular interstitium, which reduces gonadotropin-stimulated circulating T concentrations, indicative of reduced Leydig cell stimulation and/or reduced secretion of T into the vasculature. These findings describe a new paradigm by which the transport of hormones and other factors into and out of the testis may be influenced by Sertoli cells and highlights these cells as potential targets for enhancing this endocrine relationship. PMID:27145015

  9. Female mice ultrasonically interact with males during courtship displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunuebel, Joshua P; Taylor, Adam L; Arthur, Ben J; Egnor, S E Roian

    2015-01-01

    During courtship males attract females with elaborate behaviors. In mice, these displays include ultrasonic vocalizations. Ultrasonic courtship vocalizations were previously attributed to the courting male, despite evidence that both sexes produce virtually indistinguishable vocalizations. Because of this similarity, and the difficulty of assigning vocalizations to individuals, the vocal contribution of each individual during courtship is unknown. To address this question, we developed a microphone array system to localize vocalizations from socially interacting, individual adult mice. With this system, we show that female mice vocally interact with males during courtship. Males and females jointly increased their vocalization rates during chases. Furthermore, a female's participation in these vocal interactions may function as a signal that indicates a state of increased receptivity. Our results reveal a novel form of vocal communication during mouse courtship, and lay the groundwork for a mechanistic dissection of communication during social behavior. PMID:26020291

  10. Exposure to Bisphenol-A during Pregnancy Partially Mimics the Effects of a High-Fat Diet Altering Glucose Homeostasis and Gene Expression in Adult Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Marta García-Arevalo; Paloma Alonso-Magdalena; Junia Rebelo Dos Santos; Ivan Quesada; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Angel Nadal

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread EDCs used as a base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. The aim of our research has been to study how the exposure to BPA during pregnancy affects weight, glucose homeostasis, pancreatic β-cell function and gene expression in the major peripheral organs that control energy flux: white adipose tissue (WAT), the liver and skeletal muscle, in male offspring 17 and 28 weeks old. Pregnant mice were treated with a subcutaneous injec...

  11. Exposure to bisphenol-A during pregnancy partially mimics the effects of a high-fat diet altering glucose homeostasis and gene expression in adult male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Arevalo

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is one of the most widespread EDCs used as a base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. The aim of our research has been to study how the exposure to BPA during pregnancy affects weight, glucose homeostasis, pancreatic β-cell function and gene expression in the major peripheral organs that control energy flux: white adipose tissue (WAT, the liver and skeletal muscle, in male offspring 17 and 28 weeks old. Pregnant mice were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 10 µg/kg/day of BPA or a vehicle from day 9 to 16 of pregnancy. One month old offspring were divided into four different groups: vehicle treated mice that ate a normal chow diet (Control group; BPA treated mice that also ate a normal chow diet (BPA; vehicle treated animals that had a high fat diet (HFD and BPA treated animals that were fed HFD (HFD-BPA. The BPA group started to gain weight at 18 weeks old and caught up to the HFD group before week 28. The BPA group as well as the HFD and HFD-BPA ones presented fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and high levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in plasma compared with the Control one. Glucose stimulated insulin release was disrupted, particularly in the HFD-BPA group. In WAT, the mRNA expression of the genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, Srebpc1, Pparα and Cpt1β was decreased by BPA to the same extent as with the HFD treatment. BPA treatment upregulated Pparγ and Prkaa1 genes in the liver; yet it diminished the expression of Cd36. Hepatic triglyceride levels were increased in all groups compared to control. In conclusion, male offspring from BPA-treated mothers presented symptoms of diabesity. This term refers to a form of diabetes which typically develops in later life and is associated with obesity.

  12. Exposure of BALB/c mice to diesel engine exhaust origin secondary organic aer-osol (DE-SOA during the developmental stages impairs the social behavior in adult life of the males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tin eWin-Shwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA is a component of particulate matter (PM 2.5 and formed in the atmosphere by oxidation of volatile organic compounds. Recently, we have reported that inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DE originated SOA (DE-SOA affect novel object recognition ability and impair maternal behavior in adult mice. However, it is not clear whether early life exposure to SOA during the de-velopmental stages affect social behavior in adult life or not. In the present study, to investigate the effects of early life exposure to DE-SOA during the gestational and lactation stages on the social behavior in the adult life, BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control, DE, DE-SOA and gas without any particulate matter in the inhala-tion chambers from gestational day 14 to postnatal day 21 for 5 h a day and 5 days per week. Then adult mice were examined for changes in their social behavior at the age of 13 week by a sociability and social novelty preference, social interaction with a juvenile mouse and light-dark transition test, hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of social behavior-related genes, estrogen receptor-alpha and oxytocin receptor as well as of the oxidative stress marker gene, heme oxygenase (HO-1 by real-time RT-PCR method. In addition, hypothalamic level of neuronal excitatory marker, glutamate was determined by ELISA method. We observed that sociability and social novelty pref-erence as well as social interaction were remarkably impaired, expression levels of es-trogen receptor-alpha, oxytocin receptor mRNAs were significantly decreased, ex-pression levels of HO-1 mRNAs and glutamate levels were significantly increased in adult male mice exposed to DE-SOA compared to the control ones. Findings of this study indicate early life exposure of BALB/c mice to DE-SOA may affect their late-onset hypothalamic expression of social behavior related genes, trigger neurotoxi-city and impair social behavior in the males.

  13. Effect of Soybean on Male Reproductive Physiology in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Modaresi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Soybean (Soja hispida Moench is a member of Fabaceae family. It is a species of legume native to East Asia. Soy contains significant amount of all the essential amino acids for humans therefore, is a good source of protein .Soy has an important role in the improvement and treatment of some cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybeans on reproductive system in male mice. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Isfahan Payam e Noor University in 2009. In this research, 32 male mice were randomly grouped into four experimental groups. The control group was fed with soy-free basic diet. The experimental groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed with a diet containing 20%, 30% and 50% soy diet respectively.At the end of 9 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected and serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software using one way ANOVA with Dunnett's post test and Duncan test. Results : In the experimental group which received 20% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful decrease in comparison with the control group (P<0.05, but in the experimental group which received a 50% soy diet, the level of testosterone had a meaningful increase (P<0.05 .The LH level in 30% and 50% groups had a meaningful increase but no significant differences were observed in FSH level & weight of testicles (P<0.05.The number of sperms in all of the treatment regimes had a meaningful decrease (P0.05 Conclusion: Results of this research indicated that the 20, 30, and 50 percent soy diet had a negative effect on the male reproductive system in mice.

  14. Peripubertal exposure to male chemosignals accelerates vaginal opening and induces male-directed odor preference in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie eJouhanneau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive physiology in female mouse is profoundly affected by male odor. A well-known effect of male odor is the acceleration of puberty onset in prepubertal female mice exposed to male urine. Whether peripubertal exposure to male odor also influences female sexual behavior in adulthood is poorly known. Recently, we reported that female mice exposed to male-soiled bedding showed advanced vaginal opening associated with early expression of male-directed odor preference in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to determine whether peripubertal exposure to male urinary chemosignals affects both occurrence of vaginal opening and attraction to male odor at older age in female mice. Therefore, we exposed female mice to (1R, 5S, 7R-3,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin (DHB, 6-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-heptanone (HMH and (S-2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT, individually or in mixture, from postnatal day (PD 21 to PD38 and monitored the occurrence of vaginal opening. We measured then the time that the female mice spent sniffing male and female mouse urinary volatiles at PD45. As expected, peripubertal exposure to DHB, HMH or SBT accelerated vaginal opening in female mice. In addition, we showed that exposure to a mixture of these three compounds induced expression of male-directed odor preference at PD45, contrary to the single exposure to each of these molecules. In conclusion, the volatile compounds DHB, HMH and SBT in urine of male mice influence both occurrence of vaginal opening and adult expression of male-directed odor preference in female mice.

  15. 双酚A对成年雄性小鼠食物利用率的影响%Effect of bisphenol-A on food utilization rate in adult male mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海军; 马丽娟; 朱玉莲; 陈敏华; 陈哲科

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨双酚A对成年雄性小鼠食物利用率的影响.方法 100只成年雄性ICR小鼠随机分为阴性对照组、己烯雌酚对照组、双酚A2、20、100 mg/(kg·d)组,各组每天给予相应剂量受试物灌胃2周,之后再观察6周.实验期间每周称量各组动物体质量1次,每天称量各组动物摄取生长繁殖颗粒饲料的重量.结果给予双酚A8周后,各组动物体质量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);给予双酚A的第2周,2,20,100mg/(kg·d)双酚A组动物的食物利用率与阴性对照组比较明显升高(P<0.01);第4周,20,100mg/(kg·d)双酚A组动物的食物利用率与阴性对照组比较明显升高(P<0.05);第6周,100mg/(kg·d)双酚A组动物的食物利用率与阴性对照组比较明显升高(P<0.05);第8周,所有双酚A组动物的食物利用率与阴性对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 双酚A对于成年雄性ICR小鼠的食物利用率有增高作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of bisphenol-A on food utilization rate in adult male mice. Methods A total of 100 adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into groups of negative control. 20 mg/kg diethylstilbestrol control, and 2, 20 and 100 mg/kg bisphenol-A treatment, respectively. Mice of each group were treated with relative material once per day by intragastric administration for two weeks and observed for six weeks after treatment. The weight of mice was observed by weekly measurement and the weight of food intake was taken by daily recording. Results There was no significantly difference in body weight among all groups in the sixth week after bisphenol-A treatment. Food utilization rate was higher in the groups of 2, 20 and 100 mg/kg bisphenol-A treatment than in negative control group with two weeks of bisphenol-A treatment (P<0. 01). Food utilization rate was still higher in the groups of 20 and 100 mg/kg bisphenol-A treatment than in negative control group in the second week after bisphenol

  16. Giardia lamblia infections in adult mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, L G; Conrad, J T; Nash, T E

    1994-01-01

    An adult mouse-Giardia lamblia model was developed and used to study host-parasite interactions, including antigenic variation. The H7/1 clone of isolate GS infected mice consistently and produced infections in 14 mouse strains tested. Infection patterns were mouse strain and Giardia isolate dependent. Antigenic variation occurred in immunocompetent mice but not in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency.

  17. Probiotic use decreases intestinal inflammation and increases bone density in healthy male but not female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Laura R; Irwin, Regina; Schaefer, Laura; Britton, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    Osteoporosis can result from intestinal inflammation, as is seen with inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics, microorganisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, can have anti-inflammatory properties and are currently being examined to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we examined if treating healthy male mice with Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (a candidate probiotic with anti-TNFα activity) could affect intestinal TNFα levels and enhance bone density. Adult male mice were given L. reuteri 6475 orally by gavage for 3×/week for 4 weeks. Examination of jejunal and ileal RNA profiles indicates that L. reuteri suppressed basal TNFα mRNA levels in the jejunum and ileum in male mice, but surprisingly not in female mice. Next, we examined bone responses. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated that L. reuteri 6475 treatment increased male trabecular bone parameters (mineral density, bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness) in the distal femur metaphyseal region as well as in the lumbar vertebrae. Cortical bone parameters were unaffected. Dynamic and static histomorphometry and serum remodeling parameters indicate that L. reuteri ingestion increases osteoblast serum markers and dynamic measures of bone formation in male mice. In contrast to male mice, L. reuteri had no effect on bone parameters in female mice. Taken together our studies indicate that femoral and vertebral bone formation increases in response to oral probiotic use, leading to increased trabecular bone volume in male mice. PMID:23389860

  18. Behavioral deficits induced by third-trimester equivalent alcohol exposure in male C57BL/6J mice are not associated with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis but are still rescued with voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G F; Bucko, P J; Miller, D S; DeAngelis, R S; Krebs, C P; Rhodes, J S

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce permanent alterations in brain structure and profound behavioral deficits. Mouse models can help discover mechanisms and identify potentially useful interventions. This study examined long-term influences of either a single or repeated alcohol exposure during the third-trimester equivalent on survival of new neurons in the hippocampus, behavioral performance on the Passive avoidance and Rotarod tasks, and the potential role of exercise as a therapeutic intervention. C57BL/6J male mice received either saline or 5g/kg ethanol split into two s.c. injections, two hours apart, on postnatal day (PD)7 (Experiment 1) or on PD5, 7 and 9 (Experiment 2). All mice were weaned on PD21 and received either a running wheel or remained sedentary from PD35-PD80/81. From PD36-45, mice received i.p. injections of 50mg/kg bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Behavioral testing occurred between PD72-79. Number of surviving BrdU+ cells and immature neurons (doublecortin; DCX+) was measured at PD80-81. Alcohol did not affect number of BrdU+ or DCX+ cells in either experiment. Running significantly increased number of BrdU+ and DCX+ cells in both treatment groups. Alcohol-induced deficits on Rotarod performance and acquisition of the Passive avoidance task (Day 1) were evident only in Experiment 2 and running rescued these deficits. These data suggest neonatal alcohol exposure does not result in long-term impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse model. Three doses of ethanol were necessary to induce behavioral deficits. Finally, the mechanisms by which exercise ameliorated the neonatal alcohol induced behavioral deficits remain unknown. PMID:27491590

  19. Assessment psychophysiological of disability in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Amputation is considered as a defect and its outcome is person's disability and the incidences of psychological problems. This study examined psychophysiological of disability in male mice with amputed limb. This experimental study was conducted on 30 male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each: two intact control groups (NC, two groups  that their right hands (RH amputed from elbow joint and two other groups that their right feet (RF amputed from knee joint. Behavioral tests were performed in each group either after 30 or 60 days after amputation. To investigate the behavior paradigms, we used of forced swimming test for depression, elevated plus maze for anxiety, tail pinch test for stress, Morris water maze for spatial memory and object recognition test for learning. This study demonstrated that the immobility time in FST was RF group on day 30 significant increased compared to NC group on day 60. The open arms entries in EPM were significant decrease in RH and RF groups on days 30 and 60 compared to NC group on day 60. The time in closed arms in EPM was RF group on day 60 significant increased compared to NC group on day 30. RH and RF groups on days 30 and 60 significant increased in this parameter when compared to NC group on day 60. The time in open arms in EPM was significant different in NC group on day 30 as compared to NC group on day 60. RH and RF groups on days 30 and 60 significant decrease compared to NC group on day 60. To sum, limb amputation increased anxious behavior. The trend of working memory in ORT was deteriorated following limb amputation. The response to stress stimulus in TPT was increased post-amputation (P>0.05. The spatial memory in MWM also showed moderate deficit following amputation. Results from present study indicated that amputation can created some psychophysiological disorders. Major reason for which is probably animal's motor behavior defects, although further studies need to be done on

  20. Inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior in male offspring of B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Christine M; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-04-01

    The importance of gonadal steroids in modulating male sexual behavior is well established. Individual differences in male sexual behavior, independent of gonadal steroids, are prevalent across a wide range of species, including man. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying steroid-independent male sexual behavior are poorly understood. A high proportion of B6D2F1 hybrid male mice demonstrates steroid-independent male sexual behavior (identified as "maters"), providing a mouse model that opens up avenues of investigation into the mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the absence of gonadal hormones. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that play a significant factor in regulating steroid-independent male sexual behavior in B6D2F1 male mice, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, and synaptophysin. The specific goals of our study were to determine whether steroid-independent male sexual behavior was a heritable trait by determining if it was dependent upon the behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 sire, and whether the differential expression of APP, tau, and synaptophysin in the medial preoptic area found in the B6D2F1 sires that did and did not mate after gonadectomy was similar to those found in their male offspring. After adult B6D2F1 male mice were bred with C57BL/6J female mice, they and their male offspring (BXB1) were orchidectomized and identified as either maters or "non-maters". A significant proportion of the BXB1 maters was sired only from B6D2F1 maters, indicating that the steroid-independent male sexual behavior behavioral phenotype of the B6D2F1 hybrid males, when crossed with C57BL/6J female mice, is inherited by their male offspring. Additionally, APP, tau, and synaptophysin were elevated in in the medial preoptic area in both the B6D2F1 and BXB1 maters relative to the B6D2F1 and BXB1 non-maters, respectively, suggesting a potential genetic mechanism for the inheritance of steroid-independent male sexual behavior. PMID

  1. Age and isolation influence steroids release and chemical signaling in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Cavaggioni, Andrea; Redaelli, Marco; Da Dalt, Laura; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2014-05-01

    Social interactions in mice involve olfactory signals, which convey information about the emitter. In turn, the mouse social and physiological status may modify the release of chemical cues. In this study, the influences of age and social isolation on the endocrine response and the release of chemical signals were investigated in male CD1 mice, allocated into four groups: Young Isolated (from weaning till 60days; N=6), Adult Isolated (till 180days; N=6), Young Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 60days; N=18), Adult Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 180days; N=18). Mice were transferred in a clean cage to observe the micturition pattern and then sacrificed. Body and organs weights, serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, corticosterone and the ratio Major Urinary Protein/creatinine were measured. Urinary volatile molecules potentially involved in pheromonal communication were identified. Androgen secretion was greater in isolated mice (P<0.05), suggesting a greater reactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal axis. Grouped mice presented a higher degree of adrenal activity, and young mice showed a higher serum corticosterone (P<0.05) suggesting a greater stimulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis. The micturition pattern typical of dominant male, consisting in voiding numerous droplets, was observed in Young Isolated mice only, which showed a higher protein/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Urinary 2-s-butyl-thiazoline was higher in both Young and Adult Isolated mice (P<0.005). Young Isolated mice showed the most prominent difference in both micturition pattern and potentially active substance emission, while long term isolation resulted in a less extreme phenotype; therefore social isolation had a higher impact on young mice hormone and pheromone release. PMID:24525008

  2. Early life stress in male mice induces superoxide production and endothelial dysfunction in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dao H; Burch, Mariah L; Musall, Benjamin; Musall, Jacqueline B; Hyndman, Kelly A; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2016-05-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood although very little mechanistic insight is available. Because oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are major contributors to cardiovascular risk, we hypothesized that ELS induces endothelial dysfunction in adult male mice via increased superoxide production. Studies employed a mouse model of ELS, maternal separation with early weaning (MSEW), in which litters were separated from the dam for 4 h/day [postnatal days (PD) 2-5] and 8 h/day (PD6-16), and weaned at PD17. Control litters remained undisturbed until weaning at PD21. When compared with control mice, thoracic aortic rings from adult male MSEW mice displayed significant endothelial dysfunction that was reversed by the superoxide scavenger, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD). PEG-SOD-inhibitable superoxide production by aortae from MSEW mice was significantly greater than observed in control aortae, although unaffected by nitric oxide synthase inhibition, suggesting that uncoupled nitric oxide synthase was not responsible for the accelerated superoxide production. Aortic SOD expression, plasma SOD activity, and total antioxidant activity were similar in MSEW and control mice, indicating unaltered antioxidant capacity in MSEW mice. Increased expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits, NOX2 and NOX4, was evident in the aortae of MSEW mice. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and superoxide production in MSEW mice was reversed with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, indicating increased NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production and endothelial dysfunction. The finding that MSEW induces superoxide production and endothelial dysfunction in adult mice may provide a mechanistic link between ELS and adult cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26921433

  3. REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MALE DEER MICE EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) were reared in a long photoperiod and housed individually from 3 weeks of age until they were killed 2, 4, or 6 weeks later. Males that were exposed to aggressive females for 2 min, three times per week, were of normal body weight a...

  4. Self-Exposure to the Male Pheromone ESP1 Enhances Male Aggressiveness in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Tatsuya; Osakada, Takuya; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Matsuo, Naoki; Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Nishida, Takaya; Mori, Yuji; Mogi, Kazutaka; Touhara, Kazushige; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-05-01

    Exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1) released into male tear fluids is a male pheromone that stimulates sexually receptive behavior in female mice via the vomeronasal sensory system. ESP1 also induces c-Fos expression in male brain regions distinct from those in females. However, behavior in males following ESP1 exposure has not been examined. In the present study, we show that ESP1, in conjunction with unfamiliar male urine, enhances male aggression via the specific vomeronasal receptor V2Rp5. In addition, male mice that secrete ESP1 but lack V2Rp5 exhibit a lower level of aggressiveness than do mice that express V2Rp5. These results suggest that ESP1 not only acts as a male pheromone in both sexes but also serves as an auto-stimulatory factor that enhances male aggressiveness by self-exposure. Finally, re-activation of ESP1-induced c-Fos-positive neurons by using the designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) approach resulted in enhancement of sexual and aggressive behaviors in female and male mice, respectively, indicating that sexually dimorphic activation in the brain is a neural basis for the sex-specific behavioral responses to ESP1. PMID:27151664

  5. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhra Sarkar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 Holy & Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for.

  6. Endogenous CNTF mediates stroke-induced adult CNS neurogenesis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seong Su; Keasey, Matthew P.; Arnold, Sheila A.; Reid, Rollie; Geralds, Justin; Hagg, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Focal brain ischemia in adult rats rapidly and robustly induces neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) but there are few and inconsistent reports in mice, presenting a hurdle to genetically investigate the endogenous neurogenic regulators such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Here, we first provide a platform for further studies by showing that middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult male C57BL/6 mice robustly enhances neurogenesis in the SVZ only under very specific conditions...

  7. Sex-specific positive and negative consequences of avoidance training during childhood on adult active avoidance learning in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almuth Spröwitz

    2013-10-01

    The experiments revealed a clear sex difference in the group of late-adolescent mice: female mice showed better avoidance learning during late adolescence compared to males, and the beneficial impact of late-adolescent pretraining on adult learning was more pronounced in females compared to males.

  8. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Majumdar, Neena; List, Edward O; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Frank, Stuart J; Manzano, Anna; Bartrons, Ramon; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kopchick, John J; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2015-09-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients. PMID:26015548

  9. Male mice emit distinct ultrasonic vocalizations when the female leaves the social interaction arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu eYang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mice emit large number of complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs when interacting with adult females. Call numbers and call categories differ greatly among inbred mouse strains. Little is known about USV emissions when the social partner departs. To investigate whether call repertoires and call rates are different when the male is interacting with a female and after the removal of the female, we designed a novel male-female social interaction test in which vocalizations were recorded across three phases. During phase 1, the male subject freely interacts with an unfamiliar estrus female mouse in a clean cage for 5 minutes. During phase 2, the female is removed while the male remains in the cage for 3 minutes. During phase 3, the same female is returned to the cage to rejoin the male subject mouse for 3 minutes. C57BL/6J (B6, FVB.129P2-Pde6b(+ Tyr(c-ch/Ant (FVB, and BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR male subject mice were tested in this paradigm. All three strains emitted USVs during the absence of the estrous female, although at lower rates. When the female was reintroduced in phase 3, numbers of USVs were similar to the initial introductory phase 1. Strain comparisons indicated fewer calls in pairs of BTBR males and stimulus females than in pairs of B6 males and stimulus females and pairs of FVB males and stimulus females. In the absence of the female, all FVB males vocalized, while only one third of B6 males and one third of BTBR males vocalized. In all three strains, changes in call repertoires were detected after the female was removed. Call categories reverted to the phase 1 pattern when the female was returned in phase 3. Present findings indicate that males of commonly used inbred strains emit USVs when a partner female leaves the testing arena, suggesting that removing a salient social stimulus may be a unique approach to elicit USVs from mice. Our three-phase paradigm may also be useful for studying attention to social cues, and qualitative

  10. Incomplete urethral duplication in an adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, N F

    2012-09-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly with less than 200 cases reported. It predominantly occurs in males and is nearly always diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. It is defined as a complete second passage from the bladder to the dorsum of the penis or as an accessory pathway that ends blindly on the dorsal or ventral surface.

  11. Increased alcohol consumption in relaxin-3 deficient male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Takahira; Aoki, Miku; Watanabe, Ryuji; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-01-26

    Relaxin-3 is a neuropeptide expressed in the brainstem, and predominantly localized in the gray matter of the midline dorsal pons termed the nucleus incertus. Relaxin-3-expressing neurons densely project axons rostrally to various forebrain regions including the septum, hippocampus, and lateral hypothalamus. Several relaxin-3 functions have been reported including food intake, stress responses, neuroendocrine function, emotion, and spatial memory. In addition, recently relaxin-3 and its receptor, RXFP3, were shown to regulate alcohol intake using an RXFP3 antagonist and RXFP3 gene knockout mice. In the present study, we investigated alcohol consumption in relaxin-3 knockout mice, and found that male but not female mice significantly drank more alcohol than wild-type mice in the two-bottle choice test. However, after chronic alcohol vapor exposure, wild-type and mutant mice did not show this difference in alcohol intake, although both genotypes exhibited increased alcohol consumption compared with non-alcohol-exposed control mice. There was no genotype difference in sucrose or quinine preference. These results suggest that the relaxin-3 neuronal system modestly affects alcohol preference and consumption. PMID:26687275

  12. Effects of dimethoate in male mice reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallouli, Manel; Dhouib, Ines El Bini; Dhouib, Hanène; Gharbi, Najoua; El Fazaa, Saloua

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of dimethoate (DMT) to induce reprotoxicity in male mice. The dose (20 mg/kg/day) was given orally for 30 days. A significant decrease in sperm count, motility and viability and a significant increase of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa percent in DMT treated mice was observed. Testicular Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were inhibited. Also, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation level and a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were observed in testis of DMT mice. In addition, gene expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) was quantified in RNA samples extracted from the testis by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Compared with control, mRNA expression of GPx4 was slightly decreased after DMT-exposure. PMID:26482405

  13. Papain-induced experimental pulmonary emphysema in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Figueirôa, Silviane Fernandes da Silva; Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Valença, Samuel dos Santos; Zin, Walter Araújo

    2014-08-15

    In papain-induced models of emphysema, despite the existing extensive description of the cellular and molecular aspects therein involved, sexual hormones may play a complex and still not fully understood role. Hence, we aimed at exploring the putative gender-related differences in lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress in papain-exposed mice. Thirty adult BALB/c mice received intratracheally either saline (50 μL) or papain (10 U/50 μL saline) once a week for 2 weeks. In males papain increased lung resistive and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous pressures, static elastance, and viscoelastic component of elastance, while females showed higher static elastance and resistive pressure only. Both genders presented similar higher parenchymal cellularity and mean alveolar diameter, and less collagen-elastic fiber content and body weight gain than their respective controls. Increased functional residual capacity was more prominent in males. Female papain-treated mice were more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, male and female papain-exposed mice respond differently, which should be carefully considered to avoid confounding results. PMID:24931736

  14. 半胱亚磺酸脱羧酶在成年小鼠副性腺器官中的表达%Expression of Cysteine Sulfinate Decarboxylase in Male Accessory Organs of Adult Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晶晶; 庞立义

    2012-01-01

    We conducted semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR),western blott and immunohistochemical analysis in order to examine CSD mRNA and protein expression in the accessory organs of male mice.The results show that CSD is expressed both at the mRNA and protein levels in the organs.Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that CSD is expressed in the tall columnar cells of the seminal vesicle,the glandular epithelium of the bulbourethral gland,and the epithelial cells of the prostate gland.These results suggest that male accessory organs have the function to produce taurine through the CSD pathway.%采用RT-PCR、Western blot、免疫组织化学方法检测了CSD在小鼠副性腺器官中mRNA和蛋白水平的表达。结果显示,CSD在小鼠副性腺器官中都有mRNA和蛋白水平的表达。CSD主要定位于精囊腺的高柱状上皮细胞、前列腺的腺上皮细胞和尿道球腺的腺上皮细胞中。结果表明雄性副性腺器官可以通过CSD合成通路参与牛磺酸的合成。

  15. Expression of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the reproductive system of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marcin; Chruścicka, Barbara; Lech, Tomasz; Burnat, Grzegorz; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Although the presence of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the central nervous system is well documented, they have recently been found in peripheral and non-neuronal tissues. In the present study we investigated the expression of group III mGlu receptors in the reproductive system of male mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 (but not mGlu4) receptor transcripts in testes and epididymides from adult mice. In addition, expression of mGlu6 (Grm6) and mGlu8 receptor (Grm8) mRNA was detected in spermatozoa isolated from the vas deferens. The vas deferens was found to contain only mGlu7 receptor (Grm7) mRNA, which was particularly intense in 21-day-old male mice. In penile homogenates, only the mGlu7 receptor signal was detected. Genetic ablation of the mGlu7 receptor in males led to fertility disorders manifested by decreased insemination capability as well as deterioration of sperm parameters, particularly sperm motility, vitality, sperm membrane integrity and morphology, with a simultaneous increase in sperm concentration. These results indicate that constitutively expressed mGlu receptors in the male reproductive system may play an important role in ejaculation and/or erection processes, as well as in the formation and maturation of spermatozoa. PMID:25066043

  16. Sex-specific attentional deficits in adult vitamin D deficient BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Natalie J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment. However, there is a paucity of preclinical data showing that vitamin D deficiency is a causal factor for impaired cognitive processing. The aim of this study was to assess two cognitive tasks, the 5 choice-serial reaction task and the 5 choice-continuous performance task in adult vitamin D (AVD) deficient BALB/c mice. Ten-week old male and female BALB/c mice were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 10 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We found sex-dependent impairments in attentional processing and showed that male AVD-deficient mice were less accurate, took longer to respond when making a correct choice and were more likely to make an omission, without a change in the motivation to collect reward. By contrast, female AVD-deficient mice had a reduced latency to collect reward, but no changes on any other measures compared to controls. Therefore, we have shown that in otherwise healthy adult mice, vitamin D deficiency led to mild cognitive impairment in male but not female mice and therefore this model will be useful for future investigations into unravelling the mechanism by which vitamin D affects the adult brain and cognitive function. PMID:26836278

  17. Responses of Male C57BL/6N Mice to Observing the Euthanasia of Other Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Grobe, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    The AVMA Panel on Euthanasia recommends that sensitive animals should not be present during the euthanasia of others, especially of their own species, but does not provide guidelines on how to identify a sensitive species. To determine if mice are a sensitive species we reviewed literature on empathy in mice, and measured the cardiovascular and activity response of mice observing euthanasia of conspecifics. We studied male 16-wk-old C57BL/6N mice and found no increase in cardiovascular parameters or activity in the response of the mice to observing CO2 euthanasia. Mice observing decapitation had an increase in all values, but this was paralleled by a similar increase during mock decapitations in which no animals were handled or euthanized. We conclude that CO2 euthanasia of mice does not have an impact on other mice in the room, and that euthanasia by decapitation likely only has an effect due to the noise of the guillotine. We support the conceptual idea that mice are both a sensitive species and display empathy, but under the controlled circumstances of the euthanasia procedures used in this study there was no signaling of stress to witnessing inhabitants in the room. PMID:27423146

  18. Enzalutamide Reduces the Bone Mass in the Axial But Not the Appendicular Skeleton in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyao; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Börjesson, Anna E; Lagerquist, Marie K; Sjögren, Klara; Windahl, Sara H; Koskela, Antti; Grahnemo, Louise; Islander, Ulrika; Wilhelmson, Anna S; Tivesten, Åsa; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone is a crucial regulator of the skeleton, but the role of the androgen receptor (AR) for the maintenance of the adult male skeleton is unclear. In the present study, the role of the AR for bone metabolism and skeletal growth after sexual maturation was evaluated by means of the drug enzalutamide, which is a new AR antagonist used in the treatment of prostate cancer patients. Nine-week-old male mice were treated with 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg·d of enzalutamide for 21 days or were surgically castrated and were compared with vehicle-treated gonadal intact mice. Although orchidectomy reduced the cortical bone thickness and trabecular bone volume fraction in the appendicular skeleton, these parameters were unaffected by enzalutamide. In contrast, both enzalutamide and orchidectomy reduced the bone mass in the axial skeleton as demonstrated by a reduced lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (P < .001) and trabecular bone volume fraction in L5 vertebrae (P < .001) compared with vehicle-treated gonadal intact mice. A compression test of the L5 vertebrae revealed that the mechanical strength in the axial skeleton was significantly reduced by enzalutamide (maximal load at failure -15.3% ± 3.5%; P < .01). The effects of enzalutamide in the axial skeleton were associated with a high bone turnover. In conclusion, enzalutamide reduces the bone mass in the axial but not the appendicular skeleton in male mice after sexual maturation. We propose that the effect of testosterone on the axial skeleton in male mice is mainly mediated via the AR. PMID:26587782

  19. Psychological Distress in Young Adult Males with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Si-Heon; Hur, Jae; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hae-Sim; Hong, Chang Hyung; Son, Sang Joon; Chang, Ki Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD) and psychological distress has been well established for children and adolescents. However, it is unclear whether this relationship exists in young adults. This study aimed to assess the relationship between AD and psychological distress in young male adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional study was conducted using regional conscription data from 2008 to 2012. A dermatologist diagnosed AD based on historical and clinical features, and...

  20. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eLebreton; Peter eWitzgall; Marie eOlsson; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies ...

  1. Behavioral deficits and cholinergic pathway abnormalities in male Sanfilippo B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Shih-Hsin; Le, Steven Q; Bui, Quang D; Benedict, Braeden; Cushman, Jesse; Sands, Mark S; Dickson, Patricia I

    2016-10-01

    Sanfilippo B syndrome is a progressive neurological disorder caused by inability to catabolize heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. We studied neurobehavior in male Sanfilippo B mice and heterozygous littermate controls from 16 to 20 weeks of age. Affected mice showed reduced anxiety, with a decrease in the number of stretch-attend postures during the elevated plus maze (p=0.001) and an increased tendency to linger in the center of an open field (p=0.032). Water maze testing showed impaired spatial learning, with reduced preference for the target quadrant (p=0.01). In radial arm maze testing, affected mice failed to achieve above-chance performance in a win-shift working memory task (t-test relative to 50% chance: p=0.289), relative to controls (p=0.037). We found a 12.4% reduction in mean acetylcholinesterase activity (padult-onset dementias, including Alzheimer disease. Our results suggest that male Sanfilippo B mice display neurobehavioral deficits at a relatively early age, and that as in adult dementias, they may display deficits in cholinergic pathways. PMID:27340089

  2. Nicotine in Combination With a High-Fat Diet Causes Intramyocellular Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C; Shin, Chang-Sung; Lee, Desean; Ivey, Rasheed; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be exaggerated by obesity. We hypothesize that nicotine when combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) can also cause ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, similar to recently observed hepatic steatosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD and received twice-daily ip injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight) or sa...

  3. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  4. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  5. Study on The Reproductive Organs and Fertility of The Male Mice following Administration of Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole (MTZ is commonly used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoaldrug. Various doses of MTZ have been reported to inhibit spermatogenic activityand sperm indices.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, dose-dependent effects of MTZ onthe structural and functional integrity of the testis and accessory reproductive organshave been investigated. Adult male mice of Swiss strain were administered orally withMTZ at the doses of 250 mg/kgBW/day and 500 mg/kgBW/day for 28 consecutive daysto study the changes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm indices and fertility.Reversal effects of the drug were also studied on the same mice, 42 days after cessationof the treatment.Results: Therapeutic dose of MTZ (250 mg/kgBW/day neither altered the weights ofthe testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle nor their histoarchitecture and sperm indices.The drug at the high dose (500 mg/kg BW/day caused significant reductions in theweights of the testis and epididymis. Histoarchitecture of the testis and epididymis at thehigh dose revealed marked regressive changes while that of seminal vesicle remainedunaffected. Significant reductions were noticed in the motility, viability and count ofepididymal spermatozoa while the concentrations of epididymal sialic acid and seminalvesicular fructose remained unaltered after the treatment. No significant changes werenoticed in the mating ability as well as in the level of serum testosterone in the treatedmice. Fertility of the male mice treated with high dose of MTZ declined markedly leadingto an increase in pre- and postimplantation loss while a significant decrease wasnoticed in the number of live blastocysts in females impregnated with such males. MTZinducedchanges in the male reproductive organs and fertility were reinstated 42 daysafter cessation of the treatment.Conclusion: High dose of MTZ induced reversible deleterious effects on the male reproductionand fertility.

  6. Social isolation increases cell proliferation in male and cell survival in female California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Michael G; Bradley King, S; Haun, Harold L

    2015-11-01

    Social environment has direct effects on an animal's behavior, physiology and neurobiology. In particular, adult neurogenesis is notably affected by a variety of social manipulations, including social isolation. We hypothesized that social isolation should have particularly acute effects on neurogenesis in a highly social (monogamous and bi-parental) species such as Peromyscus californicus, the California mouse. Adult male and female P. californicus mice were housed in isolation or in same-sex pairs for 4 or 24 days. At the end of each period, either cell proliferation or cell survival was quantified with BrdU label and neuronal markers (either TuJ1 or NeuN). After 4 days, isolated males had greater cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) than pair housed males. After 24 days, isolate females demonstrated greater cell survival in the DG than paired females. Males demonstrated a similar, but non-significant pattern. No differences in cellular proliferation or cell survival were found in the subventricular zone (SVZ), or medial amygdala (MeA). These results add to the evidence which demonstrates that neurogenic responses to environmental conditions are not identical across species. These data may be critical in understanding the functional significance of neurogenesis as it relates to the interactions between social systems, social environment and the display of social behaviors. PMID:26342752

  7. Neonatal androgenization of hypogonadal (hpg male mice does not abolish estradiol-induced FSH production and spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jeffrey B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testicular development is arrested in the hypogonadal (hpg mouse due to a congenital deficiency in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH synthesis. Chronic treatment of male hpg mice with estradiol induces FSH synthesis and secretion, and causes testicular maturation and qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. As estradiol negative feedback normally inhibits FSH production in the male, this study tested whether this paradoxical response to estradiol in the male hpg mouse might be due to inadequate masculinisation or incomplete defeminization in the neonatal period. Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of hpg mice with testosterone propionate in the immediate neonatal period is necessary to allow full reproductive behaviors to be expressed following suitable endocrine stimulation at adult ages. Methods Hpg mice were treated with 100 μg testosterone propionate or vehicle on postnatal day 2. At 35 days of age, subgroups of these mice were treated with silastic implants containing estradiol or cholesterol. Reproductive behavior was scored in tests with steroid-primed female mice, then testicular development was assessed histologically, and measures of pituitary FSH content made at 85 days of age. Results The neonatal testosterone propionate treatment successfully defeminized female litter mates, as revealed by impaired vaginal opening and deficiencies in lordosis behavior, and it allowed appropriate male reproductive behavior to be expressed in a proportion of the hpg males when tested at an adult age. However, neonatal androgen supplementation did not block or even reduce the subsequent actions of estradiol in increasing pituitary FSH content, nor did it affect the ability of estradiol to induce qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. Conclusion The ability of the hpg male to show a "female" neuroendocrine response to estradiol is not a result of inadequate androgenization during neonatal development, and

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  11. Modification of female and male social behaviors in estrogen receptor beta knockout mice by neonatal maternal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumeko C Tsuda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal separation (MS is an animal model mimicking the effects of early life stress on the development of emotional and social behaviors. Recent studies revealed that MS stress increased social anxiety levels in female mice and reduced peri-pubertal aggression in male mice. Estrogen receptor (ER β plays a pivotal role in the regulation of stress responses and anxiety-related and social behaviors. Behavioral studies using ERβ knockout (βERKO mice reported increased social investigation and decreased social anxiety in βERKO females, and elevated aggression levels in βERKO males compared to wild-type (WT mice. In the present study, using βERKO and WT mice, we examined whether ERβ contributes to MS effects on anxiety and social behaviors. βERKO and WT mice were separated from their dam daily (4 h from postnatal day 1 to 14 and control groups were left undisturbed. First, MS and ERβ gene deletion individually increased anxiety-related behaviors in the open field test, but only in female mice. Anxiety levels were not further modified in βERKO female mice subjected to MS stress. Second, βERKO female mice showed higher levels of social investigation compared with WT in the social investigation test and long-term social preference test. However, MS greatly reduced social investigation duration and elevated number of stretched approaches in WT and βERKO females in the social investigation test, suggesting elevated levels of social anxiety in both genotypes. Third, peri-pubertal and adult βERKO male mice were more aggressive than WT mice as indicated by heightened aggression duration. On the other hand, MS significantly decreased aggression duration in both genotypes, but only in peri-pubertal male mice. Altogether, these results suggest that βERKO mice are sensitive to the adverse effects of MS stress on subsequent female and male social behaviors, which could then have overrode the ERβ effects on female social anxiety and male aggression.

  12. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    OpenAIRE

    Ukoha Ukoha Ukoha; Onochie Okwudili Udemezue; Chidi Kingsley Oranusi; Azuoma Lasbrey Asomugha; Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Lynda Chinenye Nzeukwu

    2012-01-01

    Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of ...

  13. Cytomegalovirus infection of adipose tissues induces steatitis in adult mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, P; Eddy, K. S.; Papadimitriou, J M; Robertson, T. A.; Shellam, G R

    1990-01-01

    Young adult mice infected with MCMV were shown to develop inflammatory lesions in the peripancreatic and salivary gland adipose tissues. MCMV replication was detected by immunoperoxidase staining and electron microscopy in adipocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and pericytes in brown and white adipose tissues. More infected cells were detected in C3H mice than in BALB/c, BALB.B, BALB.K or C57BL/6 mice. Peripancreatic steatitis consisted of a monocytic infiltrate surrounding focal necrosis...

  14. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  15. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  16. Physiological and neuroendocrine responses to chronic variable stress in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): influence of social environment and paternal state

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, TR; Harris, BN; Perea-Rodriguez, JP; Saltzman, W

    2013-01-01

    Social environment and parental state affect stress responses in mammals, but their impact may depend on the social and reproductive strategy of the species. The influences of cohabitation with a male or female conspecific, and the birth of offspring, on the physiological and endocrine responses to chronic variable stress were studied in the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Adult male California mice were housed either with a male cage ma...

  17. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  18. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  19. Effects of ambient temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity test outcomes in normal and obese C57 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudele, Anete; Rasmussen, Gitte Marie; Mayntz, David; Malte, Hans; Lund, Sten; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Mice are commonly used as animal models to study human metabolic diseases, but experiments are typically performed at room temperature, which is far below their thermoneutral zone and is associated with elevated heart rate, food intake, and energy expenditure. We set out to study how ambient temperature affects glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in control and obese male mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were housed at room temperature (23°C) for 6 weeks and fed either control or high fat diet. They were then fasted for 6 h before glucose or insulin tolerance tests were performed at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. To ensure that behavioral thermoregulation did not counterbalance the afflicted ambient temperatures, oxygen consumption was determined on mice with the same thermoregulatory opportunities as during the tests. Decreasing ambient temperatures increased oxygen consumption and body mass loss during fasting in both groups. Mice fed high fat diet had improved glucose tolerance at 30°C and increased levels of fasting insulin followed by successive decrease of fasting glucose. However, differences between control and high-fat diet mice were present at all temperatures. Ambient temperature did not affect glucose tolerance in control group and insulin tolerance in either of the groups. Ambient temperature affects glucose metabolism in mice and this effect is phenotype specific. PMID:25991720

  20. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20, a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for seven days to male urine containing at least 0.5µg/µl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over seven days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While seven days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially

  1. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Pickavance, Lucy; Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2015-01-01

    The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20), a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for 7 days to male urine containing at least 0.5 μg/μl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over 7 days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While 7 days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially-relevant context. PMID

  2. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  3. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  4. Adult neurogenesis in the four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    OpenAIRE

    Olaleye, Olatunbosun O.; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated non-captive four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) for evidence that adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain of animal models in natural environment. Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (a marker for immature neurons) immunostaining confirmed that adult neurogenesis occurs in the active sites of subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle with the migratory stream to the olfactory bulb, and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of t...

  5. Influence of cage enrichment on aggressive behaviour and physiological parameters in male mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, PLP; Kruitwagen, CLJJ; Koolhaas, JM; Van de Weerd, HA; Van Zutphen, LFM; Baumans, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    From welfare perspective group housing of mice is preferred over individual housing. Group housing of male laboratory mice, however, often leads to problems due to excessive aggressive behaviour. In our search for management and housing modifications to decrease aggression in group-housed male labor

  6. Modulation of aggression in male mice : influence of group size and cage size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, PLP; Mol, JA; Koolhaas, JM; Van Zutphen, BFM; Baumans, [No Value; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Zutphen, Bert F.M. van; Baumans, Vera

    2001-01-01

    Aggression in group-housed male mice is known to be influenced by both cage size and group size. However, the interdependency of these two parameters has not been studied yet. In this study, the level of aggression in groups of three, five, or eight male BALB/c mice housed in cages with a floor size

  7. Modulation of aggression in male mice : Influence of cage cleaning regime and scent marks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, PLP; Kruitwagen, CLJJ; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Group housing of male laboratory mice often leads to welfare problems due to aggressive behaviour. From a welfare perspective, individual housing is not a preferred solution to these problems - and so we sought other ways of reducing aggression between male mice. Aggression peaks after disturbances

  8. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eLebreton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males.

  9. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  10. Morphometric study of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from undernourished infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla A Oliveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Some unfavourable effects of malnutrition of the host on Schistosoma mansoni worm biology and structure have been reported based upon brigthfield microscopy. This paper aims to study by morphometric techniques, some morphological parameters in male and female adult worms recovered from undernourished albino mice in comparison with parasites recovered from well-fed infected mice. Undernourished animals were fed a multideficient and essentially low protein diet (RBD diet and compared to well-fed control mice fed with the commercial diet NUVILAB. Seventy-five days post-infection with 80 cercarie (BL strain animals were sacrificed. All adult worms were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine chloride. One hundred male and 60 female specimens from each group (undernourished and control were examined using an image system analysis Leica Quantimet 500C and the Sigma Scan Measurement System. The following morphometrical parameters were studied: body length and width, oral and ventral suckers, number and area of testicular lobes, length and width of ovary and uterine egg. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test for unpaired samples was applied. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were detected in body length and width, in parameters of suckers, uterine egg width, ovary length and area of testicular lobes, with lower values for specimens from undernourished mice. The nutritional status of the host has negative influence on S. mansoni adult worms, probably through unavailability of essential nutrients to the parasites.

  11. Consequences of Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine Particle Air Pollution Combined with the Adult Paraquat and Maneb Model of the Parkinson’s Disease Phenotype in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joshua L.; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests suceptibility of both the substantia nigra and striatum to exposure to components of air pollution. Further, air pollution has been associated with increased risk of PD diagnsosis in humans or PD-like pathology in animals. This study examined whether exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS;

  12. Toxicity of benzyl alcohol in adult and neonatal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzyl alcohol (BA) is an aromatic alcohol, which is used as a bacteriostat in a variety of parenteral preparations. In 1982, it was implicated as the agent responsible for precipitating The Gasping Syndrome in premature neonates. The investigate further this toxicity, BA was administered, intraperiotoneally, to adult and neonatal CD-1 male mice. Gross behavioral changes were monitored. Low doses produced minimal toxic effects within an initial 4 hour observation period. At the end of this time, the LD50 was determined to be 1000 mg/kg for both age groups. Death was due to respiratory arrest in all cases. Rapid absorption and conversion of BA to its primary metabolite, benzaldehyde, was demonstrated by gas chromatographic analysis of plasma from both experimental groups. The conversion of BA to benzaldehyde was confirmed in in vitro by using both horse-liver and mouse liver ADH. The inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) by pyrazole was similarly demonstrated in both enzyme systems. 14C-labelled BA was utilized to determine the distribution of BA and its metabolites in the body, and to possibly pinpoint a target organ of toxicity

  13. Increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not necessary for wheel running to abolish conditioned place preference for cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustroph, M L; Merritt, J R; Holloway, A L; Pinardo, H; Miller, D S; Kilby, C N; Bucko, P; Wyer, A; Rhodes, J S

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that wheel running can abolish conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine in mice. Running significantly increases the number of new neurons in the hippocampus, and new neurons have been hypothesised to enhance plasticity and behavioral flexibility. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that increased neurogenesis was necessary for exercise to abolish cocaine CPP. Male nestin-thymidine kinase transgenic mice were conditioned with cocaine, and then housed with or without running wheels for 32 days. Half of the mice were fed chow containing valganciclovir to induce apoptosis in newly divided neurons, and the other half were fed standard chow. For the first 10 days, mice received daily injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. On the last 4 days, mice were tested for CPP, and then euthanized for measurement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by counting the number of BrdU-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus. Levels of running were similar in mice fed valganciclovir-containing chow and normal chow. Valganciclovir significantly reduced the numbers of neurons (BrdU-positive/NeuN-positive) in the dentate gyrus of both sedentary mice and runner mice. Valganciclovir-fed runner mice showed similar levels of neurogenesis as sedentary, normal-fed controls. However, valganciclovir-fed runner mice showed the same abolishment of CPP as runner mice with intact neurogenesis. The results demonstrate that elevated adult hippocampal neurogenesis resulting from running is not necessary for running to abolish cocaine CPP in mice. PMID:25393660

  14. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukoha Ukoha Ukoha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of their faces were taken and traced out on tracing papers. On these, two vertical distances, nasion to subnasal and subnasale to menton, and four angles, nasofrontal (NF, nasofacial, nasomental (NM and mentocervical, were measured. Results: The result showed that the Igbo Nigerian adult male had a middle face that was shorter than the lower one (41.76% vs.58.24%, a moderate glabella (NF=133.97°, a projected nose (NM=38.68° and a less prominent chin (NM=125.87°. Conclusion: This study is very important in medical practice as it can be used to compare the pre- and post-operative results of plastic surgery and other related surgeries of the face.

  15. Long term effects of prenatal exposure to low level gamma rays on spontaneous circadian motor activity of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous circadian motor activity of first generation (F1) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with gamma rays on the 14th day of gestation was studied at the following ages : young (6-7 months), adult (12-13 months), and old (19-20 months). Doses were 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0 Gy. A 12-hour day-night cycle was maintained with light on at 6:00 hr. Spontaneous circadian motor activity was recorded with a capacitance-induction motility monitor for 48 consecutive hours. Activity was measured at 2-hour intervals, and the data stored on computer discs. The activity of the 1.0 Gy group recorded at 22:00 and 2:00 hr for young mice and at 2:00 hr for adult ones was significantly higher than that of the age-matched control group. Results suggest that male mice irradiated with 1.0 Gy at gestational day 14 show nocturnal hyperactivity in the young and adult stages. (author)

  16. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

  17. Genotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos and the Antimutagenic Role of Lettuce Leaves in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilia Badrakhan Abdelaziz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos [O O-diethyl-O-(3 5 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl-phosphorothioate] is one of the most widelyused organophosphate insecticides. Previous studies proved that chlorpyrifos, at different doses,induced genotoxicity. In Egyptian foods, the residual levels of pesticides are often higher than thosefound in developed country ones. So the aim of this research was to evaluate the genotoxicity of theinsecticide chlorpyrifos at doses equal to its maximum residue limit (MRL in the leafy vegetables, itsdouble and quadruple (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight in somatic and germ cells of male mice.In addition to that, evaluating the role of lettuce leaves as antigenotoxic in reducing the genotoxiceffects of chlorpyrifos tested doses when concurrently administrated to these animals. The studywas conducted on adult male laboratory mice at three levels: bone marrow cells as a model formitotic chromosome aberrations, spermatocytes as a model for meiotic chromosomes and spermcount and morphology. The results of the present study indicate that the treatment of male micewith chlorpyrifos by oral gavages for three months induced significant increase in the frequencies oftotal chromosomal aberrations in both somatic and germ cells in relation to control groups. Resultsof the sperm analysis showed that chlorpyrifos induced significant decrease in the sperm countwhen compared to negative control. Furthermore, it induced significant increase in head and tailsperm abnormalities, among which coiled tail was considered the most obvious sperm abnormalityinduced by chlorpyrifos. At the same time, the present study indicated that lettuce leaves feedconcurrently with three doses of chlorpyrifos could not protect cells from damage.

  18. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  19. Brain serotonin signaling does not determine sexual preference in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Angoa-Pérez

    Full Text Available It was reported recently that male mice lacking brain serotonin (5-HT lose their preference for females (Liu et al., 2011, Nature, 472, 95-100, suggesting a role for 5-HT signaling in sexual preference. Regulation of sex preference by 5-HT lies outside of the well established roles in this behavior established for the vomeronasal organ (VNO and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE. Presently, mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2, which are depleted of brain 5-HT, were tested for sexual preference. When presented with inanimate (urine scents from male or estrous female or animate (male or female mouse in estrus sexual stimuli, TPH2-/- males show a clear preference for female over male stimuli. When a TPH2-/- male is offered the simultaneous choice between an estrous female and a male mouse, no sexual preference is expressed. However, when confounding behaviors that are seen among 3 mice in the same cage are controlled, TPH2-/- mice, like their TPH2+/+ counterparts, express a clear preference for female mice. Female TPH2-/- mice are preferred by males over TPH2+/+ females but this does not lead to increased pregnancy success. In fact, if one or both partners in a mating pair are TPH2-/- in genotype, pregnancy success rates are significantly decreased. Finally, expression of the VNO-specific cation channel TRPC2 and of CNGA2 in the MOE of TPH2-/- mice is normal, consistent with behavioral findings that sexual preference of TPH2-/- males for females is intact. In conclusion, 5-HT signaling in brain does not determine sexual preference in male mice. The use of pharmacological agents that are non-selective for the 5-HT neuronal system and that have serious adverse effects may have contributed historically to the stance that 5-HT regulates sexual behavior, including sex partner preference.

  20. Brain serotonin signaling does not determine sexual preference in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Herrera-Mundo, Nieves; Kane, Michael J; Sykes, Catherine E; Anneken, John H; Francescutti, Dina M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    It was reported recently that male mice lacking brain serotonin (5-HT) lose their preference for females (Liu et al., 2011, Nature, 472, 95-100), suggesting a role for 5-HT signaling in sexual preference. Regulation of sex preference by 5-HT lies outside of the well established roles in this behavior established for the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Presently, mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), which are depleted of brain 5-HT, were tested for sexual preference. When presented with inanimate (urine scents from male or estrous female) or animate (male or female mouse in estrus) sexual stimuli, TPH2-/- males show a clear preference for female over male stimuli. When a TPH2-/- male is offered the simultaneous choice between an estrous female and a male mouse, no sexual preference is expressed. However, when confounding behaviors that are seen among 3 mice in the same cage are controlled, TPH2-/- mice, like their TPH2+/+ counterparts, express a clear preference for female mice. Female TPH2-/- mice are preferred by males over TPH2+/+ females but this does not lead to increased pregnancy success. In fact, if one or both partners in a mating pair are TPH2-/- in genotype, pregnancy success rates are significantly decreased. Finally, expression of the VNO-specific cation channel TRPC2 and of CNGA2 in the MOE of TPH2-/- mice is normal, consistent with behavioral findings that sexual preference of TPH2-/- males for females is intact. In conclusion, 5-HT signaling in brain does not determine sexual preference in male mice. The use of pharmacological agents that are non-selective for the 5-HT neuronal system and that have serious adverse effects may have contributed historically to the stance that 5-HT regulates sexual behavior, including sex partner preference. PMID:25706994

  1. Heart regeneration in adult MRL mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leferovich, John M.; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Samulewicz, Stefan; Zhang, Xiang-Ming; Zwas, Donna; Lankford, Edward B.; Heber-Katz, Ellen

    2001-08-01

    The reaction of cardiac tissue to acute injury involves interacting cascades of cellular and molecular responses that encompass inflammation, hormonal signaling, extracellular matrix remodeling, and compensatory adaptation of myocytes. Myocardial regeneration is observed in amphibians, whereas scar formation characterizes cardiac ventricular wound healing in a variety of mammalian injury models. We have previously shown that the MRL mouse strain has an extraordinary capacity to heal surgical wounds, a complex trait that maps to at least seven genetic loci. Here, we extend these studies to cardiac wounds and demonstrate that a severe transmural, cryogenically induced infarction of the right ventricle heals extensively within 60 days, with the restoration of normal myocardium and function. Scarring is markedly reduced in MRL mice compared with C57BL/6 mice, consistent with both the reduced hydroxyproline levels seen after injury and an elevated cardiomyocyte mitotic index of 10-20% for the MRL compared with 1-3% for the C57BL/6. The myocardial response to injury observed in these mice resembles the regenerative process seen in amphibians.

  2. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an Adult Indian Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Harjai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Following its first description by Guy Patin in 1692 as a disease that turned a woman into wood, Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva has maintained its low profile that too mainly in textbooks and rarely does one encounter a live walking individual affected by this entity. The hallmarks of this deadly disease are the short size of only the big toes and uninhibited progressive ossification of soft tissues. It can have a sporadic occurrence or may even be inherited through autosomal dominant pattern and has a wide range of expression. A wrong clinical diagnosis exposes the patient to unnecessary surgical excision and even harmful radiotherapy.Hence a case of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in an adult Indian male is being reported here for the benefit of one and all. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 927-931

  3. Therapeutic Effect of Taurine on Gamma Radiation Induced Genetic Injuries in Germ Cells of Male Mice and Their Male Offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of taurine therapy for treatment of male mice exposed to a dose of (3 Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and their male offspring was studied after administration taurine 1% in drinking water post irradiation. Administration of taurine therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the effect of irradiation on chromosomal aberrations in irradiated animals and their male offspring. The efficiency of taurine as radio therapeutic agent is greatly dependent on its chemical properties as strong oxidants scavenger and biological activities as osmoregulator and membrane stabilizer. The probable mechanism of taurine therapy was discussed

  4. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  5. Differences in prolactin levels between three alternative male reproductive tactics in striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten

    2008-05-01

    In male fishes, birds and mammals, increased prolactin secretion is thought to play a role in species showing paternal behaviours. This hypothesis was investigated in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio). This paper compares serum prolactin levels in 71 free-living male striped mice following three different reproductive tactics: (i) paternal group-living breeders, (ii) alloparental philopatric group-living males, and (iii) roaming non-paternal solitary males. Prolactin levels of breeding males were significantly higher than that of roamers. Alloparental philopatric males had low prolactin levels, which concur with studies of cooperatively breeding mammals, but contrasts with studies of cooperatively breeding birds. Both breeding males and females showed a decrease in prolactin levels after the breeding season, but not alloparental philopatric males. Prolactin levels were correlated with neither corticosterone levels nor age. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that prolactin is one proximate mechanism of male reproductive tactics, possibly regulating differences in male parental care. PMID:18230588

  6. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing. PMID:27241672

  7. Individual variation in paternal responses of virgin male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): behavioral and physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. de Jong; A. Korosi; B.N. Harris; J.P. Perea-Rodriguez; W. Saltzman

    2012-01-01

    California mice Peromyscus californicus are a rodent species in which fathers provide extensive paternal care; however, behavioral responses of virgin males toward conspecific neonates vary from paternal behavior to tolerance to infanticide. Indirect evidence suggests that paternal responses might b

  8. Crocin Improves Damage Induced by Nicotine on A Number of Reproductive Parameters in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Salahshoor; Mozafar Khazaei; Cyrus Jalili; Mona Keivan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crocin, a carotenoid isolated from Crocus sativus L. (saffron), is a pharmacologically active component of saffron. Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility in males through induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of crocin on reproductive parameter damages in male mice exposed to nicotine. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we divided 48 mice into 8 groups (n=6 per group): control (normal...

  9. Effects of Kerack used in addict Iranian people on fertility of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is one of the most serious social problems. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility. Kerack which its use is rising up in Iran refers to a high purity street-level heroin (heroin Kerack. Heroin Kerack used in Iran is an opioid and has harmful effects on body organs. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Kerack used in Iran on fertility adult mice.Methods: In this study, 25 male mice were divided into five groups (control, sham and three experimental. Experimental groups of Kerack-dependent mice (received ascend-ing dose of Kerack for seven days were divided into three categories, experimental I, II and III. Experimental I was given Kerack at a dose of 5 mg/kg, experimental II 35 mg/kg and experimental III 70 mg/kg, intraperitoneally twice a day for a period of 35 days. The sham group received normal saline and lemon juice (2.6 µl/ml whilst the control group just received water and food. Mice were then scarified and sperm removed from cauda epididymis were analyzed for sperm count, motility, morphology (normal/abnormal and viability. Testes were also removed, weighed and processed for light microscopic studies.Results: The results showed that fertility were significantly decreased in addicted mice compared with control groups (P≤0.05. Epididymal sperm parameters and thickness of seminiferous epithelium were significantly decreased in experimental groups (dose-dependent compared with sham and control groups (P≤0.05. Gonadosomatic index was significantly reduced with high dose Kerack injected (70 mg/kg in comparison with control testes (P≤0.05.Conclusion: This study has shown the deleterious effects of Kerack used in addicted Iranian people on fertility for the first time. This effect is especially on epididymal sperm parameters in adult mice.

  10. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  11. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in response to inescapable shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1990-01-01

    The effect of exposure to inescapable long-duration shocks of moderate intensity on intershock activity and on subsequent escape or avoidance performance was studied in aggressive and non-aggressive male mice. The activity of the non-aggressive mice was severely suppressed during the inescapable sho

  12. The Effect of Cinnamon (Bark) Extract on Male Reproductive Physiology in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    M Modaresi; M Messripour; Rajaei, R.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction and Objective: Cinnamon is a plant with the scientific name Cinnamomum zeylanicum that belongs to the Lauraceae family. This plant has many therapeutic effects one of them is the increasing of sexual desire. This study was conducted to find out the effects of Cinnamon extracts on reproductive physiology of male laboratory mice. Materials and Methods: Animals were assigned in six groups, each consisted of eight mice. The mice groups were experimental groups (1,...

  13. Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus musculus): bioassay of identified compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Achiraman; G Archunan

    2002-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical nature of the urine of male mice and to assess its bioactivity. Urine of mature male mice was extracted with dichloromethane (1 : 1 ratio v/v) and analysed by gas-chromatography linked mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). Ten different compounds such as alkanes, alcohols, etc. were detected in the urine. Among the ten, five compounds are specific to males, namely 3-cyclohexene-1-methanol (I), 3-amino-s-triazole (II), 4-ethyl phenol (III), 3-ethyl-2,7-dimethyl octane (IV) and 1-iodoundecane (V). The compound, 4-ethylphenol, has been previously reported in several strains of male mice. Furthermore, the compounds (II) and (IV) are similar to 2-sec-butylthiazole and dehydro-exo-brevicomin compounds which have already been reported in male mice. Bioassay revealed that compounds (II), (III) and (IV) were responsible for attracting females and in inducing aggression towards males, as compared to the other compounds, i.e. (I) and (V). The results indicate that these three volatiles (II, III and IV) of male mice appear to act as attractants of the opposite sex.

  14. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, J Marit; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-09-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day 2 to 9 - affects conditioned fear in adult mice and (ii) whether these effects can be prevented by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at adolescent age. In adult male and female mice, ELS did not affect freezing behavior to the first tone 24h after training in an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm. Exposure to repeated tones 24h after training also resulted in comparable freezing behavior in ELS and control mice, both in males and females. However, male (but not female) ELS compared to control mice showed significantly more freezing behavior between the tone-exposures, i.e. during the cue-off periods. Intraperitoneal administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 during adolescence (on postnatal days 28-30) fully prevented enhanced freezing behavior during the cue-off period in adult ELS males. Western blot analysis revealed no effects of ELS on hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors, neither at postnatal day 28 nor at adult age, when mice were behaviorally tested. We conclude that ELS enhances freezing behavior in adult mice in a potentially safe context after cue-exposure, which can be normalized by brief blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during the critical developmental window of adolescence. PMID:27246249

  15. Adenosinergic regulation of binge-like ethanol drinking and associated locomotor effects in male C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    We recently observed that the addition of caffeine (a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist) to a 20% ethanol solution significantly altered the intoxication profile of male C57BL/6J (B6) mice induced by voluntary binge-like consumption in the ‘Drinking-in-the-Dark’ (DID) paradigm. In the current study, the roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptor subtypes, specifically, in binge-like ethanol consumption and associated locomotor effects were explored. Adult male B6 mice (PND 60-70) were allowed to consume 20% ethanol (v/v) or 2% sucrose (w/v) for 6 days via DID. On day 7, mice received a systemic administration (i.p.) of the A1 antagonist DPCPX (1, 3, 6 mg/kg), the A2A antagonist MSX-3 (1, 2, 4 mg/kg), or vehicle immediately prior to fluid access in DID. Antagonism of the A1 receptor via DPCPX was found to dose-dependently decrease binge-like ethanol intake and associated blood ethanol concentrations (p’s < 0.05), although no effect was observed on sucrose intake. Antagonism of A2A had no effect on ethanol or sucrose consumption, however, MSX-3 elicited robust locomotor stimulation in mice consuming either solution (p’s < 0.05). Together, these findings suggest unique roles for the A1 and A2A adenosine receptor subtypes in binge-like ethanol intake and its associated locomotor effects. PMID:26033424

  16. Estradiol to aged female or male mice improves learning in inhibitory avoidance and water maze tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Rhodes, Madeline E; Dudek, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Although 17β-Estradiol (E2) improves cognitive performance of aged female mice, its mnemonic effects when administered post-training to aged male mice have not been examined. E2 (10 µg, SC) or oil vehicle was administered to intact, 24-month-old female or male congenic (primarily C57BL/6 background) mice immediately after training in the inhibitory avoidance or water maze tasks. Following behavioral testing, effects of 1 or 24 h of E2 exposure on hippocampal levels of E2 and brain-derived neu...

  17. The effect of fat removal on glucose tolerance is depot specific in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifei; Strader, April D; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2007-10-01

    Energy is stored predominately as lipid in white adipose tissue (WAT) in distinct anatomical locations, with each site exerting different effects on key biological processes, including glucose homeostasis. To determine the relative contributions of subcutaneous and visceral WAT on glucose homeostasis, comparable amounts of adipose tissue from abdominal subcutaneous inguinal WAT (IWAT), intra-abdominal retroperitoneal WAT (RWAT), male gonadal epididymal WAT (EWAT), or female gonadal parametrial WAT (PWAT) were removed. Gonadal fat removal in both male and female chow-fed lean mice resulted in lowered glucose levels across glucose tolerance tests. Female lean C57BL/6J mice as well as male and female lean FVBN mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, indicated by decreased areas under glucose clearance curves. For the C57BL/6J mice maintained on a high-fat butter-based diet, glucose homeostasis was improved only in female mice with PWAT removal. Removal of IWAT or RWAT did not affect glucose tolerance in either dietary condition. We conclude that WAT contribution to glucose homeostasis is depot specific, with male gonadal EWAT contributing to glucose homeostasis in the lean state, whereas female gonadal PWAT contributes to glucose homeostasis in both lean and obese mice. These data illustrate both critical differences among various WAT depots and how they influence glucose homeostasis and highlight important differences between males and females in glucose regulation. PMID:17652151

  18. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    The color of turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (n...

  19. Acute behavioral effects of nicotine in male and female HINT1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K J; Wang, J B; Barbier, E; Chen, X; Damaj, M I

    2012-11-01

    Human genetic association and brain expression studies, and mouse behavioral and molecular studies implicate a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety. The high comorbidity between smoking and psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia in particular, is well established. Associations with schizophrenia and HINT1 are also sex specific, with effects more predominant in males; however, it is unknown if sex differences associated with the gene extend to other phenotypes. Thus, in this study, using a battery of behavioral tests, we elucidated the role of HINT1 in acute nicotine-mediated behaviors using male and female HINT1 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice. The results show that male HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to acute nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick, but not hot-plate test. At low nicotine doses, male and female HINT1 -/- mice were less sensitive to nicotine-induced hypomotility, although the effect was more pronounced in females. Baseline differences in locomotor activity observed in male HINT1 +/+ and -/- mice were absent in females. Nicotine did not produce an anxiolytic effect in male HINT1 -/- mice, but rather an anxiogenic response. Diazepam also failed to induce an anxiolytic response in these mice, suggesting a general anxiety phenotype not specific to nicotine. Differences in anxiety-like behavior were not observed in female mice. These results further support a role for HINT1 in nicotine-mediated behaviors and suggest that alterations in the gene may have differential effects on phenotype in males and females. PMID:22827509

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant effects of crocin on sperm quality in cyclophosphamide treated adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Zarei, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the anti-neoplastic drugs. Despite its numerous clinical applications, it has devastating effects on the testicles and declines the sperm quality in treated patients. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of crocin in improving the toxicity induced by CP in reproductive system. In this study, 24 male adult mice (6 to 8 weeks) were randomly divided into three groups, control group received normal saline (0.1 mL, IP, daily), the CP group recei...

  1. Behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice: a crucial role of the vomeronasal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Kashiko S; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2013-03-20

    Sexually naive male mice show robust aggressive behavior toward pups. However, the proportion of male mice exhibiting pup-directed aggression declines after cohabitation with a pregnant female for 2 weeks after mating. Subsequently, on becoming fathers, they show parental behavior toward pups, similar to maternal behavior by mothers. To elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying this behavioral transition, we examined brain regions differentially activated in sexually naive males and fathers after exposure to pups, using c-Fos expression as a neuronal activation marker. We found that, after pup exposure, subsets of neurons along the vomeronasal neural pathway-including the vomeronasal sensory neurons, the accessory olfactory bulb, the posterior medial amygdala, the medioposterior division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and the anterior hypothalamic area-were more strongly activated in sexually naive males than in fathers. Notably, c-Fos induction was not observed in the vomeronasal sensory neurons of fathers after pup exposure. Surgical ablation of the vomeronasal organ in sexually naive males resulted in the abrogation of pup-directed aggression and simultaneous induction of parental behavior. These results suggest that chemical cues evoking pup-directed aggression are received by the vomeronasal sensory neurons and activate the vomeronasal neural pathway in sexually naive male mice but not in fathers. Thus, the downregulation of pup pheromone-induced activation of the vomeronasal system might be important for the behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice. PMID:23516278

  2. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  3. Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön Ybarra, M A

    1986-01-01

    Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers. PMID:3609972

  4. Toluene Induces Depression-Like Behaviors in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong

    2010-01-01

    It has been clinically reported that toluene causes mental depression in humans. However, the detrimental effects of toluene exposure on brain function and the relation between features of mental depression and toluene exposure are poorly understood. This study evaluated depression-like behaviors in adult C57BL/6 mice after administration of toluene, and elucidated the effects of classical antidepressants on the depression-like behaviors. For the estimation of depression-like behaviors, tail ...

  5. Personality Profiles of Adult Males Sexually Molested by Their Maternal Caregivers: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roys, Deloris T.; Timms, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined two groups of adult males who had been sexually abused as children by female maternal caregivers: those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual abuse survivor work, and those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual offender work. These groups show greater psychological disruption than adult males who as children had not…

  6. Effect of Vomeronasal Organ Removal From Male Mice on Their Preference for and Neural Fos Responses to Female Urinary Odors

    OpenAIRE

    Pankevich, Diana E.; Cherry, James A.; Baum, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether vomeronasal organ (VNO) inputs in male mice mediate the rewarding properties of estrous female urinary odors. Sexually naive male mice with either an intact (VNOi) or lesioned (VNOx) VNO preferred to investigate female urine over water in Y-maze tests. Subsequently, VNOi males ran significantly more quickly and remained in nasal contact longer with estrous female urine than with male urine, whereas VNOx males investigated these odors equall...

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  15. Adaptation of enterovirus 71 to adult interferon deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Caine

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71, have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (α/β interferon (IFN receptor deficient and AG129 (α/β, γ IFN receptor deficient mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p. into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m. in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05. The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection

  16. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting 3H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities

  17. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, C.K.; Ho, I.K.; Hoskins, B.

    1986-03-01

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting /sup 3/H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities.

  18. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  19. Adult neurogenesis in the four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olatunbosun O Olaleye; Amadi O Ihunwo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated non-captive four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) for evidence that adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain of animal models in natural environment. Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (a marker for immature neurons) immunos-taining conifrmed that adult neurogenesis occurs in the active sites of subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle with the migratory stream to the olfactory bulb, and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. No Ki-67 proliferating cells were observed in the striatum substantia nigra, amygdala, cerebral cortex or dorsal vagal complex. Doublecortin-immunore-active cells were observed in the striatum, third ventricle, cerebral cortex, amygdala, olfactory bulb and along the rostral migratory stream but absent in the substantia nigra and dorsal vagal complex. The potential neurogenic sites in the four-striped mouse species could invariably lead to increased neural plasticity.

  20. Adult neurogenesis in the four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, Olatunbosun O; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we investigated non-captive four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) for evidence that adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain of animal models in natural environment. Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (a marker for immature neurons) immunostaining confirmed that adult neurogenesis occurs in the active sites of subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle with the migratory stream to the olfactory bulb, and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. No Ki-67 proliferating cells were observed in the striatum substantia nigra, amygdala, cerebral cortex or dorsal vagal complex. Doublecortin-immunoreactive cells were observed in the striatum, third ventricle, cerebral cortex, amygdala, olfactory bulb and along the rostral migratory stream but absent in the substantia nigra and dorsal vagal complex. The potential neurogenic sites in the four-striped mouse species could invariably lead to increased neural plasticity. PMID:25558241

  1. Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Widén, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and female...

  2. Increased adipose tissue in male and female estrogen receptor-α knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Heine, P. A.; Taylor, J.A.; Iwamoto, G. A.; Lubahn, D.B.; Cooke, P S

    2000-01-01

    Estrogen regulates the amount of white adipose tissue (WAT) in females, but its role in males and whether WAT effects involve estrogen receptor-α (ERα) or ERβ were unclear. We analyzed the role of ERα in WAT and brown adipose tissue by comparing these tissues in wild-type (WT) and ERα-knockout (αERKO) male and female mice. Brown adipose tissue weight was similar in αERKO and WT males at all ages. Progressive increases in WAT were seen in αERKO males with advancing ...

  3. Mice do not habituate to metabolism cage housing--a three week study of male BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Darusman, Huda S; Henriksen, Trine; Weimann, Allan; Poulsen, Henrik E; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites in feces throughout the study when compared to controls. Urinary biomarkers confirmed that these mice suffered from elevated levels of oxidative stress, and increased creatinine excretions indicated increased muscle catabolism. Changes in the core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia) and the fur state of the mice also indicated impaired well-being in the metabolism cage housed mice. However, monitoring body weight and feed intake was found misleading in assessing the wellbeing of mice over a longer time course, and the forced swim test was found poorly suited for studying chronic stress in mice in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased overall metabolism warrant caution when interpreting data obtained from metabolism cage housed mice, as their condition cannot be considered representative of a normal physiology. PMID:23505511

  4. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on spermatogenesis in adult albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spermatogenesis in male albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy University of Health Sciences, Lahore from Apr, 2012 to Dec, 2012. Material and Methods: Thirty nine male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 - 5 gm, were used; these were randomly divided into three groups having thirteen mice in each using random numbers table. Group A served as a control and was given distilled water orally via oral gavage 10 ml per kg for 30 days. Group B was given acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/kg dissolved in 10 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Group C was given acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg/kg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose and the testes were removed, fixed in Bouin's fixative for 48 hours. Five microns thick sections of processed tissue were stained with H and E and PAS for calculation of Johnsen score and diameter of seminiferous tubules. Serum testosterone level was measured by testosterone enzyme immunoassay test kits. Results: Microscopic examination demonstrated that ASA treatment lead to statistically significant increase in the mean Johnsen score and mean diameter of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: It was concluded from the current study that ASA treatment enhances spermatogenesis. (author)

  5. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27015584

  6. Dietary Crocin Inhibits Colitis and Colitis-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Male ICR Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kunihiro Kawabata; Nguyen Huu Tung; Yukihiro Shoyama; Shigeyuki Sugie; Takayuki Mori; Takuji Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    A natural carotenoid crocin is contained in saffron and gardenia flowers (crocuses and gardenias) and is used as a food colorant. This study reports the potential inhibitory effects of crocin against inflammation-associated mouse colon carcinogenesis and chemically induced colitis in male ICR mice. In the first experiment, dietary crocin significantly inhibited the development of colonic adenocarcinomas induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mice by week 18. Crocin ...

  7. Resveratrol potentiates rapamycin to prevent hyperinsulinemia and obesity in male mice on high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Leontieva, O V; Paszkiewicz, G; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V

    2013-01-01

    High doses of rapamycin, an antiaging agent, can prevent obesity in mice on high fat diet (HFD). Obesity is usually associated with hyperinsulinemia. Here, we showed that rapamycin given orally, at doses that did not affect weight gain in male mice on HFD, tended to decrease fasting insulin levels. Addition of resveratrol, which alone did not affect insulin levels, potentiated the effect of rapamycin, so that the combination decreased obesity and prevented hyperinsulinemia. Neither rapamycin ...

  8. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2016-04-01

    The color of turmeric ( jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), curcumin (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine-treated groups. Curcumin, nicotine, and curcumin plus nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes level, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared with the saline group (p < 0.05). However, curcumin and curcumin plus nicotine administration substantially increased liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared with the nicotine group (p < 0.05). Curcumin demonstrated its protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:27114942

  9. Sex and laterality differences in medial amygdala neurons and astrocytes of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Daniel R; Hobbs, Nicholas J; Breedlove, S Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L

    2016-08-15

    The posterodorsal aspect of the medial amygdala (MePD) in rats is sexually dimorphic, being larger and containing more and larger neurons in males than in females. It is also highly lateralized, with the right MePD larger than the left in both sexes, but with the smaller left MePD actually containing more and larger neurons than the larger right. Astrocytes are also strikingly sexually differentiated, with male-biased numbers and lateralized favoring the right in the rat MePD. However, comparable information is scant for mice where genetic tools offer greater experimental power. Hence, we examined the MePD from adult male and female C57Bl/6(J) mice. We now report that the MePD is larger in males than in females, with the MePD in males containing more astrocytes and neurons than in females. However, we did not find sex differences in astrocyte complexity or overall glial number nor effects of laterality in either measure. While the mouse MePD is generally less lateralized than in rats, we did find that the sex difference in astrocyte number is only on the right because of a significant lateralization in females, with significantly fewer astrocytes on the right than the left but only in females. A sex difference in neuronal soma size favoring males was also evident, but only on the left. Sex differences in the number of neurons and astrocytes common to both rodent species may represent core morphological features that critically underlie the expression of sex-specific behaviors that depend on the MePD. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2492-2502, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26780286

  10. Perinatal exposure to methoxychlor enhances adult cognitive responses and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela eMartini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During perinatal life, sex steroids, such as estradiol, have marked effects on the development and function of the nervous system. Environmental estrogens or xenoestrogens are man-made chemicals, which animal and human population encounter in the environment and which are able to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. Scientific interest in the effects of exposure to xenoestrogens has focused more on fertility and reproductive behaviors, while the effects on cognitive behaviors have received less attention. Therefore, the present study explored whether the organochlorine insecticide Methoxychlor (MXC, with known xenoestrogens properties, administered during the perinatal period (from gestational day 11 to postnatal day 8 to pregnant-lactating females, at an environmentally relevant dose (20µg/kg (body weight/day, would also affect learning and memory functions depending on the hippocampus of male and female offspring mice in adulthood. When tested in adulthood, MXC perinatal exposure led to an increase in anxiety-like behavior and in short-term spatial working memory in both sexes. Emotional learning was also assessed using a contextual fear paradigm and MXC treated male and female mice showed an enhanced freezing behavior compared to controls. These results were correlated with an increased survival of adult generated cells in the adult hippocampus. In conclusion, our results show that perinatal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of MXC has an organizational effect on hippocampus-dependent memory and emotional behaviors.

  11. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  12. Male Men1 heterozygous mice exhibit fasting hyperglycemia in the early stage of MEN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongxiuzi; Zhang, Li; Xie, Wenting; Wang, Siqi; Bao, Xiaorui; Guo, Yuli; Zhang, Houjian; Hu, Qingzhong; Chen, Yi; Wang, Zeen; Xue, Maoqiang; Jin, Guanghui

    2016-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome characterized by multiple tumors in the parathyroid glands, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary. Recent clinical studies have revealed a strong association between MEN1 syndrome and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, heterozygous Men1 knockout (Men1(+/-)) mice were used as MEN1 models to investigate MEN1-associated glucose metabolic phenotypes and mechanisms. Heterozygous deficiency of Men1 in 12-month-old male mice induced fasting hyperglycemia, along with increased serum insulin levels. However, male Men1(+/-) mice did not show insulin resistance, as evidenced by Akt activation in hepatic tissues and an insulin tolerance test. Increased glucose levels following pyruvate challenge and expression of key gluconeogenic genes suggested increased hepatic glucose output in the male Men1(+/-) mice. This effect could be partly due to higher basal serum glucagon levels, which resulted from pancreatic islet cell proliferation induced by heterozygous loss of Men1 Taken together, our results indicate that fasted male Men1(+/-) mice, in the early stage of development of MEN1, display glucose metabolic disorders. These disorders are caused not by direct induction of insulin resistance, but via increased glucagon secretion and the consequent stimulation of hepatic glucose production. PMID:27432891

  13. Spirulina maxima prevents fatty liver formation in CD-1 male and female mice with experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Blé-Castillo, J L; Juárez-Oropeza, M A; Díaz-Zagoya, J C

    2001-07-20

    The dietary administration of 5% Spirulina maxima (SM) during four weeks to diabetic mice, starting one week after a single dose of alloxan, 250 mg/Kg body weight, prevented fatty liver production in male and female animals. The main action of SM was on triacylglycerol levels in serum and liver. There was also a moderate hypoglycemia in male mice. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances also decreased in serum and liver after SM administration. There was also a decrease in the percentage of HDL in diabetic mice that was reverted by the SM administration. The sum of LDL + VLDL percentages was also partially normalized in diabetic animals by the SM administration. An additional observation was the lower incidence of adherences between the liver and the intestine loops in the diabetic mice treated with SM compared with diabetic mice without SM. Male and female mice showed differences to diabetes susceptibility and response to SM, the female being more resistant to diabetes induction by alloxan and more responsive to the beneficial effects of SM. It is worth future work of SM on humans looking for better quality of life and longer survival of diabetic patients. PMID:11508645

  14. Individual strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in encounters with trained aggressive residents

    OpenAIRE

    Benus, Rensina F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether individual differences in offensive behaviour are related to differences in defensive behaviour, the responses of male wild house mice, Mus domesticus, of an aggressive and a non-aggressive line to defeat by physically stronger residents were analysed. Individuals of the aggressive line engaged in more flight behaviour, whereas the males of the non-aggressive line predominantly showed immobility. The higher flight tendency of the aggressive intruders provoked more attacks...

  15. Estrogen signaling prevents diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance in male mice with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lin; Martinez, Melissa N.; Emfinger, Christopher H.; Palmisano, Brian T.; John M Stafford

    2014-01-01

    The development of insulin resistance in the liver is a key event that drives dyslipidemia and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular risk with obesity. Clinical data show that estrogen signaling in males helps prevent adiposity and insulin resistance, which may be mediated through estrogen receptor-α (ERα). The tissues and pathways that mediate the benefits of estrogen signaling in males with obesity are not well defined. In female mice, ERα signaling in the liver helps to correct pathway-sele...

  16. Evaluation of in vivo reproductive toxicity of potassium chromate in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of potassium chromate on mice sperm cells after a short term exposure, male ICR-CD1 mice were administered with 5 or 10mgK2CrO4/bw for four consecutive days. One group of mice was sacrificed at day 5, starting from the beginning of the experiment and another group was sacrificed at day 35. Testis and epididymis histology was evaluated by light microscopy and testicular cells populations were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). Spermatozoa were collec...

  17. Either main or accessory olfactory system signaling can mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female chemosignals in sexually naive male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzan, Wayne J; Freamat, Mihael; Johnson, Adam G; Cherry, James A; Baum, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    A long-held view has been that interest of male mice in female body odors reflects an activation of reward circuits in the male brain following their detection by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and processing via the accessory olfactory system. We found that adult, sexually naive male mice acquired a conditioned place preference (CPP) after repeatedly receiving estrous female urine on the nose and being placed in an initially nonpreferred chamber with soiled estrous bedding on the floor. CPP was not acquired in control mice that received saline on the nose before being placed in a nonpreferred chamber with clean bedding. Robust acquisition of a CPP using estrous female odors as the reward persisted in separate groups of mice in which VNO-accessory olfactory function was disrupted by bilateral lesioning of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) or in which main olfactory function was disrupted by zinc sulfate lesions of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). By contrast, no CPP was acquired for estrous odors in males that received combined AOB and MOE lesions. Either the main or the accessory olfactory system suffices to mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female odors in the male mouse, even in the absence of prior mating experience. The main olfactory system is part of the circuitry that responds to chemosignals involved in motivated behavior, a role that may be particularly important for humans who lack a functional accessory olfactory system. PMID:23978150

  18. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  19. Protective effects of vitamin E and Cornus mas fruit extract on methotrexate-induced cytotoxicity in sperms of adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei, Leila; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Malekinejad, Hassan; Eilkhanizadeh, Behroz; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) and vitamin E (Vit E) on sperm quality parameters in the methotrexate (MTX)-treated mice. Forty-eight young adult male mice (8-12 weeks) were randomly divided into six groups including control and test groups. The control group received normal saline orally , and the test groups were treated MTX (20 mg kg-1, ip, once weekly), MTX + CMFE (250 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (500 mg kg-1), MTX + CMFE (1000 mg kg-1), a...

  20. Long-Term Provision of Environmental Resources Alters Behavior but not Physiology or Neuroanatomy of Male and Female BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Ingrao, Joelle C; Ruggiero, Laura; Batista, Lucas; Ovari, Jelena; Hammermueller, Jutta; Armstrong, John N; Bienzle, Dorothee; Choleris, Elena; Turner, Patricia V

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of providing environmental resources to mice. This consideration is important given that mice are often maintained in vivaria for months. We evaluated the effects of providing simple cage resources (wood wool, cotton nesting material, a plastic tunnel, and oat cereal) compared with standard housing (solid-bottom cage with hardwood chips) to group-housed adult male and female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (n = 20/sex/strain/group) over 6 mo to determine whether these resources had a lasting effect on animal physiology, anatomy, and behavior. Body weights increased in all groups over time but were proportionately higher in male and female BALB/c mice housed in resource-supplemented environments. Throughout the study, adding environmental resources had no effect on hematology and lymphocyte subsets, fecal corticoid metabolite levels, response to LPS injection, or dendritic spine length or density. Strain- or sex×environmentspecific changes occurred in dark-light activity and thermal nociceptive responses. Dominant agonistic behaviors, abnormal conspecific sexual behaviors, and social nonagonistic behaviors demonstrated sex and strain×environment interactions such that fewer maladaptive social behaviors were noted in mice that were provided with environmental resources. This association was particularly evident in male mice of both strains in resource-supplemented environments. A small but significant increase in brain weight:body weight ratios occurred in mice in resource-supplemented environments. Under the conditions evaluated here, consistent use of simple environmental resources had a positive long-term effect on the behavioral wellbeing of male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice yet minimally affected other aspects of murine physiology and neuroanatomy. PMID:26632781

  1. Physiological, Behavioral, and Histological Responses of Male C57BL/6N Mice to Different CO2 Chamber Replacement Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Dudley, Emily S; Schiml, Patricia A; Wyatt, Christopher N; Grobe, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    Rodent euthanasia with CO2 by using gradual displacement of 10% to 30% of the chamber volume per minute is considered acceptable by the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. However, whether a 50% to 100% chamber replacement rate (CRR) of CO2 is more painful or distressful than 10% to 30% CRR is unclear. Therefore, we examined physiological and behavioral parameters, corticosterone and ACTH levels, and lung histology of mice euthanized at CRR of 15%, 30%, 50%, or 100%. Adult male C57BL/6N mice were euthanized at different CO2 CRR as physiological parameters were recorded telemetrically. Video recordings were reviewed to determine when the mouse first became ataxic, when it was fully recumbent (characterized by the mouse's nose resting on the cage floor), and when breathing stopped. Overall, CO2 euthanasia increased cardiovascular parameters and activity. Specific significant differences that were associated with 50% to 100% compared with 15% to 30% CO2 CRR included an increase in systolic blood pressure per second from initiation of CO2 until ataxia, a decrease in total diastolic blood pressure until ataxia, and a decrease in total heart rate until ataxia, immobility, and death. All physiological responses occurred more rapidly with higher CRR. Activity levels, behavioral responses, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels, and lung pathology were not different between groups. We found no physiological, behavioral, or histologic evidence that 15% or 30% CO2 CRR is less painful or distressful than is 50% or 100% CO2 CRR. We conclude that 50% to 100% CO2 CRR is acceptable for euthanizing adult male C57BL/6N mice. PMID:27423153

  2. Chronic stress does not further exacerbate the abnormal psychoneuroendocrine phenotype of Cbg-deficient male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Gabriela F; Minni, Amandine M; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Chronic stress leads to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which can constitute a base for pathophysiological consequences. Using mice totally deficient in Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), we have previously demonstrated the important role of CBG in eliciting an adequate response to an acute stressor. Here, we have studied its role in chronic stress situations. We have submitted Cbg ko and wild-type (WT) male mice to two different chronic stress paradigms - the unpredictable chronic mild stress and the social defeat. Then, their impact on neuroendocrine function - through corticosterone and CBG measurement - and behavioral responses - via anxiety and despair-like behavioral tests - was evaluated. Both chronic stress paradigms increased the display of despair-like behavior in WT mice, while that from Cbg ko mice - which was already high - was not aggravated. We have also found that control and defeated (stressed) Cbg ko mice show no difference in the social interaction test, while defeated WT mice reduce their interaction time when compared to unstressed WT mice. Interestingly, the same pattern was observed for corticosterone levels, where both chronic stress paradigms lowered the corticosterone levels of WT mice, while those from Cbg ko mice remained low and unaltered. Plasma CBG binding capacity remained unaltered in WT mice regardless of the stress paradigm. Through the use of the Cbg ko mice, which only differs genetically from WT mice by the absence of CBG, we demonstrated that CBG is crucial in modulating the effects of stress on plasma corticosterone levels and consequently on behavior. In conclusion, individuals with CBG deficiency, whether genetically or environmentally-induced, are vulnerable to acute stress but do not have their abnormal psychoneuroendocrine phenotype further affected by chronic stress. PMID:27153522

  3. Behavioral analysis of male and female Fmr1 knockout mice on C57BL/6 background

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Qi; Sethna, Ferzin; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene. The Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice show many aspects of FXS-related phenotypes, and have been used as a major pre-clinical model for FXS. Although FXS occurs in both male and female patients, most studies on the mouse model use male animals. Few studies test whether gender affects the face validity of the mouse model. Here, we examined multiple behavioral phenotypes with male hemizygous and female homozygous Fmr1 K...

  4. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8(-/-) mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. PMID:27328324

  5. The SocioBox: A Novel Paradigm to Assess Complex Social Recognition in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger-Burg, Dilja; Winkler, Daniela; Mitkovski, Mišo; Daher, Fernanda; Ronnenberg, Anja; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dere, Ekrem; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social skills are central to mental disease, and developing tools for their assessment in mouse models is essential. Here we present the SocioBox, a new behavioral paradigm to measure social recognition. Using this paradigm, we show that male wildtype mice of different strains can readily identify an unfamiliar mouse among 5 newly acquainted animals. In contrast, female mice exhibit lower locomotor activity during social exploration in the SocioBox compared to males and do not seem to discriminate between acquainted and unfamiliar mice, likely reflecting inherent differences in gender-specific territorial tasks. In addition to a simple quantification of social interaction time of mice grounded on predefined spatial zones (zone-based method), we developed a set of unbiased, data-driven analysis tools based on heat map representations and characterized by greater sensitivity. First proof-of-principle that the SocioBox allows diagnosis of social recognition deficits is provided using male PSD-95 heterozygous knockout mice, a mouse model related to psychiatric pathophysiology. PMID:27563287

  6. Individual strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in encounters with trained aggressive residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, Rensina F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether individual differences in offensive behaviour are related to differences in defensive behaviour, the responses of male wild house mice, Mus domesticus, of an aggressive and a non-aggressive line to defeat by physically stronger residents were analysed. Individuals of the aggress

  7. Histological and Physiological Alterations Induced by Thermal Neutron Fluxes in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was performed to investigate the biological effects of different thermal neutron fluxes (0.27x108, 0.52X108, 1.089X108, 2.16X108 and 4.32X108) on liver and kidney of male mice using neutron irradiation cell with Ra-Be(α,n) 3 mCi neutron source Leybold (55930). Exposed to various fluxes of thermal neutron induced a dramatic alterations in hepatic and renal functions as indicated by biochemical estimation of several parameters (bilirubin, SGT, and alkaline phosphate .Urea , total protein, and albumin) and confirmed by histological examinations Thermal neutron exposure induces marked increase in the serum activities of total bilirubin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT or GPT), and alkaline phosphate, whereas, urea, total protein and albumin showed marked decline as compared to control group. The physiological changes induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis, and degenerative changes in liver and kidney of male mice exposed to thermal neutron fluxes. Also it was found that the histopathological alterations induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. It was found that exposed to thermal neutron fluxes irradiation plays prominent role in the development of the physiological alterations in male Swiss albino mice. The Former up normalities as a result of the sequence events followed interaction of radiation with the former biological mater (liver and kidney) of male Swiss albino mice, which are, physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological stages.

  8. Pharmacokinetic aspects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female prepubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Silvina L; Hermida, María P; Joannas, Leonel D; Olivera, Mónica; Ridolfi, Adriana; Villaamil, Edda C; Balerio, Graciela N

    2007-09-01

    It has been shown that the expression of the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome precipitated by naloxone (NAL) is more intense in male mice than in females, but the reasons for this phenomenon remain uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether this sexual dimorphism might be due to differences in MOR and/or NAL plasma levels after a chronic treatment with MOR. Prepubertal Swiss male and female mice were rendered dependent by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of MOR (2 mg/kg), twice daily for 9 days. On day 10 dependent mice received NAL (6 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min after MOR injection. Blood samples were taken at different times in order to determine MOR and NAL plasma levels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no differences between male and female mice either for MOR or for NAL. In conclusion, although males and females respond differentially to NAL-precipitated withdrawal, this dimorphic behavior would not be influenced by a pharmacokinetic factor. PMID:17570125

  9. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  10. Alaska northern fur seal adult male satellite telemetry data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...

  11. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  12. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  13. Depressive-Like Behavioral Response of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys during Routine Animal Husbandry Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael B.; Brenda McCowan

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two ...

  14. Bone status of adult female butyrylcholinesterase gene-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Malte; Kauschke, Vivien; Sender, Jonas; Kampschulte, Marian; Kovtun, Anna; Dürselen, Lutz; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) degrades acetylcholine in addition to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is involved in embryonic development of limbs. Since BChE is expressed by osteoblast-like cells we asked whether it is functional in adult bone remodeling. We addressed this issue by analyzing BChE gene-deficient mice (BChE-KO). Bones were extracted from 16-week old female BChE-KO and corresponding wild type mice (WT). Femoral bones were used for biomechanical testing and μCT evaluation of cancellous and cortical bone. Also vertebrae Th12 and L1 were investigated with μCT while L3 was used for tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) histomorphometry and Th10 for gene expression analysis by means of real-time RT-PCR. BChE-KO did not reveal significant differences in biomechanical bone strength and bone mineral density determined by μCT. Microarchitecture of cancellous and cortical bone showed an increase in μCT parameters like trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and relative cortical bone area of femoral BChE-KO bone compared to WT. In vertebrae no changes of microstructure and mRNA expression were detected. However, osteoclast histomorphometry with TRAP stained sections demonstrated a significant increase in relative osteoclast number. In conclusion, in adult murine bone the role of BChE is limited to bone specific changes in microarchitecture and to an increase in relative number of bone resorbing osteoclasts whereas the main collagen resorbing enzyme Cathepsin-K (CtsK) was stably expressed. Besides, AChE might be able to compensate the lack of BChE. Thus, further analyses using bone tissue specific AChE BChE cre-lox double knockout mice would be helpful. PMID:26138460

  15. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  16. Hydrolyzed casein reduces diet-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Du, Zhen-Yu;

    2013-01-01

    The digestion rate of dietary protein is a regulating factor for postprandial metabolism both in humans and animal models. However, few data exist about the habitual consumption of proteins with different digestion rates with regard to the development of body mass and diet-induced obesity. Here, we...... used a factorial ANOVA design to investigate the effects of protein form (intact vs. hydrolyzed casein) and protein level (16 vs. 32 energy percent protein) on body mass gain and adiposity in obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets with 35 energy percent fat. Mice fed the hydrolyzed casein...... diets had higher spontaneous locomotor activity than mice fed intact casein. During the light phase, mice fed hydrolyzed casein tended (P = 0.08) to have a lower respiratory exchange ratio, indicating lower utilization of carbohydrates as energy substrate relative to those fed intact casein. In further...

  17. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  18. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caceres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106 IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors.

  19. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; Silvan, Gema; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Illera, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6-8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 10(6)IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors. PMID:27195300

  20. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  1. Histology and Immunohistochemistry Study on Mianbu Fang Healing Immunological Infertility of Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王望九; 黄震; 汤明礼; 李笑梅; 陈永华; 产美英; 胡德宝; 戴宁; 孔梅

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the histological and immunohistochemical changes caused by of Traditional Chinese Medicine——Mianbu Fang (Immunological Infertility Healing Mixture) in testis and epididymus of male mice with immunological infertility induced by antisperm antibody (AsAb ).Materials & Methods Models of mice with immunological infertility were used by in-jection of mice sperm. These mice were treated with Mianbu Ⅰ , Mianbu Ⅱ or Pred-nisone Acetates. The characteristics on histology and immunohistochemistry of mice were analyzed.Results High level of AsAb was detected in serum and seminal vesicle plasma of model mice after treatment. Immune compounds mostly deposited in limiting membrane of seminiferous tubules, spermatogonium and epithelia of epididymis ducts. The num-ber of spermatogenic cells per convoluted seminiferous tubule decreased. However, the Chinese medicine could significantly reduce the level of AsAb, or even eliminate the an-tibodies and clear out the immune compounds and increase the number of spermatogenic cells of semini ferous tubules.Conclusion Chinese Medicine Mianbu Ⅰ and Ⅱ can regulate, absorb and clear out cir-culation and partial AsAb, as well as immunological compound. Hence, they can in-crease the number of spermatogenic cells of semini ferous tubules and increase the preg-nancy of mice.

  2. Crocin Improves Damage Induced by Nicotine on A Number of Reproductive Parameters in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salahshoor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crocin, a carotenoid isolated from Crocus sativus L. (saffron, is a pharmacologically active component of saffron. Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility in males through induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of crocin on reproductive parameter damages in male mice exposed to nicotine. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we divided 48 mice into 8 groups (n=6 per group: control (normal saline, nicotine (2.5 mg/kg, crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg and crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg+nicotine (2.5 mg/kg. Mice received once daily intraperitoneal injections of crocin, nicotine and crocin+nicotine for 4 weeks. Sperm parameters (count, motility, and viability, testis weight, seminiferous tube diameters, testosterone, and serum nitric oxide levels were analyzed and compared. Results: Nicotine administration significantly decreased testosterone level; sperm count, viability, and motility; testis weight and seminiferous tubule diameters compared to the control group (P<0.05. However, increasing the dose of crocin in the crocin and crocin+nicotine groups significantly boosted sperm motility and viability; seminiferous tubule diameters; testis weight; and testosterone levels in all groups compared to the nicotine group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Crocin improves nicotine-induced adverse effects on reproductive parameters in male mice.

  3. [Redistribution of immune defence in male mice exposed by female scent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, E A; Garms, A I; Zaĭdman, A M; Korel', A V; Gerlinskaia, L A; Moshkin, M P

    2009-01-01

    Since scent marks of mice are harbored by parasites, their sniffing during olfactory search of the mating partner leads to increase of the infection risk. A hypothesis that sexual signals can induce, along with the reproductive behavior, non-specific immune defense against respiratory infections is tested in the present paper. It was found in the experiments on outbred ICR mice that the scent of soiled bedding from cages with mature females stimulated leukocyte intervention to the upper air-ways. Migration of the white blood cells to lung tissue was accompanied with a more prominent immune and endocrine responeses to intranasal application of the bacterial lipopolysacharide (LPS). In particular, LPS administration to male mice treated by female scent was resulted in much greater amount of leukocyte aggregations in the peribronchial areas than that was found in the males kept isolated from the female signals. The female scent also enhanced adrenocortical response to LPS administration, which was coincided with statistically significant increase of IL-1beta concentration in hypothalamus. So, chemical signals of the mature female induce travel of white blood cells to the upper air-waya in the scent treated male mice. It can increase resistance to respiratory infections, on the one hand, and aggravates stress response to inhalation of the bacterial compounds, on the other hand. PMID:19326854

  4. β-Actin protein expression differs in the submandibular glands of male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zou, Ye; Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Lingfei; Hu, Qiaoyun; Li, Ting; Yao, Chenjuan; Yu, Shali; Wang, Xiaoke; Wang, Chun

    2016-07-01

    β-actin, a cytoskeletal protein, is the most widely used housekeeping gene. Although housekeeping genes are expressed in all tissues, the β-actin gene is expressed in certain cell types because of differential binding of transcriptional factors to the regulatory elements of the gene. The expression and localization of β-actin protein in the submandibular glands (SMG) of mice were investigated in this study, using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. In ICR and C57BL/6J mice, the levels of β-actin protein in the SMG of females are significantly higher than those in the SMG of males. β-actin protein is majorly distributed in acinar cells of SMG. There is no significant difference in the expression level of β-actin protein between females and castrated males. After castrated male ICR mice are treated with 10 mg/kg/day testosterone propionate (TP) for 3 weeks, the levels of β-actin protein in SMG decrease. The numbers of duct per unit area increase, whereas the numbers of acinus per unit area decrease after TP administration. These data suggest that β-actin protein is mainly distributed in acinar cells of SMG and results in a marked sexual dimorphism in mice. PMID:27079296

  5. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  6. Long-term effects of husbandry procedures on stress-related parameters in male mice of two strains

    OpenAIRE

    Van Loo, PLP; Meer, E. van der; Kruitwagen, CLJJ; Koolhaas, JM; Van Zutphen, LFM; Baumans, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    In socially unstable groups of male laboratory mice, individuals may experience a chronic stress situation. Previous experiments have shown that the transfer of specific olfactory cues during cage cleaning, and the provision of nesting material decrease aggression and stress in group-housed male mice. In this study, the combined effect of these husbandry procedures were tested for their long-term effect on stress in groups of moderately aggressive (BALB/c) and severely aggressive (CD-1) male ...

  7. Altered social cognition in male BDNF heterozygous mice and following chronic methamphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Elizabeth E; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2016-05-15

    Growing clinical evidence suggests that persistent psychosis which occurs in methamphetamine users is closely related to schizophrenia. However, preclinical studies in animal models have focussed on psychosis-related behaviours following methamphetamine, and less work has been done to assess endophenotypes relevant to other deficits observed in schizophrenia. Altered social behaviour is a feature of both the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, and significantly impacts patient functioning. We recently found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) heterozygous mice show disrupted sensitization to methamphetamine, supporting other work suggesting an important role of this neurotrophin in the pathophysiology of psychosis and the neuronal response to stimulant drugs. In the current study, we assessed social and cognitive behaviours in methamphetamine-treated BDNF heterozygous mice and wildtype littermate controls. Following chronic methamphetamine exposure male wildtype mice showed a 50% reduction in social novelty preference. Vehicle-treated male BDNF heterozygous mice showed a similar impairment in social novelty preference, with a trend for no further disruption by methamphetamine exposure. Female mice were unaffected in this task, and no groups showed any changes in sociability or short-term spatial memory. These findings suggest that chronic methamphetamine alters behaviour relevant to disruption of social cognition in schizophrenia, supporting other studies which demonstrate a close resemblance between persistent methamphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia. Together these findings suggest that dynamic regulation of BDNF signalling is necessary to mediate the effects of methamphetamine on behaviours relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:26965573

  8. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  9. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785. ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2014

  10. Internal dose from ingestion for Japanese adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal doses by ingestion for Japanese males were estimated from a literature survey. Intakes were derived form estimated food intakes and from whole-body counting. Total annual effective doses form natural and manmade sources were estimated to be 0.4 mSv and 0.002 mSv, respectively. 32 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Croft

    Full Text Available i to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand.Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors.Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61% and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving. Older men (aged +55 years old had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74 and when involved in different activities.Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies.

  12. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Excites GnRH Neurons in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, Richard; Dunckley, Henry; Lee, Kiho; Herbison, Allan E

    2016-09-01

    A variety of external and internal factors modulate the activity of GnRH neurons to control fertility in mammals. A direct, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-mediated input to GnRH neurons originating from the suprachiasmatic nucleus is thought to relay circadian information within this network. In the present study, we examined the effects of VIP on GnRH neuron activity in male and female mice at different stages of the estrous cycle. We carried out cell-attached recordings in slices from GnRH-green fluorescent protein mice and calcium imaging in slices from a mouse line expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 selectively in GnRH neurons. We show that 50%-80% of GnRH neurons increase their firing rate in response to bath-applied VIP (1nM-1000nM) in both male and female mice and that this is accompanied by a robust increase in intracellular calcium concentrations. This effect is mediated directly at the GnRH neuron likely through activation of high-affinity VIP receptors. Because suprachiasmatic nucleus-derived timing cues trigger the preovulatory surge only on the afternoon of proestrus in female mice, we examined the effects of VIP during the estrous cycle at different times of day. VIP responsiveness in GnRH neurons did not vary significantly in diestrous and proestrous mice before or around the time of the expected preovulatory surge. These results indicate that the majority of GnRH neurons in male and female mice express functional VIP receptors and that the effects of VIP on GnRH neurons do not alter across the estrous cycle. PMID:27501185

  13. S-value of Radioiodine(131I) in Korean Reference Adult Male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand the effects of absorbed radioiodine upon Korean reference adult male, a mathematical phantom representation was contrived based on composite data of the physiology of Korean reference adult male. Using this, S-values of radioiodine() per each organ were calculated. The calculated S-values were compared to the existing data described in the TM-8381 report of ORNL calculated on the basis of an ICRP-23 reference male. The results indicated that S-values were higher for the phantom based on Korean reference adult male. The results of this study illustrate that, while the bio-chemical constitution of each source and target organ of the torso are important, the relative location of the organs and characteristics of the radionuclides also exert important influences.

  14. The Effect of Cinnamon Extract on Serum Proteins Levels of Male Balb/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    M Modaresi

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aim: Cinnamon is a plant with many pharmaceutical effects. The present research evaluated the effects of Cinnamon bark extract on serum proteins level in male Balb/c mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 small Balb/c mice were chosen and divided into 5 groups: a control group, a case group, and three treatment groups. Normal saline was administered as placebo to the case group while the control group received no injections.. Cinnamon extract in doses of 50, 100 and 20...

  15. Adipocyte Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome In Both Male And Female Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Angela; Li, Ming; Vanella, Luca; Kim, Dong Hyun; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi; Sodhi, Komal; Canestraro, Martina; Martasek, Pavel; Peterson, Stephen J; Kappas, Attallah; Abraham, Nader G.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in visceral fat are associated with increased inflammation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction. We examined the effect of the potent heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), on regulation of adiposity and glucose levels in both female and male obese mice. Both lean and obese mice were administered CoPP intraperitoneally, (3mg/kg/once a week) for 6 weeks. Serum levels of adiponectin, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, and HO-1, PPARγ...

  16. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene Ablation Enhances Age-Dependent Weight Gain in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Payne, H. Ross; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Although studies performed in vitro and with transfected cells in culture suggest a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in regulating fatty acid oxidation and fat deposition, the physiological significance of this possibility is not completely clear. To begin to address this question, the effect of L-FABP gene ablation on phenotype of standard rodent chow-fed male mice was examined with increasing age up to 18 mo. While young (2-3 mo) L-FABP null mice displayed no visually obvi...

  17. EFFECT OF IMIDACLOPRID ON THE BIOCHEMICAL CONTENTS OF KIDNEYS IN MALE SWISS ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NAGA PRASANNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F of male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus albinus were orally administered withvaried doses (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg bw/mouse of imidacloprid; they showed significant decreasein protein, DNA and RNA content in the kidneys of all the treated groups of mice throughout the experimentalperiod (on day 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 30 of treatment when compared with controls. It is clear from the results thatthe insecticide caused marked disturbance in the metabolism of protein, DNA and RNA.

  18. Comparison of Toxicity of CdSe: ZnS Quantum Dots on Male Reproductive System in Different Stages of Development in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantum dots (QDs are new types of fluorescent materials for biological labeling. QDs toxicity study is an essential requirement for future clinical applications. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate cytotoxic effects of CdSe: ZnS QDs on male reproductive system. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the different concentrations of CdSe: ZnS QDs (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg were injected to 32 male mice (adult group and 24 pregnant mice (embryo group on day 8 of gestation. The histological changes of testis and epididymis were studied by a light microscopy, and the number of seminiferous tubules between two groups was compared. One-way analysis of variance (one-way Anova using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, SPSS Inc., USA version 16 were performed for statistical analysis. Results: In adult group, histological studies of testis tissues showed a high toxicity of CdSe: ZnS in 40 mg/kg dose followed by a decrease in lamina propria; destruction in interstitial tissue; deformation of seminiferous tubules; and a reduction in number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. However, there was an interesting result in fetal testis development, meaning there was no significant effect on morphology and structure of the seminiferous tubules and number of sperm stem cells. Also histological study of epididymis tissues in both groups (adult and embryo groups showed no significant effect on morphology and structure of tubule and epithelial cells, but there was a considerable reduction in number of spermatozoa in the lumen of the epididymal duct in 40 mg/kg dose of adult group. Conclusion: The toxicity of QDs on testicular tissue of the mice embryo and adult are different before and after puberty. Due to lack of research in this field, this study can be an introduction to evaluate the toxicity of QDs on male reproduction system in different stages of development.

  19. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males. PMID:25683788

  20. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Stanić; Sydney Dubois; Hui Kheng Chua; Bruce Tonge; Nicole Rinehart; Malcolm K Horne; Wah Chin Boon

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, in...

  1. Delayed expulsion of adult Trichinella spiralis by mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, T. Y.; Reed, N D; Crowle, P K

    1983-01-01

    Mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice and their mast cell-sufficient littermates were given infections of Trichinella spiralis. W/Wv mice were slower than their littermates to expel adult T. spiralis. Repair of the mast cell deficiency of W/Wv mice by bone marrow grafting was accompanied by accelerated expulsion of T. spiralis.

  2. Neurotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate to hippocampal cells in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Long

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a ubiquitous pollutant and found in the environment and in biota. The neurotoxicity of PFOS has received much concern among its various toxic effects when given during developing period of brain. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects and potential mechanisms of PFOS in the mature brain. Our study demonstrated the neurotoxicity and the potential mechanisms of PFOS in the hippocampus of adult mice for the first time. The impairments of spatial learning and memory were observed by water maze studies after exposure to PFOS for three months. Significant apoptosis was found in hippocampal cells after PFOS exposure, accompanied with a increase of glutamate in the hippocampus and decreases of dopamine (DA and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC in Caudate Putamen in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS group. By two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis, seven related proteins in the hippocampus that responded to PFOS exposure were identified, among which, Mib1 protein (an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, Herc5 (hect domain and RLD 5 isoform 2 and Tyro3 (TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3 were found down-regulated, while Sdha (Succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit, Gzma (Isoform HF1 of Granzyme A precursor, Plau (Urokinase-type plasminogen activator precursor and Lig4 (DNA ligase 4 were found up-regulated in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS-treated group compare with control group. Furthermore, we also found that (i increased expression of caspase-3 protein and decreased expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and survivin proteins, (ii the increased glutamate release in the hippocampus. All these might contribute to the dysfunction of hippocampus which finally account for the impairments of spatial learning and memory in adult mice.

  3. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26448649

  5. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Kesby

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old and aged (15 months old mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  6. Altered somatotroph feedback regulation improves metabolic efficiency and limits adipose deposition in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Christopher J; Wolfe, Andrew; Law, Yi Ying; Costelloe, ChenChen Z; Miller, Ryan; Wondisford, Fredric; Radovick, Sally

    2016-04-01

    Several transgenic mouse models with disruption in the growth hormone (GH) axis support the role of GH in augmenting metabolic homeostasis. Specifically, interest has focused on GH's lipolytic properties and ability to affect adipose deposition. Furthermore, both GH and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) may also play a direct or indirect role in adipose development. The somatotroph insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor knockout (SIGFRKO) mouse with only a modest increase in serum GH and IGF-1 demonstrates less adipose tissue than controls. In order to characterize the metabolic phenotype of SIGFRKO mice, histologic analysis of fat depots confirmed a smaller average diameter of adipocytes in the SIGFRKO mice compared to controls. These changes were accompanied by an increase in lipolytic gene expression in fat depots. Indirect calorimetry performed on 6-8week old male mice and again at 25weeks of age demonstrated that SIGFRKO mice, at both ages, had a higher VO2 and increased energy expenditure when compared with controls. The calculated respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lower in the younger SIGFRKO mice compared to controls. No differences in food consumption or in either ambulatory or total activity were seen between SIGFRKO and control mice in either age group. These studies highlight the role of GH in adipose deposition and its influence on the expression of lipolytic genes resulting in an altered metabolic state, thus providing a mechanism for the decrease in weight gain seen in the SIGFRKO mouse model. PMID:26975547

  7. Unusual Repertoire of Vocalizations in Adult BTBR T+tf/J Mice During Three Types of Social Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Ricceri, Laura; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays social deficits and repetitive behaviors analogous to the first and third diagnostic symptoms of autism. We previously reported an unusual pattern of ultrasonic vocalizations in BTBR pups that may represent a behavioral homologue to the second diagnostic symptom of autism, impaired communication. The present study investigated the social and vocal repertoire in adult BTBR mice, to evaluate the role of ultrasonic vocalizations in multiple social situations at the adult stage of development. Three different social contexts were considered: male-female, male-male (resident-intruder) and female-female interactions. Behavioral responses and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for BTBR and for the highly social control strain C57BL/6J (B6). No episodes of overt fighting or mating were observed during the short durations of the three different experimental encounters. BTBR displayed lower levels of vocalizations and social investigation in all three social contexts as compared to B6. In addition, the correlation analyses between social investigation and USVs emission rate revealed that in B6 mice the two variables were positively correlated in all the three different social settings, whereas in BTBR mice the positive correlation was significant only in the male-female interactions. These findings strongly support the value of simultaneously recording two aspects of the mouse social repertoire, social motivation and bioacoustic communication. Moreover, our findings in adults are consistent with previous results in pups, showing an unusual vocal repertoire in BTBR as compared to B6. PMID:20618443

  8. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg−1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo. PMID:26608944

  9. Impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on brain inflammation and oxidative stress in male mice offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yik Lung; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Oliver, Brian; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Zaky, Amgad A.; Jones, Nicole; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) during gestation can cause lifelong adverse effects in the offspring’s brain. Several factors may contribute including inflammation, oxidative stress and hypoxia, whose changes in the developing brain are unknown. Female Balb/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were studied at postnatal day (P) 1, P20 and 13 weeks (W13). SE dams had reduced inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6 and toll lik...

  10. Probiotic Use Decreases Intestinal Inflammation and Increases Bone Density in Healthy Male but not Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Laura R.; Irwin, Regina; Schaefer, Laura; Britton, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis can result from intestinal inflammation, as is seen with inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics, microorganisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, can have anti-inflammatory properties and are currently being examined to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we examined if treating healthy male mice with Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (a candidate probiotic with anti-TNFα activity) could affect intestinal TNFα levels and enhance bo...

  11. Behavioral profiles of genetically selected aggressive and nonaggressive male wild house mice in two anxiety tests

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, S; Wurbel, H; Steimer, T; De Ruiter, A.; Koolhaas, J; Sluyter, F; Driscoll, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Artificially selected aggressive (SAL) and non-aggressive (LAL) male house mice were tested in a hexagonal tunnel maze and light-dark preference (LD) box to determine if the bidirectional selection for aggressive behavior leads to a coselection for different levels of trait anxiety. The tunnel maze consists of an open, brightly lit central arena surrounded by a complex system of interconnecting tunnels. As in the LD box, animals which spend less time and are less active in the brightly illumi...

  12. Functional regulation of PI3K-associated signaling in the accumbens by binge alcohol drinking in male but not female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzoli, Debra K; Kaufman, Moriah N; Nipper, Michelle A; Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M; Finn, Deborah A

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that binge alcohol consumption produces alterations in Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) and related signaling cascades in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of adult male mice, but female and adolescent mice have not been examined. Thus, the first set of studies determined whether repeated binge alcohol consumption produced similar alterations in protein and mRNA levels of Group 1 mGlu-associated signaling molecules in the NAC of male and female adult and adolescent mice. The adult (9 weeks) and adolescent (4 weeks) C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 7 binge alcohol sessions every 3rd day while controls drank water. Repeated binge alcohol consumption produced sexually divergent changes in protein levels and mRNA expression for Group 1 mGlus and downstream signaling molecules in the NAC, but there was no effect of age. Binge alcohol intake decreased mGlu5 levels in females, whereas it decreased indices of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 4E-binding protein 1, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase in males. Expression of genes encoding mGlu1, mGlu5, the NR2A subunit of the NMDA receptor, and Homer2 were all decreased by binge alcohol consumption in males, while females were relatively resistant (only phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 was decreased). The functional implication of these differences was investigated in a separate study by inhibiting mTOR in the NAC (via infusions of rapamycin) before binge drinking sessions. Rapamycin (50 and 100 ng/side) significantly decreased binge alcohol consumption in males, while consumption in females was unaffected. Altogether these results highlight that mTOR signaling in the NAC was necessary to maintain binge alcohol consumption only in male mice and that binge drinking recruits sexually divergent signaling cascades downstream of PI3K and presumably, Group 1 mGlus. Importantly, these findings emphasize that sex should be considered in the development

  13. Dominant cataract mutations detected in offspring of gamma-irradiated male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of biomicroscopic eye examination followed by breeding tests provides a new method for detection of dominant mutations in mice. A total of 11 cataract mutations were found among 17,436 offspring of irradiated male mice. No cataract mutations were observed in 8,174 offspring from the control group. All mutations were phenotypically different. Of the 11 cataract mutations, 3 were semilethal in heterozygous condition, 7 were lethal in homozygous condition, and one presumed mutant was sterile. Seven mutations had complete penetrance whereas penetrance of three mutations was reduced. The rate of dominant mutations affecting an organ system in mice is of main importance for the quantification of the overall genetic damage due to dominant mutations in man

  14. Aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N; Singh, S K

    2016-09-01

    Antifertility efficacy of oral administration of aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi (200, 400 and 600 mg kg(-1) body weight/day for 35 days) was evaluated in Parkes strain male mice. Various reproductive end points such as histopathology, sperm parameters, testosterone level, haematology, serum biochemistry and fertility indices were assessed; activities of 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and immunoblot expressions of StAR and P450scc in the testis were also assessed. Histologically, testes in Mimusops-treated mice showed nonuniform and diverse degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules; both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same sections of testis. The treatment had adverse effects on testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and StAR and P450scc, serum level of testosterone and on motility, viability and number of spermatozoa in cauda epididymis. However, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine, and haematological parameters were not affected by the treatment. Also, libido was not affected in treated males, but their fertility was markedly suppressed. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, the alterations caused in the above parameters recovered to control levels, suggesting that Mimusops treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Further, there were no detectable signs of toxicity in treated males. PMID:27489141

  15. Chronic exposure to ethanol in male mice may be associated with hearing loss in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although paternal ethanol (EtOH abuse has been shown to affect the growth and behavior of offspring, the exact molecular and mechanistic basis remains largely unclear. Methylation alterations in imprinted genes may be related to well-documented teratogenic effects of ethanol. Here we show that chronic paternal ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility to abnormal behavior in offspring through male game epigenetic alteration. In our study, different doses of ethanol (0, 1.1, 3.3 g kg−1 were administered intra-gastrically to male mice and decreased sperm motility was found in the highest ethanol-exposed group compared with the controls. Data also showed a dose-dependent increase in deaf mice of the paternally ethanol-exposed groups. The methylation of H19, Peg3, Ndn and Snrpn was assessed in paternal spermatozoa and in the cerebral cortices of deaf mice. EtOH affected methylation of Peg3 (CpG 3, 7 and 9 in paternal spermatozoa and in the cerebral cortices of deaf mice, but the level of mRNA expression did not change, suggesting that other gene regulation may be involved in these processes. Overall, chronic paternal ethanol exposure could alter the methylation of imprinted genes in sire spermatozoa that could also be passed on to offspring, giving rise to developmental disorders. Our results provide possible epigenetic evidence for a paternal ethanol exposure contribution to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS.

  16. Long-Term Intermittent Hypoxia Elevates Cobalt Levels in the Brain and Injures White Matter in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Lear, Jessica; Zhu, Yan; Grinspan, Judith B.; Hare, Dominic J.; Wang, SiHe; Bunch, Dustin; Doble, Philip A.; Robinson, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to the variable oxygenation patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes oxidative stress within the brain. We hypothesized that this stress is associated with increased levels of redox-active metals and white matter injury. Design: Participants were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group (single independent variable). Setting: University animal house. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6J mice. Interventions: To model OSA, mice were exposed to long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH) for 10 hours/day for 8 weeks or sham intermittent hypoxia (SIH). Measurements and Results: Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively map the distribution of the trace elements cobalt, copper, iron, and zinc in forebrain sections. Control mice contained 62 ± 7 ng cobalt/g wet weight, whereas LTIH mice contained 5600 ± 600 ng cobalt/g wet weight (P < 0.0001). Other elements were unchanged between conditions. Cobalt was concentrated within white matter regions of the brain, including the corpus callosum. Compared to that of control mice, the corpus callosum of LTIH mice had significantly more endoplasmic reticulum stress, fewer myelin-associated proteins, disorganized myelin sheaths, and more degenerated axon profiles. Because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were measured. LTIH mice had low MMA levels (P < 0.0001), indicative of increased B12 activity. Conclusions: Long-term intermittent hypoxia increases brain cobalt, predominantly in the white matter. The increased cobalt is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, myelin loss, and axonal injury. Low plasma methylmalonic acid levels are associated with white matter injury in long-term intermittent hypoxia and possibly in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Veasey SC; Lear J; Zhu Y; Grinspan JB; Hare DJ; Wang S; Bunch D; Doble PA; Robinson SR. Long-term intermittent hypoxia elevates cobalt

  17. The Effect of Flunixin Injection on Reproductive Hormones in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Kazemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Flunixin is an anti inflammatory non steroidal chemical compound which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug in veterinary. Considering the frequent use of this drug in recent years this study was conducted to investigate the effects of this drug on pituitary-gonad axis of male mice. Results of this study can be used highly for better use of this drug and saving sexual power of male sex. Five experimental groups with eight male mice in each group were studied as control, Placebo and three treatment groups. Flunixin was injected in 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/kg in peritoneum in a twenty-day period. Control group didn’t receive any injection and Placebo group received only physiological serum. At the end of twenty days, blood samples were prepared and the amounts of FSH, LH and testosterone hormones were measured. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS11.5 program. According to results, FSH and LH concentrations were increased significantly (p<0.05 but testosterone was not changed. Results show that flunixin can affect sexual power of male sex by increasing hormones of pituitary-testicle axis.

  18. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity but is dispensable for skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meadows

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myog(flox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myog(flox/flox mice (mdx, Myog(flox/flox mice (wild-type, and mdx:Myog(floxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted. mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of keratin 5 in the submandibular gland in adult and postnatal developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kumchantuek, Tewarat; Sakulsak, Natthiya; Iseki, Shoichi

    2016-03-01

    Keratin 5 (K5) is a marker of basal progenitor cells in the epithelia of a number of organs. During prenatal development of the submandibular gland (SMG) in mice, K5(+) progenitor cells in the developing epithelia play important roles in its organogenesis. Although K5(+) cells are also present in the adult mouse SMG and may function in tissue regeneration, their histological localization has not yet investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of K5 in the SMG in adult and postnatal developing mice. At birth, K5 immunoreactivity was detected in the entire duct system, in which it was localized in the basal cells of a double-layered epithelium, but was not detected in the terminal tubule or myoepithelial cells. At postnatal weeks 1-3, with the development of intercalated ducts (ID), striated ducts (SD), and excretory ducts (ED), K5-immunoreactive basal cells were gradually restricted to the ED and the proximal double-layered portions of the ID connecting to the SD. At the same time, K5 immunoreactivity appeared in myoepithelial cells, in which its positive ratio gradually increased. In adults, K5 immunoreactivity was localized to most myoepithelial cells, most basal cells in the ED, and a small number of ID cells at the boundary between the ID and SD in the female SMG or between the ID and granular convoluted tubules in the male SMG. These results suggest that K5 is a marker of differentiated myoepithelial cells and duct progenitor cells in the mouse SMG. PMID:26671786

  20. Female puberty acceleration by male odour in mice: neural pathway and behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Szymanski, Laura A; Keller, Matthieu

    2014-08-01

    In female mice, exposure to male chemosignals results in early puberty onset characterized by advanced vaginal opening and higher uterine weight. Evidence suggests that the male chemosignals responsible for acceleration of female puberty are androgen-dependent, but not all of the compounds that contribute to puberty acceleration have been identified. The male chemosignals are primarily detected and processed by the vomeronasal system including the vomeronasal organ, the accessory olfactory bulb and the medial amygdala. By contrast, the mechanism by which this olfactory information is integrated in the hypothalamus is poorly understood. In this context, the recent identification of the neuropeptide kisspeptin as a gatekeeper of puberty onset may provide a good candidate neuropeptide system for the transmission of chemosensory information to the gonadotrope axis. PMID:25109972

  1. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Melissa J S; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E; Adams, Andrew C; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-10-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ. PMID:26092201

  2. EPHRIN-A5 REGULATES INTER-MALE AGGRESSION IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheleg, Michal; Yochum, Carrie L.; Richardson, Jason R.; Wagner, George C.; Zhou, Renping

    2015-01-01

    The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases play key roles in both the patterning of the developing nervous system and neural plasticity in the mature brain. To determine functions of ephrin-A5, a GPI-linked ligand to the Eph receptors, in animal behavior regulations, we examined effects of its inactivation on male mouse aggression. When tested in the resident-intruder paradigm for offensive aggression, ephrin-A5-mutant animals (ephrin-A5−/−) exhibited severe reduction in conspecific aggression compared to wild-type controls. On the contrary, defensive aggression in the form of target biting was higher in ephrin-A5−/− mice, indicating that the mutant mice are capable of attacking behavior. In addition, given the critical role of olfaction in aggressive behavior, we examined the ability of the ephrin-A5−/− mice to smell and found no differences between the mutant and control animals. Testosterone levels in the mutant mice were also found to be within the normal range. Taken together, our data reveal a new role of ephrin-A5 in the regulation of aggressive behavior in mice. PMID:25746458

  3. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of 14C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  4. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor inhibition blunts adolescent-typical increased binge alcohol and sucrose consumption in male C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoglia, Abigail E.; Holstein, Sarah E.; Eastman, Vallari R.; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2016-01-01

    Increased binge alcohol consumption has been reported among adolescents as compared to adults in both humans and rodent models, and has been associated with serious long-term health consequences. However, the neurochemical mechanism for age differences in binge drinking between adolescents and adults has not been established. The present study was designed to evaluate the mechanistic role of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in adolescent and adult binge drinking. Binge consumption was established in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice by providing access to 20% alcohol or 1% sucrose for 4 h every other day. Pretreatment with the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM-251 (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) in a Latin square design dose-dependently reduced adolescent alcohol consumption to adult levels without altering adult intake. AM-251 (3 mg/kg) also reduced adolescent but not adult sucrose consumption. Adolescent reductions in alcohol and sucrose were not associated with alterations in open-field locomotor activity or thigmotaxis. These findings point to age differences in CB1 receptor activity as a functional mediator of adolescent-typical increased binge drinking as compared to adults. Developmental alterations in endocannabinoid signaling in the adolescent brain may therefore be responsible for the drinking phenotype seen in this age group. PMID:26800788

  5. Immune alterations in male and female mice after 2-deoxy-D-glucose administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreau, D.; Morton, D. S.; Foster, M.; Swiggett, J. P.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1997-01-01

    Administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) induces acute cellular glucoprivation. In the current study, we examined differences in immune parameters after 2-DG administration in both sexes. Male and female BDF1 mice were injected three times, 48 h apart, either with a saline solution (control group) or with 2-DG in saline (500 mg/kg). Two hours after the last injection, blood and spleens were collected. Plasma levels of interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. Additionally, the levels of the specific leukocyte antigens CD3, CD4, CD8, T cell receptor (TCR) alpha/beta, I-Ad, and H-2Ld/H-2Db were evaluated by flow cytometry on both blood and spleen cells. The blastogenic response of leukocytes from both tissues to mitogens was assessed. Levels of glucose, corticosterone, testosterone, progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone were also determined. Increases in the percentage of cells bearing TCR alpha/beta and I-Ad in the blood and H-2Ld/H-2Db in the spleen were observed in the 2-DG-treated group for both sexes. In contrast, higher corticosterone and IL-1beta plasma concentrations, as well as higher percentages of splenocytes bearing TCR alpha/beta and I-Ad, and lower mitogen-induced proliferation of mature T splenocytes (79%) were observed in female but not in male mice injected with 2-DG compared with those injected with saline (p female mice are more sensitive than male mice to immune alterations induced by 2-DG administration.

  6. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  7. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients.

  8. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in...

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in young male adults: impact of physical activity and parental education

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Çuhadar; Ayşenur Atay; Gülcan Sağlam; Mehmet Köseoğlu; Levent Çuhadar

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to assess whether choices of physical activity, smoking status, and parental education and income were correlated with the health status of young adult males which are important for preventive health policy. Methods: 491 18-29-year old males from lower socioeconomical districts in Turkey participated in this study. Information about demographic characteristics, parental education, household income, smoking status, and physical activity was obtained by mean...

  10. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found tha...

  11. Hemopoietic precursor-cells in radiation chimeras restored by bone marrow of adult thymectomized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotective capacity of bone marrow CFUs of adult thymectomized mice was studied. Lethaly irradiated mice were inoculated with bone marrow of mice thymectomized 8-11 months before. The colony forming capacity and proliferative rate of CFUs were studied 1-7.5 months after obtaining the radiation chimeras. It has been shown that proliferative capacity of bone marrow of adult thymectomized mice was reduced in comparison with that of normal animals. We also found that the content of CFUs in bone of those chimeras was reduced later - after 7.5 months. In this period (1-7.5 months) the cellularity of bone marrow did not change

  12. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  13. Comparison between C-FOS Expression in Male and Female Mice During Morphine Withdrawal in the Presence and Absence of Acute Administration of Matricaria Recutita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesmati Mahnaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are some evidences that indicate there are sexual differences in drug abuse and response to synthetic and herbal drugs. It has been shown that the expression of C-FOS increases in many areas of brain during morphine withdrawal. Concerning the sedative effect of Matricaria recutita extract, the aim of this study was to compare expression of C-FOS transcription factor during morphine withdrawal with and without acute administration of Matricaria recutita on male and female adult mice.Materials and Methods: This study was done at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in 2007 on NMRI mice. Male and female mice were assigned into 8 groups (morphine + saline; morphine + naloxone; morphine + Matricaria recutita + naloxone; and morphine + saline + naloxone. To develop morphine dependency, increasing doses of morphine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg injected subcutaneously for 4 days. Mice received a final morphine injection (40 mg/kg 3hours prior to naloxone (5 mg/kg on the day of testing (day 4. Matricaria recutita extract whit a dose of 30 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 5 minutes before naloxone injection. In cellular study, 90minute after naloxone injection, mice were decapitated and their brains were separated, then mRNA was extracted from brain tissue. Using DIG-labeled DNA probe of C-FOS, beta-actin and dot blot technique, expression of C-FOS was analyzed by Zero Dscan software. Statistical evaluation of data was performed using student t-test and ANOVA with one factor followed by Duncan test in SPSS software. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The rate of expression of C-FOS increased in male mice but decreased significantly in female mice after naloxone-precipitated abstinence P<0.01(. Matricaria recutita attenuated the rate of expression of C-FOS in male mice but it showed synergistic effect on it in female mice P<0.05(.Conclusion: It seems that the cellular processes involving morphine dependency and

  14. Cross-Fostering of Male Mice Subtly Affects Female Olfactory Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Li, Lai-Fu; Du, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2016-01-01

    The maternal environment has been shown to influence female olfactory preferences through early chemosensory experience. However, little is known about the influence of the maternal environment on chemosignals. In this study, we used two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 (C57) and BALB/c (BALB), and explored whether adoption could alter male chemosignals and thus influence female olfactory preferences. In Experiment 1, C57 pups were placed with BALB dams. Adult BALB females then served as the sub...

  15. Accessory olfactory neural Fos responses to a conditioned environment are blocked in male mice by vomeronasal organ removal

    OpenAIRE

    Pankevich, Diana E.; Cherry, James A.; Baum, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of an anesthetized estrous female to induce a conditioned place preference (CPP) response was assessed in male mice from which the vomeronasal organ (VNO) had either been removed (VNOx) or left intact (VNOi) in an initial effort to assess the possible contribution of VNO-accessory olfactory inputs to the intrinsically rewarding properties of opposite-sex body odorants. Both VNOi and VNOx male mice acquired a CPP after repeated pairing of an initially non-preferred test chamber wit...

  16. Effects of Saikokaryukotsuboreito on Spermatogenesis and Fertility in Aging Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Ji, Su-Yun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Gao, Yong; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aspermia caused by exogenous testosterone limit its usage in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) patients desiring fertility. Saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT) is reported to improve serum testosterone and relieve LOH-related symptoms. However, it is unclear whether SKRBT affects fertility. We aimed to examine the effects of SKRBT on spermatogenesis and fertility in aging male mice. Methods: Thirty aging male mice were randomly assigned to three groups. Mice were orally administered with phosphate-buffer solution or SKRBT (300 mg/kg, daily) or received testosterone by subcutaneous injections (10 mg/kg, every 3 days). Thirty days later, each male mouse was mated with two female mice. All animals were sacrificed at the end of 90 days. Intratesticular testosterone (ITT) levels, quality of sperm, expression of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3), and fertility were assayed. Results: In the SKRBT-treated group, ITT, quality of sperm, and expression of SYCP3 were all improved compared with the control group (ITT: 85.50 ± 12.31 ng/g vs. 74.10 ± 11.45 ng/g, P = 0.027; sperm number: [14.94 ± 4.63] × 106 cells/ml vs. [8.79 ± 4.38] × 106 cells/ml, P = 0.002; sperm motility: 43.16 ± 9.93% vs. 33.51 ± 6.98%, P = 0.015; the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule: 77.50 ± 11.01 ng/ml vs. 49.30 ± 8.73 ng/ml, P 0.05, respectively). In the testosterone-treated group, ITT, quality of sperm, and expression of SYCP3 were markedly lower than the control group (ITT: 59.00 ± 8.67, P = 0.005; sperm number: [4.34 ± 2.45] × 106 cells/ml, P = 0.018; sperm motility: 19.53 ± 7.69%, P = 0.001; the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule: 30.00 ± 11.28, P < 0.001; the percentage of SYCP3-positive tubules/section 71.98 ± 8.88%, P = 0.001; the expression of SYCP3 protein: 0.71 ± 0.09, P < 0.001), and fertility was also suppressed (P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: SKRBT had no adverse effect on fertility potential in aging male mice. PMID:26996482

  17. A comparative study on the susceptibility of male and female albino mice to Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Turay, G.O. Nwobu, G.R.A. Okogun, C.U. Igwe, K. Adeyeye, K.E. Aghatise, H.O. Okpal & Y.M. Tatfeng

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trypanosomiasis has remained a major set-back in the development oflivestock farming in tropical Africa. Thus the need for ascertaining the trypanotolerant levels ofdomestic animal breeds and possible improvement on them cannot be over-emphasised.Methods: Level of trypanotolerance in animals was compared between sexes using albino mice infectedwith a Nigerian strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei at a 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50.Results: The male mice showed unrestrained parasite growth with a prepatent period (PP of two daysand a mean survival period (MSP of six days corresponding to a gradual decrease in packed cellvolume (PCV, body weight, diet response and white blood cells (WBC count to the time of death.Their female counterparts showed a PP of three days and MSP of ten days with a similar PCV gradientbut a refractory WBC count. There was no significant difference in the differential leucocytes countin both sexes. However, the eosinophils count was significantly higher in the infected animals. It wasfound that female albino mice exercised more parasite restraint than their male counterparts.Interpretation & conclusion: The result suggests that the female animals may be more trypanotoleranthence may be more useful in protein production in trypanosomiasis endemic areas. However, furtherresearch using large domestic breeds like goats and sheep may be required to confirm the hypothesis.

  18. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  19. Mfsd14a (Hiat1) gene disruption causes globozoospermia and infertility in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Joanne; Walters, Cara; Kyle, Victoria; Wooding, Peter; Hammett-Burke, Rebecca; Colledge, William Henry

    2016-07-01

    The Mfsd14a gene, previously called Hiat1, encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function with homology to the solute carrier protein family. To study the function of the MFSD14A protein, mutant mice (Mus musculus, strain 129S6Sv/Ev) were generated with the Mfsd14a gene disrupted with a LacZ reporter gene. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and healthy, but males are sterile due to a 100-fold reduction in the number of spermatozoa in the vas deferens. Male mice have adequate levels of testosterone and show normal copulatory behaviour. The few spermatozoa that are formed show rounded head defects similar to those found in humans with globozoospermia. Spermatogenesis proceeds normally up to the round spermatid stage, but the subsequent structural changes associated with spermiogenesis are severely disrupted with failure of acrosome formation, sperm head condensation and mitochondrial localization to the mid-piece of the sperm. Staining for β-galactosidase activity as a surrogate for Mfsd14a expression indicates expression in Sertoli cells, suggesting that MFSD14A may transport a solute from the bloodstream that is required for spermiogenesis. PMID:27107036

  20. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Vanessa E; Melin, Travis E; Dessify, Brian J; Nguyen, Christina T; Shea, Caroline S; Hrubec, Terry C

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) are common ingredients in household bathroom and kitchen cleaning sprays. ADBAC+DDAC cause reproductive toxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate gender-specific reproductive effects from ADBAC+DDAC. Female reproduction was assessed through ovulation, oocyte implantation, and estrus cycling. Male reproductive function was assessed by sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Numbers of corpora lutea were not different after 2 weeks, but decreased after 8 weeks of ADBAC+DDAC exposure. Dams exposed for 5 weeks to ADBAC+DDAC spent significantly less time in estrus. ADBAC+DDAC exposed males exhibited declines in both sperm concentration and motility, but not sperm viability. Subfertility in mice from ADBAC+DDAC exposure is, therefore, mediated through reproductive disturbances in both females and males. While the effect of ADBAC+DDAC exposure on human health is unclear, widespread exposure necessitates further consideration of their potential reproductive toxicity. PMID:26582257

  1. Embryonic effects transmitted by male mice irradiated with 512 MeV/u 56Fe nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy, high-charge nuclei may contribute substantially to the yearly equivalent dose in space flight from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) at solar minimum. The largest single heavy-ion component is 56Fe. We used the mouse embryo chimera assay to test 512 MeV/u 56Fe nuclei for effects on the rate of proliferation of embryonic cells transmitted by sperm from irradiated mice. Male CD1 mice were acutely irradiated with 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 Gy (LET, 184 keV/μm; fluence, 3.5 x 104-3.3 x 105 nuclei/cm2; average dose rate, 0.02 Gy/min) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory BEVATRON/BEVALAC Facility in Berkeley, CA. Irradiated males were bred weekly for 7 weeks to nonirradiated females and their four-cell embryos were paired with control embryos, forming aggregation chimeras. After 30-35 h of culture, chimeras were dissociated to obtain open-quotes proliferation ratiosclose quotes (number of cells contributed by the embryo from the irradiated male/total number of cells in the chimera). Significant dose-dependent decreases in proliferation ratios were obtained across all three dose groups for postirradiation week 2 (P 56Fe nuclei. However, up to 47% of sperm during postirradiation weeks 1 and 2 transmitted proliferation ratios that were at or below one standard deviation from control mean proliferation ratios. 26 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Influence of experimental context on the development of anhedonia in male mice imposed to chronic social stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bondar, N. P.; Kovalenko, I. L.; Avgustinovich, D. F.; Kudryavtseva, N. N.

    2007-01-01

    Anhedonia is one of the key symptoms of depression in humans. Consumption of 1% sucrose solution supplemented with 0.2% vanillin was studied in two experimental contexts in male mice living under chronic social stress induced by daily experience of defeats in agonistic interactions and leading to development of depression. In the first experiment, vanillin sucrose solution was made available as an option of water during 10 days to mice living in group home cages. Then the mice were subjected ...

  3. Methionine restriction restores a younger metabolic phenotype in adult mice with alterations in fibroblast growth factor 21

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Emma K.; Król, Elżbieta; Grant, Louise; Shearer, Kirsty; Wyse, Cathy; Moncur, Eleanor; Bykowska, Aleksandra S; Mody, Nimesh; Gettys, Thomas W.; Delibegovic, Mirela

    2014-01-01

    Methionine restriction (MR) decreases body weight and adiposity and improves glucose homeostasis in rodents. Similar to caloric restriction, MR extends lifespan, but is accompanied by increased food intake and energy expenditure. Most studies have examined MR in young animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of MR to reverse age-induced obesity and insulin resistance in adult animals. Male C57BL/6J mice aged 2 and 12 months old were fed MR (0.172% methionine) o...

  4. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Alleviates Arsenic-induced Oxidative Reproductive Toxicity in Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu Gang; GUO Shu Xia; DING Yu Song; NIU Qiang; XU Shang Zhi; PANG Li Juan; MA Ru Lin; JING Ming Xia; FENG Gang Ling; LIU Jia Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. Methods Sixty male Kunming mice received the following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control); arsenic trioxide (ATO; 4 mg/kg); GSPE (400 mg/kg); ATO+GSPE (100 mg/kg);ATO+GSPE (200 mg/kg) and ATO+GSPE (400 mg/kg). Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed and weighed, and the testis was examined for pathological changes. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) expression in the testis was detected by real-time PCR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. Results ATO-treated mice showed a significantly decreased sperm count and testis somatic index and activity levels of SOD, GSH, and T-AOC than control group. Compared to the ATO-treated group, ATO+GSPE group showed recovery of the measured parameters. Mice treated with ATO+high-dose GSPE showed the highest level of mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO, NQO1, and GST. Conclusion GSPE alleviates oxidative stress damage in mouse testis by activating Nrf2 signaling, thus counteracting arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

  5. Effect of methoprene application, adult food and feeding duration on male melon fly starvation survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of methoprene and access to protein in adult diet has been shown to enhance mating success in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their incorporation into operational area-wide programmes integrating the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). T...

  6. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Wilson; F. Happé; S.J. Wheelwright; C. Ecker; M.V. Lombardo; P. Johnston; E. Daly; C.M. Murphy; D. Spain; M-C. Lai; B Chakrabarti; D.A. Sauter; - MRC AIMS Consortium; S. Baron-Cohen; D.G.M. Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of c

  7. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  8. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  9. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Histopathology effects of nickel nanoparticles on lungs, liver, and spleen tissues in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Marziyeh; Ziaee Ghahnavieh, Marziyeh

    2014-09-01

    Because of the classification of the nickel compounds as carcinogenic substances, there is a need for in vivo tests to nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) for observing their effects on health experimentally. Spherical NiNPs with 10 nm in diameter and 75 ppm concentration were applied for investigating their toxicities within male albino mice as an in vivo model. We randomly made sham group, control group, and 75 ppm group (with five animals in each group). Then, the nanoparticles were injected into mice intraperitonealy for 7 days and after that their lungs, liver, and spleen were removed for histopathological observations. At the end of the test, section microscopic observations of liver, spleen, and lung in sham and control groups showed normal tissues but these tissues underwent significant abnormal effects in 75 ppm group. NiNPs can cause undesirable effects in lungs, liver, and spleen tissues with same condition of this study.

  11. Hemopoietic support capacity of adult mouse liver. Studies in 89Sr marrow-ablated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity of normal livers in adult mice to support proliferation of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) was studied. We assayed CFU-S of the blood and livers of mice with intact marrows and of mice whose marrows had been ablated with 89Sr (4 μCi/g) either before or after removal of their spleens, the major hemopoietic organ in marrow-ablated mice. Splenectomy alone resulted in an increase in the numbers of blood and hepatic CFU-S; since the spleen is an efficient trapper of CFU-S released from the marrow, in the splenectomized mice more CFU-S were available for trapping by the liver. Mice splenectomized 3 days prior to 89Sr injection had virtually no blood or liver CFU-S by the tenth day after 89Sr injection. Fourteen days after injection of 89Sr there were supranormal numbers of CFU-S in both blood and liver of intact mice. One week after such mice were splenectomized, however, CFU-S were virtually absent from both blood and liver. This study suggests that normal livers in adult mice cannot support detectable proliferation of normal CFU-S even if the animal is subjected to severe and relatively prolonged hemopoietic stress. In addition, the results of our studies demonstrate that normal livers of adult mice have the capacity to trap large numbers of CFU-S

  12. Behavioural disturbances in adult CD-1 mice and absence of effects on their offspring upon SO{sub 2} exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruzzi, S. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Dell`Omo, G. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Fiore, M. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Chiarotti, F. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Bignami, G. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Alleva, E. [Section of Behavioural Pathophysiology, Laboratorio di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    Adult male and female CD-1 mice were exposed to different SO{sub 2} concentrations (0, 5, 12, or 30 ppm) for 24 days, from 9 days before the formation of breeding pairs to pregnancy day 12-14. This exposure was near-continuous, covering about 80% of the total time. The offspring of exposed dams were cross-fostered shortly after birth to dams not previously exposed. Videorecordings of the adult subjects` activities during the first hour after the start of exposure showed marked, acute transient behavioural effects such as increase of rearing and social interactions, which were more pronounced in males than in females. Subsequent activity tests on exposure days 3, 6, and 9 showed subacute effects including a dose-dependent decrease of grooming and an increase of digging as well as changes in chamber crossing and wall-rearing which were not dose-dependent; most of these effects were more pronounced in females than in males. Food and water consumption and body weight declined in a dose-dependent fashion only after the formation of breeding pairs, when consummatory responses were enhanced in the controls. Reproductive performance as well as postnatal somatic and neurobehavioural development of the offspring (the latter assessed by an observational test battery including eight reflexes and responses) were not affected by SO{sub 2}. Passive avoidance acquisition and retention at the young adult stage (60 days) and response changes produced by repeated apparatus exposure in non-reinforced animals (habituation) were similarly unaffected. The data indicate that SO{sub 2} produces transient, acute behavioural disturbances and more subtle subacute response changes in adult mice which may be due, at least partly, to a functional interference with olfactory modulation of mouse behaviour. The absence of effects on reproductive performance and neurobehavioural development of the offspring suggests that the risk to the developing organism from gestational SO{sub 2} exposure is low.

  13. The role of ghrelin signalling for sexual behaviour in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egecioglu, Emil; Prieto-Garcia, Luna; Studer, Erik; Westberg, Lars; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-03-01

    Ghrelin, a gut-brain signal, is well known to regulate energy homeostasis, food intake and appetite foremost via hypothalamic ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A). In addition, ghrelin activates the reward systems in the brain, namely the mesolimbic dopamine system, and regulates thereby the rewarding properties of addictive drugs as well as of palatable foods. Given that the mesolimbic dopamine system mandates the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs and natural rewards, such as sexual behaviour, we hypothesize that ghrelin plays an important role for male sexual behaviour, a subject for the present studies. Herein we show that ghrelin treatment increases, whereas pharmacological suppression (using the GHSR-1A antagonist JMV2959) or genetic deletion of the GHS-R1A in male mice decreases the sexual motivation for as well as sexual behaviour with female mice in oestrus. Pre-treatment with L-dopa (a dopamine precursor) prior to treatment with JMV2959 significantly increased the preference for female mouse compared with vehicle treatment. On the contrary, treatment with 5-hydroxythyptohan (a precursor for serotonin) prior to treatment with JMV2959 decreased the sexual motivation compared to vehicle. In separate experiments, we show that ghrelin and GHS-R1A antagonism do not affect the time spent over female bedding as measured in the androgen-dependent bedding test. Collectively, these data show that the hunger hormone ghrelin and its receptor are required for normal sexual behaviour in male mice and that the effects of the ghrelin signalling system on sexual behaviour involve dopamine neurotransmission. PMID:25475101

  14. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein

  15. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zidong Donna [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  16. Effect of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol on gubernacular development in fetal male mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-WuJiang; Jian-HongLi; Tian-HuaHuang; Wang-DongDeng

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and the role of actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) on testicular gubernaculum development in fetal male Kunming mice. Methods:Pregnant mice were randomly assigned to 6 groups and injected with DES subcutaneously from gestational day 9(E9) to day 17 (El7) at doses of 0,25,50,100,200μg·kg-1d-1 in 0.2 mL dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). On El7 they were sacrificed and fetuses quickly removed for fixation. Male fetuses were sliced on serial coronal plane. Histological changes were observed under the light microscope (LM) and ultrastructural changes with the scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM&TEM). The expression intensity of actin and PCNA in the gubernacula was quantitated by immunohistochemistry. Results: The mortality of the fetuses was higher in the DES-treated groups than that in the DMSO and saline controls (P<0.05). Under LM the gubernacula were seen to be poorly developed with smaller bulbs. On SEM the bulbs lose the clear demarcation between the mesenchymal inner core and the muscular outer layer and looked like a small cone instead of the normal cylindrical appearance. On TEM there were some smaller disordered myofibrils and sparse cytoplasmic organelles in the gubernacular muscular cells of the treated groups. The expression intensity of actin and PCNA in the gubernacula was significantly weaker in the treated groups than that in the DMSO and saline controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: DES induces underdevelopment of the gubernacula in a dose-dependent manner in fetal male mice and down regulates the actin and PCNA expression.(Asian J Androl 2004 Dec; 6:325-329)

  17. Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160505.html Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, ... 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus kills neural stem cells in the brains ...

  18. Bisphenol A impairs hepatic glucose sensing in C57BL/6 male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Perreault

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose sensing (eg. glucokinase activity becomes impaired in the development of type 2 diabetes, the etiology of which is unclear. Estrogen can stimulate glucokinase activity, whereas the pervasive environmental pollutant bisphenol A (BPA can inhibit estrogen action, hence we aimed to determine the effect of BPA on glucokinase activity directly. METHODS: To evaluate a potential acute effect on hepatic glucokinase activity, BPA in water (n = 5 vs. water alone (n = 5 was administered at the EPA's purported "safe dose" (50 µg/kg by gavage to lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice. Two hours later, animals were euthanized and hepatic glucokinase activity measured over glucose levels from 1-20 mmol/l in liver homogenate. To determine the effect of chronic BPA exposure on hepatic glucokinase activity, lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice were provided with water (n = 15 or water with 1.75 mM BPA (∼50 µg/kg/day; n = 14 for 2 weeks. Following the 2-week exposure, animals were euthanized and glucokinase activity measured as above. RESULTS: Hepatic glucokinase activity was signficantly suppressed after 2 hours in animals given an oral BPA bolus compared to those who received only water (p = 0.002-0.029 at glucose 5-20 mmol/l; overall treatment effect p<0.001. Exposure to BPA over 2 weeks also suppressed hepatic glucokinase activity in exposed vs. unexposed mice (overall treatment effect, p = 0.003. In both experiments, the Hill coefficient was higher and Vmax lower in mice treated with BPA. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Both acute and chronic exposure to BPA significantly impair hepatic glucokinase activity and function. These findings identify a potential mechanism for how BPA may increase risk for diabetes.

  19. Comparison of radioprotective effects of caffeine and ascorbic acid in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxygen effect in radiation biology is well known. Since oxygen enhances radiation-induced biological damage, antioxidants should be radioprotectors. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or caffeine is an essential component in the diet of humans and a small range of other mammals. Radioprotective effects of vitamin C have been demonstrated in certain cells and animals, which would result from scavenging free radicals. Caffeine is the main psychoactive ingredient of coffee, tea, even coke with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. Caffeine has been recently reported as a scavenger of hydroxyl radical in millimolar levels and a potently radioprotector in a chronically exposed rodent. This study investigates functional radioprotection of caffeine and ascorbic acid against gamma irradiation in male mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were irradiated with 6.5 Gy. A caffeine treated group was administered with 80 mg/kg body weight by i.p injection, a single exposure 1 hour before irradiation. Ascorbic acid was administered 330 mg/liter in drinking water through all the experimental period. The remaining mice were kept as sham controls. After collecting a serum from the experimental mice 6 hr after irradiation, qualitative analysis of testosterone was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA). For histological investigation, testes were removed 1 week after irradiation and fixed in NBF. Fixed testes were processed for paraffin sections and stained by H-E. The circulating testosterone significantly decreased in all irradiated groups. The harmful effect of radiation on the body and organ weight and the appearance of semiferous tubules were significantly improved in the caffeine - or ascorbic acid-treated group. In conclusion, caffeine and ascorbic acid protected spermatogenesis from impairment against gamma radiation, acting as a radioprotector

  20. Dose-dependent adverse effects of salinomycin on male reproductive organs and fertility in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Omolara Ojo

    Full Text Available Salinomycin is used as an antibiotic in animal husbandry. Its implication in cancer therapy has recently been proposed. Present study evaluated the toxic effects of Salinomycin on male reproductive system of mice. Doses of 1, 3 or 5 mg/kg of Salinomycin were administered daily for 28 days. Half of the mice were sacrificed after 24 h of the last treatment and other half were sacrificed 28 days after withdrawal of treatment. Effects of SAL on body and reproductive organ weights were studied. Histoarchitecture of testis and epididymis was evaluated along with ultrastructural changes in Leydig cells. Serum and testicular testosterone and luteinizing hormones were estimated. Superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were measured. Spermatozoa count, morphology, motility and fertility were evaluated. Expression patterns of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage proteins (CYP11A1 were assessed by Western blotting. Salinomycin treatment was lethal to few mice and retarded body growth in others with decreased weight of testes and seminal vesicles in a dose dependent manner. Seminiferous tubules in testes were disrupted and the epithelium of epididymis showed frequent occurrence of vacuolization and necrosis. Leydig cells showed hypertrophied cytoplasm with shrunken nuclei, condensed mitochondria, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum and increased number of lipid droplets. Salinomycin decreased motility and spermatozoa count with increased number of abnormal spermatozoa leading to infertility. The testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were decreased in testis but increased in serum at higher doses. Depletion of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione with increased lipid peroxidation in both testis and epididymis indicated generation of oxidative stress. Suppressed expression of StAR and CYP11A1 proteins indicates inhibition of

  1. Long-term effects of husbandry procedures on stress-related parameters in male mice of two strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, PLP; Van der Meer, E; Kruitwagen, CLJJ; Koolhaas, JM; Van Zutphen, LFM; Baumans, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    In socially unstable groups of male laboratory mice, individuals may experience a chronic stress situation. Previous experiments have shown that the transfer of specific olfactory cues during cage cleaning, and the provision of nesting material decrease aggression and stress in group-housed male mic

  2. Loss of BH3-only Protein Bim Inhibits Apoptosis of Hemopoietic Cells in the Fetal Liver and Male Germ Cells but Not Neuronal Cells in Bcl-x–deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Rizwan S.; Klocke, Barbara J.; Strasser, Andreas; Roth, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the Bcl-2 family include pro- and antiapoptotic proteins that regulate programmed cell death of developing tissues and death in response to cellular damage. In developing mice, the antiapoptotic Bcl-xL is necessary for survival of neural and hematopoietic cells, and consequently, bcl-x–deficient mice die around Day 13.5 of embryogenesis. Furthermore, adult bcl-x+/− heterozygous male mice have reduced fertility because of testicular degeneration. Bax, a multi-BH (Bcl-2 homology) dom...

  3. Personality and symptoms of psychological ill health among adult male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle

    2011-05-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. Male offenders (N = 161) housed at two medium-high-risk institutions completed the Ten Item Personality Inventory and the Symptom Checklist Outpatient Rating Scale. Emotional stability emerged as the strongest individual predictor of psychological ill health and predicted each of the subscales measured (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism) and overall symptoms. Although agreeableness predicted depression and anger-hostility only, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience did not predict any aspect of psychological ill health investigated. The findings contribute to the current literature and provide further information about the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. PMID:20798143

  4. Toxic effects of different doses of cyclophosphamide on the reproductive parameters of male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiane Yumi Nakamura Kanno; Lucimara Aparecida Sensiate; Natália Aparecida de Paula; Maria José Sparça Salles

    2009-01-01

    The cyclophosphamide is used in cancer treatment. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of different doses of this drug on male mice reproductive parameters. The cyclophosphamide was administered in the doses 100, 150, 200 e 250 mg.kg-1, intraperitoneal route, for six weeks. As a result, it was observed a decrease in body mass and a decrease in testicles and kidney's weight, in all animals treated with cyclophosphamide. Only the groups that received the doses 100, 150 mg.kg-1 of cyc...

  5. Floor Space Needs for Laboratory Mice: C56BL/6 Males in Solid-bottom Cages with Bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwood, Steven; Hicks, Tiffanie A.; Brown, Jack C.; Norman, Reid L.; McGlone, John J.

    1998-12-01

    Measures of performance, mortality, adrenal weights, plasma glucocorticoid concentration, and selected immune measures were collected in an attempt to define space needs of laboratory mice. Six replications of 3 C57BL/6 male mice per cage were examined while housed on bedding at 5, 10, 15, or 20 in(2) (32.2, 64.5, 96.8, or 129 cm(2)) per mouse. Body weights were not influenced by treatment; however, mice in smaller spaces (5 in(2) per mouse) consumed or wasted more feed and water than mice given greater space allowances. Mice given the least amount of space (5 in(2) per mouse) had greater lymphocyte proliferation in response to the T-cell mitogen PHA than mice given more space. Mice provided 10 in(2) per mouse had greater natural killer cytotoxicity than mice given greater or less space. Mouse mortality was greater as more space was provided. In contrast, adrenal weights and plasma glucocorticoid concentrations were progressively greater with lower space allowances. The National Research Council 1996 recommendation of 15 in(2) per mouse, for this strain and sex of mice, would result in greater mortality and reduced activity of some immune measures. Socially housed male C57BL/6 mice will benefit from less space than recommended by the National Research Council in 1996. PMID:11406686

  6. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring. PMID:25940002

  7. Corticosterone differences rather than social housing predict performance of T-maze alternation in male CD-1 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fitchett, Ann E.; Christopher J. Barnard; Cassaday, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social housing manipulations on body weight, corticosterone levels, and performance of T-maze alternation in male CD-1 mice. Males that adopted a dominant social rank were heavier than those that adopted a subordinate social rank. Dominant males also had lower corticosterone concentrations than the subordinates. However, there was little to suggest that these physiological indicators of social rank were moderated by housing condition. Indeed, statistical ana...

  8. Psoralen and Isopsoralen Ameliorate Sex Hormone Deficiency-Induced Osteoporosis in Female and Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaomei; Bi, Yanan; Yan, Zeman; Pu, Weiling; Li, Yuhong; Zhou, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, which is characterized by a systemic destruction of bone mass and microarchitecture. With life standard improved, the treatment of osteoporosis attracted more attention. The aim of this study is to verify the osteoprotective effect of psoralen and isopsoralen in females and males. Female and male mice were divided into 7 groups in this study: control group (sham-operation), model group (by ovariectomy or orchidectomy), positive control group (females given estradiol valerate; males given alendronate sodium), psoralen groups (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg), and isopsoralen groups (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg). After administration of psoralen and isopsoralen for 8 weeks, osteoporosis was ameliorated with increasing bone strength and improving trabecular bone microstructure as indicated by CT scan and pathology. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), osteocalcin (OC), and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-1) were examined. Decreased TRACP and increased ALP/TRACP suggested restoring from bone destruction. These results suggest that psoralen and isopsoralen may be used as good natural compounds for the treatment of osteoporosis in males, as well as females.

  9. Development of a Korean adult male computational phantom for internal dosimetry calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Korean adult male computational phantom was constructed based on the current anthropometric and organ volume data of Korean average adult male, and was applied to calculate internal photon dosimetry data. The stylised models of external body, skeleton, and a total of 13 internal organs (brain, gall bladder, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, spleen, stomach, testes, thymus, thyroid and urinary bladder) were redesigned based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) adult phantom. The height of trunk of the Korean phantom was 8.6% less than that of the ORNL adult phantom, and the volumes of all organs decreased up to 65% (pancreas) except for brain, gall bladder wall and thymus. Specific absorbed fraction (SAF) was calculated using the Korean phantom and Monte Carlo code, and compared with those from the ORNL adult phantom. The SAF of organs in the Korean phantom was overall higher than that from the ORNL adult phantom. This was caused by the smaller organ volume and the shorter inter-organ distance in the Korean phantom. The self SAF was dominantly affected by the difference in organ volume, and the SAF for different source and target organs was more affected by the inter-organ distance than by the organ volume difference. The SAFs of the Korean stylised phantom differ from those of the ORNL phantom by 10-180%. The comparison study of internal dosimetry will be extended to tomographic phantom and electron source in the future. (authors)

  10. Diet-induced obesity in male C57BL/6 mice decreases fertility as a consequence of disrupted blood-testis barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Fan

    Full Text Available Obesity is a complex metabolic disease that is a serious detriment to both children and adult health, which induces a variety of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, hypertension and cancer. Although adverse effects of obesity on female reproduction or oocyte development have been well recognized, its harmfulness to male fertility is still unclear because of reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine whether diet-induced obesity impairs male fertility and furthermore to uncover its underlying mechanisms. Thus, male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 10 weeks served as a model of diet-induced obesity. The results clearly show that the percentage of sperm motility and progressive motility significantly decreased, whereas the proportion of teratozoospermia dramatically increased in HFD mice compared to those in normal diet fed controls. Besides, the sperm acrosome reaction fell accompanied by a decline in testosterone level and an increase in estradiol level in the HFD group. This alteration of sperm function parameters strongly indicated that the fertility of HFD mice was indeed impaired, which was also validated by a low pregnancy rate in their mated normal female. Moreover, testicular morphological analyses revealed that seminiferous epithelia were severely atrophic, and cell adhesions between spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells were loosely arranged in HFD mice. Meanwhile, the integrity of the blood-testis barrier was severely interrupted consistent with declines in the tight junction related proteins, occludin, ZO-1 and androgen receptor, but instead endocytic vesicle-associated protein, clathrin rose. Taken together, obesity can impair male fertility through declines in the sperm function parameters, sex hormone level, whereas during spermatogenesis damage to the blood-testis barrier (BTB integrity may be one of the crucial underlying factors accounting for this change.

  11. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and aspirin increase lifespan of genetically heterogeneous male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Randy; Miller, Richard A; Astle, Clinton M; Floyd, Robert A; Flurkey, Kevin; Hensley, Kenneth L; Javors, Martin A; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Nelson, James F; Ongini, Ennio; Nadon, Nancy L; Warner, Huber R; Harrison, David E

    2008-10-01

    The National Institute on Aging's Interventions Testing Program was established to evaluate agents that are purported to increase lifespan and delay the appearance of age-related disease in genetically heterogeneous mice. Up to five compounds are added to the study each year and each compound is tested at three test sites (The Jackson Laboratory, University of Michigan, and University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio). Mice in the first cohort were exposed to one of four agents: aspirin, nitroflurbiprofen, 4-OH-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). Sample size was sufficient to detect a 10% difference in lifespan in either sex,with 80% power, using data from two of the three sites. Pooling data from all three sites, a log-rank test showed that both NDGA (p=0.0006) and aspirin (p=0.01) led to increased lifespan of male mice. Comparison of the proportion of live mice at the age of 90% mortality was used as a surrogate for measurement of maximum lifespan;neither NDGA (p=0.12) nor aspirin (p=0.16) had a significant effect in this test. Measures of blood levels of NDGA or aspirin and its salicylic acid metabolite suggest that the observed lack of effects of NDGA or aspirin on life span in females could be related to gender differences in drug disposition or metabolism. Further studies are warranted to find whether NDGA or aspirin, over a range of doses,might prove to postpone death and various age-related outcomes reproducibly in mice. PMID:18631321

  12. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:27228897

  13. Auto-mobilized adult hematopoietic stem cells advance neovasculature in diabetic retinopathy of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Bei; LI Xiao-xin; SHEN Li; ZHAO Min; YU Wen-zhen

    2010-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be used to deliver functionally active angiostatic molecules to the retinal vasculature by targeting active astrocytes and may be useful in targeting pre-angiogenic retinal lesions. We sought to determine whether HSC mobilization can ameliorate early diabetic retinopathy in mice.Methods Mice were devided into four groups: normal mice control group, normal mice HSC-mobilized group, diabetic mice control group and diabetic mice HSC mobilized group. Murine stem cell growth factor (murine SCF) and recombined human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-csf) were administered to the mice with diabetes and without diabetes for continuous 5 days to induce autologous HSCs mobilization, and subcutaneous injection of physiological saline was used as control. Immunohistochemical double staining was conducted with anti-mouse rat CD31 monoclonal antibody and anti-BrdU rat antibody.Results Marked HSCs clearly increased after SCF plus G-csf-mobilization. Non-mobilized diabetic mice showed more HSCs than normal mice (P=0.032), and peripheral blood significantly increased in both diabetic and normal mice (P=0.000).Diabetic mice showed more CD31 positive capillary vessels (P=0.000) and accelerated endothelial cell regeneration. Only diabetic HSC-mobilized mice expressed both BrdU and CD31 antigens in the endothelial cells of new capillaries.Conclusion Auto-mobilized adult hematopoietic stem cells advance neovasculature in diabetic retinopathy of mice.

  14. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  15. Comparing Betamethasone and Dexamethasone Effects on Concentration of Male Reproductive Hormones in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalalaldin Gooyande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of chemical drugs have side effects on various parts of body. It is necessary to identify these effects to better use of drugs. Betamethasone and Dexamethasone are two of the most usual drugs in human and animal medication. The effect of these drugs on concentration of male reproductive hormones of mice was the goal of this study. Eighteen matured male mice were divided into eight groups including control, placebo and six treatment groups. Placebo group was received physiological serum only and treatments were Betamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg and Dexamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg which were injected in peritoneum every other day and for twenty days. After 20 days, blood samples were taken and FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured using Eliza test method. Obtained data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance and mean comparison was done using Duncan's multiple ranges test and SPSS program. Results showed that 0.5 mg/kg of Betamethasone and all levels of dexamethasone caused significant increase in FSH concentration. For LH hormone, 1 mg/kg of Betamethasone and 0.1 mg/kg of Dexamethasone caused significant decrease whereas 1 mg/kg of Dexamethasone increased it significantly. Testosterone was increased significantly by 1 mg/kg of Dexamethasone. So, mentioned drugs are effective on hormone action of reproductive system dose dependently and probable effect of them must be considered in time of using.

  16. The Antioxidant Effect of Camellia Sinesison on the Liver Damage Induced by Tioacetamide in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi, A. ( B Sc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Flavonoids play an important role in non-enzymatic reaction against oxidative stress. These are polyphenolic compounds in tea structure that could be reacted with free radicals and neutralized them. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant impact of Camellia Sinesis on the liver of thioacetamide -injected male albino mice. Material and Methods: In this study, 40 male mice were categorized in five groups of eight. The first group was control. The second and the third group received 100mg/kg and 150mg/kg of thioacetamide, respectively. The fourth group received 100mg/kg thioacetamide followed by black tea (5 gr/100 and the fifth one received 150mg/kg thioacetamide followed by black tea (5 gr/100. Tioacetamide was given via intraperitoneal. After that, for 30 days, they were only fed on black tea (5 gr/100. At the end, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity were measured. Results: Based on the results, catalase(CAT and glutathione peroxidase(GPx activity were significantly increased in the groups of Thioacetamide and black tea compared to those of only Thioacetamide groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The increase of these enzymes in tea groups shows the anti-oxidant effect of black tea that can be caused by Catechin. Keywords: Antioxidant; Thioacetamide; Black Tea; Glutathione Peroxidase; Catalase

  17. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.

  18. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:26470310

  19. Evaluation of Effect of Oleuropein on Skin Wound Healing in Aged Male Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mehraein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Olive oil and olive leaf extract are used for treatment of skin diseases and wounds in Iran. The main component of olive leaf extract is Oleuropein. This research is focused on the effects of Oleuropein on skin wound healing in aged male Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Oleuropein was provided by Razi Herbal Medicine Institute, Lorestan, Iran. Twenty four male Balb/c mice, 16 months of age, were divided equally into control and experimental groups. Under ether anesthesia, the hairs on the back of neck of all groups were shaved and a 1 cm long full-thickness incision was made. The incision was then left un-sutured. The experimental group received intradermal injections with a daily single dose of 50 mg/kg Oleuropein for a total period of 7 days. The control group received only distilled water. On days 3 and 7 after making the incision and injections, mice were sacrificed, and the skin around incision area was dissected and stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Van Gieson’s methods for tissue analysis. In addition, western blot analysis was carried out to evaluate the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF protein expression. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA. The t test was applied to assess the significance of changes between control and experimental groups. Results: Oleuropein not only reduced cell infiltration in the wound site on days 3 and 7 post incision, but also a significant increase in collagen fiber deposition and more advanced re- epithelialization were observed (p<0.05 in the experimental group as compared to the control group. The difference of hair follicles was not significant between the two groups at the same period of time. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed an increased in VEGF protein level from samples collected on days 3 and 7 post-incision of experimental group as compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion

  20. Depressive-Like Behavioral Response of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys during Routine Animal Husbandry Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Hennessy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors—lying on the substrate and day time sleeping—that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7 to 14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood.

  1. Depressive-like behavioral response of adult male rhesus monkeys during routine animal husbandry procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; McCowan, Brenda; Jiang, Jing; Capitanio, John P

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors-lying on the substrate and day time sleeping-that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7-14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood. PMID:25249954

  2. Lycopene protects against acute zearalenone-induced oxidative, endocrine, inflammatory and reproductive damages in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Borges Filho, Carlos; Del'Fabbro, Lucian; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Donato, Franciele; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Jesse, Cristiano Ricardo; Furian, Ana Flávia

    2015-03-25

    Male mice received lycopene for 10 days before a single oral administration of zearalenone (ZEA). After 48 h testes and blood were collected. Mice treated with lycopene/ZEA exhibited amelioration of the hematological changes. Lycopene prevented the reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and testosterone levels, indicating a protective effect in the testicular damage induced by ZEA. Lycopene was also effective in protecting against the decrease in glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activities caused by ZEA in the testes. Exposure of animals to ZEA induced modification of antioxidant and inflammatory status with increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and increase of the oxidized glutathione, interleukins 1β, 2, 6, 10, tumor necrosis factor-α and bilirubin levels. Lycopene prevented ZEA-induced changes in GSH levels and inhibited the processes of inflammation, reducing the damage induced by ZEA. Altogether, our results indicate that lycopene was able to prevent ZEA-induced damage in the mice. PMID:25682699

  3. HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF MORINGA OLEIFERA PODS AGAINST DMBA-INDUCED HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS IN MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Paliwal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Moringa oleifera pods hydroethanolic extract was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in male swiss albino mice against DMBA (synthetic poly aromatic hydrocarbon 7, 12- dimethyl benz(aanthracene induced hepatocarcinogenicity and oxidative stress in hepatic tissues. DMBA exposure elicited a significant escalation in TBARS substances level and depletion in antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver. It has been observed that mice treated with MO showed a significant improvement in LPO level along with elevated levels of SOD and CAT activity, which might be the reason for its chemopreventive effect. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of MO clearly indicate that the extract possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. Finally, these results suggested that M. oleifera pods extract could act against DMBA-induced hepatic injury in mice by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of M. oleifera pods extract against chemical carcinogens.

  4. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  5. Protective Effects of Thymoquinone against Methotrexate-Induced Germ Cell Apoptosis in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sheikhbahaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic effects of anti-cancer and other drugs on the normal tissues could be reduced by the herbal plants and their fractions. This study investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ as a fraction of Nigella sativa on methotrexate (MTX- induced germ cell apoptosis in male mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Balb/c mice were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=6. A single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg and different concentrations of TQ were administrated for 4 consecutive days. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay was performed on paraffin embedded tissue sections to analysis the occurrence of apoptosis in the testis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of apoptosis-related genes was performed with RNA extracted from testes of the mice. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA. Results: In the MTX group, there was a significant increase in morphologic sign of germ cell degeneration of tubules (48 ± 0.6%, apoptotic index (AI; 2.3 ± 0.6%, as well as mRNA expression of p53 (P=0.008, caspase 8 (P=0.002, caspase 3 (P=0.005, caspase 9 (P=0.000, bax (P=0.004 and the ratio of bax/bcl-2 (P=0.000, whereas there was an decrease in the expression of bcl-2 (P=0.003, as compared to control group. In MTX+TQ groups, the data showed that different concentrations of TQ could improve the harmful effects caused by the MTX. The best protective effects were achieved in MTX+TQ (10 mg/kg. Conclusion: TQ protects testicular germ cell against MTX-induced apoptosis by affecting related genes regulation.

  6. LUNG FUNCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FORCED VITAL CAPACITY (FVC) AND BODY MASS INDEX IN YOUNG ADULT MALES

    OpenAIRE

    MR Swaroop

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a serious public health issue and is related to lung dysfunction. This study was planned to assess the correlation between the pulmonary function like FVC and increasing BMI in young adult males. This study was undertaken in normal weight and overweight young adult males of Balagangadaranatha nagara. The study and control groups were comprised of 120 male subjects between the age group 18-24 years randomly selected from the population of Balagangadarana...

  7. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult male Oman is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets in serologically HIV-seronegative healthy male adults in Oman. A cohort, of 118 healthy male blood donors ranging in age from 18-51 years, was included in the study. The average was 25 years. Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. This study was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the year 2006. For the 118 males investigated, the mean percentage and absolute values of the lymphocyte subsets were as follows: Cd3: 68.53+-7.5%, 1701+-489 cells/ul; CD8: 25.8+-5.9%, 638+-225 cells/ul; CD19: 13.7+-4.7%, 349+-158 cells/ul, CD56: 12.2+-6.7%, 308+-204 cells/ul. The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.6. Immunophenotyping has been used to establish reference values of lymphocyte subsets in normal healthy adult males in Oman. The Omani male reference values obtained in this study show wide variations compared with kits values previously used as reference. (author)

  8. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. ...

  9. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  10. Voluntary Running in Young Adult Mice Reduces Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases the Accumulation of Bioactive Lipids in the Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Soto, Iván J.; Chorna, Nataliya; Carballeira, Néstor M.; Vélez-Bartolomei, José G.; Méndez-Merced, Ana T.; Chornyy, Anatoliy P.; de Ortiz, Sandra Peña

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial therapies using voluntary exercise and diet supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids have synergistic effects benefiting brain function and behavior. Here, we assessed the effects of voluntary exercise on anxiety-like behavior and on total FA accumulation within three brain regions: cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of running versus sedentary young adult male C57/BL6J mice. The running group was subjected to one month of voluntary exercise in their home cages, while t...

  11. Protective Effects of Royal Jelly and Vitamin C against Experimental Hemolytic Anemia on Sex Hormones and Histochemical Testicle Tissue Histochemistry of Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    H Anbara; R Shahrooz; H Malekinejad; S Saadati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Phenylhydrazine (PHZ) is a well-known hemolytic compound inducing intoxication in erythrocytes. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of royal jelly and vitamin C against phenylhydrazine-induced damages in mouse testicles. Methods: In this study, 64 adult male mice were randomly and equally assigned to eight groups. The first group received normal saline (0.1ml) intraperitoneally. The second group received PHZ (6 mg/100 gr) intraperitoneally i...

  12. Effects of Saikokaryukotsuboreito on Spermatogenesis and Fertility in Aging Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Zang; Su-Yun Ji; Ya-Nan Zhang; Yong Gao; Bin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Aspermia caused by exogenous testosterone limit its usage in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) patients desiring fertility.Saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT) is reported to improve serum testosterone and relieve LOH-related symptoms.However,it is unclear whether SKRBT affects fertility.We aimed to examine the effects of SKRBT on spermatogenesis and fertility in aging male mice.Methods:Thirty aging male mice were randomly assigned to three groups.Mice were orally administered with phosphate-buffer solution or SKRBT (300 mg/kg,daily) or received testosterone by subcutaneous injections (10 mg/kg,every 3 days).Thirty days later,each male mouse was mated with two female mice.All animals were sacrificed at the end of 90 days.Intratesticular testosterone (ITT) levels,quality of sperm,expression of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3),and fertility were assayed.Results:In the SKRBT-treated group,ITT,quality of sperm,and expression of SYCP3 were all improved compared with the control group (ITT:85.50± 12.31 ng/gvs.74.10± 11.45 ng/g,P=0.027;sperm number:[14.94± 4.63] × 106 cells/ml vs.[8.79±4.38] × 106 cells/ml,P =0.002;sperm motility:43.16 ± 9.93% vs.33.51 ± 6.98%,P =0.015;the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule:77.50 ± 11.01 ng/ml vs.49.30 ± 8.73 ng/ml,P < 0.001;the expression of SYCP3 protein:1.23 ± 0.09 vs.0.84 ± 0.10,P < 0.001),but fertility was not significantly changed (P > 0.05,respectively).In the testosterone-treated group,ITT,quality of sperm,and expression of SYCP3 were markedly lower than the control group (ITT:59.00 ± 8.67,P =0.005;sperm number:[4.34 ± 2.45] × l06 cells/ml,P =0.018;sperm motility:19.53 ± 7.69%,P =0.001;the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule:30.00 ± 11.28,P < 0.001;the percentage of SYCP3-positive tubules/section 71.98 ± 8.88%,P =0.001;the expression of SYCP3 protein:0.71 ± 0.09,P < 0.001),and fertility was also suppressed (P < 0.05,respectively).Conclusion:SKRBT had no adverse effect on fertility

  13. Effect of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on some reproductive and sperm parameters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to examine the effect of oral administration of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on spermatogenesis, accessory sex glands and serum testosterone level in adult male rats aged 2.5-3 months. The extract was administered orally daily at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. The results showed that the extract at the three doses significantly reduced testis weight and testosterone level. Furthermore a significant reduction in sperm count, weight of body, tail of epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in rats treated with extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg compared with control, associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms compared with control. It was concluded that Rosmarinus Officinalis extract administration to adult male rats caused adverse effects on some reproductive and semen parameters.

  14. Methionine restriction restores a younger metabolic phenotype in adult mice with alterations in fibroblast growth factor 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Emma K; Król, Elżbieta; Grant, Louise; Shearer, Kirsty; Wyse, Cathy; Moncur, Eleanor; Bykowska, Aleksandra S; Mody, Nimesh; Gettys, Thomas W; Delibegovic, Mirela

    2014-10-01

    Methionine restriction (MR) decreases body weight and adiposity and improves glucose homeostasis in rodents. Similar to caloric restriction, MR extends lifespan, but is accompanied by increased food intake and energy expenditure. Most studies have examined MR in young animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of MR to reverse age-induced obesity and insulin resistance in adult animals. Male C57BL/6J mice aged 2 and 12 months old were fed MR (0.172% methionine) or control diet (0.86% methionine) for 8 weeks or 48 h. Food intake and whole-body physiology were assessed and serum/tissues analyzed biochemically. Methionine restriction in 12-month-old mice completely reversed age-induced alterations in body weight, adiposity, physical activity, and glucose tolerance to the levels measured in healthy 2-month-old control-fed mice. This was despite a significant increase in food intake in 12-month-old MR-fed mice. Methionine restriction decreased hepatic lipogenic gene expression and caused a remodeling of lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue, alongside increased insulin-induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and Akt in peripheral tissues. Mice restricted of methionine exhibited increased circulating and hepatic gene expression levels of FGF21, phosphorylation of eIF2a, and expression of ATF4, with a concomitant decrease in IRE1α phosphorylation. Short-term 48-h MR treatment increased hepatic FGF21 expression/secretion and insulin signaling and improved whole-body glucose homeostasis without affecting body weight. Our findings suggest that MR feeding can reverse the negative effects of aging on body mass, adiposity, and insulin resistance through an FGF21 mechanism. These findings implicate MR dietary intervention as a viable therapy for age-induced metabolic syndrome in adult humans. PMID:24935677

  15. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V.; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A.; ,; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and...

  16. A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Chuan Lai; Lombardo, Michael V.; Greg Pasco; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A; Bhismadev Chakrabarti; Simon Baron-Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (h...

  17. Effects of Adult Male Circumcision on Premature Ejaculation: Results from a Prospective Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingjing Gao; Chuan Xu; Jingjing Zhang; Chaozhao Liang; Puyu Su; Zhen Peng; Kai Shi; Dongdong Tang; Pan Gao; Zhaoxiang Lu; Jishuang Liu; Lei Xia; Jiajia Yang; Zongyao Hao; Jun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of adult male circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, between December 2009 and March 2014, a total of 575 circumcised men and 623 uncircumcised men (control group) were evaluated. Detailed evaluations (including circumcision and control groups) on PE were conducted before circumcision and at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits after circumcision. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Patie...

  18. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  19. Effects of early life stress on adult male aggression and hypothalamic vasopressin and serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Veenema, Alexa H.; Blume, Annegret; Niederle, Daniela; Buwalda, Bauke; Neumann, Inga D.

    2006-01-01

    Early life stress in humans enhances the risk for psychopathologies, including excessive aggression and violence. In rodents, maternal separation is a potent early life stressor inducing long-lasting changes in emotional and neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress, associated with depression- and anxiety-like symptoms. However, effects of maternal separation on adult male aggression and underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of maternal se...

  20. Investigation of curcumin effects on liver tissue in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra khodaparast; ali reza yousofi; ameneh khoshvagti

    2014-01-01

     Background & Objective: Cyclophosphamide is an antineoplastic drug that has many clinical uses in cancer treatment, but it has toxic effects due to creation of free radicals. In this study, the effects of curcumin" as an antioxidant drug” on liver tissue was investigated. Materials & methods: 50 wistar adult male rats were selected randomly and were divided in to five groups including control, sham (receiving normal saline and olive oil), cyclophosp...

  1. Patterns of coping preferences for male and female caregivers of frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, H M; Hamilton, D W; Lovett, S; Gallagher-Thompson, D

    1997-06-01

    The similarities and differences in male and female caregivers' preferred strategies for coping and the perceived helpfulness of these strategies in managing caregiving stressors were examined in this study. Respondents were 170 caregivers (139 women and 31 men) who were primary caregivers for an elderly adult relative who was either cognitively impaired or physically frail. Results provide preliminary evidence that gender is related to frequency of use but not to the perceived helpfulness of specific coping strategies. PMID:9189986

  2. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate) in adult males with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Bateh, Abd El-aziz M; Hamed, Sherifa A; et al

    2009-01-01

    Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were asse...

  3. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  4. Assessment of specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons using average adult Japanese male phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is revising dose coefficients, which are effective and equivalent doses per unit intake of radionuclides, based on the 2007 Recommendations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of voxel phantoms having standard physiques and organ masses (physical characteristics) of Caucasian are used for calculation of the new dose coefficients. SAFs depend on physical characteristics of a phantom used for assessment of the SAFs. Therefore, the SAFs and the dose coefficients developed by ICRP reflect physical characteristics of Caucasian. On the other hand, physiques of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian, and organ masses are also different from each other. Consequently, it is expected that SAFs and dose coefficients with physical characteristics of adult Japanese are different from those of ICRP. It is important to understand the influence of the differences in physical characteristics between both races on SAFs and dose coefficients when using the SAFs and dose coefficients of ICRP for radiation protection for Japanese. In order to evaluate internal doses considering the physical characteristics of adult Japanese, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency plans to develop a comprehensive data set of SAFs for photons, electrons, alpha particles and neutrons using average adult Japanese male and female phantoms (male: JM-103, female: JF-103). This report presents a data set of photon and electron SAFs for JM-103. JM-103 was incorporated into the general purpose radiation transport code, MCNPX 2.6.0, and the SAFs were calculated by the MCNPX 2.6.0 for 25 energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV and for combinations of 67 source regions and 41 target organs. Influences of differences in physical characteristics between adult Japanese and Caucasian on SAFs was also examined by comparison between the calculated SAFs in this study and the SAFs of the reference adult male phantom of ICRP. The photon and electron

  5. Cumulative genetic effects from exposure of male mice to tritium for ten generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sublines of C57 Black/6M mice were propagated from three sibling pairs from the same litter. All breeders were weaned at 28+-2 days of age. At each generation in experimental lines weaned male breeders aged 35 days either received a single injection of tritiated thymidine (1 μCi/g of body weight) or were exposed for 5 weeks to tritiated drinking water (10 μCi/ml). At 10 weeks of age all breeders were sibling-mated. The time of delivery, the litter size and sex ratio was recorded. At each generation the offspring in the three lines were sibling-mated in the same sequence as their parents. At the 6th generation total offspring in the sibling line receiving tritiated thymidine numbered 108 versus 336 in the sibling line exposed to tritiated water, in contrast with 721 in the control sibling line. The 6th generation couples (20 in either subline) generated at the 9th generation 624 animals in the control subline versus 386 and 476 in the subline exposed to tritium. The data suggest a trend toward reduction in the subpopulation of offspring propagated from male parents exposed to tritiated water or tritiated thymidine. At the 9th generation 50 couples were assigned to a special study on reproductive fitness. The litter size was decreased and infant mortality was increased in experimental sublines (chi-square test, P<0.05). In control, as well as in experimental lines, at 70 days of age males were sibling-mated with their sisters. All animals received tap water and were not exposed at any time to tritiated thymidine or tritiated water. Preimplantation loss values were significantly increased in experimental versus control sublines (chi-square test, P<0.01). The dose to male sperm over a 35-day period was estimated at 3.7 rads from tritiated water and at 3.9 rads from tritiated thymidine under our experimental conditions

  6. Puberty Is Delayed in Male Mice With Dextran Sodium Sulfate Colitis Out of Proportion to Changes in Food Intake, Body Weight, and Serum Levels of Leptin

    OpenAIRE

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Li, Yongli

    2011-01-01

    In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the ...

  7. CpG Improves Influenza Vaccine Efficacy in Young Adult but Not Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Co, Mary; Mathew, Anuja

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced efficacy of influenza vaccines in the elderly compared to young adults. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a commercially available inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) in young adult and aged mice. C57/BL6 mice were administered a single or double immunization of Fluzone® with or without CpG and challenged intranasally with H1N1 A/California/09 virus. A double immunization of Fluzone® adjuvanted with CpG elicited the highest level of protection in young adult mice which was associated with increases in influenza specific IgG, elevated HAI titres, reduced viral titres and lung inflammation. In contrast, the vaccine schedule which provided fully protective immunity in young adult mice conferred limited protection in aged mice. Antigen presenting cells from aged mice were found to be less responsive to in vitro stimulation by Fluzone and CpG which may partially explain this result. Our data are supportive of studies that have shown limited effectiveness of influenza vaccines in the elderly and provide important information relevant to the design of more immunogenic vaccines in this age group. PMID:26934728

  8. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression. PMID:26789010

  9. Evaluation of pomegranate rind (Punica granatum) hydroethanolic extract on blood parameters in male mice treated by Irinotecan Hcl

    OpenAIRE

    N Mirazi; Sh Nosrati; Hosseini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Irinotecan Hcl is the first order drug for some neoplasm treatment in patients. Irinotecan Hcl has side effects on blood such as anemia and leukopeny. The aim of this study was to evaluate erythropoetic effects of the pomegranate hydroethanolic extract were examined on mice which treated by irinotecan Hcl. Methods: In this experimental study, 49 male mice (25-30 g) were divided in 7 groups (control, sham, treated by irinotecan Hcl (100 mg/kg), treated by pomegranate extr...

  10. Adult hematopoietic progenitors are pluripotent in chimeric mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pessac, Bernard; K. Nimmagadda, Vamshi; Makar, Tapas; S. Fishman, Paul; T. Bever Jr., Christopher; Trisler, David

    2012-01-01

    18 pages, 7 figures. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult somatic cells, induced to pluripotency (iPSCs) by genetic manipulation, display high self-­‐renewal potential and the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. We asked whether there are in adult mammals natural stem cells that are pluripotent. We previously reported that normal adult mammalian bone marrow contains a sub-­‐population of CD34+ cells, that naturally expresses genes characteristic of ESCs and those requir...

  11. Hepatoprotective Effects of Met-enkephalin on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Lesions in Male CBA Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roko Martinić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent histopathological investigations in patients with hepatitis suggested possible involvement of Met-enkephalin and its receptors in the pathophysiology of hepatitis. Consequently, we evaluated the potential hepatoprotective effects of this endogenous opioid pentapeptide in the experimental model of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male CBA mice. Met-enkephalin exhibited strong hepatoprotective effects in a dose of 7.5 mg/kg, which corresponds to the protective dose reported for several different animal disease models. In this group plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities, as well as liver necrosis score were significantly reduced in comparison to control animals treated with physiological saline (p > 0.01. The specificity of the peptide hepatoprotection was investigated from the standpoint of the receptor and peptide blockade. It was concluded that Met-enkephalin effects on the liver were mediated via δ and ζ opioid receptors. Genotoxic testing of Met-enkephalin confirmed the safety of the peptide.

  12. The induction by 224Ra of myeloid leukaemia and osteosarcoma in male CBA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-224 was injected into 12-week-old male CBA mice in the range 2-64 kBq per mouse either as a single injection or as eight injections spaced at 3.5 day intervals over 4 weeks. Small but significant yields of myeloid leukaemia or osteosarcoma were obtained in all but the control groups. An effect of mode of administration (single or multiple injections) could not be demonstrated but the combined results showed: (1) a maximum yield of myeloid leukaemia in the region 8-16 kBq 224Ra; (2) a greater yield of osteosarcoma than myeloid leukaemia at 64 kBq 224Ra injected. (author)

  13. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 −/−) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our main observation was that the genes were regulated in an opposite direction in male and female Bcmo1 −/− mice by BC. The steroid biosynthetic pathway was overrepresented in BC-supplemented male Bcmo1...

  14. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  15. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  17. The testicular form of hormone-sensitive lipase HSLtes confers rescue of male infertility in HSL-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet-Erdtmann, Virginie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Contreras, Juan Antonio; Mairal, Aline; Rieu, Cécile; Touzalin, Anne-Marie; Holm, Cecilia; Jégou, Bernard; Langin, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    Inactivation of the hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL) confers male sterility with a major defect in spermatogenesis. Several forms of HSL are expressed in testis. HSLtes mRNA and protein are found in early and elongated spermatids, respectively. The other forms are expressed in diploid germ cells and interstitial cells of the testis. To determine whether the absence of the testis-specific form of HSL, HSLtes, was responsible for the infertility in HSL-null mice, we generated transgenic mice expressing HSLtes under the control of its own promoter. The transgenic animals were crossed with HSL-null mice to produce mice deficient in HSL in nongonadal tissues but expressing HSLtes in haploid germ cells. Cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity was almost completely blunted in HSL-deficient testis. Mice with one allele of the transgene showed an increase in enzymatic activity and a small elevation in the production of spermatozoa. The few fertile hemizygous male mice produced litters of very small to small size. The presence of the two alleles led to a doubling in cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity, which represented 25% of the wild type values associated with a qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and a partial restoration of sperm reserves. The fertility of these mice was totally restored with normal litter sizes. In line with the importance of the esterase activity, HSLtes transgene expression reversed the cholesteryl ester accumulation observed in HSL-null mice. Therefore, expression of HSLtes and cognate cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity leads to a rescue of the infertility observed in HSL-deficient male mice. PMID:15292223

  18. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  19. Gonadal cell kinetics in male mice treated with sulphur-35 during prenatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations on the possible hazards of the use of internally administered radioisotopes in human medicine either as therapeutic or diagnostic agents before or during child bearing age are of late gaining importance. The present investigation has been taken up to screen the effects of sulphur-35 on spermatogonia. CBA pregnant mice were injected (ip) with a dose of 20 μ Ci of sulphur-35 on 3.5, 10.5 or 15.5 days of gestation. At the similar intervals pregnant mice injected with physiological saline were kept for control data. All the animals were allowed to litter and F1 male progeny were killed at maturity at the age of 10 weeks and the testes collected. Sections of both the testes were prepared and stained by PAS-haematoxylin technique and the survival of spermatogonia types A, Int and B and preleptotene spermatocytes was evaluated. There was a significant reduction in all the cell types in the sulphur-35 treated animals. Thus the results indicate the cell-killing effect of radionuclide. (auth.)

  20. Pairmate-dependent pup retrieval as parental behavior in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkun eLiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate parental care by fathers can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. However, much less is known about paternal behavior in animals compared to those regarding maternal behavior. Previously, we reported that male ICR strain laboratory mice, although not spontaneously parental, can be induced to display maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval when separated from their pups by signals from the pairmate dam (Liu et al., Nat. Commun, 4:1346, 2013. This parental behavior by the ICR sires, which are not genetically biparental, is novel and has been designated as pairmate-dependent paternal behavior. However, the factors critical for this paternal behavior are unclear. Here, we report that the pairmate-dependent paternal retrieval behavior is observed especially in the ICR strain and not in C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice. An ICR sire displays retrieval behavior only toward his biological pups. A sire co-housed with an unrelated non-pairing dam in a new environment, under which 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are not detected, does not show parenting behavior. It is important for sires to establish their own home territory (cage by continuous housing and testing to display retrieval behavior. These results indicated that the ICR sires display distinct paternity, including father-child social interaction, and shed light on parental behavior, although further analyses of paternal care at the neuroendocrinological and neurocircuitry levels are required.

  1. Promotive effect of topical ketoconazole, minoxidil, and minoxidil with tretinoin on hair growth in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhalimi, Muhsin A; Hadi, Najah R; Ghafil, Fadaa A

    2014-01-01

    Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. PMID:24734193

  2. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm2, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  3. No Evidence of Effect on Male Mice Germ Cells After Acute Treatment With Thiram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Thiram is a dithiocarbamate compound widely used for industrial processes and agriculture.Animal studies reveal that this compound may affect the male reproductive system.Aim of this study was to test,using sensitive testicular parameters,whether thiram directly affects germinal cells.For this purpose,B6C3F1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with thiram in oil(single dose:75mg/kg;repeated five daily doses:25mg/k).Although both reatments were toxic ,none of the parameters examined.i.e.,testis weight,spermatid head number,specific enzyme levels at different times after treatment(14,28,35,56days)showed significant variations form the controls.On the contrary,in the positive controls(treated with chlorambuci),a marked reduction of sperm head number as well as a decrease of lactate dehydrogenasex and sorbitol dehydrogenase activity levels were evidenced at day 28,with a tendency to recover at day 35.Under these conditions thiram did not cause cytotoxicity on diferentiating spermatogonia and on late spermatocyte stages of mice gonads.

  4. Cimetidine and Clobenpropit Attenuate Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Male ICR Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Histamine and histamine receptors (Hrhs have been identified as critical molecules during inflammation and carcinogenesis. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Hrh1-Hrh3 antagonists on inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis. Male ICR mice were treated with azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg bw, i.p. and 1.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, drinking water for 7 days to induce colorectal carcinogenesis. The mice were then fed diets containing test chemical (500 ppm terfenadine, 500 ppm cimetidine or 10 ppm clobenpropit for 15 weeks. At week 18, feeding with the diets containing cimetidine (Hrh2 antagonist and clobenpropit (Hrh3 antagonist/inverse agonist significantly lowered the multiplicity of colonic adenocarcinoma. Terfenadine (Hrh1 antagonist did not affect AOM-DSS-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. Adenocarcinoma cells immunohistochemically expressed Hrh1, Hrh2, Hrh3 and Hrh4 with varied intensities. Because clobenpropit is also known to be a Hrh4 receptor agonist, Hrh2, Hrh3 and Hrh4 may be involved in inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis. Additional data, including the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible inflammatory enzymes in the colonic mucosa, are also presented.

  5. Evaluation of Antidepressant activity of Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin in Male Swiss Mice - An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudadappanavar Anupama M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Depression is the commonest mood disorder, could also be secondary to a number of physical disorders. Pharmacological treatment of such co-morbidities is difficult. If statins show antidepressant activity that could appear to be better lipid-lowering agents as they provide additional benefits in cardiovascular disorders with co-morbidity like depression. Aims: To investigate the effect of simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin for their antidepressant activity using forced swim test and tail suspension test on behavioral models of depression in male swiss mice. Design: Experimental Study Methods and Material: The in vivo antidepressant activity of simvastatin and lovastatin was studied using forced swim test and tail suspension test. The mice received the drug as per their weight and subjected for experimentation. Group mean immobility time was calculated in treated and control groups for comparison. Statistical analysis used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test. (P / 0.05 Results: Simvastatin and Lovastatin used in the present study showed significant antidepressant activity in both behavioral models of depression (p<0.05 while atorvastatin failed to show significant antidepressant action. Conclusion: The study suggests that the antidepressant activity of simvastatin and lovastatin, if could be extrapolated to clinical situations, appear to be better lipid-lowering agents as they provide additional benefits in cardiovascular disorders with co-morbidity like depression.

  6. Neural and behavioural changes in male periadolescent mice after prolonged nicotine-MDMA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Philip A; Ishola, Azeez O; Laoye, Babafemi J; Olatunji, Babawale P; Bankole, Oluwamolakun O; Shallie, Philemon D; Ogundele, Olalekan M

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between MDMA and Nicotine affects multiple brain centres and neurotransmitter systems (serotonin, dopamine and glutamate) involved in motor coordination and cognition. In this study, we have elucidated the effect of prolonged (10 days) MDMA, Nicotine and a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment on motor-cognitive neural functions. In addition, we have shown the correlation between the observed behavioural change and neural structural changes induced by these treatments in BALB/c mice. We observed that MDMA (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) induced a decline in motor function, while Nicotine (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) improved motor function in male periadolescent mice. In combined treatment, Nicotine reduced the motor function decline observed in MDMA treatment, thus no significant change in motor function for the combined treatment versus the control. Nicotine or MDMA treatment reduced memory function and altered hippocampal structure. Similarly, a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment reduced memory function when compared with the control. Ultimately, the metabolic and structural changes in these neural systems were seen to vary for the various forms of treatment. It is noteworthy to mention that a combined treatment increased the rate of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue. PMID:26088184

  7. Long-term voluntary running improves diet-induced adiposity in young adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of long-term voluntary running on diet-induced adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Four-week old mice (n = 15 per group) were fed the AIN93G diet or a 45% high-fat diet (% kcal.) with or without access to in-cage activity wheels for 14 weeks. The high-fat die...

  8. Dominant cataract mutations induced by γ-irradiation of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the knowledge of the phenotypic damage caused by mutational events occurring in the first generation the authors initiated an experiment to study the induction of radiation-induced hereditary cataracts. To determine the frequency of dominant mutations affecting the lens, the authors examine the offspring of irradiated and control (101xC3H)F1 hybrid male mice which had been mated to untreated females. The observation of the induction of specific-locus mutations served as a positive control of the effectiveness of the exposure. The males of the irradiated group were exposed at the age of 11 weeks to 455 R+455 R 137Cs γ-rays (55 R/min) with a 24-h fractionation interval. The eyes of the F1 offspring, as well as of the animals of the parental generation, were examined biomicroscopically. The F1 offspring were 3 weeks old at the time of examination. The frequency of specific-locus mutations (9 mutations in 5231 offspring) derived from irradiated spermatogonia was 2.7x10-7 mutations/locus/R in this experiment, which is in accord with data discussed elsewhere. (Auth.)

  9. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data. PMID:26408077

  10. Comparison of Anxiolytic Effect of Matricaria Recutita in Male and Female Mice in the Presence and Absence of Gonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmehdi Rad Goli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies indicated that the chamomile induces sedative and anxiolytic effects. It has been shown that this herbal drug contains some phytoestrogenic components. Concerning the different effects of sexual hormones on various physiological phenomena such as anxiety, it seems this herb has different effects on anxiety in males and females. So in this study we examined anxiolytic property of Iranian spicious of chamomile, Matricaria recutita (MR hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of sexual glands in male and female animal models. Materials and Methods: This animal study was done in Shahid Chamran University in 2006. NMRI male and female mice were divided in 16 groups of seven mices including: intact, sham, gonadectomized, receiving hydroalcholic extract of MR (10, 30, 50 mg/kg, ip. Elevated plus maze was used to evaluate anxiety and locomotive activity in all groups. Statistical evaluation of data was performed using Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA with one factor followed by Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: MR induced anxiolytic effect (10, 30 mg/kg in intact (P<0.05 and gonadectomized male mice (P<0.05 while did not significant any effect on intact and gonadectomized females. Testectomized mice were more anxious than sham group (P<0.05. Ovariectomized mice had no difference in level of anxiety with sham group. MR had no effect on locomotive activity in male mice but decreased it in females only in dose of 50 mg/kg (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that the anxiolytic effect of MR is sex dependent and probably this different effect in two sexes is related to its phytoestrogenic components

  11. Mechanism of infectivity of a murine leukemia virus in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection of adult BALB/c mice with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) induces typical thymic lymphomas. Expression of virus was measured by using a radioimmunoassay for murine P-30, a virion core protein. Nineteen days after injection of MuLV-S into adult mice, there were 0.3μg P-30/ml of serum. X-irradiation permitted the early expression of high levels of viremia, when given before or after MuLV-S administration, and it also hastened the development of lymphomas. Seventeen to 21 days after injection of MuLV-S into x-irradiated (600 rads) adult mice, there were 2.7 μg of P-30/ml of serum. The virus produced by infected adult mice was infectious and oncogenic when given to newborn mice. Several lines of evidence are presented that suggest the mechanism by which x-irradiation permits early expession of virion proteins and lymphomas is not immunosuppression

  12. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  13. Constancy of Adult Personality Structure in Males: Longitudinal, Cross-Sectional and Times-of-Measurement Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The invariance of factor structures in the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey is clearly evident. Basic personality structure appears little affected by social and historical change. Results favor the stability model for objectively measured personality traits in adult males. (JAC)

  14. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, G.A.; Ruff, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA

  15. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  16. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  17. Reactions to First Postpubertal Male Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors With Peers, Minors With Adults, and Adults With Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Bruce; Welter, Max

    2016-10-01

    Rind and Welter (2014) examined first postpubertal coitus using the Kinsey sample, finding that reactions were just as positive, and no more negative, among minors with adults compared to minors with peers and adults with adults. In the present study, we examined first postpubertal male same-sex sexual experiences in the Kinsey same-sex sample (i.e., participants mostly with extensive postpubertal same-sex behavior), comparing reactions across the same age categories. These data were collected between 1938 and 1961 (M year: 1946). Minors under age 18 years with adults (M ages: 14.0 and 30.5, respectively) reacted positively (i.e., enjoyed the experience "much") often (70 %) and emotionally negatively (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret) infrequently (16 %). These rates were the same as adults with adults (M ages: 21.2 and 25.9, respectively): 68 and 16 %, respectively. Minors with peers (M ages: 13.3 and 13.8, respectively) reacted positively significantly more often (82 %) and negatively nominally less often (9 %). Minors with adults reacted positively to intercourse (oral, anal) just as often (69 %) as to outercourse (body contact, masturbation, femoral) (72 %) and reacted emotionally negatively significantly less often (9 vs. 25 %, respectively). For younger minors (≤14) with adults aged 5-19 years older, reactions were just as positive (83 %) as for minors with peers within 1 year of age (84 %) and no more emotionally negative (11 vs. 7 %, respectively). Results are discussed in relation to findings regarding first coitus in the Kinsey sample and to the cultural context particular to Kinsey's time. PMID:27178172

  18. Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin; López Núñez, Carla; Becker, Julia; Gmel, Gerhard; Schaub, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of cannabis and other illegal drugs is particularly prevalent in male young adults and is associated with severe health problems. This longitudinal study explored variables associated with the onset of cannabis use and the onset of illegal drug use other than cannabis separately in male young adults, including demographics, religion and religiosity, health, social context, substance use, and personality. Furthermore, we explored how far the gateway hypothesis and the common...

  19. Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin; López Núñez, Carla; Becker, Julia; Gmel, Gerhard; Schaub, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of cannabis and other illegal drugs is particularly prevalent in male young adults and is associated with severe health problems. This longitudinal study explored variables associated with the onset of cannabis use and the onset of illegal drug use other than cannabis separately in male young adults, including demographics, religion and religiosity, health, social context, substance use, and personality. Furthermore, we explored how far the gateway hypothesis and the commo...

  20. GONADAL EFFECTS OF FETAL EXPOSURE TO THE AZO DYE CONGO RED IN MICE: INFERTILITY IN FEMALE BUT NOT MALE OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the relationship between gonadal genesis and fertility in male and female mice exposed in utero to the diazo dye Congo red (CR). aternal CR treatment inhibited testicular and ovarian function in the offspring after oral administration of I or 0.5 g/kg/...

  1. Routine Formation and Flexibility in Social and Non-Social Behaviour of Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Male Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Daas, S. den; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between aggression and routine-like behaviour the response of male mice of bidirectionally selected lines for attack latency to a change in the social and non-social environment has been measured. In a non-social situation the extent of routine-like behaviour was meas

  2. Bioassay of steroid hormone agonist and antagonist activities of antiandrogens on mammary gland, seminal vesicles and spleen of male mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škarda, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2003), s. 204-212. ISSN 0931-184X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0406; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : male mice Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2003

  3. Increased 4E-BP1 Expression Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Yin; Rodriguez, Ariana A; Dastidar, Somasish G; Del Greco, Elizabeth; Carr, Kaili Lia; Sitzmann, Joanna M; Academia, Emmeline C; Viray, Christian Michael; Martinez, Lizbeth Leon; Kaplowitz, Brian Stephen; Ashe, Travis D; La Spada, Albert R; Kennedy, Brian K

    2016-08-16

    Obesity is a major risk factor driving the global type II diabetes pandemic. However, the molecular factors linking obesity to disease remain to be elucidated. Gender differences are apparent in humans and are also observed in murine models. Here, we link these differences to expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), which, upon HFD feeding, becomes significantly reduced in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of male but not female mice. Strikingly, restoring 4E-BP1 expression in male mice protects them against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Male 4E-BP1 transgenic mice also exhibit reduced white adipose tissue accumulation accompanied by decreased circulating levels of leptin and triglycerides. Importantly, transgenic 4E-BP1 male mice are also protected from aging-induced obesity and metabolic decline on a normal diet. These results demonstrate that 4E-BP1 is a gender-specific suppressor of obesity that regulates insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. PMID:27498874

  4. Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Vera, Elsa; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Tejera, Agueda M.; Ayuso, Eduard; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year old mice with an adeno associated virus (AAV) of wide tropism expressing mouse TERT had remarkable beneficial effects on health and fitness,...

  5. Effect of adult diet on signaling activity, mate attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed to examine the effect of adult diet on calling activity, female attraction, and mating success in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In all tests, comparisons were drawn between males fed sugar only ('protein-deprived' males) and males fed a protein-sugar mixture ('protein-fed' males). In tests of long-distance attraction, aggregations consisting of protein-deprived males exclusively or protein-fed males exclusively were established in a coffee field, and females were released from a central release point. Protein-fed and protein-deprived males displayed similar calling levels, but approximately twice as many female sightings were recorded at groups of protein-fed males than at groups of protein-deprived males. A second test of female attraction compared single groups of protein-deprived and protein-fed males within the canopy of a field-caged host plant. As before, calling activity did not vary with diet, and in this case numbers of female sightings were also similar between aggregations of protein-fed vs. protein-deprived males. In mating trials conducted on field-caged host plants, protein-fed males achieved significantly more matings than protein-deprived males. These results are compared with other recent studies on the nutritional ecology of male Mediterranean fruit flies. (author)

  6. Effect of chronic social defeat stress on behaviors and dopamine receptor in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Xu, Yu-Ming; Li, Hao; Lv, Lu-Xian

    2016-04-01

    Victims of bullying often undergo depression, low self-esteem, high anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The social defeat model has become widely accepted for studying experimental animal behavior changes associated with bullying; however, differences in the effects in susceptible and unsusceptible individuals have not been well studied. The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on behavior and the expression of dopamine receptors D1 and D2 in the brains of adult mice. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10days of social defeat stress. Behavioral tests were conducted, and protein levels in the brains were assessed by Western blotting. The results indicate that all mice undergo decreased locomotion and increased anxiety behavior. However, decreased social interaction and impaired memory performance were only observed in susceptible mice. A significantly decreased expression of D1 was observed in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of susceptible mice only. No significant differences in D2 expression were shown between control and defeated mice in any area studied. These data indicate that depression-like behavior and cognition impairment caused by social defeat stress in susceptible mice may be related to changes in the dopamine receptor D1. PMID:26655446

  7. Early postnatal motor experience shapes the motor properties of C57BL/6J adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Nadjet; Picquet, Florence; Jamon, Marc

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term consequences of early motor training on the muscle phenotype and motor output of middle-aged C57BL/6J mice. Neonatal mice were subjected to a variety of motor training procedures, for 3 weeks during the period of acquisition of locomotion. These procedures are widely used for motor training in adults; they include enriched environment, forced treadmill, chronic centrifugation, and hindlimb suspension. At 9 months, the mice reared in the enriched environment showed a slower type of fibre in slow muscles and a faster type in fast muscles, improved performance in motor tests, and a modified gait and body posture while walking. The proportion of fibres in the postural muscles of centrifuged mice did not change, but these mice showed improved resistance to fatigue. The suspended mice showed increased persistence of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis, with a slower shift in the load-bearing soleus, without any behavioural changes. The forced treadmill was very stressful for the mice, but had limited effects on motor output, although a slower profile was observed in the tibialis. These results support the hypothesis that motor experience during a critical period of motor development shapes muscle phenotype and motor output. The different impacts of the various training procedures suggest that motor performance in adults can be optimized by appropriate training during a defined period of motor development. PMID:23869740

  8. Effects of social defeat and of diazepam on behavior in a resident-intruder test in male DBA/2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, L A; Charles, R F; Charles, R C; Hebert, M A; Morton, D M; Meyerhoff, J L

    2000-11-01

    Social stress induces robust behavioral and physiological changes, some of which may alter the responsiveness to pharmacological agents, including diazepam (DZP). We used a resident-intruder paradigm to (1) develop a comprehensive ethogram of behavioral changes following social defeat (SD) in the socially reactive strain, DBA/2 male mice, (2) determine whether acute exposure of DBA/2 mice to low-dose DZP would induce flight or aggressive behavior, both of which have been observed in other rodent models and (3) to test whether prior social stress affects responses to DZP. Behavioral responses to a nonaggressive intruder (NAI) mouse 24 h post-SD were measured in resident subject mice exposed to DZP (0, 0.5, 2.0 mg/kg, ip) either prior to the resident-intruder test (Experiment 1) or immediately post-SD (Experiment 2); control mice were not defeated (NOSD). In general, SD mice displayed increased passive and active avoidance, defense, immobility, and risk assessment relative to NOSD mice. In Experiment 1, mice treated acutely with 0.5 mg/kg DZP had more approach and flight behavior, while those treated with 2.0 mg/kg DZP had more avoidance than vehicle-treated mice, independent of SD. In Experiment 2, acute DZP (2 mg/kg) induced effects 24 h later, possibly secondary to withdrawal. In a nonsocial context (Experiment 3), DZP increased exploratory activity. PMID:11164070

  9. A Difference in Fatty Acid Composition of Isocaloric High-Fat Diets Alters Metabolic Flexibility in Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes P M Duivenvoorde

    Full Text Available Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be healthier than saturated fatty acids (SFAs, but others postulate that especially the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs (n6/n3 ratio determines health. Health can be determined with biomarkers, but functional health status is likely better reflected by challenge tests that assess metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions, but similar n6/n3 ratio, on metabolic flexibility. Therefore, adult male mice received isocaloric high-fat diets with either predominantly PUFAs (HFpu diet or predominantly SFAs (HFs diet but similar n6/n3 ratio for six months, during and after which several biomarkers for health were measured. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by the response to an oral glucose tolerance test, a fasting and re-feeding test and an oxygen restriction test (OxR; normobaric hypoxia. The latter two are non-invasive, indirect calorimetry-based tests that measure the adaptive capacity of the body as a whole. We found that the HFs diet, compared to the HFpu diet, increased mean adipocyte size, liver damage, and ectopic lipid storage in liver and muscle; although, we did not find differences in body weight, total adiposity, adipose tissue health, serum adipokines, whole body energy balance, or circadian rhythm between HFs and HFpu mice. HFs mice were, furthermore, less flexible in their response to both fasting- re-feeding and OxR, while glucose tolerance was indistinguishable. To conclude, the HFs versus the HFpu diet increased ectopic fat storage, liver damage, and mean adipocyte size and reduced metabolic flexibility in male mice. This study underscores the physiological relevance of indirect calorimetry-based challenge tests.

  10. Treatment for convicted adult male sex offenders: an overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Corabian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In countries with developed economies, a common approach to protecting communities from sexual offending is to provide specialized treatment for convicted sex offenders to reduce recidivism. Many psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy interventions are currently in widespread use as sex offender treatment (SOT options delivered within programs to prevent recidivism or reoffending among convicted adult male sex offenders. A number of systematic reviews (SRs have already evaluated the evidence from primary research studies on the effectiveness of these interventions.Methods: A structured overview of SRs published in English since January 1998 was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders.Results: Eight SRs met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from seven moderate-to-high quality SRs suggests that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT delivered within programs adhering to the risk/need/responsivity (RNR model has the potential to reduce recidivism. These findings must be tempered as they are mostly based on poor quality primary research. The reviewed evidence was inconclusive as to the components or framework of an effective SOT program or the setting in which a program should be delivered.Conclusions: This overview provides decision-makers in the SOT field with an accessible, good quality synthesis of the best evidence available on the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders. While further research is warranted, the available evidence suggests that CBT delivered within programs adhering to the RNR model represents the most promising approach.

  11. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  12. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  13. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  14. Depressive-like immobility behavior and genotype × stress interactions in male mice of selected strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielarz, Piotr; Kreiner, Grzegorz; Kuśmierczyk, Justyna; Kowalska, Marta; Roman, Adam; Tota, Katarzyna; Nalepa, Irena

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated whether basal immobility time of C57BL/6J mice, which are commonly used in transgenesis, interferes with detection of depressive-like behavior in the tail suspension test (TST) after chronic restraint stress (CRS). We included in the study mice of the C57BL/6N strain, not previously compared with C57BL/6J for behavior in the TST, and contrasted both strains with NMRI mice which exhibit low basal immobility. NMRI, C57BL/6J, and C57BL/6N male mice (n = 20 per strain) were tested under basal conditions and after CRS (2 h daily for 14 d). NMRI and C57BL/6J mice were differentiated in the TST by low and high basal immobility times, respectively, while the C57BL/6N and NMRI mice showed similar levels of basal immobility. CRSextended the immobility time of NMRI mice in the TST, whereas both C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice were unaffected regardless of their initial phenotype. We explored whether detailed analysis of activity microstructure revealed effects of CRS in the TST, which are not apparent in the overall comparison of total immobility time. Interestingly, unlike C57BL/6J and/6N strains which showed no sensitivity to CRS, stressed NRMI mice displayed distinct activity microstructure. In contrast to behavioral differences, all stressed mice showed significant retardation in body weight gain, decreased thymus weight and increased adrenal cortex size. However, after CRS, enlargement of the adrenal medulla was observed in both C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice, suggesting similar sympatho-medullary activation and stress coping mechanism in these substrains. PMID:26941077

  15. Drebrin A regulates hippocampal LTP and hippocampus-dependent fear learning in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, N; Yasuda, H; Hanamura, K; Ishizuka, Y; Sekino, Y; Shirao, T

    2016-06-01

    Structural plasticity of dendritic spines, which underlies higher brain functions including learning and memory, is dynamically regulated by the actin cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Drebrin A is an F-actin-binding protein preferentially expressed in the brain and localized in the dendritic spines of mature neurons. Isoform conversion from drebrin E to drebrin A and accumulation of the latter in dendritic spines occurs during synapse maturation. We have previously demonstrated that drebrin A plays a pivotal role in spine morphogenesis and plasticity. However, it is unclear whether drebrin A plays a specific role in processes required for structural plasticity, and whether drebrin E can substitute in this role. To answer these questions, we analyzed mutant mice (named DAKO mice), in which isoform conversion from drebrin E to drebrin A is disrupted. In DAKO mouse brain, drebrin E continues to be expressed throughout life instead of drebrin A. Electrophysiological studies using hippocampal slices revealed that long-term potentiation of CA1 synapses was impaired in adult DAKO mice, but not in adolescents. In parallel with this age-dependent impairment, DAKO mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent fear learning in an age-dependent manner; the impairment was evident in adult mice, but not in adolescents. In addition, histological investigation revealed that the spine length of the apical dendrite of CA1 pyramidal cells was significantly longer in adult DAKO mice than in wild-type mice. Our data indicate that the roles of drebrin E and drebrin A in brain function are different from each other, that the isoform conversion of drebrin is critical, and that drebrin A is indispensable for normal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent fear memory in the adult brain. PMID:26970584

  16. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature

  17. Allogenic inhibition of the stem hemopoietic cells in the bone marrow and embryonic liver in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maternal effect was shown to influence the degree of allogenic inhibition of stem hemopoietic cells of the embryonic liver and adult bone marrow in CBA and C57Bl/6 mice. The display of allogenic inhibition of stem cells of the embryonic liver and adult bone marrow proved to be similar in C57Bl/6 mice and dissimilar in CBA

  18. Primary Mature Cystic Teratoma Mimicking As An Adrenal Mass In An Adult Male Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Okulu

    2014-03-01

    Teratomas are bizarre neoplasms derived from embryonic tissues that are typically found only in the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions of adults. Primary retroperitoneal teratomas are rare and present challenging management options. We report a case of unilateral primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma mimicking as an adrenal mass in 54-year-old male patient. Adrenal mass complete resection was performed by flank approach using the 11th rib resection. Because of the risk of malignancy, follow-up radiographic studies were performed to ensure the oncologic efficacy of resection. The patient has been free of recurrence for longer than 12 months.

  19. First Chemical Evaluation and Toxicity of Casinga-cheirosa to Balb-c Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce M. Estork

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Laetia suaveolens, known as “casinga-cheirosa”, crude extract EB719 has previously shown cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer and squamous cell carcinoma. For the first time, seven molecules were isolated from its apolar—α-tocopherol (1 and sitosterol (2—and polar—3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, 5-O-feruloylquinic acid (5, hyperoside (6, and isoquercitrin (7—fractions. Acute toxicity was determined in a two-stage experiment: (1 a reduced number of Balb-c male mice received 5000 mg/kg of EB719 to allow evaluation of general activity and other 27 parameters, plus death, up to the establishment of non-lethal dose (NLD, as well as lethal dose 50% (LD50; (2 NLD was administered and diazepam introduced as reference drug. EB719 showed LD50 = 178.0 mg/kg, and NLD 156.3 mg/kg. In stage one EB719 did not influence general activity, but provoked impairment in grasp reflexes, tail squeeze and breathing; piloerection and cyanosis were increased. In stage two, alterations occurred in auricular reflex, piloerection and breathing after diazepam administration, but not in response to EB719. Intestinal hemorrhage caused by local bleeding was observed after necropsy, and may be the main cause of animals’ death other than a systemic effect of the extract. Although the isolated compounds are biologically and pharmacologically active in both men and animal systems, it is premature to relate their occurrence in EB719 to the observed intestine hemorrhage in mice.

  20. FABP-1 gene ablation impacts brain endocannabinoid system in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Chung, Sarah; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K; Huang, Huan; Dangott, Lawrence J; Peng, Xiaoxue; Kaczocha, Martin; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2016-08-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) has high affinity for and enhances uptake of arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4, n-6) which, when esterified to phospholipids, is the requisite precursor for synthesis of endocannabinoids (EC) such as arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The brain derives most of its ARA from plasma, taking up ARA and transporting it intracellularly via cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs 3,5, and 7) localized within the brain. In contrast, the much more prevalent cytosolic FABP1 is not detectable in the brain but is instead highly expressed in the liver. Therefore, the possibility that FABP1 outside the central nervous system may regulate brain AEA and 2-AG was examined in wild-type (WT) and FABP1 null (LKO) male mice. LKO increased brain levels of AA-containing EC (AEA, 2-AG), correlating with increased free and total ARA in brain and serum. LKO also increased brain levels of non-ARA that contain potentiating endocannabinoids (EC*) such as oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA), PEA, 2-OG, and 2-PG. Concomitantly, LKO decreased serum total ARA-containing EC, but not non-ARA endocannabinoids. LKO did not elicit these changes in the brain EC and EC* as a result of compensatory up-regulation of brain protein levels of enzymes in EC synthesis (NAPEPLD, DAGLα) or cytosolic EC chaperone proteins (FABPs 3, 5, 7, SCP-2, HSP70), or cannabinoid receptors (CB1, TRVP1). These data show for the first time that the non-CNS fatty acid-binding protein FABP1 markedly affected brain levels of both ARA-containing endocannabinoids (AEA, 2-AG) as well as their non-ARA potentiating endocannabinoids. Fatty acid-binding protein-1 (FABP-1) is not detectable in brain but instead is highly expressed in liver. The possibility that FABP1 outside the central nervous system may regulate brain endocannabinoids arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) was examined in wild-type (WT) and FABP-1 null (LKO) male mice. LKO

  1. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  2. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  3. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, ...

  4. The Effect of Orally Administered L-carnitine on Testis Tissue Sperm Parameters and Daily Sperm Production in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Zare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate body and testis weight, testis tissue,counts, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm, aswell as the testicular spermatid number (TSN per gram of testis, and daily sperm production(DSP in L-carnitine treated mice.Materials and Methods: In the present study, adult male NMRI mice (mean age of 4weeks were administered L-carnitine by gavage for two weeks. The experimental groupsreceived 1mg L-carnitine/100 μl deionized water and 10 mg L-carnitine/100 μl deionizedwater, respectively. The control group did not receive L-carnitine. All samples were assessedaccording to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Sperm morphology wasassessed with papanicula staining. Sperm chromatin quality was assessed using anilinebluestaining.The left testes were fixed in Bouins solution for histological examination and the end sliceswere stained with hematoxilin and eosin (H&E. The right testis was homogenized, andTSN and DSP were calculated with an improved neubauer haemocytometer and respectiveformula.Results: Administration of L-carnitine induced significant reduction in body weight (p<0.05and an increase in tchromatine quality (p<0.05. Amongst the other parameters no significantdifferences were observed in all groups.Conclusion: These results show that oral administration of L-carnitine to mice with normalspermatogenesis does not have any significant effect on the reproductive systems.Thus, L-carnitine seems to be ineffective in normospermic animals.

  5. Chronic Sleep Fragmentation Promotes Obesity in Young Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Carreras, Alba; Lee, Seunghoon; Hakim, Fahed; Zhang, Shelley X.; Nair, Deepti; Ye, Honggang; Gozal, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Short sleep confers a higher risk of obesity in humans. Restricted sleep increases appetite, promotes higher calorie intake from fat and carbohydrate sources, and induces insulin resistance. However, the effects of fragmented sleep (SF), such as occurs in sleep apnea, on body weight, metabolic rates, and adipose tissue distribution are unknown. Design and Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SF for 8 weeks. Their body weight, food consumption, and metabolic expenditure were monitor...

  6. The scent of urine spots of male mice, Mus musculus: Changes in chemical composition over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaggioni, Andrea; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Redaelli, Marco; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    A dominant male mouse scent-marks his territory very frequently by emitting small urinary spots. The urine spots release in the air a variety of odorants that transmit different information to other mice, especially those concerning the time of deposition. To investigate this effect, small spots of urine of a dominant male mouse were left to freely release the odorants in the air for time intervals ranging from 0 min to 24 h prior to sampling. Thereupon, the odorants remaining in the spot were sampled at diffusion equilibrium (45 degrees C) in a small vial by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionisation detection and mass spectrometry. Thirteen odorants were consistently found. Nine odorants were identified and four were matched. The rate of release of each odorant was characteristic and was described using principal component analysis. A first principal component was based on nine early odorants that showed a decreasing release over time. The odorants were 2,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin, an unknown with 78% matching to 4-acetonilcycloheptanone, linalool, 2,4-dimethyl-phenol, 4-ethylphenol, indole, 2-butyl-1-octanol, an unknown with 83% matching to 2-ethyl-1-decanol, and 2,4-bis-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. A second principal component, based on two unknowns with 73% matching to yohimban-17-one and 71% matching to the 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-2,4,4-trimethyl ester of propanoic acid, had an irregular release after deposition. A third principal component of late odorants, based on 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole and 6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecaden-2-one, had a peak of release at about 22 min. In conclusion, the release of the odorants in the headspace of a urine spot may code and transmit information on the deposition time. PMID:17120277

  7. Effects of buprenorphine and meloxicam analgesia on induced cerebral ischemia in C57BL/6 male mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Fauerby, Natasha; Raida, Zindy;

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory mice constitute an extensively used model to study the pathologic and functional outcomes of cerebral ischemic stroke. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model requires surgical intervention, which potentially can result in postsurgical pain and stress. In the present study, we...... investigated whether buprenorphine and meloxicam, at clinically relevant doses provided pain relief without altering infarct volume in male C57BL/6 mice. Common known side-effects of buprenorphine, including decreased food consumption, were noted after surgery in buprenorphine-treated mice, but these effects...... were brief and seen only during the treatment period. Fecal corticosterone metabolites did not differ significantly between the groups. In the present study, buprenorphine treatment did not alter infarction volume when compared with that of mice that did not receive analgesia. In contrast, meloxicam...

  8. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  9. Acute Multiple Organ Failure in Adult Mice Deleted for the Developmental Regulator Wt1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, You-Ying; Brownstein, David; Mjoseng, Heidi; Lee, Wen-Chin; Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Nerlov, Claus; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik; Perry, Paul; Berry, Rachel; Thornburn, Anna; Sexton, David; Morton, Nik; Hohenstein, Peter; Freyer, Elisabeth; Samuel, Kay; van't Hof, Rob; Hastie, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the mechanisms that regulate adult tissue homeostasis and their relationship to processes governing foetal development. Mice deleted for the Wilms' tumour gene, Wt1, lack kidneys, gonads, and spleen and die at mid-gestation due to defective coronary vasculature. Wt1 is vital for maintaining the mesenchymal–epithelial balance in these tissues and is required for the epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) that generates coronary vascular progenitors. Although Wt1 is only expressed in rare cell populations in adults including glomerular podocytes, 1% of bone marrow cells, and mesothelium, we hypothesised that this might be important for homeostasis of adult tissues; hence, we deleted the gene ubiquitously in young and adult mice. Within just a few days, the mice suffered glomerulosclerosis, atrophy of the exocrine pancreas and spleen, severe reduction in bone and fat, and failure of erythropoiesis. FACS and culture experiments showed that Wt1 has an intrinsic role in both haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell lineages and suggest that defects within these contribute to the phenotypes we observe. We propose that glomerulosclerosis arises in part through down regulation of nephrin, a known Wt1 target gene. Protein profiling in mutant serum showed that there was no systemic inflammatory or nutritional response in the mutant mice. However, there was a dramatic reduction in circulating IGF-1 levels, which is likely to contribute to the bone and fat phenotypes. The reduction of IGF-1 did not result from a decrease in circulating GH, and there is no apparent pathology of the pituitary and adrenal glands. These findings 1) suggest that Wt1 is a major regulator of the homeostasis of some adult tissues, through both local and systemic actions; 2) highlight the differences between foetal and adult tissue regulation; 3) point to the importance of adult mesenchyme in tissue turnover. PMID:22216009

  10. Nonhematopoietic Nrf2 dominantly impedes adult progression of sickle cell anemia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samit; Ihunnah, Chibueze A.; Hazra, Rimi; Walker, Aisha L.; Hansen, Jason M.; Archer, David R.; Owusu-Ansah, Amma T.; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F.

    2016-01-01

    The prevention of organ damage and early death in young adults is a major clinical concern in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, mechanisms that control adult progression of SCD during the transition from adolescence are poorly defined with no cognate prophylaxis. Here, we demonstrate in a longitudinal cohort of homozygous SCD (SS) mice a link between intravascular hemolysis, vascular inflammation, lung injury, and early death. Prophylactic Nrf2 activation in young SS mice stabilized intravascular hemolysis, reversed vascular inflammation, and attenuated lung edema in adulthood. Enhanced Nrf2 activation in endothelial cells in vitro concurred with the dramatic effect on vascular inflammation in the mice. BM chimeric SS mice lacking Nrf2 expression in nonhematopoietic tissues were created to dissect the role of nonerythroid Nrf2 in SCD progression. The SS chimeras developed severe intravascular hemolysis despite having erythroid Nrf2. In addition, they developed premature vascular inflammation and pulmonary edema and died younger than donor littermates with intact nonhematopoietic Nrf2. Our results reveal a dominant protective role for nonhematopoietic Nrf2 against tissue damage in both erythroid and nonerythroid tissues in SCD. Furthermore, we show that prophylactic augmentation of Nrf2-coordinated cytoprotection effectively impedes onset of the severe adult phenotype of SCD in mice. PMID:27158670

  11. Physiological and neuroendocrine responses to chronic variable stress in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): Influence of social environment and paternal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, T R; Harris, B N; Perea-Rodriguez, J P; Saltzman, W

    2013-10-01

    Social environment and parental state affect stress responses in mammals, but their impact may depend on the social and reproductive strategy of the species. The influences of cohabitation with a male or female conspecific, and the birth of offspring, on the physiological and endocrine responses to chronic variable stress were studied in the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Adult male California mice were housed either with a male cage mate (virgin males, VM), a female cage mate (pair-bonded males, PBM), or a female cage mate and their first newborn litter (new fathers, NF). VM, PBM and NF underwent a 7-day chronic variable stress paradigm (CVS, three stressors per day at semi-random times, n=7-8 per housing condition). Compared to control males (CON, n=6-7 per housing condition), CVS caused loss of body mass, increased basal plasma corticosterone concentrations, and increased basal expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). These effects were independent of housing condition. Neither CVS nor housing condition altered novel-stressor-induced corticosterone release, spleen or testis mass, or basal expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the PVN. Although CVS appeared to increase adrenal mass and reduce thymus mass specifically in NF, these effects were explained by the lower adrenal mass and higher thymus mass of NF compared to PBM and VM under control conditions. These results suggest that neither engaging in a pair bond nor becoming a father attenuates typical responses to CVS, but that fatherhood may provide a buffer against transient mild stressors (i.e., weighing and blood sampling in the control groups) in this monogamous and biparental rodent. PMID:23582312

  12. Reduced white fat mass in adult mice bearing a truncated Patched 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Li, Heng Zhang, Leslie A. Denhard, Lan-Hsin Liu, Huaxin Zhou, Zi-Jian Lan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling emerges as a potential pathway contributing to fat formation during postnatal development. In this report, we found that Patched 1 (Ptc1, a negative regulator of Hh signaling, was expressed in the epididymal fat pad of adult mice. Reduced total white fat mass and epididymal adipocyte cell size were observed in naturally occurring spontaneous mesenchymal dysplasia (mes adult mice (Ptc1mes/mes, which carry a deletion of Ptc1 at the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic region. Increased expression of truncated Ptc1, Ptc2 and Gli1, the indicators of ectopic activation of Hh signaling, was observed in epididymal fat pads of adult Ptc1mes/mes mice. In contrast, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, adipocyte P2 and adipsin were reduced in epididymal fat pads of adult Ptc1mes/mes mice. Taken together, our results indicate that deletion of carboxyl-terminal tail of Ptc1 can lead to the reduction of white fat mass during postnatal development.

  13. Adolescent and adult responsiveness to the incentive value of cocaine reward in mice: role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balda, Mara A; Anderson, Karen L; Itzhak, Yossef

    2006-08-01

    A major concern in adolescent psychostimulant abuse is the long-term consequence of this practice, because early drug exposure may cause long-term adaptations, which render the organism more susceptible to drug abuse later in life. The incentive value of drug and natural reward in rodents is commonly assessed by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, which involves Pavlovian learning. The aims of the present study were to investigate: a) the acquisition, expression, maintenance and reinstatement of cocaine CPP from periadolescence (PD24-45) through adulthood (PD70); b) potential sexual dimorphism in adolescence and adulthood in response to cocaine-induced CPP; and c) the role of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene in long-term neural plasticity underlying responsiveness to cocaine and cocaine-associated cues. Adolescent wild type (WT) mice acquired significant cocaine (20 mg/kg) CPP that was maintained from PD24 through PD43. Upon extinction, CPP was reinstated in adulthood (PD70) following a priming injection of cocaine (5 mg/kg). In contrast, cocaine CPP acquired between PD26 and PD31 in adolescent nNOS knockout (KO) mice, was neither maintained nor reinstated by cocaine. There was no sexual dimorphism in adolescent WT and KO mice. Genotype differences and sexual dimorphism were observed in adult mice. Cocaine CPP in adult WT males (PD89-94) was maintained for 4 weeks post training, and subsequently reinstated by cocaine priming; the magnitude of CPP in adult WT males was lower than in female counterparts. CPP in adult KO males (PD88-93) was neither maintained nor reinstated by cocaine priming; in contrast, CPP in adult KO females was not significantly different from adult WT females. Results suggest that the nNOS gene is essential during adolescence of both sexes for the development of long-term neural plasticity underlying responsiveness to the incentive value of cocaine reward. Sexual dimorphism in response to cocaine CPP emerges in

  14. Differential metabolism of acrylonitrile to cyanide is responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice: role of CYP2E1 and epoxide hydrolases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a potent toxicant and a known rodent carcinogen. AN epoxidation to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO) via CYP2E1 and its subsequent metabolism via epoxide hydrolases (EH) to yield cyanide is thought to be responsible for the acute toxicity and mortality of AN. Recent reports showed that male mice are more sensitive than females to the acute toxicity/mortality of AN. The present work was undertaken to assess the metabolic and enzymatic basis for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN toxicity. Male and female wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice received AN at 0, 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg by gavage. Cyanide concentrations were measured at 1 or 3 h after dosing. Current data demonstrated that cyanide levels in blood and tissues of AN-treated wild-type mice of both sexes were significantly greater than in vehicle-treated controls and increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, cyanide levels in AN-treated CYP2E1-null mice were not statistically different from those measured in vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, higher levels of cyanide were detected in male wild-type mice vs females in association with greater sensitivity of males to the acute toxicity/mortality of this chemical. Using Western blot analysis, negligible difference in CYP2E1 expression with higher levels of soluble and microsomal EH (sEH and mEH) was detected in the liver of male vs female mice. In kidneys, male mice exhibited higher expression of both renal CYP2E1 and sEH than did female mice. In conclusion, higher blood and tissue cyanide levels are responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN. Further, higher expression of CYP2E1 and EH in male mice may contribute to greater formation of CEO and its subsequent metabolism to yield cyanide, respectively

  15. Maternal preconceptional nutrition leads to variable fat deposition and gut dimensions of adult offspring mice (C57BL/6JBom)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Elna Louise Krogh; Wang, Tobias; Malte, H.; Raubenheimer, D; Mayntz, David

    2010-01-01

    Background:   Maternal nutrition during pregnancy or lactation may affect the chance of offspring becoming obese as adults, but little is known regarding the possible role of maternal nutrition before conception. In this study, we investigate how variable protein and carbohydrate content of the...... taken. Results:   Fat deposition of the offspring was significantly affected by preconceptional maternal nutrition and the effects differed between sexes. Male offspring deposited most fat when mothers were fed the LP diet, whereas female offspring deposited most fat when mothers were fed the ST diet....... The mass and length of the digestive organs were affected by preconceptional maternal nutrition. Total gut from pyloric sphincter to anus was significantly shorter and dry mass was heavier in mice whose mothers were fed LP diets compared with offspring of mothers fed ST diets or HP diets. There was no...

  16. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  17. Thermoregulatory and Cardiovascular Consequences of a Transient Thyrotoxicosis and Recovery in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefig, Carolin S; Harder, Lisbeth; Oelkrug, Rebecca; Meusel, Moritz; Vennström, Björn; Brabant, Georg; Mittag, Jens

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid hormones play a major role in body homeostasis, regulating energy expenditure and cardiovascular function. Given that obese people or athletes might consider rapid weight loss as beneficial, voluntary intoxication with T4 preparations is a growing cause for thyrotoxicosis. However, the long-lasting effects of transient thyrotoxicosis are poorly understood. Here we examined metabolic, thermoregulatory, and cardiovascular function upon induction and recovery from a 2-week thyrotoxicosis in male C57BL/6J mice. Our results showed that T4 treatment caused tachycardia, decreased hepatic glycogen stores, and higher body temperature as expected; however, we did not observe an increase in brown fat thermogenesis or decreased tail heat loss, suggesting that these tissues do not contribute to the hyperthermia induced by thyroid hormone. Most interestingly, when the T4 treatment was ended, a pronounced bradycardia was observed in the animals, which was likely caused by a rapid decline of T3 even below baseline levels. On the molecular level, this was accompanied by an overexpression of cardiac phospholamban and Serca2a mRNA, supporting the hypothesis that the heart depends more on T3 than T4. Our findings therefore demonstrate that a transient thyrotoxicosis can have pathological effects that even persist beyond the recovery of serum T4 levels, and in particular the observed bradycardia could be of clinical relevance when treating hyperthyroid patients. PMID:27145010

  18. Integrated action of pheromone signals in promoting courtship behavior in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Ma, Limei; He, Jie; Qiu, Qiang; Lavis, Luke D; Looger, Loren L; Yu, C Ron

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian vomeronasal organ encodes pheromone information about gender, reproductive status, genetic background and individual differences. It remains unknown how pheromone information interacts to trigger innate behaviors. In this study, we identify vomeronasal receptors responsible for detecting female pheromones. A sub-group of V1re clade members recognizes gender-identifying cues in female urine. Multiple members of the V1rj clade are cognate receptors for urinary estrus signals, as well as for sulfated estrogen (SE) compounds. In both cases, the same cue activates multiple homologous receptors, suggesting redundancy in encoding female pheromone cues. Neither gender-specific cues nor SEs alone are sufficient to promote courtship behavior in male mice, whereas robust courtship behavior can be induced when the two cues are applied together. Thus, integrated action of different female cues is required in pheromone-triggered mating behavior. These results suggest a gating mechanism in the vomeronasal circuit in promoting specific innate behavior.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03025.001. PMID:25073926

  19. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed. PMID:7287599

  20. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-10-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language-neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  1. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats. PMID:27092594

  2. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. PMID:24836970

  3. A Comparison of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Adipose Tissue from Weight-Matched Obese Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Nickelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of intra-abdominal adipose tissue and the accompanying inflammatory response has been put forward as a unifying link between obesity and the development of chronic diseases. However, an apparent sexual dimorphism exists between obesity and chronic disease risk due to differences in the distribution and abundance of adipose tissue. A range of experimental protocols have been employed to demonstrate the role of estrogen in regulating health benefits; however, most studies are confounded by significant differences in body weight and adiposity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare weight-matched obese male and female mice to determine if the sex-dependent health benefits remain when body weight is similar. The development of obesity in female mice receiving a high-fat diet was delayed; however, subsequent comparisons of weight-matched obese mice revealed greater adiposity in obese female mice. Despite excess adiposity and enlarged adipocyte size, obese females remained more glucose tolerant than weight-matched male mice, and this benefit was associated with increased expression of adiponectin and reductions in immune cell infiltration and oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Therefore, the protective benefits of estrogen persist in the obese state and appear to improve the metabolic phenotype of adipose tissue and the individual.

  4. Occupational HIV Transmission Among Male Adult Film Performers - Multiple States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Ried, Christopher; Rickett, Pristeen; Arno, Janet N; Mendez, Yesenia; Harrison, Robert J; Wohlfeiler, Dan; Bauer, Heidi M; Joyce, M Patricia; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Mark, Karen E

    2016-02-12

    In 2014, the California Department of Public Health was notified by a local health department of a diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection* and rectal gonorrhea in a male adult film industry performer, aged 25 years (patient A). Patient A had a 6-day history of rash, fever, and sore throat suggestive of acute retroviral syndrome at the time of examination. He was informed of his positive HIV and gonorrhea test results 6 days after his examination. Patient A had a negative HIV-1 RNA qualitative nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)(†) 10 days before symptom onset. This investigation found that during the 22 days between the negative NAAT and being informed of his positive HIV test results, two different production companies directed patient A to have condomless sex with a total of 12 male performers. Patient A also provided contact information for five male non-work-related sexual partners during the month before and after his symptom onset. Patient A had additional partners during this time period for which no locating information was provided. Neither patient A nor any of his interviewed sexual partners reported taking HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Contact tracing and phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences amplified from pretreatment plasma revealed that a non-work-related partner likely infected patient A, and that patient A likely subsequently infected both a coworker during the second film production and a non-work-related partner during the interval between his negative test and receipt of his positive HIV results. Adult film performers and production companies, medical providers, and all persons at risk for HIV should be aware that testing alone is not sufficient to prevent HIV transmission. Condom use provides additional protection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Performers and all persons at risk for HIV infection in their professional and personal lives should discuss the use of PrEP with their medical

  5. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  6. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  7. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  8. Nutritional intervention restores muscle but not kidney phenotypes in adult calcineurin aα null mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Reddy, Ramesh N; Price, S Russ;

    2013-01-01

    Mice lacking the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα) were first reported in 1996 and have been an important model to understand the role of calcineurin in the brain, immune system, bones, muscle, and kidney. Research using the mice has been limited, however, by failure to...... deprivation is known to significantly alter development, it is imperative that previous conclusions based on CnAα-/- mice are revisited to determine which aspects of the phenotype were attributable to caloric restriction versus a direct role for CnAα. In this study, we find that defects in renal development......, loss of CnAα likely alters insulin response due to a reduction in insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) expression and signaling in muscle. This study illustrates the importance of re-examining the phenotypes of CnAα-/- mice and the advances that are now possible with the use of adult, rescued knockout...

  9. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Raoofi; Mozafar Khazaei; Ali Ghanbari

    2015-01-01

    Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg ...

  10. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus Terrestris on Cisplatin Induced Renal Tissue Damage in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extr...

  11. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metals-induced renal and testicular injuries in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2010-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals in water, air and soil are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity. Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. The antioxidant and protective influences of vitamin E on a mixture of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd and Cu)-induced oxidative stress and renal and testicular injuries were evaluated in male mice. Exposure of mice to these heavy metals in d...

  12. Influence of Reinforcement Schedule on Ethanol Consumption Patterns in Non-Food Restricted Male C57BL/6J Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Matthew M.; Fretwell, Andrea M.; Mark, Gregory P.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol reinforcement should ideally be evaluated in animals that are not food deprived to ensure that the motivation behind its consumption is pharmacological, and not caloric, in nature. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of reinforcement schedule on ethanol intake in non-deprived mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were trained to respond on an ethanol-reinforced lever on a fixed ratio (FR) 4 reinforcement schedule for 10% ethanol (10E). The appetitive and consummatory phases were...

  13. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P athletes were different (P athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced. PMID:24414089

  14. Control of Adult Pests by the Irradiation-of-Male Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grosch effect (i.e., of radiation interfering with utilization of nutrients in insects) became applicable to pest control when Galun and Warburg discovered that irradiated ticks fed once would seldom if ever feed again. This lifelong sensation of 'impletion' does not interfere with sexual competitiveness, but it does render harmless a pest that is a pest during the adult stage of its life cycle. It would seem that the general principle of treating adult pests to limit their feeding capacity could be extended to other pests. When insect pests are- living in stored food products, it is a general rule that desirably low levels of radiation can be used to eradicate the pest if sterilizing doses rather than insecticidal doses are used. With the entire population of both males and females being irradiated, the sterilizing dose is often much lower than that which would be desirable when the insects are mass-reared for irradiation and release. Where mass-rearing techniques are not feasible, or where the pestiferousness of adults cannot be overcome by radiation or other treatments, field-irradiation facilities in baited traps can be devised. These have some advantages over similar traps containing chemosterilants. Wherever it can be used, the method of mass-rearing, irradiation, and release is still the most desirable way to control insect pests. (author)

  15. The Forkhead Transcription Factor, FOXP3: A Critical Role in Male Fertility in Mice1

    OpenAIRE

    Jasurda, Jake S.; Jung, Deborah O.; Froeter, Erin D.; Schwartz, David B.; Hopkins, Torin D.; Farris, Corrie L.; McGee, Stacey; Narayan, Prema; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2013-01-01

    Fertility is dependent on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Each component of this axis is essential for normal reproductive function. Mice with a mutation in the forkhead transcription factor gene, Foxp3, exhibit autoimmunity and infertility. We have previously shown that Foxp3 mutant mice have significantly reduced expression of pituitary gonadotropins. To address the role of Foxp3 in gonadal function, we examined the gonadal phenotype of these mice. Foxp3 mutant mice have significan...

  16. Dynamics of chromosomal aberrations in male mice of various strains during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfel'd, S V; Togo, E F; Mikheev, V S; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinskii, M A; Anisimov, V N

    2001-05-01

    We studied the incidence of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and primary spermatocytes in various mouse strains. Experiments were performed on SAMP mice (accelerated aging), control SAMR mice, and long-living CBA and SHR mice. Experiments revealed a positive correlation between the age and the incidence of mutations in their somatic cells and gametes. PMID:11550060

  17. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  18. Human-derived neural progenitors functionally replace astrocytes in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Qian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Hu, Baoyang; Blackbourn, Lisle W.; Du, Zhongwei; Ma, Lixiang; Liu, Huisheng; Knobel, Karla M.; Ayala, Melvin; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are integral components of the homeostatic neural network as well as active participants in pathogenesis of and recovery from nearly all neurological conditions. Evolutionarily, compared with lower vertebrates and nonhuman primates, humans have an increased astrocyte-to-neuron ratio; however, a lack of effective models has hindered the study of the complex roles of human astrocytes in intact adult animals. Here, we demonstrated that after transplantation into the cervical spinal cords of adult mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), human pluripotent stem cell–derived (PSC-derived) neural progenitors migrate a long distance and differentiate to astrocytes that nearly replace their mouse counterparts over a 9-month period. The human PSC-derived astrocytes formed networks through their processes, encircled endogenous neurons, and extended end feet that wrapped around blood vessels without altering locomotion behaviors, suggesting structural, and potentially functional, integration into the adult mouse spinal cord. Furthermore, in SCID mice transplanted with neural progenitors derived from induced PSCs from patients with ALS, astrocytes were generated and distributed to a similar degree as that seen in mice transplanted with healthy progenitors; however, these mice exhibited motor deficit, highlighting functional integration of the human-derived astrocytes. Together, these results indicate that this chimeric animal model has potential for further investigating the roles of human astrocytes in disease pathogenesis and repair. PMID:25642771

  19. Morphological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from nourished and undernourished mice: a comparative analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition hampers the course of schistosomiasis mansoni infection just as normal growth of adult worms. A comparative morphometric study on adult specimens (male and female recovered from undernourished (fed with a low protein diet - regional basic diet and nourished (rodent commercial laboratory food, NUVILAB white mice was performed. Tomographic images and morphometric analysis of the oral and ventral suckers, reproductive system and tegument were obtained by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Undernourished male specimens presented smaller morphometric values (length and width of the reproductive system (first, third and last testicular lobes and thickness of the tegument than controls. Besides that, it was demonstrated that the dorsal surface of the male worms bears large tubercles unevenly distributed, but kept grouped and flat. At the subtegumental region, vacuolated areas were detected. It was concluded that the inadequate nutritional status of the vertebrate host has a negative influence mainly in the reproductive system and topographical somatic development of male adult Schistosoma mansoni, inducing some alterations on the structure of the parasite.

  20. Role of taurine as a treatment for oxidative damage and sperm head abnormalities in irradiated mice and their male offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of taurine therapy in treatment of male mice exposed to a dose of (3 Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and their male offspring was studied. Irradiated mice showed significant increase in plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) level and sperm head abnormality counts in all experiment interval times 1, 3 and 5 weeks. Administration of taurine (1% in drinking water) post-irradiation resulted in significant decrease in the effect of irradiation on MDA level and sperm head abnormalities count. The efficiency of taurine as radiotherapeutic agent is greatly dependent on its chemical properties as strong oxidants scavenger and biological activities as osmoregulator and membrane stabilizer. The probable mechanism of taurine was discussed, as it is a sulphydryl, heterocyclic-nitrogenous and pharmacological therapy

  1. Global gene expression patterns in the post-pneumonectomy lung of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingenito Edward P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult mice have a remarkable capacity to regenerate functional alveoli following either lung resection or injury that exceeds the regenerative capacity observed in larger adult mammals. The molecular basis for this unique capability in mice is largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomic responses to single lung pneumonectomy in adult mice in order to elucidate prospective molecular signaling mechanisms used in this species during lung regeneration. Methods Unilateral left pneumonectomy or sham thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia (n = 8 mice per group for each of the four time points. Total RNA was isolated from the remaining lung tissue at four time points post-surgery (6 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and analyzed using microarray technology. Results The observed transcriptomic patterns revealed mesenchymal cell signaling, including up-regulation of genes previously associated with activated fibroblasts (Tnfrsf12a, Tnc, Eln, Col3A1, as well as modulation of Igf1-mediated signaling. The data set also revealed early down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine transcripts and up-regulation of genes involved in T cell development/function, but few similarities to transcriptomic patterns observed during embryonic or post-natal lung development. Immunohistochemical analysis suggests that early fibroblast but not myofibroblast proliferation is important during lung regeneration and may explain the preponderance of mesenchymal-associated genes that are over-expressed in this model. This again appears to differ from embryonic alveologenesis. Conclusion These data suggest that modulation of mesenchymal cell transcriptome patterns and proliferation of S100A4 positive mesenchymal cells, as well as modulation of pro-inflammatory transcriptome patterns, are important during post-pneumonectomy lung regeneration in adult mice.

  2. Quality of life, social situation, and sexual satisfaction, in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falhammar, Henrik; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Thorén, Marja

    2014-09-01

    To determine quality of life (QoL) in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 30), 19-67 years old, were compared with controls (n = 32). QoL was assessed using questionnaires on general living conditions and sexual issues, and the psychological well-being index (PGWB) form. Fewer CAH males than controls were students (3 vs. 25 %, P = 0.028) and more had blue-collar work (57 vs. 33 %, P = 0.023). Patients were less interested in sports (47 vs. 72 %, P = 0.034) and art/literature/film (10 vs. 47 %, P = 0.004). PGWB total score was 82.7 ± 13.7 versus 87.0 ± 11.1 (P = NS), but hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate treated scored lower than controls and prednisolone treated. Glucocorticoid over-treated had lower QoL than those with poor control (PGWB total score 77.1 ± 13.5 vs. 92.4 ± 11.1, P = 0.026) and controls (P = 0.025). Total PGWB score was positively correlated with adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. Subscale scores indicated that patients with late diagnosis were more depressive (12.1 ± 2.8 vs. 13.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.011) and had a lower self-control (11.3 ± 3.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.0, P = 0.019) compared with controls. Sexual satisfaction was similar in spite of more patients being sexually inactive (27 vs. 6 %, P = 0.040). Adult CAH males differed from controls with respect to type of occupation and spare time interests but had similar QoL despite being less sexually active. Optimizing glucocorticoid therapy might further improve QoL. Some disadvantages found in patients diagnosed late will hopefully not be seen in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, but this has yet to be studied. PMID:24408051

  3. A chimera embryo assay reveals a decrease in embryonic cellular proliferation induced by sperm from X-irradiated male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Mice in the experimental groups received one of three doses of acute X irradiation (1.73, 0.29, and 0.05 Gy) and together with the control unirradiated mice were then mated weekly to unirradiated female mice for a 9-week experimental period. Embryos were recovered from the weekly matings at the four-cell stage and examined by the chimera assay for proliferative disadvantage. Aggregation chimeras were constructed of embryos from female mice mated to irradiated males (experimental embryos) and embryos from females mated to unexposed males (control embryos) and contained either one experimental embryo and one control embryo (heterologous chimera) or two control embryos (control chimera). The control embryo in heterologous chimeras and either embryo in control chimeras were prelabeled with the vital dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and the chimeras were cultured for 40 h and viewed under phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy to obtain total embryo cell number and the cellular contribution from the FITC-labeled embryo. Experimental and control embryos that were cultured singly were also examined for embryo cell number at the end of the 40-h culture period. In control chimeras, the mean ratio of the unlabeled cells:total chimera cell number (henceforth referred to as ''mean ratio'') was 0.50 with little or no weekly variation over the 9-week experimental period. During Weeks 4-7, the mean ratios of heterologous chimeras differed significantly from the mean ratio of control chimeras with the greatest differences occurring during Week 7 (0.41 for chimeras of 0.05 Gy dose group, 0.40 for chimeras of the 0.29 Gy dose group, and 0.17 for chimeras of the 1.73 Gy dose group)

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Gauri D; Sengupta Mahuya; Chakraborty Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrach...

  5. Paternal responsiveness is associated with, but not mediated by reduced neophobia in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chauke, Miyetani; de Jong, Trynke R.; Garland, Theodore; Saltzman, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Hormones associated with pregnancy and parturition have been implicated in facilitating the onset of maternal behavior via reductions in neophobia, anxiety, and stress responsiveness. To determine whether the onset of paternal behavior has similar associations in biparental male California mice (Peromyscus californicus), we compared paternal responsiveness, neophobia (novel-object test), and anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus maze, EPM) in isolated virgins (housed alone), paired virgins (ho...

  6. Chronic psycho-social stress & colitis: Physiological, neuroendocrine, and immunological studies with male C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reber, Stefan Oskar

    2007-01-01

    The experiments of the present thesis were designed to investigate the effects of two different models of chronic psycho-social stress (SD/OC; CSC) on the severity of and the regeneration after an experimentally induced colitis and the development of spontaneous colonic inflammation in male mice. In addition, underlying mechanisms were investigated, thereby mainly focusing on the HPA axis as a possible mediator of chronic psycho-social stress effects on colonic inflammation. Further knowledge...

  7. Social isolation-induced aggression potentiates anxiety and depressive-like behavior in male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-cang Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that social isolation in male mice results in aggressive behavior. However, it is not known how social isolation-induced aggression affects anxiety and depressive-like behavior in isolated male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS, an animal model of depression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57/B6 male mice were divided into 3 groups; non-stressed controls, in Group I; isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group II and aggression by physical contact in socially isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group III. In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by mice in Groups II and III was significantly lower than in Group I. Furthermore, intake of this solution in Group III mice was significantly lower than in Group II mice. In the open field test, mice in Group III, showed reduced locomotor activity and reduced entry and retention time in the central zone, compared to Groups I and II mice. Moreover, the distances moved in 1 hour by Group III mice did not differ between night and morning. In the light/black box test, Groups II and III animals spent significantly less time in the light box compared to Group I animals. In the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST, the immobility times of Group II and Group III mice were significantly longer than in Group I mice. In addition, immobility times in the FST were significantly longer in Group III than in Group II mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that social isolation-induced aggression could potentiate anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in isolated male mice subjected to CMS.

  8. Effects of acute sublethal gamma radiation exposure on aggressive behavior in male mice: A dose-response study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resident-intruder paradigm was used to assess the effects of gamma radiation (0, 3, 5, 7 Gray [Gy] cobalt-60) on aggressive offensive behavior in resident male mice over a 3-month period. The defensive behavior of nonirradiated intruder mice was also monitored. A dose of 3 Gy had no effect on either the residents' offensive behavior or the defensive behavior of the intruders paired with them. Doses of 5 and 7 Gy produced decreases in offensive behavior of irradiated residents during the second week postirradiation. The nonirradiated intruders paired with these animals displayed decreases in defensive behavior during this time period, indicating a sensitivity to changes in the residents' behavior. After the third week postirradiation, offensive and defensive behavior did not differ significantly between irradiated mice and sham-irradiated controls. This study suggests that sublethal doses of radiation can temporarily suppress aggressive behavior but have no apparent permanent effect on that behavior

  9. Effect of the methanol leaves extract of Clinacanthus nutans on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in male mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lau KW; Lee SK; Chin JH

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate thein vivoeffect of14 d repeatedly oral administration ofClinacanthus nutans(C. nutans) methanol leaves extract(250 mg/kg,500 mg/kg and1000 mg/kg bw) on the acetylcholinesterase(AChE) activity in maleBalb/C mice.Method:First group was served as control group, orally treated with distilled water as vehicle and group2-4 were orally treated with a single daily dose of250 mg/kg,500 mg/kg and1000 mg/kg bw ofC. nutans extract, respectively for14 d.Each group consisted of six animals(n=6).The activity of acetylcholinesterase in brain, liver, kidney and heart of mice was determined according toEllman method(1961).Results:From the results obtained, theAChE activity was found to be highest in mice liver, followed by brain, kidney and heart.Methanol extract ofC. nutans leaves at250 mg/kg(P<0.001),500 mg/kg(P<0.001) and1000 mg/kg(P<0.001) showed a significant increase in theAChE activity in mice kidney, liver and heart.On the other hand, theAChE activity obtained from the mice brain showed insignificant difference between the control group and treatment group.However, there was no abnormal behavioural change and adverse effect related to the central nervous system observed in all treated mice during14 d experimentation period.Conclusion:In conclusion,14 d oral administration ofC. nutans was able to modulate cholinergic neurotransmission by activating AChE activity in mice kidney, liver and heart.Compounds that responsible for the induction of AChE activity in mice liver, heart and kidney and its mechanism needs to be elucidated.

  10. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  11. Long-term wheel running changes on sensorimotor activity and skeletal muscle in male and female mice of accelerated senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Lalanza, Jaume F; Alvarez-López, María Jesús; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Griñan-Ferré, Christian; Pallàs, Merce; Kaliman, Perla; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is considered a useful non-transgenic model for studying aspects of aging. Using SAM resistant 1 (SAMR1) as controls, the long-term effects of wheel running on skeletal muscle adaptations and behavioral traits were evaluated in senescent (P8) and resistant (R1) male and female mice. Long-term wheel running (WR) led to increases in locomotor activity, benefits in sensorimotor function, and changes in body weight in a gender-dependent manner. WR increased body weight and baseline levels of locomotor activity in female mice and improved balance and strength in male mice, compared to sedentary-control mice. WR resulted in key metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, associated with an increased activity of the sirtuin 1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-PGC-1 alpha axis and changes in vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4), and Cluster of Differentiation 36 (Cd36) gene expression. Overall, our data indicate that activity, balance, and strength decrease with age and that long-term WR may significantly improve the motor function in a mouse model of senescence in a gender-dependent manner. PMID:25129573

  12. Cellulose supplementation early in life ameliorates colitis in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Nagy-Szakal

    Full Text Available Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001], and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]. Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation.

  13. Within-day and between-day Reproducibility of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Healthy Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L J; De Ste Croix, M; James, D V B

    2016-06-01

    Within-day and between-day reproducibility of supine and tilt baroreflex sensitivity were investigated utilising sequence and spectral indices in 46 healthy adult males employing 3 repeat measures; baseline, +60 min and +24 h. Reproducibility was assessed via the 95% limits of agreement and by the technical error of the measurement. For spectral parameters, the limits of agreement indicated same day was marginally better than between-day reproducibility. For sequence parameters, between-day had marginally better agreement than same-day reproducibility. Tilt markedly improved reproducibility across all outcome measures. Precision expressed by the technical error of the measurement for all spectral outcomes was good in both supine and tilt baroreflex sensitivity (outcomes in both positions (outcome measure, which may aid in the detection of modest baroreflex sensitivity changes in studies employing limited sample sizes. PMID:26928916

  14. Development of a voxel phantom of Japanese adult male in upright posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese voxel phantom in upright posture, JM2, has been developed on the basis of CT images of a healthy Japanese adult male. Body characteristics of JM2 were compared with those of the supine voxel phantom, JM, previously developed using CT images of the same person. Differences were found in the shapes of the spine and lower abdomen and the locations of several organs such as kidneys, liver and stomach between the two phantoms. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for 24 target and 11 sources organs were calculated for monoenergetic photon ranging from 0.01 to 4 MeV. It was found that the SAFs for the kidneys as source organ and the lower large intestine wall as target organ in JM2 were significantly higher than those in JM for all photon energies. The differences of the SAFs between the two phantoms were attributed to the differences in the organ distance and organ geometry depending on the posture. (authors)

  15. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiosis pairs and segregates homologous chromosomes and thereby forms haploid germ cells to compensate the genome doubling at fertilization. Homologue pairing in many eukaryotic species depends on formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) during early prophase I when telomeres begin to cluster at the nuclear periphery (bouquet stage). By fluorescence in situ hybridization criteria, we observe that mid-preleptotene and bouquet stage frequencies are altered in male mice deficient for proteins required for recombination, ubiquitin conjugation and telomere length control. The generally low frequencies of mid-preleptotene spermatocytes were significantly increased in male mice lacking recombination proteins SPO11, MEI1, MLH1, KU80, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme HR6B, and in mice with only one copy of the telomere length regulator Terf1. The bouquet stage was significantly enriched in Atm -/-, Spo11 -/-, Mei1 m1Jcs/m1Jcs, Mlh1 -/-, Terf1 +/- and Hr6b -/- spermatogenesis, but not in mice lacking recombination proteins DMC1 and HOP2, the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair factor KU80 and the ATM downstream effector GADD45a. Mice defective in spermiogenesis (Tnp1 -/-, Gmcl1 -/-, Asm -/-) showed wild-type mid-preleptotene and bouquet frequencies. A low frequency of bouquet spermatocytes in Spo11 -/- Atm -/- spermatogenesis suggests that DSBs contribute to the Atm -/--correlated bouquet stage exit defect. Insignificant changes of bouquet frequencies in mice with defects in early stages of DSB repair (Dmc1 -/-, Hop2 -/-) suggest that there is an ATM-specific influence on bouquet stage duration. Altogether, it appears that several pathways influence telomere dynamics in mammalian meiosis

  16. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A; Vilella, Francisco J; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  17. Personality dimensions in adult male rhesus macaques: prediction of behaviors across time and situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, J P

    1999-01-01

    The idea that consistencies in behavior exist over time and across situations underlies human personality research. Although several studies have examined personality in nonhuman primates, there are very few data showing the predictive power of personality factors. The goal of the present study was to determine whether personality dimensions, identified in adult male rhesus monkeys living in half-acre cages, predicted behavior in situations different from the one from which the dimensions were originally derived and at time points of up to 4.5 years after the original assessments. Four personality dimensions (Sociability, Confidence, Excitability, and Equability) were identified using psychometric procedures and were correlated with behaviors recorded in several situations: the animals' natal groups, during tests of behavioral responsiveness while in individual cages, in small stable and unstable social groups, while viewing stimulus videotapes, and during stable social dyads. Results indicated substantial predictability. Sociability reflected a greater tendency to engage in affiliative interactions. Confidence correlated with more aggressive behaviors and with behaviors that suggest less attractiveness. Animals high in Excitability were somewhat inconsistent in their social behavior, perhaps reflecting hyper-responsiveness to novel circumstances and thwarted opportunities for escape. Equability appeared to be related to a less aggressive, more passive, style of interaction. Excitability and Equability appear to reflect more stylistic components of social behavior, whereas Sociability and Confidence may be more content-based dimensions. Sociability was strongly related to size of kin network in the animals' natal groups, suggesting an important role for ontogeny in this dimension. These data suggest that a limited number of personality dimensions exist in adult male rhesus macaques, and that these dimensions have predictive power that is both long-term and cross

  18. Safety, Feasibility, and Acceptability of the PrePex Device for Adult Male Circumcision in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett Barr, Beth A.; Kang'ombe, Anderson; Hofstee, Carola; Kilembe, Franklin; Galagan, Sean; Chilongozi, David; Namate, Dorothy; Machaya, Medson; Kabwere, Khuliena; Mwale, Mwawi; Msunguma, Wezi; Reed, Jason; Chimbwandira, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nonsurgical adult male circumcision devices present an alternative to surgery where health resources are limited. This study aimed to assess the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Malawi. Methods: A prospective single-arm cohort study was conducted at 3 sites (1 urban static, 1 rural static, 1 rural tent) in Malawi. Adverse event (AE) outcomes were stratified to include/exclude pain, and confidence intervals (CIs) were corrected for clinic-level clustering. Results: Among 935 men screened, 131 (14.0%) were not eligible, 13 (1.4%) withdrew before placement, and 791 (84.6%) received the device. Moderate and severe AEs totaled 7.1% including pain [95% CI: 3.4–14.7] and 4.0% excluding pain (95% CI: 2.6 to 6.4). Severe AEs included pain (n = 3), insufficient skin removal (n = 4), and early removal (n = 4). Among early removals, 1 had immediate surgical circumcision, 1 had surgery after 48 hours of observation, 1 declined surgery, and 1 did not return to our site although presented at a nearby clinic. More than half of men (51.9%) reported odor; however, few (2.2%) stated they would not recommend the device to others because of odor. Median levels of reported pain (scale, 1–10) were 2 (interquartile range, 2–4) during application and removal, and 0 (interquartile range, 0–2) at all other time points. Conclusions: Severe AEs were rare and similar to other programs. Immediate provision of surgical services after displacement or early removal proved a challenge. Cases of insufficient skin removal were linked to poor technique, suggesting provider training requires reinforcement and supervision. PMID:27331590

  19. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  20. Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Okesina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR, the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group. The control group A received phosphate buffered saline orally, with the aid of a cannula. 1 mL of 50% ethanol was administered orally, by a cannula, to produce the gastric lesion in group B (n = 8. And in the group C, 500 mg/kg body weight of paw paw leaf extract was administered orally, with a cannula, twelve hours after ethanol administration to the rats. This experiment lasted for twenty one consecutive days. The result showed that TBARS in gastric mucosa as an index for oxidative stress level was significantly increased after ethanol administration. CPL did not reduce significantly the levels of TBARS in the gastric mucosa. G-6-PDH activity was significantly increased in gastric mucosa after ethanol administration, but in rats treated with CPL, a reverse of G-6-PDH activity was observed. Ethanol induced a remarkable and significant decrease of GPx activity in gastric mucosa, whereas CPL induced a significant reversion of ethanol’s effect on the enzyme. The results therefore demonstrate that CPL treatment exerts antioxidant effects on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in wistar rats.

  1. Plasma riboflavin is a useful marker for studying riboflavin requirement in Chinese male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changjiang; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Tang, Zhenchuang; Li, Lingyan

    2016-06-01

    Urinary riboflavin excretion and erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient are frequently applied in determining riboflavin requirement. Previously, we found that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker in the assessment of riboflavin status in rat models. Here, we hypothesize that plasma riboflavin is a useful maker in studying riboflavin requirement. This study examines the changes of fasting plasma riboflavin and urinary riboflavin excretion in response to different riboflavin intake levels in Chinese male adults. The estimated average requirement (EAR) of riboflavin was extrapolated. Seventy-eight participants were randomly divided into the control and 5 riboflavin-supplemented groups. A 6-week riboflavin supplementation was performed at the doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, or 1.0 mg daily. The energy expenditure was 15.4 ± 1.9 MJ/d, as estimated by the 24-hour physical activity recording method. Dietary riboflavin intake was 1.0 ± 0.2 mg/d, based on chemical analysis. The fasting plasma riboflavin was increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.4 mg/d and the EAR of riboflavin was suggested to be between 1.3 and 1.5 mg/d. In addition, we found a significant increase in fasting urinary riboflavin excretion when the supplemented riboflavin exceeded 0.6 mg/d. The critical point was calculated as 1.4 mg/d, based on the intersecting point of the 2 regression lines at lower and higher riboflavin intakes. These findings demonstrate that plasma riboflavin is a sensitive marker for riboflavin status, and the EAR of riboflavin for Chinese male adults is 1.4 mg. PMID:27188899

  2. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  3. Round and Round and Round We Go: Behavior of Adult Female Mice on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, April E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011) emphasized the importance of long duration rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at Ames Research Center. Here we present a video-based behavioral analysis of ten C57BL6 female adult mice exposed to a total of 37 days in space compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight and Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including feeding, drinking, exploratory behavior, grooming, and social interactions. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice. Spontaneous, organized circling or race-tracking behavior emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. I will summarize qualitative observations and quantitative comparisons of mice in microgravity and 1g conditions. Behavioral phenotyping revealed important insights into the overall health and adaptation of mice to the space environment, and identified unique behaviors that can guide future habitat development and research on rodents in space.

  4. The PGE2 EP3 Receptor Regulates Diet-Induced Adiposity in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Ryan P; Lee, DaeKee; Maulis, Matthew F; Carboneau, Bethany A; Threadgill, David W; Poffenberger, Greg; Milne, Ginger; Boyd, Kelli L; Powers, Alvin C; McGuinness, Owen P; Gannon, Maureen; Breyer, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Mice carrying a targeted disruption of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) E-prostanoid receptor 3 (EP3) gene, Ptger3, were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or a micronutrient matched control diet, to investigate the effects of disrupted PGE2-EP3 signaling on diabetes in a setting of diet-induced obesity. Although no differences in body weight were seen in mice fed the control diet, when fed a HFD, EP3(-/-) mice gained more weight relative to EP3(+/+) mice. Overall, EP3(-/-) mice had increased epididymal fat mass and adipocyte size; paradoxically, a relative decrease in both epididymal fat pad mass and adipocyte size was observed in the heaviest EP3(-/-) mice. The EP3(-/-) mice had increased macrophage infiltration, TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-6 expression, and necrosis in their epididymal fat pads as compared with EP3(+/+) animals. Adipocytes isolated from EP3(+/+) or EP3(-/-) mice were assayed for the effect of PGE2-evoked inhibition of lipolysis. Adipocytes isolated from EP3(-/-) mice lacked PGE2-evoked inhibition of isoproterenol stimulated lipolysis compared with EP3(+/+). EP3(-/-) mice fed HFD had exaggerated ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver, with evidence of hepatic steatosis. Both blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were similar between genotypes on a control diet, but when fed HFD, EP3(-/-) mice became hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic when compared with EP3(+/+) fed HFD, demonstrating a more severe insulin resistance phenotype in EP3(-/-). These results demonstrate that when fed a HFD, EP3(-/-) mice have abnormal lipid distribution, developing excessive ectopic lipid accumulation and associated insulin resistance. PMID:26485614

  5. Establishment of a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for widespread and temporal genetic modification in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, Hirotake; Hori, Akiko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Kondo, Saki; Kanegae, Yumi; Saito, Izumu; Ichise, Taeko; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2016-07-29

    Temporal genetic modification of mice using the ligand-inducible Cre/loxP system is an important technique that allows the bypass of embryonic lethal phenotypes and access to adult phenotypes. In this study, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mouse strain for the purpose of widespread and temporal Cre recombination. The new line, named CM32, expresses the GFPneo-fusion gene in a wide variety of tissues before FLP recombination and tamoxifen-inducible Cre after FLP recombination. Using FLP-recombined CM32 mice (CM32Δ mice) and Cre reporter mouse lines, we evaluated the efficiency of Cre recombination with and without tamoxifen administration to adult mice, and found tamoxifen-dependent induction of Cre recombination in a variety of adult tissues. In addition, we demonstrated that conditional activation of an oncogene could be achieved in adults using CM32Δ mice. CM32Δ;T26 mice, which harbored a Cre recombination-driven, SV40 large T antigen-expressing transgene, were viable and fertile. No overt phenotype was found in the mice up to 3 months after birth. Although they displayed pineoblastomas (pinealoblastomas) and/or thymic enlargement due to background Cre recombination by 6 months after birth, they developed epidermal hyperplasia when administered tamoxifen. Collectively, our results suggest that the CM32Δ transgenic mouse line can be applied to the assessment of adult phenotypes in mice with loxP-flanked transgenes. PMID:26923756

  6. The effect of omega-3 on cognition in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Gomaa, Asmaa M S; Sayed, Manal M

    2014-09-01

    Thyroid hormones and omega-3 are essential for normal brain functions. Recent studies have suggested that omega-3 may protect against the risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats, the underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic value of omega-3 supplementation. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups; control, hypothyroid and omega-3 treated. Hypothyroidism induced significant deficits in working and reference memories in radial arm maze, retention deficits in passive avoidance test and impaired intermediate and long-term memories in novel object recognition test. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hippocampal serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were decreased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Moreover, the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats showed marked structural changes as diffuse vacuolar degeneration and distortion of the pyramidal cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of Cav1.2 (the voltage dependent LTCC alpha 1c subunit) protein was increased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Omega-3 supplementation ameliorated memory deficits, increased TAC, decreased the structural changes and decreased the expression of Cav1.2 protein. In conclusion omega-3 could be useful as a neuroprotective agent against hypothyroidism-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:25183510

  7. Atypically rightward cerebral asymmetry in male adults with autism stratifies individuals with and without language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Dorothea L; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Auer, Tibor; Lombardo, Michael V; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Wheelwright, Sally J; Bullmore, Edward T; Murphy, Declan G M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    In humans, both language and fine motor skills are associated with left-hemisphere specialization, whereas visuospatial skills are associated with right-hemisphere specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show a profile of deficits and strengths that involves these lateralized cognitive functions. Here we test the hypothesis that regions implicated in these functions are atypically rightward lateralized in individuals with ASC and, that such atypicality is associated with functional performance. Participants included 67 male, right-handed adults with ASC and 69 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical males. We assessed group differences in structural asymmetries in cortical regions of interest with voxel-based analysis of grey matter volumes, followed by correlational analyses with measures of language, motor and visuospatial skills. We found stronger rightward lateralization within the inferior parietal lobule and reduced leftward lateralization extending along the auditory cortex comprising the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus, posterior supramarginal gyrus, and parietal operculum, which was more pronounced in ASC individuals with delayed language onset compared to those without. Planned correlational analyses showed that for individuals with ASC, reduced leftward asymmetry in the auditory region was associated with more childhood social reciprocity difficulties. We conclude that atypical cerebral structural asymmetry is a potential candidate neurophenotype of ASC. PMID:26493275

  8. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  9. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  10. Female Mice Avoid Male Odor from the Same Strain via the Vomeronasal System in an Estrogen-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Saori; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Habara, Yoshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Inbreeding avoidance is essential to providing offspring with genetic diversity. Females' mate choice is more crucial than males' for successful reproduction because of the high cost of producing gametes and limited chances to mate. However, the mechanism of female inbreeding avoidance is still unclear. To elucidate the mechanism underlying inbreeding avoidance by females, we conducted Y-maze behavioral assays using BALB/c and C57BL/6 female mice. In both strains, the avoidance of male urine from the same strain was lower in the low estrogen phase than in the high estrogen phase. The estrous cycle-dependent avoidance was completely prevented by vomeronasal organ (VNO) removal. To assess the regulation of the vomeronasal system by estrogen, the neural excitability was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of the immediate early gene products. Although estrogen did not affect neural excitability in the VNO, estrogen enhanced the neural excitability of the mitral cell layer in the AOB induced by urine from the cognate males. These results suggest that female mice avoid odor from genetically similar males in an estrogen-dependent manner via the vomeronasal system and the excitability of the mitral cells in the AOB is presumed to be regulated by estrogen. PMID:26377346

  11. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates The Damage Induced by Cyclophosphamide on Adult Mice Testes

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bakhtiary; Rasoul Shahrooz; Abbas Ahmadiooz; Farhad Soltanalinejad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a chemotherapy drug which causes deleterious effects on testicular tissue and increases free radicals in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on testicular improvement in CP treated animals. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 15 male mice (6-8 weeks) were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline (0.1 ml/day), intraperitoneal (IP), CP group re...

  12. Pannexin 1 regulates bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles, Alvaro O.; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Toro-Ayala, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Muñoz, Pablo; Fuenzalida, Marco; Sáez, Juan C.; Martínez, Agustín D.

    2014-01-01

    The threshold for bidirectional modification of synaptic plasticity is known to be controlled by several factors, including the balance between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, postsynaptic free Ca2+ concentration and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) composition of GluN2 subunits. Pannexin 1 (Panx1), a member of the integral membrane protein family, has been shown to form non-selective channels and to regulate the induction of synaptic plasticity as well as hippocampal-dependent learning. Although Panx1 channels have been suggested to play a role in excitatory long-term potentiation (LTP), it remains unknown whether these channels also modulate long-term depression (LTD) or the balance between both types of synaptic plasticity. To study how Panx1 contributes to excitatory synaptic efficacy, we examined the age-dependent effects of eliminating or blocking Panx1 channels on excitatory synaptic plasticity within the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. By using different protocols to induce bidirectional synaptic plasticity, Panx1 channel blockade or lack of Panx1 were found to enhance LTP, whereas both conditions precluded the induction of LTD in adults, but not in young animals. These findings suggest that Panx1 channels restrain the sliding threshold for the induction of synaptic plasticity and underlying brain mechanisms of learning and memory. PMID:25360084

  13. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Oyinloye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies.

  14. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyinloye, Olalekan; Nzeh, Donald; Yusuf, Ayodeji; Sanya, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies. PMID:25288854

  15. Chronic effect of gabapentin on liver function in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GPN is a new antiepileptic agent currently in used as add-on therapy in adult patients suffering from partial seizures. The extent of liver damage at different dosage and long term treatment with GPN is not yet clear. Therefore this study was undertaken to find out the possibility of liver damage by this drug. Adult male (Wistar rats of 180-220 g were administered intraperitoneally with GPN (20 or 100 mg/kg for 45 days. After the experimental period, the liver function tests were carried out in control and experimental groups. The activity of liver enzymes, with 20 mg/kg of GPN were not significantly different from the control group but, the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin were enhanced significantly with 100 mg/kg of GPN. Total protein and albumin decreased in this group as compared with control animals. The histopathology of the liver parenchymal cells also showed minute foci of necrosis in a few rats treated with high dose of GPN, whereas, at therapeutic dose the histopathology and biochemical indices showed almost normal values. At therapeutic dose GPN is a safer drug with regards to liver function and hepatocellular damage as compared with other antiepileptic drugs.

  16. Quercetin-induced changes in femoral bone microstructure of adult male rabbits

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    Ramona Babosová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites with antioxidant effects. One of the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet is quercetin. It is found widely in fruits, vegetables and has a lot of beneficial effects on human health. Quercetin has a positive pharmacological effect on bone metabolism and it prevents the organism against bone loss. However, its impact on the size of basic structural units of the compact bone is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the impact of the quercetin on femoral bone microstructure in 5-month-old male rabbits. Five rabbits of Californian broiler line were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (E group; n=3, animals were intramuscularly injected with quercetin at dose 1000 μg.kg-1 body weight (bw for 90 days, 3 times per week. Two rabbits without quercetin administration served as a control group (C group. According to our results, intramuscular application of quercetin had an insignificant effect on cortical bone thickness in male rabbits. In these rabbits, changes in qualitative histological characteristics were present in the middle part of the compacta, where primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was present and expanded there from the periosteum. Also, a lower number of secondary osteons was found in these animals. From the histomorphometrical point of view, significantly decreased sizes of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons (p <0.05 were found in rabbits administered by quercetin. Our findings indicate that subchronic administration of quercetin at the dose used in our study had considerable impact on both qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone in adult male rabbits.

  17. THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

  18. An assessment of knowledge and attitude of vasectomy in adult males: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Western Nepal

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    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Vasectomy is a simple, reliable, safe, effective and permanent method of birth control for men. The failure rate is less than 1%. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of vasectomy in adult males residing in Pokhara, Nepal. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional survey approach was adopted for the present study. 100 adult males of 26-49 years of age were selected for this study. Data was collected from 31-03-2014 to 30-04-2014 by using structured questionnaire and finally analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPPS for Windows Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, IL, USA. Results In the present study majority of the participants had average level of knowledge 69%; 26% had poor and remaining 5% had good level of knowledge regarding vasectomy. Most of the participants had good attitude 60%, 40% of them had average attitude and none of them had poor attitude regarding vasectomy. Conclusion Majority of adult males had average knowledge on vasectomy. So, adult males should be educated about the advantages of vasectomy. This may bring changes in controlling population explosion, sharing the decisions of contraception burden equally with their partners, more awareness of reproductive roles and closes the gap in male and female sterilization rates.

  19. Effect of Pistacia Vera Oil on Pituitary Gonad Axis and Histological Testis Changes in Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    f Porhemmat; M Shariati; L Sepehrara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Pistachio oil contains the chemical compounds such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids can inhibit 5-α- reductase enzyme and unsaturated fatty acids increase cholesterol levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of pistachio oil on adult male rats’ reproductive status. Methods: In the present experimental study, 40 male Wistar rat were divided into five groups of eight. The control group received ...

  20. The Relationship among Pulse Wave Velocity, Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index and Heart Rate Variability in Adult Males

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jeong-Hwan; Kong, Mihee

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) are non-invasive tools to measure atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Heart rate variability (HRV) has proven to be a non-invasive powerful tool in the investigation of the autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among PWV, ABI, and HRV parameters in adult males. Methods The study was carried out with 117 males who visited a health care center from ...

  1. Association between Periodontal Status, Oral Hygiene Status and Tooth Wear among Adult Male Population in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umoh, AO; Azodo, CC

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. Aim: To determine the association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and tooth wear among the adult male population in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted among 65 male drivers, aged 25-64 years, with a mean age of 48.6 (9.1) years in an organized private motor park ...

  2. Ah receptor expression in cardiomyocytes protects adult female mice from heart dysfunction induced by TCDD exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Hisaka; Carreira, Vinicius S; Fan, Yunxia; Jiang, Min; Naticchioni, Mindi; Koch, Sheryl; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2016-04-29

    Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental work in rodents suggest that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent environmental toxicant, is associated with incidence of heart disease. Although TCDD toxicity depends by and large on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), the role of the cardiac AHR in TCDD induced cardiovascular disease is not well defined. To determine whether the Ahr gene mediates disruption of heart function by TCDD, we generated a cardiomyocyte-specific Ahr knockout mouse by crossing Ahr(fx/fx) mice with βMhc:cre/+ mice, in which expression of Cre recombinase is driven by the promoter of the βMhc (myosin heavy chain-beta) gene. Starting at three months of age, mice with cardiomyocyte-specific Ahr ablation were exposed to 1μg/kg/week of TCDD or control vehicle by oral gavage for an additional three months. Relative to unexposed controls, TCDD-exposure induced cardiomyocyte Ahr-independent changes in males but not females, including a significant increase in body weight, blood pressure, and cardiac hypertrophy and a decrease in cardiac ejection fraction. TCDD exposure also induced cardiomyocyte Ahr-dependent changes in fibrosis and calcium signaling gene expression in both males and females. TCDD exposure appears to cause sexually dimorphic effects on heart function and induce fibrosis and changes in calcium signaling in both males and females through activation of the cardiomyocyte-specific Ahr. PMID:27163630

  3. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood. PMID:26620193

  4. Age-related skeletal dynamics and decrease in bone strength in DNA repair deficient male trichothiodystrophy mice.

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    Claudia Nicolaije

    Full Text Available Accumulation of DNA damage caused by oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main contributors of human tissue aging. Trichothiodystrophy (TTD mice have a mutation in the Ercc2 DNA repair gene, resulting in accumulation of DNA damage and several features of segmental accelerated aging. We used male TTD mice to study the impact of DNA repair on bone metabolism with age. Analysis of bone parameters, measured by micro-computed tomography, displayed an earlier decrease in trabecular and cortical bone as well as a loss of periosteal apposition and a reduction in bone strength in TTD mice with age compared to wild type mice. Ex vivo analysis of bone marrow differentiation potential showed an accelerated reduction in the number of osteogenic and osteoprogenitor cells with unaltered differentiation capacity. Adipocyte differentiation was normal. Early in life, osteoclast number tended to be increased while at 78 weeks it was significantly lower in TTD mice. Our findings reveal the importance of genome stability and proper DNA repair for skeletal homeostasis with age and support the idea that accumulation of damage interferes with normal skeletal maintenance, causing reduction in the number of osteoblast precursors that are required for normal bone remodeling leading to a loss of bone structure and strength.

  5. How does long-term odor deprivation affect the olfactory capacity of adult mice?

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    Coppola David M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unilateral naris occlusion (UNO has been the most common method of effecting stimulus deprivation in studies of olfactory plasticity. However, despite the large corpus on the effects of this manipulation, dating back to the 19th century, little is known about its behavioral sequela. Here we report the results of standard olfactory habituation and discrimination studies on adult mice that had undergone perinatal UNO followed by adult contralateral olfactory bulbectomy (bulb-x. Methods The olfactory performance of UNO mice was compared to matched controls that had unilateral bulb-x but open nares. Both habituation and discrimination (operant experiments employed a protocol in which after successful dishabituation or discrimination to dilute individual odors (A = 0.01% isoamyl acetate; B = 0.01% ethyl butyrate; each v/v in mineral oil, mice were challenged with a single odor versus a mixture comparison (A vs. A + B. In a series of tests the volume portion of Odor B in the mixture was systematically decreased until dishabituation or discrimination thresholds were reached. Results For the habituation experiment, UNOs (n = 10 and controls (n = 9 dishabituated to a 10% mixture of Odor B in Odor A after being habituated to A alone, while both groups failed to show differential responding to a 2% mixture of B in A. However, the UNO group's increased investigation durations for the 2% mixture approached significance (p Conclusions Adult mice relying on an olfactory system deprived of odor by naris occlusion from near the time of birth display enhanced olfactory capacity compared to control mice. This counterintuitive result suggests that UNO is neither an absolute method of deprivation nor does it diminish olfactory capabilities. Enhanced olfactory capacity, as observed in the current study, that is a consequence of deprivation, is consistent with recent molecular and physiological evidence that stimulus deprivation triggers

  6. Neonatal colon insult alters growth factor expression and TRPA1 responses in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Julie A; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Malin, Sacha A; Davis, Brian M

    2010-11-01

    Inflammation or pain during neonatal development can result in long-term structural and functional alterations of nociceptive pathways, ultimately altering pain perception in adulthood. We have developed a mouse model of neonatal colon irritation (NCI) to investigate the plasticity of pain processing within the viscerosensory system. Mouse pups received an intracolonic administration of 2% mustard oil (MO) on postnatal days 8 and 10. Distal colons were processed at subsequent timepoints for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and growth factor expression. Adult mice were assessed for visceral hypersensitivity by measuring the visceromotor response during colorectal distension. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from adult mice were retrogradely labeled from the distal colon and calcium imaging was used to measure transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) responses to acute application of capsaicin and MO, respectively. Despite the absence of inflammation (as indicated by MPO activity), neonatal exposure to intracolonic MO transiently maintained a higher expression level of growth factor messenger RNA (mRNA). Adult NCI mice displayed significant visceral hypersensitivity, as well as increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw, compared to control mice. The percentage of TRPA1-expressing colon afferents was significantly increased in NCI mice, however they displayed no increase in the percentage of TRPV1-immunopositive or capsaicin-sensitive colon DRG neurons. These results suggest that early neonatal colon injury results in a long-lasting visceral hypersensitivity, possibly driven by an early increase in growth factor expression and maintained by permanent changes in TRPA1 function. PMID:20850221

  7. Cellular origins of cold-induced brown adipocytes in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Petkova, Anelia P.; Konkar, Anish A.; Granneman, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated how cold stress induces the appearance of brown adipocytes (BAs) in brown and white adipose tissues (WATs) of adult mice. In interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), cold exposure increased proliferation of endothelial cells and interstitial cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor, α polypeptide (PDGFRα) by 3- to 4-fold. Surprisingly, brown adipogenesis and angiogenesis were largely restricted to the dorsal edge of iBAT. Although cold stress did not i...

  8. Neonatal oxygen adversely affects lung function in adult mice without altering surfactant composition or activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Min; Chess, Patricia R.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Wang, Zhengdong; Gelein, Robert; Zhou, Rui; Dean, David A.; Notter, Robert H.; O'Reilly, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its potentially adverse effects on lung development and function, supplemental oxygen is often used to treat premature infants in respiratory distress. To understand how neonatal hyperoxia can permanently disrupt lung development, we previously reported increased lung compliance, greater alveolar simplification, and disrupted epithelial development in adult mice exposed to 100% inspired oxygen fraction between postnatal days 1 and 4. Here, we investigate whether oxygen-induced changes...

  9. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for atrazine and its main metabolites in the adult male C57BL/6 mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrazine (ATR) is a chlorotriazine herbicide that is widely used and relatively persistent in the environment. In laboratory rodents, excessive exposure to ATR is detrimental to the reproductive, immune, and nervous systems. To better understand the toxicokinetics of ATR and to fill the need for a mouse model, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for ATR and its main chlorotriazine metabolites (Cl-TRIs) desethyl atrazine (DE), desisopropyl atrazine (DIP), and didealkyl atrazine (DACT) was developed for the adult male C57BL/6 mouse. Taking advantage of all relevant and recently made available mouse-specific data, a flow-limited PBPK model was constructed. The ATR and DACT sub-models included blood, brain, liver, kidney, richly and slowly perfused tissue compartments, as well as plasma protein binding and red blood cell binding, whereas the DE and DIP sub-models were constructed as simple five-compartment models. The model adequately simulated plasma levels of ATR and Cl-TRIs and urinary dosimetry of Cl-TRIs at four single oral dose levels (250, 125, 25, and 5 mg/kg). Additionally, the model adequately described the dose dependency of brain and liver ATR and DACT concentrations. Cumulative urinary DACT amounts were accurately predicted across a wide dose range, suggesting the model's potential use for extrapolation to human exposures by performing reverse dosimetry. The model was validated using previously reported data for plasma ATR and DACT in mice and rats. Overall, besides being the first mouse PBPK model for ATR and its Cl-TRIs, this model, by analogy, provides insights into tissue dosimetry for rats. The model could be used in tissue dosimetry prediction and as an aid in the exposure assessment to this widely used herbicide.

  10. Repeated inhalation of crack-cocaine affects spermatogenesis in young and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A; Pieri, P; Hage, M; Santos, A B G; Medeiros, M C R; Garcia, R C T; Yonamine, M; Hallak, J; Saldiva, P H N; Zorzetto, J C; Bueno, H M S

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effects of repeated crack-cocaine inhalation on spermatogenesis of pubertal and mature Balb/c mice, ten young (Y(ex)) and ten adult (A(ex)) Balb/c mice were exposed to the smoke from 5 g of crack with 57.7% of pure cocaine in an inhalation chamber, 5 days/week for 2 months. The young (Y(c)) and adult (A(c)) control animals (n = 10) were kept in a specially built and controlled animal house facility. The morphologic analysis of both testes of all animals included the analysis of quantitative and qualitative histologic parameters to assess the effect of crack-cocaine on spermatogenesis and Leydig cells. Apoptosis was determined by immunolabeling with caspase-3 antibodies. Compared to the Y(c) animals, Y(ex) animals showed a significant reduction in the number of stage VII tubules per testis (p = 0.02), Sertoli cells (p cocaine smoke inhalation induced spermatogenesis disruption in chronically exposed mice, particularly in pubertal mice. PMID:22642293

  11. Theory of hantavirus infection spread incorporating localized adult and itinerant juvenile mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkre, V. M.; Giuggioli, L.; Abramson, G.; Camelo-Neto, G.

    2007-02-01

    A generalized model of the spread of the Hantavirus in mice populations is presented on the basis of recent observational findings concerning the movement characteristics of the mice that carry the infection. The factual information behind the generalization is based on mark-recapture observations reported in Giuggioli et al. [Bull. Math. Biol. 67, 1135 (2005)] that have necessitated the introduction of home ranges in the simple model of Hantavirus spread presented by Abramson and Kenkre [Phys. Rev. E 66, 11912 (2002)]. The essential feature of the model presented here is the existence of adult mice that remain largely confined to locations near their home ranges, and itinerant juvenile mice that are not so confined, and, during their search for their own homes, move and infect both other juveniles and adults that they meet during their movement. The model is presented at three levels of description: mean field, kinetic and configuration. Results of calculations are shown explicitly from the mean field equations and the simulation rules, and are found to agree in some respects and to differ in others. The origin of the differences is shown to lie in spatial correlations. It is indicated how mark-recapture observations in the field may be employed to verify the applicability of the theory.

  12. Flt3 Ligand Regulates the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Fetal and Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerenwaldt, Anne; von Burg, Nicole; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Sitte, Selina; Horvath, Edit; Peter, Annick; Voehringer, David; Rolink, Antonius G; Finke, Daniela

    2016-03-15

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) promotes survival of lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in regulating innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during fetal and adult life is not understood. By using Flt3L knockout and transgenic mice, we demonstrate that Flt3L controls ILC numbers by regulating the pool of α4β7(-) and α4β7(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cell progenitors in the fetal liver and common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Deletion of flt3l severely reduced the number of fetal liver progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the neonatal intestine, resulting in impaired development of Peyer's patches. In the adult intestine, NK cells and group 2 and 3 ILCs were severely reduced. This effect occurred independently of DCs as ILC numbers were normal in mice in which DCs were constitutively deleted. Finally, we could show that administration of Flt3L increased the number of NKp46(-) group 3 ILCs in wild-type and even in Il7(-/-) mice, which generally have reduced numbers of ILCs. Taken together, Flt3L significantly contributes to ILC and Peyer's patches development by targeting lymphoid progenitor cells during fetal and adult life. PMID:26851220

  13. Urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction in female mice following early life and adult stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Angela N; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R; Eller, Olivia C; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M; Christianson, Julie A

    2016-05-15

    Early adverse events have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. Despite high clinical relevance and reports of stress-related symptom exacerbation, animal models investigating the contribution of early life stress to female urological pain are lacking. We examined the impact of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on bladder sensitivity and visceral neuroimmune status both prior-to, and following, water avoidance stress (WAS) in adult female mice. The visceromotor response to urinary bladder distension was increased at baseline and 8d post-WAS in NMS mice, while colorectal sensitivity was transiently increased 1d post-WAS only in naïve mice. Bladder micturition rate and output, but not fecal output, were also significantly increased following WAS in NMS mice. Changes in gene expression involved in regulating the stress response system were observed at baseline and following WAS in NMS mice, and WAS reduced serum corticosterone levels. Cytokine and growth factor mRNA levels in the bladder, and to a lesser extent in the colon, were significantly impacted by NMS and WAS. Peripheral mRNA levels of stress-responsive receptors were differentially influenced by early life and adult stress in bladder, but not colon, of naïve and NMS mice. Histological evidence of mast cell degranulation was increased in NMS bladder, while protein levels of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were increased by WAS. Together, this study provides new insight into mechanisms contributing to stress associated symptom onset or exacerbation in patients exposed to early life stress. PMID:26940840

  14. Endothelial arginine resynthesis contributes to the maintenance of vasomotor function in male diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chennupati, Ramesh; Meens, Merlijn J P M T; Marion, Vincent;

    2014-01-01

    : Absence of endothelial citrulline recycling to arginine did not affect blood pressure and systemic arterial vasomotor responses in healthy mice. EDNO-mediated vasodilatation was significantly more impaired in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 than in control mice demonstrating that endothelial arginine recycling...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) −/− mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE−/− mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 ± 6 vs 137 ± 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: ► Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. ► PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis. ► PCB77 promotes Ang

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenescu, Violeta [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Arsenescu, Razvan [Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Zhang, Xuan [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Baker, Nicki [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Cassis, Lisa A., E-mail: lcassis@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments Ang

  17. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tai L; Wang, Yunbiao; Xiong, Tao; Ling, Xiao; Zheng, Jianfeng

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. PMID:25178718

  18. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove in male mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. Methods The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o. to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate. Results The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. Conclusion The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  19. Developmental Exposure to Xenoestrogens at Low Doses Alters Femur Length and Tensile Strength in Adult Mice1

    OpenAIRE

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Carleton, Stephanie M.; Phillips, Charlotte L.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to high doses of the synthetic xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been reported to alter femur length and strength in adult mice. However, it is not known if developmental exposure to low, environmentally relevant doses of xenoestrogens alters adult bone geometry and strength. In this study we investigated the effects of developmental exposure to low doses of DES, bisphenol A (BPA), or ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on bone geometry and torsional strength. C57BL/6 mice ...

  20. Apple pectin affects the efficacy of epigallocatechin gallate on oral sucrose tolerance test in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, M; Hori, S

    2011-11-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), a dietary polyphenol and a major tea catechin, is a known sucrase inhibitor. Since dietary pectin is known to modulate some of the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, we investigated whether it could specifically affect the efficacy of EGCg on an oral sucrose tolerance test in mice. Male Crj:CD-1 (ICR) mice (seven weeks old) were randomly divided into two groups and fed a 5 % apple pectin (PE) or 5 % cellulose (CE) diet (control diet) for 28 days. After the experimental diet period, all mice were fasted overnight. A volume of 0.2 mL EGCg (20 mg/mL) was orally administered to all the mice by stainless steel feeding needle via injection syringe and a sucrose tolerance test was performed. The blood glucose levels were measured in blood collected from the tail vein using the OneTouch® Ultra® blood glucose monitoring system. Blood glucose levels at 30 minutes and 60 minutes after sucrose loading in the PE group were significantly higher than initial blood glucose levels. However, blood glucose levels at 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 120 minutes after sucrose loading in the CE group were not significantly higher than initial blood glucose levels. After laparotomy, plasma lipids were also measured. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were significantly greater in the PE group than in the CE (control) group. This demonstrates that dietary pectin can affect the efficacy of EGCg on the oral sucrose tolerance test in mice. PMID:22673921

  1. Social Isolation-Induced Aggression Potentiates Anxiety and Depressive-Like Behavior in Male Mice Subjected to Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Xian-cang Ma; Dong Jiang; Wen-hui Jiang; Fen Wang; Min Jia; Jin Wu; Kenji Hashimoto; Yong-hui Dang; Cheng-ge Gao

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that social isolation in male mice results in aggressive behavior. However, it is not known how social isolation-induced aggression affects anxiety and depressive-like behavior in isolated male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS), an animal model of depression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FIND...

  2. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  3. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tai L., E-mail: tlguo1@uga.edu [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Wang, Yunbiao [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102 (China); Xiong, Tao [College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province 434025 (China); Ling, Xiao [Institute for Food and Drug Control of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong 250012 (China); Zheng, Jianfeng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  4. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  5. Improving metabolic health in obese male mice via diet and exercise restores embryo development and fetal growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole O McPherson

    Full Text Available Paternal obesity is now clearly associated with or causal of impaired embryo and fetal development and reduced pregnancy rates in humans and rodents. This appears to be a result of reduced blastocyst potential. Whether these adverse embryo and fetal outcomes can be ameliorated by interventions to reduce paternal obesity has not been established. Here, male mice fed a high fat diet (HFD to induce obesity were used, to determine if early embryo and fetal development is improved by interventions of diet (CD and/or exercise to reduce adiposity and improve metabolism. Exercise and to a lesser extent CD in obese males improved embryo development rates, with increased cell to cell contacts in the compacting embryo measured by E-cadherin in exercise interventions and subsequently, increased blastocyst trophectoderm (TE, inner cell mass (ICM and epiblast cell numbers. Implantation rates and fetal development from resulting blastocysts were also improved by exercise in obese males. Additionally, all interventions to obese males increased fetal weight, with CD alone and exercise alone, also increasing fetal crown-rump length. Measures of embryo and fetal development correlated with paternal measures of glycaemia, insulin action and serum lipids regardless of paternal adiposity or intervention, suggesting a link between paternal metabolic health and subsequent embryo and fetal development. This is the first study to show that improvements to metabolic health of obese males through diet and exercise can improve embryo and fetal development, suggesting such interventions are likely to improve offspring health.

  6. Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide lead to long-lasting impairment of spatial memory in female, but not male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Rex M; Ficken, Melissa; Wecker, Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Self-reports of chemotherapy-related cognitive deficits (CRCDs) are more prevalent among women than men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to the cognitive-impairing effects of chemotherapy. However, there have been no direct comparisons of females and males using objective measures of cognitive function either during or following exposure to the same chemotherapeutic regimen. The present study used an animal model, and a prospective longitudinal design, to assess sex differences in the manifestation and persistence of spatial memory deficits resulting from exposure to doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CYP), commonly used anticancer drugs. The spatial memory of female and male BALB/C mice was assessed using the Morris water maze prior to, during and following 4 weekly intravenous injections of DOX (2.5mg/kg) and CYP (25mg/kg) or vehicle. Females receiving DOX+CYP experienced significant deficits in spatial memory during and following injections when compared to baseline or females receiving vehicle. These deficits persisted for at least 34 days following the final injection. In contrast, males receiving DOX+CYP injections did not exhibit alterations in spatial memory relative to baseline or males receiving vehicle. These findings indicate that females may be more vulnerable than males to the cognitive-impairing effects of DOX+CYP and demonstrate that deficits in females persist for at least several weeks following drug exposure. Preclinical studies of CRCDs should parallel clinical work by including females and examine sex specific factors as potential mechanisms. PMID:27083301

  7. 哺乳期母鼠接触氯氰菊酯对雄性仔鼠睾酮合成的影响%Effects of cypermethrin exposure during lactation of female mice on testicular steroidogenesis in male baby mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素芳; 马兴好; 宁萑; 穆敏; 万艳梅; 徐德祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence on the testicular steroidogenesis synthesation during baby mice cut-milking period and adult period of male mice by the cypermethrin exposure during lactation of the female mice.Methods Fourteen dams of new-born mice were randomly divided into two groups, cypermethrin poisoning group and solution control group.Since the first day after baby delivery, the sternal mice in the cypermethrin poisoning group were given stomach cypermethrin poisoning, using the corn oil as the solution and the poison dose is 25mg/ kg, until the 21st day after the delivery when the baby mice has cut-milking.While the control group is given the gavagy of the corn oil of the same volume.In each group, 15 male baby mice were killed at 21st day and 70th day after delivery, respectively.Taking blood from the eye-balls, and separate the testes.Use radioimmunoassay (RIA) method to measure serum testosterone (T) and estrogen ( E2 ) levels.Use RT-PCR method to measure StAR in the testes and the mRNA expression level of testosterone synthetic enzymes.Use Western blot to meausre StAR in the testes and the protein expression level of testosterone synthetic enzymes.Results Cypermethrin exposure during lactation of the female mice significantly leads to the decrease of serum testosterone of the male baby mice ( P < 0.01 ) and the decrease of the testosterone in the testes ( P < 0.05 ) , having no influence of the famale hormones ( P < 0.05 ).And the cypermethrin exposure during lactation makes the significant decrease of the expression levels of the mRNA and the protein, of P450scc in the male baby mice testes, compared with the control group.And themRNA expression levels of StAR, 17β-HSD, and P450 17α decrease somewhat (P < 0.05), compared with the control group, but the protein expression levels of the above almost suffer no influence.Cypermethrin exposure during lactation of the female mice has almost no influence on the serum testosterone level

  8. Female CREBαδ- deficient mice show earlier age-related cognitive deficits than males

    OpenAIRE

    Hebda-Bauer, Elaine K.; Luo, Jie; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2007-01-01

    Age-related changes in the hippocampus increase vulnerability to impaired learning and memory. Our goal is to understand how a genetic vulnerability to cognitive impairment can be modified by aging and sex. Mice with a mutation in the cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein gene (CREBαδ- deficient mice) have a mild cognitive impairment and show test condition-dependent learning and memory deficits. We tested 3 ages of CREBαδ- deficient and wild-type (WT) mice in 2 Morris water maze (MWM)...

  9. Early life stress differentially modulates distinct forms of brain plasticity in young and adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Herpfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. CONCLUSION: Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood.

  10. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both chil-dren and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantiifed using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identiifed as regions with signiifcant group-wise differences. The identiifed regions were correlated with clinical scores relfecting de-pression and anxiety and signiifcant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain cir-cuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  11. Effects of adolescent social defeat on adult amphetamine-induced locomotion and corticoaccumbal dopamine release in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Forster, Gina L.; Novick, Andrew M.; Roberts, Christina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Maturation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems occurs during adolescence, and exposure to social stress during this period results in behavioral dysfunction including substance abuse disorders. Adult male rats exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence exhibit reduced basal dopamine tissue content in the medial prefrontal cortex, altered dopamine tissue content in corticoaccumbal dopamine regions following acute amphetamine, and increased amphetamine conditioned place preference follo...

  12. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  13. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  14. The effect of continuous work on discretional energy expenditure in male adult construction workers in northern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to measure the variations in discretional energy expenditure in male adult construction workers of different body mass index when exposed to a heavy and prolonged workload. It is also intended to compare the factorial method based on indirect calorimetry with the doubly-labelled water system for the estimation of free living energy expenditure. 15 refs, 5 tabs

  15. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelles, Sandra; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2−/−) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2−/− mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. PMID:27013528

  17. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Baquedano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2−/− mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2−/− mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus.

  18. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; González-Rodríguez, Agueda; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente; Valverde, Angela M; Frago, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2(-/-)) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. PMID:27013528

  19. Re-expression of IGF-II is important for beta cell regeneration in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxian Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The key factors which support re-expansion of beta cell numbers after injury are largely unknown. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II plays a critical role in supporting cell division and differentiation during ontogeny but its role in the adult is not known. In this study we investigated the effect of IGF-II on beta cell regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed an in vivo model of 'switchable' c-Myc-induced beta cell ablation, pIns-c-MycER(TAM, in which 90% of beta cells are lost following 11 days of c-Myc (Myc activation in vivo. Importantly, such ablation is normally followed by beta cell regeneration once Myc is deactivated, enabling functional studies of beta cell regeneration in vivo. IGF-II was shown to be re-expressed in the adult pancreas of pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/+ (MIG mice, following beta cell injury. As expected in the presence of IGF-II beta cell mass and numbers recover rapidly after ablation. In contrast, in pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/- (MIGKO mice, which express no IGF-II, recovery of beta cell mass and numbers were delayed and impaired. Despite failure of beta cell number increase, MIGKO mice recovered from hyperglycaemia, although this was delayed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that beta cell regeneration in adult mice depends on re-expression of IGF-II, and supports the utility of using such ablation-recovery models for identifying other potential factors critical for underpinning successful beta cell regeneration in vivo. The potential therapeutic benefits of manipulating the IGF-II signaling systems merit further exploration.

  20. The inhibitory effects on adult male reproductive functions of crude garlic (Allium sativum) feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imen Hammami; Afef Nahdi; Claire Mauduit; Mohamed Benahmed; Mohamed Amri; Awatef Ben Amar; Semy Zekri; Ahmed El May; Michele Veronique El May

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of crude garlic on adult male rat reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (untreated) and groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fed for 30 days with 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% crude garlic, respectively. Testes and accessory organs were weighed and some markers were assessed. Light and electron microscopy observations were also performed. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the body weight of groups 4 (14%; P < 0.01) and 5 (20%; P < 0.01); of the prostate weight in group 5 (29.1%; P < 0.05) and of seminal vesicle weight in groups 3 (14.4%; P < 0.01), 4 (18.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (27.3%; P < 0.01). In contrast, testis and epididymis weights were unchanged. In epididymis tissue, the alpha glucosidase activity and the spermatozoa density were unchanged. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone serum levels in groups 3 (77.3%; P < 0.01), 4 (77.3%; P < 0.01) and 5 (90.9%; P < 0.01), associated with a significant increase in LH serum levels (P < 0.01). Testicular histology showed a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of empty seminiferous tubules. Moreover, testicular function was affected; a significant decrease in phosphatase acid activity (P < 0.01) and testosterone (P < 0.05) contents were observed. Conclusion: Crude garlic consumption during 1 month reduced testosterone secretion and altered spermatogenesis at 10%, 15% and 30% doses. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 593-601)