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Sample records for adult latvian women

  1. Grandmothers migrating, working and caring: Latvian women between survival and self-realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Russell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the circumstances surrounding the migration of older Latvian women and their multi-dimensional lives as economic migrants and as distant carers and supporters of diverse family members who remain in Latvia. In post-Soviet Latvia, especially since the 2008 financial crisis and the austerity measures which took away hope for a decent old-age pension, older women migrate abroad in order to salvage their economic wellbeing and support their multi-generation families, which can run to four generations – their children and grandchildren plus, often, their elderly parents. Migration enables these women to maintain multidirectional flows of care and also to achieve economic and psychosocial independence. Therefore, care practices that reach four generations put the figure of the grandmother at the core of transnational care relations. Research evidence for this paper comprises 50 in-depth interviews with older Latvian migrant women aged from their mid-40s to their late 60s in the UK and elsewhere. The paper demonstrates the complexity and richness of these women’s working lives, built around enhanced economic wellbeing, multiple and transnational caring responsibilities, and a new sense of self-worth and empowerment.

  2. Latvian research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Latvian Council of Science asked the Danish Research Councils and the Danish Academy for Technical Sciences for help in evaluating Latvian scientific research. The background for this request was the Latvian desire to stimulate an approach towards full integration in the European society. Based on reports, site visits and interviews, 19 panels of experts covering all subject areas prepared evaluation reports. These detailed evaluations of actual research projects are included in the publication in addition to general recommendations. The panels recommend that Latvian authorities take into consideration when planning scientific research, especially with regard to those branches which contribute to the industrial development and social and economic sciences, that a balance should be made between long range basic, and short range applied, science activities. Despite the very serious economic conditions in Latvia, it was also advised that immediate measures should be taken to ensure a stable funding of the research system as the future development of Latvian society is dependent on the stability and high quality of its research activities. Other recommendations are given in detail. (AB)

  3. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men.

  4. Adult Education for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, T. R.

    1980-01-01

    Apathy, indifference, and neglect has characterized adult education for women in India. The National Adult Education Programme must focus attention and funding on women if the extremely low percentage of female literacy is to be improved. (SK)

  5. Latvian advertising market development and international communication

    OpenAIRE

    Golovina, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the development of Latvian advertisement market, as well as Latvian internet advertisement development and its capabilities in international level. The main task of the paper is to define theoretical aspects of advertisement, as well as to define the present situation in Latvian advertisement market and to find out the most advantageous mass media for advertisement, which will be able to increase the profit of advertisers. The research emphasizes the importance of i...

  6. Physical Properties of Latvian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgelāne, I; Stepanova, V; Ločs, J; Mālers, J; Bērziņa-Cimdiņa, L

    2012-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of clays mostly depends on its mineral and chemical composition, particle size and pH value. The mutual influence of these parameters is complex. Illite is the most abundant clay mineral in Latvia and usually used in building materials and pottery. The viscosity and plasticity of Latvian clays from several deposits were investigated and correlated with mineral composition, particle size and pH value. Fractionated and crude clay samples were used. The p...

  7. Thixotropic Properties of Latvian Illite Containing Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Lakevičs, Vitālijs; Stepanova, Valentīna; Niedra, Santa; Dušenkova, Inga; Ruplis, Augusts

    2015-01-01

    Thixotropic properties of Latvian Devonian and Quaternary clays were studied. Dynamic viscosity of the water clay suspensions were measured with a rotating viscometer. Influence of concentration, pH and modifiers on the thixotropic clay properties was analyzed. It was found that Latvian clays have thixotropic properties. Stability of clay suspensions is described with the thixotropy hysteresis loop. Increasing the speed of the viscometer rotation, dynamic viscosity of the clay suspension decr...

  8. Women in Adult Education

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    Vida A. Mohorčič Špolar

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of data regarding the inclusion of women in formal education by the level of education, by field of educa­ tion in the secondary level and by the institutions of higher education. Furthermore it presents the analysis of statistical data regarding the percentage of the employed women in 1985 and 1993 by different fields of industry.

  9. Immunizations for adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Larkin, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Immunizations protect individual persons and contribute to public health by reducing morbidity and mortality associated with common infectious diseases. In this Practice Pearl, we review guidelines for adult immunizations and recent and potential changes in vaccines.

  10. Spectral features of nasals in Standard Latvian

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    Jana Taperte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the acoustic features of nasals in Standard Latvian are investigated. The aim of the study is to examine whether some of the spectral properties of nasal murmur (namely anti-formant frequency, as well as frequency and bandwidth of the first nasal formant can be considered as efficient cues for distinguishing between nasal places of articulation.Speech recordings from 10 native speakers of Standard Latvian, five male and five female, aged 19–39, without any disorders or dialectal traces in their pronunciation, were used for the analysis. Prevocalic nasals [m; n; ɲ] were analyzed in isolated CVC syllables, where C is one of the nasals and V is one of the vowels [i(ː; e(ː; æ(ː; ɑ(ː; ɔ(ː; u(ː]. The velar [ŋ] — the allophone of the phoneme /n/ — was recorded in postvocalic position in [k]V[ŋks] structure units. 1260 items were analyzed in total.According to the results, the nasals of Standard Latvian can be distinguished by anti-formant frequencies rather efficiently, and the results generally agree with those obtained in previous research of Latvian as well as data reported for other languages. The frequencies and the bandwidths of the first nasal formant are less informative regarding nasal place of articulation and can be used only for distinguishing between [ŋ] and [m; n; ɲ]. Conducting perception tests to assess the auditory relevance of these acoustic features is necessary.

  11. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  12. Sexual behavior of single adult American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein Lindberg, Laura; Singh, Susheela

    2008-03-01

    Public policies promoting abstinence until marriage attempt to influence the sexual behavior of the more than 18 million American women who are currently single. An analysis of these women's behavior is needed to inform policies that are responsive to their sexual and reproductive health needs. Sexual behaviors, risk factors and reproductive health needs were examined among a nationally representative sample of 6,493 women aged 20-44 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Paired t tests were used to assess differences among single, married and cohabiting women by selected demographic, behavioral and risk measures. Thirty-six percent of women aged 20-44 are single, and nine in 10 single women are sexually experienced. Seventy percent of the latter women are currently sexually active; on average, they had intercourse in seven of the last 12 months. A higher proportion of single women (22%) than of cohabiting (9%) or married women (2%) have had two or more partners in the past year, and half of single women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, single women and cohabiting women are more likely to lack health insurance than are married women (21-25% vs. 12%). Because of the high level of sexual activity among single adult women, providers must address their reproductive health care needs and offer appropriate counseling and services. Government policies aimed at encouraging adult women to have sex only within marriage appear out of touch with the reality of the sexual behavior of single women.

  13. Interpretation of Culture Heritage in Latvian Ethnographic Open Air Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Burceva, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to study the peculiarities of interpretation of the cultural heritage, using the case of the Ethnographic Open Air Museum of Latvia as a basis for research. The methods used in the research are the review of documents and theoretical literature, observation, and case study. Latvian farmstead with its architecture and design is included in the Latvian Cultural Canon; therefore thorough studies of such units would promote the development of the cultural education poten...

  14. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logviss, Konstantins; Krievins, Dainis; Purvina, Santa

    2016-05-11

    Number of orphan medicinal products on the market and number of rare disease patients, taking these usually expensive products, are increasing. As a result, budget impact of orphan drugs is growing. This factor, along with the cost-effectiveness of orphan drugs, is often considered in the reimbursement decisions, directly affecting accessibility of rare disease therapies. The current study aims to assess the budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia. Our study covered a 5-year period, from 2010 to 2014. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget was estimated from the National Health Service's perspective. It was calculated in absolute values and relative to total pharmaceutical market and total drug reimbursement budget. A literature review was performed for comparison with other European countries. Orphan drug annual expenditure ranged between EUR 2.065 and 3.065 million, with total 5-year expenditure EUR 12.467 million. It constituted, on average, 0.84 % of total pharmaceutical market and 2.14 % of total drug reimbursement budget, respectively. Average annual per patient expenditures varied widely, from EUR 1 534 to EUR 580 952. The most costly treatment was enzyme replacement therapy (Elaprase) for MPS II. Glivec had the highest share (34 %) of the total orphan drug expenditure. Oncological drugs represented more than a half of the total orphan drug expenditure, followed by drugs for metabolic and endocrine conditions and medicines for cardiopulmonary diseases. Three indications: Ph+ CML, MPS II, and PAH accounted for nearly 90 % of the total orphan drug expenditure. Budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia is very small. It increased slightly over a period of five years, due to the slight increase in the number of patients and the number of orphan drugs reimbursed. Current Latvian drug reimbursement system is not sufficient for most orphan drugs.

  15. Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU — Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  16. Assessment of antibiotic prescribing in Latvian general practitioners

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    Dumpis Uga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though general antibiotic consumption data is available, information on the actual patterns of prescribing antibiotics locally is difficult to obtain. An easy to use methodology was designed to assess ambulatory management of infections by Latvian general practitioners (GPs. Methods GPs were asked to record data in a patient data collection form for every patient that received antibiotics. Study period – (7 days one week in November, 2008. Data recorded included the following details: an antibiotic, the prescribed dose, dosing interval, route of administration combined with the demographic factors of the patient and clinical diagnosis based on a pre-defined list. Results Two hundred forty eight forms out of the 600 (41% were returned by post. Antibiotics were prescribed in 6.4% (1711/26803 of outpatient consultations. In total, 1763 antibiotics were prescribed during the study period. Ninety seven percent of the patients received monotherapy and only 47 (2.7% patients were prescribed two antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (33.9% of prescribed, amoxicillin/clavulanate (18,7% and clarithromycin (7.6%. The most commonly treated indications were pharyngitis (29.8%, acute bronchitis (25.3% and rhinosinusitis (10.2%. Pneumonia was mostly treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (25,7%, amoxicillin (15.7% and clarithromycin (19.3%. Conclusions Methodology employed provided useful additional information on ambulatory practice of prescribing antibiotics and could be used in further assessment studies. Educational interventions should be focused on treatment of acute pharyngitis and bronchitis in children and unnecessary use of quinolones in adults for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

  17. Narratives of Landscape in Latvian History and Memory

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    Vieda Skultans

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Latvian landscape has played a crucial, albeit changing, role in Latvian conceptions of identity. The nineteenth-century nationalist movement was articulated in terms of the relationship between land and people. During the independence period a uniquely local vision of the landscape was nurtured by art and literature, which encouraged a reverence for the landscape. Simultaneously, government policy encouraged agriculture, which flourished. Thus, the Soviets, following their occupation, entered a 'historically saturated landscape' and adopted as their remit the destruction of that landscape. My paper traces the semantic history of Latvian landscape and examines its role in providing a still point in personal narratives of loss and displacement. I conclude that the Soviets only partially succeeded in their mission of destruction. Although they succeeded in changing the physical face of the landscape and farming they were unable to destroy the pastoral vision which is a component of so many Latvian narratives. Our native hearth, Is burning in the sky, In order to come home, We do not open the door, But the cover of a book. We cannot learn from a snail, because home is not a refuge for us, But we will be a refuge for the homeland. Māra Zālīte

  18. The legal regulation of career course in Latvian Police

    OpenAIRE

    Kitija Bite

    2013-01-01

    ANNOTATION The research „The legal regulation of career course in Latvian Police” describes the existing legal regulation of all Service elements. In order to unveil the intended purpose several aspects were analyzed – selection and professional training for the Service, organization of the career and termination of legal relationships. The structure of the research is constituted by the given elements, where a chapter is dedicated to each of them. With regard to foreign exp...

  19. Opinion Mining in Latvian Text Using Semantic Polarity Analysis and Machine Learning Approach

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    Gatis Špats

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate approaches for opinion mining in Latvian text. Authors have applied, combined and extended results of several previous studies and public resources to perform opinion mining in Latvian text using two approaches, namely, semantic polarity analysis and machine learning. One of the most significant constraints that make application of opinion mining for written content classification in Latvian text challenging is the limited publicly available text corpora for classifier training. We have joined several sources and created a publically available extended lexicon. Our results are comparable to or outperform current achievements in opinion mining in Latvian. Experiments show that lexicon-based methods provide more accurate opinion mining than the application of Naive Bayes machine learning classifier on Latvian tweets. Methods used during this study could be further extended using human annotators, unsupervised machine learning and bootstrapping to create larger corpora of classified text.

  20. Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jody L.

    The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

  1. Indoor Tanning Dependence in Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2017-11-01

    Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity. Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood. Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Financial Literacy of Latvian Citizens: Findings and Conclusions

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    Guna Ciemleja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and financial stability issues of the Eurozone countries have demonstrated that the total of financial knowledge and skills of the population that lets people make informed and efficient decisions is of utmost importance. Considering high social importance of financial education, it is necessary to develop a knowledge platform to increase the level of financial literacy. The results obtained in the process of assessment of the level of individual's financial literacy provide information on the factors, which reduce financial efficiency and cause unnecessary costs. Despite a vast body of international experience in the field of financial literacy assessment, one of the main problems is to develop a measuring instrument, which can ensure valid results and can be adapted to the socio-economic and demographic conditions of a definite country. Therefore, in 2015, academic personnel of the Department of Finance, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management of Riga Technical University conducted research within the project «Enhancing Latvian Citizens' Securitability through Development of the Financial Literacy» and developed an instrument for assessment of the level of financial literacy, which can be used to evaluate financial knowledge of the Latvian citizens taking into consideration all components of financial literacy. The results are briefly described in the current paper.

  3. Ethical Leadership: Meaning and Measurement. Latvian Retail Traders’ Perspective

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    Vēvere Velga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary situation of ever-growing market internationalisation, local and global competition different company leadership aspects, especially ethical leadership, gain a special importance. It is possible to say that in theoretical literature, there is more or less consensual agreement upon the meaning of ethical leadership still regarding the evaluation models there are many models. Therefore, the main challenge is to determine the case sensitive model(s for the industry or the type of business organisation. The goal of the article is to delineate theoretically and to test empirically amongst Latvian retail traders one of the models of evaluation (the one of the Executive Servant Leadership Scale, ESLS. The research questions are (1 What is the ranking of the ESLS first-order factors? and (2 What are the possible problem areas in the ethical leadership as seen by the Latvian retail traders? The authors of the present paper aspire to identify the problem areas out the future lines of investigation. The current research uses the following research methods: the monographic (the literature study related to the concept of ethical leadership and its evaluations models; expert interviews to narrow down the items to be tested; and the survey with the following factor analysis.

  4. The measurement of Cs-137 in Latvian forest litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekstina, D.; Veveris, O.

    1998-01-01

    The role of forests in the distribution of cesium 137 over the Latvian territory affected by the Chernobyl accident was examined. Concentrations of this radionuclide in soil in pine, spruce, and birch forests and in non-forest areas in Rucava (affected by the accident) and in Taurene (non-polluted zone) were compared. In Rucava, the concentrations of Cs-137 fluctuated over the region of 108-724 Bq/kg in a pine forest, 205-2270 Bq/kg in a spruce forest, and 15-30 Bq/kg beyond the forest region. In Taurene, the corresponding figures were 42-157, 19-133, and 3-19 Bq/kg, respectively. The data confirm the appreciable role of coniferous forests in the absorption of Cs-137 from the air and its redistribution within the forest area. (P.A.)

  5. WOMEN IN CARCERE AND ADULT EDUCATION

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    Maria Cristina Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of our study conducted in the doctorate. We have divided the text in three stages as follows: the first a brief contextualization on female prisons and women in jail, at second stage, I present short stories of five women living in the prison in which I try to bring their everyday lives lived in the prison and in the last step I tract of the relationship of these detainees with the school and the schooling processes. At the end I trace some considerations and final questions about women in prison.

  6. View from Behavioral Economics Theory: Case of Latvian Rural Entrepreneurs

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    Igo Cals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory of classical economics treats entrepreneurs as subjects who make rational economic decisions. Empirical surveys prove the fact that daily economic decisions made by a separate economic entity can be explained by concepts of behavioral economics rather than classical economics. The economic behavior of entrepreneurs happens to be based on bounded rationality instead of financial justification. The objective of an economic activity presented as economically efficient can turn out to be socially important to a specific entrepreneur and not to national economy as a whole. In the EU countries, agriculture is a subsidised industry of national economy. In this light, status consumption and purchase of positional goods should create a special interest among economists. The objective of this article is to present true reasons of economic decisions made by rural entrepreneurs and to analyse the value hierarchy of Latvian rural entrepreneurs through carrying out a field work and with the help of set of instruments developed by modern economics theory.

  7. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey ( N =1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women's current gender identity (i.e., butch , femme , androgynous , or other ) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences.

  8. Women and the Struggle for Daytime Adult Education in Ireland.

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    Inglis, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Daytime adult education has emerged in Ireland in the form of voluntary, locally based groups of working class women providing education for themselves and others. A survey of 96 groups illuminated their struggles with finding suitable space, day care, and advertising. They thrive because of disenchantment with the content, scheduling, and form of…

  9. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  10. Epidemiology of Voice Disorders in Latvian School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinite, Baiba

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of voice disorders in the teacher population in Latvia has not been studied so far and this is the first epidemiological study whose goal is to investigate the prevalence of voice disorders and their risk factors in this professional group. A wide cross-sectional study using stratified sampling methodology was implemented in the general education schools of Latvia. The self-administered voice risk factor questionnaire and the Voice Handicap Index were completed by 522 teachers. Two teachers groups were formed: the voice disorders group which included 235 teachers with actual voice problems or problems during the last 9 months; and the control group which included 174 teachers without voice disorders. Sixty-six percent of teachers gave a positive answer to the following question: Have you ever had problems with your voice? Voice problems are more often found in female than male teachers (68.2% vs 48.8%). Music teachers suffer from voice disorders more often than teachers of other subjects. Eighty-two percent of teachers first faced voice problems in their professional carrier. The odds of voice disorders increase if the following risk factors exist: extra vocal load, shouting, throat clearing, neglecting of personal health, background noise, chronic illnesses of the upper respiratory tract, allergy, job dissatisfaction, and regular stress in the working place. The study findings indicated a high risk of voice disorders among Latvian teachers. The study confirmed data concerning the multifactorial etiology of voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Slavic Loanwords in the Terms for Dumplings in Latvian

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    Brigita Bušmane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Slavic Loanwords in the Terms for Dumplings in Latvian Food is an essential part of the material culture of every nation. It frequently preserves national traditions and old names longer than other spheres do, additionally, it lets observe the influence of other cultures. According to dictionary data, dumplings were known in Latvia already in the 18th century. Many names for them have been attested in regional subdialects of Latvian; borrowings usually cover wide areas. In this article, basing on ethnographic and linguistic material notations of different antiquity thus tracing the use of names for dumplings almost a century long and referring to dictionary data from 18th–19th century, the author tried to reveal the use and distribution of names for dumplings of Slavic origin in subdialects of Lat­vian, as well as to offer fragmentary data on the use of particular Slavic borrowings in neighboring languages. The Slavic borrowings kļocka, zacirka alongside variant names are widespread in Eastern Latvia, i.e. in a rather narrow or wide area of the High Latvian dialect. In Eastern Latvia, the names klučki, klučkas derived from the Germanic borrowing kluči, with insertion of the consonant k under influence of Russian, have also been registered. From the semantic angle, the borrowings kļockas, klučkas and their variants are denoting dumplings made of various raw materials (e.g., different kinds of flour, also pea-flour, potatoes. Further references to ingredients of this food and its preparation are included in the explanation of the Slavic borrowing zacirka and its variants most typical for the peasants vocabulary in Latgale. The Slavic borrowings examined in this article have not seldom (even up to the last decades of the 20th century been serving as the only names of the said dish in the speech of representants of the oldest generation in the particular area in Eastern Latvia.   Słowiańskie zapożyczenia wśród nazw pierogów w j

  12. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263

  13. Service quality in banking: developing and testing measurement instrument with Latvian sample data

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    Jelena Titko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the importance of managing service quality in banking that can positively affect customer satisfaction. The goal of the given study is to develop an instrument for measuring service quality perceived by Latvian banks’ retail customers and to determine the most important contributors to customer satisfaction. To achieve this purpose, randomly selected customers of Latvian banks were surveyed, using the authors’ developed questionnaire. The proposed instrument was tested for reliability and validity, using techniques of confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five service quality dimensions (factors that allowed constructing customer satisfaction factor model EPICA: E – expenses, P – product, I – image, C – competence and emotional intellect, A – access. The subsequent correlation analysis revealed that the strongest relationship is between customer satisfaction and C factor. The results of the current research are crucially important for Latvian banks’ executives because the majority of previous studies in the related field offered measurement scales adequate for measuring service quality in other industries. Besides, the proposed questionnaire is exclusively developed for Latvia and considers Latvian banking sector specifics.

  14. The Situation with Use of Wood Constructions in Contemporary Latvian Architecture

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    Antra Viluma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a historic building material used throughout the Baltic States. Latvia’s forests cover 52% of the country and there are more than 30 producers of timber constructions materials, but during the last two decades the use wood in Latvian architecture has declined when compared to other countries in Europe. In particular – Latvian architects avoid the use of timber in public and multi-unit apartment buildings. Wood is a sustainable and technically appropriate building material for many types of buildings including complex construction, but in Latvian architecture it is used more in facades as a finishing material. This study analyses buildings built during the last few decades, conducted a number of interviews and found that the percentage of wooden buildings in the total building volume in Latvia is less than 5% in both apartment buildings and public sector buildings. Restrictive legislation and negative stereotypes were mentioned as reasons as to why architects avoid the use of wood. For the survey results seven Latvian Museum of Contemporary Art competition projects were analysed as well.

  15. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels. Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages. For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture. Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness. The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral

  16. Factors Related To HPV Vaccine Practice Among Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Perwita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is one of most common diseases among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is known as precursor of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be prevented effectively by practicing hpv vaccine. But the coverage of HPV vaccine is remain low. The objection of study was to analyze factors related to HPV vaccine pratice among adult women. This study used case control design with sample size 25 for each group. Sample case was women who took HPV vaccine in IBI Kota Kediri on 2013, while sample control was neighboor from the sample case who didn’t take HPV vaccine. The independent variabels were age, education level, marital status, income level, knowledge, family support, family history of cervical cancer and the dependent variable was HPV vaccine practice. Those variables was analyzed with chi square or Fisher’s exact with significancy level at 95%. The result showed that there were correlation between education level (p = 0.006; c = 0.346, knowledge (p = 0.001; c = 0.464, and family support (p = 0.000; c = 0.516 with HPV vaccination practice. While there were no correlation between age (p = 0.275, marital status (0.490 and income level (p = 0.098 and family history of cervical cancer (p = 1.000 with HPV vaccination practice. Based on data from this study can be concluded that family support and knowledge had average strenght correlation withHPV vaccine practice among adult women. So, the intervention should be focused in increasing knowledge among women and their family about the important of HPV vaccine as a cervical cancer prevention. Keywords: practice, preventive, HPV, vaccine, adult women

  17. Factors associated with HPV vaccination among adult women in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Marilou; Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Deceuninck, Genevieve; De Wals, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in North America and are associated with cervical cancer. A publicly-funded HPV immunization program was launched in the province of Quebec, Canada, in the fall of 2008. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with HPV immunization among young adult women not targeted by this program. A questionnaire was mailed to 2400 24-y-old women randomly selected from the Quebec provincial health insurance database and 56% responded. Factors associated with vaccination status were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Few women had received at least one dose of HPV vaccine among the 1347 respondents. Age at first sexual intercourse ≥ 20 y, participating in cervical cancer screening, higher education level, being born in Quebec and some positive beliefs about HPV were associated with vaccination. The rate of immunization in women who had to pay for the HPV vaccine was very low and was associated with characteristics that are generally associated with a lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer. Efforts are needed to reach at-risk adult women.

  18. Nutritional and health status of adult women of the Lodha tribal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and health status of adult women of the Lodha tribal population of Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal, India: Compared with nontribal women. ... Results: The results indicated that the Lodha women belong to poor socioeconomic ...

  19. Missed opportunities for HPV immunization among young adult women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos R.; Rock, Robert M.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Xu, Xiao; Lundsberg, Lisbet; Zhang, Liye B.; Gariepy, Aileen; Illuzzi, Jessica L.; Sheth, Sangini S.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite the availability of a safe and efficacious vaccine against human papillomavirus, uptake of the vaccine in the United States is low. Missed clinical opportunities to recommend and to administer human papillomavirus vaccine are considered one of the most important reasons for its low uptake in adolescents; however, little is known about the frequency or characteristics of missed opportunities in the young adult (18–26 years of age) population. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess both the rates of and the factors associated with missed opportunities for human papillomavirus immunization among young adult women who attended an urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. STUDY DESIGN In this cross-sectional study, medical records were reviewed for all women 18–26 years of age who were underimmunized (<3 doses) and who sought care from Feb. 1, 2013, to January 31, 2014, at an urban, hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinic. A missed opportunity for human papillomavirus immunization was defined as a clinic visit at which the patient was eligible to receive the vaccine and a dose was due but not administered. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and missed opportunities. RESULTS There were 1670 vaccine-eligible visits by 1241 underimmunized women, with a mean of 1.3 missed opportunities/person. During the study period, 833 of the vaccine eligible women (67.1%) had at least 1 missed opportunity. Overall, the most common types of visits during which a missed opportunity occurred were postpartum visits (17%) or visits for either sexually transmitted disease screening (21%) or contraception (33%). Of the patients with a missed opportunity, 26.5% had a visit at which an injectable medication or a different vaccine was administered. Women who identified their race as black had higher adjusted odds of having a missed opportunity compared with white women (adjusted odds ratio, 1

  20. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Manne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement, lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  1. Psychosocial correlates of sunburn among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S

    2012-06-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  2. Adipokine Profiling in Adult Women With Central Obesity and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Supriya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Central obesity and hypertension are common risk factors for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Studies have shown that it is more difficult to control blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage in obese individuals with hypertension compared to their non-obese counterparts, especially among women. Obese females have a 6 times higher risk of developing hypertension than non-obese females while obese males are at a 1.5 times higher risk of developing hypertension, compared to their non-obese counterparts. Indeed, the inter-relationship between obesity and hypertension is unclear. Adipokines have been proposed to play a mediating role in the relationship between obesity and hypertension and are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Therefore, this study sought to determine the role of adipokines (adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α in hypertensive Hong Kong Chinese women with central obesity. A total of 387 women aged 58 ± 11 years who were examined with a 2 × 2 factorial design for central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm and hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, were recruited from a pool of 1,492 Hong Kong Chinese adults who were previously screened for metabolic syndrome. Subjects with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia were excluded to eliminate confounding effects. Our findings revealed that hypertensive women with central obesity had a lower anti-inflammatory status (adiponectin and a higher pro-inflammatory status (TNF-α than obese alone or hypertensive alone women. Also, women with central obesity had higher circulatory PAI-1 and leptin concentrations than their non-obese counterparts. We conclude that obesity may shift toward a more pro-inflammatory state and may become more severe in the presence of hypertension or vice versa.

  3. Hymenal stenosis and fibrosis in two adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Andrew T; Todd, Sarah; Bedell, Sarah; Tabbarah, Abeer

    2015-05-01

    Hymenal abnormalities are most commonly a result of incomplete apoptosis of the urogenital sinus during embryology. Infrequently, however, noncongenital abnormalities of the hymen can occur that can cause significant sequelae such as severe introital dyspareunia. We report on two adult women who developed severe introital dyspareunia secondary to hymenal stenosis and fibrosis in the absence of other vulvovaginal pathology. Neither woman had point tenderness of the vulvar vestibule, but their symptoms of searing pain on vaginal penetration was reproduced by stretching the hymen with two fingers. In both cases, conservative treatments with vaginal dilators in combination with topical hormonal therapy failed to relieve their symptoms, but both women were subsequently successfully treated with hymenectomy. Hymenal stenosis and fibrosis can develop in the absence of identifiable vulvar dermatoses. If conservative treatment with topical hormonal therapy and vaginal dilators is unsuccessful, hymenectomy can restore normal coital function.

  4. Recurrent group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in adult women: family epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D; Funaro, Deana; Kaplan, Edward L

    2007-03-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) vulvovaginitis has been reported in prepubertal girls. In adult women, a vaginal carrier state has been described, but vulvovaginitis is rarely reported. We describe 2 cases of recurrent GAS vulvovaginitis in women whose husbands were gastrointestinal carriers of GAS. Characterization of the isolated strains demonstrated that identical emm types of GAS were shared by partners. Treatment of both partners resulted in resolution of vaginitis. On the basis of negative vaginal culture results obtained after treatment of each individual episode of vaginitis, we believe that the female patients were reinfected as a result of exposure to their husbands, with shedding likely to have occurred in bed. These cases reiterate the necessity for adequate screening of the patient's family and contacts in cases of recurrent GAS infection by culturing all potential areas of GAS carriage.

  5. THE EVALUATION OF DIVERSITY OF EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS OF LATVIAN RURAL SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Katane, Irēna; Laizāne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Under conditions of changes and instability in any state rural schools are faced to look for different directions of development in order to manage in the rural areas. Thus the inner structure of rural schools becomes complex and causes formation of new educational environmental models of Latvian rural schools. The aims of the article: 1) to give substantiation of the concept model; 2) to give classification of educational environmental models of rural schools; 3) to emphasize the advantages ...

  6. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  7. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  8. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY COMPOSITION IN ADULT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára NAGY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data published by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO suggests that the number of obese people in Europe has tripled in the last 20 years and resulted in a prevalence of 130 million obese and 400 million people overweight (Sassi et al., 2009.Body composition is the relative percentage of fat and fat-free mass (bones, muscles, organs, water, blood of total body weight. After Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo and Lohman (1986 the optimal level for health of body fat is 16-25% (18-30% for women.The objective of our study was to assess body composition of adult women, identifying the effect of intervention program on body fat and lean mass, and uncover cases of obesity and overweight.The study involved 95 adult women from Fit4U Fitness Center in Oradea. Period of the study: February 2015 -June 2016. Anthropometric measurements were made: height, weight, circumference, subcutaneous folds. It was calculated the body mass index (BMI, body composition and optimal body weight (estimation based on the five skinfolds measures. The physical activity program consisted of Step -aerobics, Pilates and strength training in the gym, 3 times a week for 60-90 minutes, for 12 months.Results:mean body mass, BMI, BF%, real BF decreased significantly. Mean body fat percentage from 25,63% (± 6,53 decreased to 22,95% (± 5,56. In the studied group overweight and obesity is more frequent in the age group between 35-44 years, but it can be seen the prevalence in all age groups.Conclusions:the physical activity program had a beneficial effect on body composition -by reducing body fat.We found cases of overweight and obesity (21% of the study group.

  9. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  10. Why do adult women in Vietnam take iron tablets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yun

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting iron supplementation programs has been a major strategy to reduce iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. However, only a few countries have reported improvements in the anemia rate at a national level. The strategies used for control of nutrition problems need regular review to maintain and improve their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors in compliance with taking iron tablets, where daily doses of iron (60 mg and folic acid (400 μg were distributed in rural Vietnamese communes. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Nghe An province, Vietnam in January, 2003. The study population was adult women aged less than 35 years who delivered babies between August 1st 2001 and December 1st 2002 (n = 205, of which 159 took part in the study. Data for the study were collected from a series of workshops with community leaders, focus group discussions with community members and a questionnaire survey. Results Improvements in the rate of anemia was not given a high priority as one of the commune's needs, but the participants still made efforts to continue taking iron tablets. Two major factors motivated the participants to continue taking iron tablets; their experience of fewer spells of dizziness (50%, and their concern for the health of their newborn baby (54%. When examining the reasons for taking iron tablets for at least 5–9 months, the most important factor was identified as 'a frequent supply of iron tablets' (OR = 11.93, 95% CI: 4.33–32.85. Conclusion The study found that multiple poor environmental risk factors discouraged women from taking iron tablets continuously. The availability (frequent supply of iron tablets was the most effective way to help adult women to continue taking iron tablets.

  11. The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingēra Tomme-Jukēvica

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia there are no substantial studies on bilingual preschool children’s Latvian language as the second language. The article provides an overview of the 20th–21st century linguistic theories in the context of child second language acquisition as well as raises awareness about their influence on and use in the learning of preschoolers whose second language is Latvian, carrying out content analysis of the Minority Preschool Education Program (with instruction in Russian, the Latvian Language Program of X preschool education establishment, teaching resources (teaching aid kits, didactic handouts as well as the Latvian language as the second language study content. The conclusion is drawn that the theory of communicative competence and the systemic functional grammar theory prevail as well as the basic principles of the behavioral theory can be discerned. In the teaching resources and learning process it is advisable to more often incorporate the same language material repetition in different situations and new combinations. Consideration must be given to more positive and negative transfer (interference emphasis. To prevent children’s errors it is advisable to provide and incorporate special exercises in the teaching resources as well as methodological recommendations for the Latvian language teachers.

  12. Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. DESIGN: Six areas were selected according to the geographical regions in China. In each of these areas, we selected 4 distinct groups of subjects (children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in regions where the coverage rate of iodised salt was more than 95% and the levels of iodine and fluoride in drinking water were less than or equal to 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. We tested the iodine content of salt, urinary iodine (UI, free thyroxin (FT4, thyrotropin (TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab and antimicrosomal antibody (TM-Ab in the 4 groups, and examined the thyroid volume in children. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine (MUI concentrations were 271.4 μg/L, 260.2 μg/L, 205.9 μg/L and 193.9 μg/L in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively; MUI in children and adults were more than adequate. The goitre prevalence (GP in children was 6.70%. The odds ratios (OR of subclinical hypothyroidism in the Tg-Ab- or TM-Ab-positive groups were 3.80, 7.65, 2.01 and 7.47 for children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively, compared with the negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in children and adults is above the requirement, we should reduce their iodine intake. Subclinical hypothyroidism easily occurs in the Tg-Ab or TM-Ab positive groups.

  13. Improving the Status of Women in the Third World: A Challenge to Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elmer J.

    Adult educators face a challenge if they are to aid in the improvement of the status of women in the Third World. Women in developing countries, especially those in rural and poverty areas, are often restricted to second class educational and work opportunities. Adult educators could contribute to the reduction of such discrimination in the…

  14. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  15. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  16. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziukynas, V.; Klementavičius, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011) and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023).

  17. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziukynas V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011 and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023.

  18. The Latvian Legion (1943-1945) and Its Role in Latvia’s History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Latvian nation “encoded” into its genes a hatred for communism. During the years of independence a whole new generation was raised,37 a generation that...hands of a bigger occupational force but also as a tool of one’s selfish desire for glory and satisfaction. Consequent analysis of the LL’s...military leaders of being selfish and only willing to earn more “iron crosses,” therefore sending the soldiers to the “craziest” tasks.20 The author of

  19. Political Component of Russian-Latvian Relations at the Present Stage (2014–early 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat F. Kasem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines origins and causes of tensions in relations between Russia and Latvia today, their manifestations, and possible scenarios of their development in the future. The dominant feature of today’s Russian-Latvian relations is their political component. This situation first emerged in 2014, the year of the coup d’etat in Ukraine and the year of the Crimea joining Russia. The spirit of confrontation in Russian-Latvian relations and the increasing degree of tension has been fueled not by Russia but by Latvia, and, in the background of the situation, NATO, and, first and foremost, the United States. In 2005 the Latvian National Security Concept Program underscored “absence of military threat for Latvia or other Baltic states,” in 2015 the new edition changes its focus completely and mentions the “Russian threat.” Latvia does not play an independent role in foreign relations with Russia, but the country is using Russia as playing the role of an aggressor. As Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia are fully dependent on the US and the EU, they are forced to comply with foreign policy orders of their Western creditors, even if these demands contradict these countries’ own interests. Considerable changes have taken place in Latvia in the early 1917, when the legal status of US military personnel was changed.Consistently implementing these changes will turn virtually the entire territory of Latvia into the military infrastructure of the United States. As US military bases are being created in Latvia, it is equivalent of having American troops on the border with Russia. Obviously, Russia does not threaten Latvia in any way. An open conflict with NATO and the US could be used only as a last resort. But nothing depends on Moscow’s wishes anymore, and we can only watch the Baltic States being dragged further away from Russia. If previously, hoping to start a major European war, Washington placed its faith in Kyiv, now they find that

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  1. Sustaining Advocacy and Action on Women's Participation and Gender Equality in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…

  2. Latvian experience of 'Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques' (RER/2/004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skujina, Anita

    2002-01-01

    This report outlined the Latvian Radiation Safety Centre experience gained from the participation in the project. The accomplishments of the project are presented and the main difficulties are identified. In the course of the project 16 operating procedures and 17 instructions have been developed and the laboratory operations have been set in accordance with the ISO 17025 requirements

  3. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  4. Developing an attitude towards bullying scale for prisoners: structural analyses across adult men, young adults and women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; Power, Christina L; Bramhall, Sarah; Flowers, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to explore attitudes towards bullying among prisoners, despite acknowledgement that attitudes may play an important role. To evaluate the structure of a new attitudinal scale, the Prison Bullying Scale (PBS), with adult men and women in prison and with young male prisoners. That attitudes would be represented as a multidimensional construct and that the PBS structure would be replicated across confirmatory samples. The PBS was developed and confirmed across four independent studies using item parceling and confirmatory factor analysis: Study I comprised 412 adult male prisoners; Study II, 306 adult male prisoners; Study III, 171 male young offenders; and Study IV, 148 adult women prisoners. Attitudes were represented as a multidimensional construct comprising seven core factors. The exploratory analysis was confirmed in adult male samples, with some confirmation among young offenders and adult women. The fit for young offenders was adequate and improved by factor covariance. The fit for women was the poorest overall. The study notes the importance of developing ecologically valid measures and statistically testing these measures prior to their clinical or research use. The development of the PBS holds value both as an assessment and as a research measure and remains the only ecologically validated measure in existence to assess prisoner attitudes towards bullying.

  5. Self-Reported Empathy in Adult Women with Autism Spectrum Disorders - A Systematic Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Francien M; Groen, Yvonne; Becke, Miriam; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in females. Although the empathy construct has been examined thoroughly in autism, little attention has been paid to empathy in adult women with this condition or to gender differences within the disorder. Self-reported empathy in adult women with ASD was examined and compared to that of typically developed men and women as well as to men with this condition. Online databases were searched for articles investigating self-reported empathy among adult women with ASD. Only six studies comparing women to men were identified. All studies found women with an ASD to report lower levels of empathy than typically developed women, and typically developed men, but similar levels to men with this condition. The self-reported empathic ability of women diagnosed with ASD resembles that of their male counterparts most closely; they show a hypermasculinisation in empathy. This is particularly surprising considering the large gender difference in empathy in the general population. One of the limitations of this review is that the current diagnostic criteria for ASD are oriented towards male-specific behaviour and fail to integrate gender specific characteristics. Hence, women diagnosed with ASD are likely to be at the male end of the continuum. The suggested hypermasculinisation of women on the spectrum, as evident from this review, may therefore be exaggerated due to a selection bias.

  6. Receipt of a pediatric liver offer as the first offer reduces waitlist mortality for adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Gilroy, Richard; Lai, Jennifer C

    2018-03-31

    In liver transplantation, adults with small stature have a greater susceptibility to waitlist mortality. This may explain the persistent waitlist mortality disparity that exists for women. We hypothesized that women who receive early offers of pediatric donor livers have improved waitlist survival, and that preferentially offering these organs to women mitigates this sex-based disparity. We analyzed donor liver offers from 2010 to 2014. Adult candidates who received a first offer that ranked within the first three match run positions from the donors' perspective were classified based on gender and whether they received a pediatric versus adult offer. We used competing risks regression to associate first offer type and waitlist mortality. 8,101 waitlist candidates received a first offer that was ranked within the first three match run positions: 5.6% (293/5,202) men and 6.2% (179/2,899) women received a pediatric donor liver as their first offer. In multivariable analyses, compared to adult-first men, adult-first women (sHR1.33, 95%CI 1.17-1.51, p offer had a lower risk of waitlist mortality compared to those who receive adult offers. Our data provides a simple approach to mitigating the increased waitlist mortality experienced by women by incorporating donor and recipient size, as variables, into organ allocation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Myths and reality of «latvian national opposition» in the second world war: struggle for free Latvia or ordinary fascism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е Н Панин

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme researched by the author has important historical-political significance. The author showed the essence of the «Latvian national opposition during the Second World War that played an auxiliary role for Hitler Germany in its plans for world domination - in bloody crimes against humanity. Being covered by «noble slogans of protection of Latvia from bolshevism», Latvian nationalists and fascists were the instrument in the war against the Soviet Union.

  8. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  9. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  10. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  11. Young Adult Women and the Pilgrimage of Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperini, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Motherhood is a complex experience that can be transformative, offering women opportunities for personal enrichment and spiritual development. Because the largest incidence of births occurs to women in the Millennial or late Generation X generations, this complex, potentially transformative experience occurs at a critical time in young adult…

  12. Factors influencing young adults' attitudes and knowledge of late-life sexuality among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca S; Petro, Kathryn N; Phillips, Laura L

    2009-03-01

    Although sexuality is valued throughout the lifespan, older women's sexual expression can be influenced by physical, mental and social factors, including attitudes and stereotypes held by younger generations. By gaining an understanding of what influences negative attitudes toward sexuality and beliefs about sexual consent capacity, the stigma associated with sexuality in late life may be reduced. Using vignette methodology in an online survey, we examined older women's health and young adults' (N = 606; mean age = 18.86, SD = 1.42, range 17-36) general knowledge and attitudes toward aging and sexuality, personal sexual behavior, religious beliefs and perceived closeness with an older adult on attitudes towards sexual behavior and perceptions of consent capacity among older women. The health status of older women proved important in determining young adults' acceptance and perception of sexual consent capacity regarding late-life heterosexual/autoerotic and homosexual behaviors. Specifically, young adults expressed lower acceptance and more doubt regarding capacity to consent to sexual expression when the older woman was described as cognitively impaired. Additionally, young adults' personal attitudes toward late-life sexuality, but not knowledge, predicted acceptance toward sexual expression and belief in sexual consent capacity. Attention toward the influence of older women's cognitive health and young adults' attitudes toward late-life sexuality may prove beneficial in designing interventions to decrease the stigma associated with sexual activity in later life.

  13. Use of Technology for HIV Prevention Among Adolescent and Adult Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Patel, Viraj V; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-12-01

    Although the proportion of new HIV infections in the USA among women has decreased over the last few years, still, approximately 20 % of new infections occur annually among adolescent and adult women. The development of effective evidence-based prevention interventions remains an important approach to further decreasing these numbers. Technology-delivered prevention interventions hold tremendous potential due, in part, to their ability to reach beyond the walls of brick-and-mortar intervention sites to engage individuals where they are. While most technology-delivered interventions have focused on adolescents and men who have sex with men, much fewer have specifically targeted adolescent or adult women despite evidence showing that interventions tailored to specific target populations are most effective. We summarize the recently published literature on technology-delivered HIV prevention interventions for US adolescent and adult women and provide suggestions for next steps in this nascent but emergent area of prevention research.

  14. "You're Always First a Girl": Emerging Adult Women, Gender, and Sexuality in the Israeli Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli army drafts both men and women, and most Israelis complete their military service during their emerging adulthood years. This study examined Israeli women's experiences as soldiers in the army. Twenty-three women (18 emerging adults, 5 young adults) were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed about how they experienced…

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Adult Women in China, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baohua; He, Minfu; Chao, Ann; Engelgau, Michael M.; Saraiya, Mona; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among women in China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine screening for cervical cancer, and the WHO Global Monitoring Framework suggests that every nation monitors cervical cancer screening. However, little information is available on cervical cancer screening behavior among women in China. Methods. We used data from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System that included 51,989 women aged 18 years and older. We report the proportion of women who reported ever having had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. Overall, 21% of 51,989 women reported having ever had a Pap test. The highest proportion was reported among women aged 30–39 years (30.1%, 95% confidence interval, 26.8%–33.4%). In all geographic regions, women in rural areas were consistently less likely than women in urban areas to report having had a Pap test. Among women who reported ever having a Pap test, 82% reported having the most recent test in the past 3 years. Factors associated with reporting ever having a test were being aged 30–49 years, higher education, being married, and having urban health insurance. Conclusion. Our results indicate that screening programs need to be strengthened along with a more intense focus on specific demographic groups. National cervical cancer screening guidelines and comprehensive implementation strategies are needed to make screening services available and accessible to all women. Implications for Practice: This study is the largest nationwide and population-based assessment of self-reported history of Pap test for cervical cancer screening in China. This article describes cervical cancer screening behavior among women and examines key demographic and geographic factors. Only one

  16. Perception and evaluation of women's bodies in adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Mai, Sandra; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H

    2015-12-01

    Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been widely studied with regard to the patient's own body, but little is known about perception of or attitude towards other women's bodies in AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate how 20 girls aged 12-18 years and 19 adult women suffering from AN compared to 37 healthy adolescent girls and women estimate weight and attractiveness of women's bodies belonging to different BMI categories (BMI 13.8-61.3 kg/m²). Weight and attractiveness ratings of the participant's own body and information on physical comparisons were obtained, and effects on others' weight and attractiveness ratings investigated. Differential evaluation processes were found: AN patients estimated other women's weight higher than control participants. Patients showed a bias towards assessing extremely underweight women as more attractive and normal weight and overweight women as less attractive than healthy girls and women. These effects were more pronounced in adult than in adolescent AN patients. The tendency to engage in physical comparison with others significantly correlated with weight as well as attractiveness ratings in patients. A logistic regression model encompassing own attractiveness ratings, attractiveness bias towards strongly underweight others' bodies and the interaction of this bias with age as predictors differentiated best between AN patients and controls. Our results indicate that females suffering from AN and healthy girls and women perceive other women's bodies differently. Assessment of others' weight and attractiveness may contribute to the maintenance of dysfunctional physical comparison processes.

  17. PROBLEMS OF MASTERING LATVIAN AS A SECOND LANGUAGE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Lazdiņa, Sanita

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to illuminate the interpretation of the term „Applied Linguistics” in Latvia and abroad (in Western Europe, the USA and Russia), and thereby identifying possibilities and grounds for the research of Latvian as a second language in the context of the development of applied linguistics in Latvia. Apart from theoretical literature, the author also uses data from observations of classroom discussions, which were obtained in three secondary schools and one elementary ...

  18. Association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence: a study of young adult women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Hoque, Md Aminul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Makinoda, Satoru

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data. The analyses are restricted to young women 20 to 24 years old. Logistic regression analyses are constructed to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between adolescent marriage and IPV in the past year. show that there is a strong significant relationship between adolescent marriage and experience of physical IPV in the past year among this population. Association between sexual IPV and adolescent marriage is insignificant. Adolescent marriage puts women at increased risk of physical IPV into their young adult period. Government agencies need to enforce existing law on the minimum age at marriage to reduce IPV among adolescent and young adult girls.

  19. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Mistimed and Unwanted Pregnancy Among Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; McCabe, Katharine F; Hughes, Tonda L

    2017-09-01

    Many sexual minority women, regardless of sexual identity, engage in heterosexual behavior across the life course, which provides them opportunities to experience an unintended pregnancy. In addition, sexual minority women are more likely than others to report characteristics that may make them vulnerable to unintended pregnancy. Little research, however, has examined whether the risk of unintended pregnancy is elevated among these women. Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, logistic regression models were fitted to examine sexual orientation disparities in mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among 9,807 women aged 20-45; mixed-effects hazard models assessed disparities in the intention status of 5,238 pregnancies among these women by maternal sexual orientation. Compared with heterosexual women reporting only male partners, heterosexual women who have sex with women had higher odds of reporting a mistimed pregnancy (odds ratio, 1.4), and bisexual women had higher odds of reporting an unwanted pregnancy (1.8). When compared with pregnancies reported by heterosexual women with only male partners, those reported by heterosexual women who have sex with women were more likely to be mistimed (hazard ratio, 1.7), and those reported by bisexual and lesbian women were more likely to be unwanted (1.7-4.4). Compared with heterosexuals who have sex with men only, adult sexual minority women are at equal or greater risk of reporting an unintended pregnancy. More research addressing the reproductive health care needs of sexual minority women is needed to develop strategies to improve family planning for this population. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  20. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  1. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... women aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program at multiple designated community centres. All subjects were able to communicate and residing in an urban area of central Malaysia. Exclusion criteria included those who have mental disorders, concomitant diseases (i.e. dialysis ...

  2. Counseling Issues for Adult Women in Career Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses current psychosocial issues facing women in career transition and the implications of those issues for career counselors. Specifically, psychosocial developmental trajectories, the roles of family and relationships, the importance of underlying physical and mental health issues, and sociocultural and contextual stressors are…

  3. Urinary tract infection pattern in adult women followed from childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebäck, Carin; Hansson, Sverker; Martinell, Jeanette; Sandberg, Torsten; Jodal, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of urinary tract infection (UTI) and bladder function in women who had experienced recurrent UTI in childhood, with and without consequent renal damage, and followed for three to four decades. A population-based cohort of women who had been followed from the first UTI in childhood and previously studied at a median age of 27 years was studied at a median age of 41 years. Renal damage was evaluated by (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan. Clinical data were collected on the pattern of recurrent UTIs and bladder function. A total of 86 women were investigated, of whom 58 had suffered renal damage and 28 were without. Febrile UTI in adulthood had occurred in 22 patients, once in 15 women and twice or more in seven women. There was a change in the infection pattern over time, evident already in childhood, that was characterized by a decrease in UTI frequency and a shift from febrile to non-febrile infections. A significant association was found between renal damage and febrile UTI (p = 0.046), and between abnormal bladder function and recurrent non-febrile UTI (p = 0.002). There was no relationship between persisting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and proneness to either symptomatic UTI (p = 0.99) or febrile UTI in adulthood (p = 0.14). Among this study cohort there was a continuously decreasing rate of febrile UTI in adulthood. Persisting VUR was not related to UTI in adulthood. Abnormal bladder function was related to non-febrile UTI but not to febrile UTI.

  4. Correlates of Hypertension Among Adult Men and Women in Kosovo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashani, V.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to assess the independent socioeconomic, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of hypertension among the adult population of Kosovo. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Pristina in 2012-2013 which included a large representative sample of 1793 consecutive primary

  5. Exploring Baseline Food-Media Literacy of Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tina L.

    2012-01-01

    Many media education researchers have identified the importance of adult media literacy but few have studied it. Such literacy is becoming increasingly important with regard to the growing category of food media--advertisements, television programs, and print media among them. Using two focus groups and guided by Primack and Hobbs' (2009) AA, RR,…

  6. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  7. The Romantic Relationship Experiences of Young Adult Women Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Carlson, Camille E; Hlavaty, Kathleen

    2018-05-01

    Guided by a review of the literature on intergenerational transmission of violence, or "the cycle of violence", and Johnson's typology of domestic violence, the current study qualitatively examined the romantic relationship experiences of 23 young adult women who were exposed to father-mother-perpetrated domestic violence (DV) during childhood and adolescence. Findings are partially consistent with the hypothesis that DV exposure is associated with an increased risk of later experiencing dating violence, such that half of the sample reported having abusive partners or relationships during high school. However, none of the young women reported violence or abuse during the early years of college, suggesting the salience of developmental timing when examining transmission of violence. Beyond whether the women experienced dating violence, they described how their earlier DV exposure experiences influence how they entered into, managed, and exited romantic relationships. By comparing their potential, former, and current romantic relationships with their fathers' violence and abuse, their mothers' victimization, and high school relationship partners' behaviors, the young women actively and strategically managed their relationship involvement over time. Although women exposed to both situational couple and coercive controlling violence reported experiencing abuse during high school, only women with coercive controlling exposure experienced reported having nonabusive, healthy, and supportive relationships. Findings suggest that the romantic relationship experiences of DV-exposed young adult women are complex, warranting a holistic approach that takes into consideration the full range of potential relationship experiences, the role of former relationships, and developmental timing when seeking to prevent and intervene in intergenerational transmission processes.

  8. The Concept of Information Sharing Behaviors in Complex Organizations: Research in Latvian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejs Cekuls

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors influencing behaviors of information sharing in complex organizations. Evaluation of the previous studies on provision of information turnover process and the role of organizational culture in competitive intelligence of business environment in Latvia indicated the trends that employees of Latvian enterprises lack incentive to share information. Tasks of the study were to research the basis of the review of scientific sources and study aspects influencing habits of information sharing in complex organizations. For this particular study, the focus group is selected as the most appropriate data collection method for high-quality research. To find out individuals' opinions and attitudes two focus group discussions were carried out. Members from various industries and with different employment period were included in discussion groups. In aggregate, opinions of the employees from 41 different companies were summarized regarding the aspects affecting the process of information sharing in organizations. Results of researches show that that influence the sharing of information are closely related to the values: interpersonal trust, organizational trust, and organizational identification, support, fairness etc. Results of discussions showed that it is important for a manager to be aware of the factors affecting the performance of the organization. To identify the need for changes, a manager should follow events in the environment and analyze the extent, to which they affect the performance of the organization. Complexity science suggests that maturity to changes emerges when the system is far from balance, but the tension makes to accept changes.

  9. Latvian health care competitiveness in relation to its infrastructure and available resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources are one of the essential indicators for the functioning of the health care system. Better health care provision is an essential prerequisite for the export of services. Traditionally a competitive health care system is linked to a number of factors (price, quality, reliability, products and services largely determined by the new technologies, innovations and implementation the new methods. The authors of this article analyzed and collected data from the European Commission Eurostat and OECD data. Current situation in health care in Latvia is characterized by populations’ restricted access to health care services, high out-of-pocket payments and poor health outcomes of the population. More than 10% of Latvian population can’t afford medical care. The ratio of public funding for healthcare in Latvia is among the lowest in EU countries. Latvia spends 5.3% (USD PPP 1217 of GDP on health, lower than the OCED country average of 8.9% (USD PPP 3453. Latvia is facing a dramatic gap between the availability of hospital beds and long term care beds and the lowest prevalence of general medical practitioners among all Baltic States 321.6 per 100 000. These mentioned factors may hinder the development of health care in Latvia and reduce the ability to participate in international health service market.

  10. Microflora of root filled teeth with apical periodontitis in Latvian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindere, Anda; Kundzina, Rita; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Eze, Daina; Petrina, Zaiga

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial flora of root filled teeth with apical periodontitis and to determine the prevalence of β-lactamase producing strains in isolated bacteria in Latvian patients. 33 root filled teeth with asymptomatic persisting periapical lesions were selected for the present study. During nonsurgical endodontic retreatment, the root filling material was removed and canals were sampled. Determination of microbial species was based on series of biochemical tests using identification kits. All strains of bacteria were tested for β-lactamase production by using chromogenic nitrocefin-impregnated slides. Bacteria were found in 32 (97%) of initial specimens from the teeth. The number of isolated microbial strains in the specimens ranged from one to six (mean 2.7). 79% of the isolated microbial species were Gram-positive bacteria. The most common isolates were Streptococcus (27%), Actinomyces (27%), Staphylococcus (18%), Enterococcus (18%) and Lactobacillus (18%) spp. Yeasts were found as four isolates in 3 cases (9%). β-lactamase-producing bacterial strains were detected in 12 specimens, 36% of the patients. The most common enzyme-producing bacteria belonged to Actinomyces and Staphylococcus spp. The microbial flora in previously treated root canals with apical periodontitis is limited to a small number of predominantly Gram-positive microbial species. The most common isolates are Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus spp. A moderately high prevalence of β-lactamase producing bacterial strains was detected in patients with root filled teeth with apical periodontitis.

  11. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  12. EAST/SeSAME syndrome - review of the literature and introduction of four new Latvian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, C; Ieva, M; Inna, I; Mareta, A; Sandra, K; Pereca, J; Janis, S; Dita, P; Jurgis, S

    2018-05-03

    EAST (Epilepsy, Ataxia, Sensorineural deafness, Tubulopathy) or SeSAME (Seizures, Sensorineural deafness, Ataxia, Mental retardation, and Electrolyte imbalance) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome first described in 2009 independently by Bockenhauer and Scholl. It is caused by mutations in KCNJ10, which encodes Kir4.1, an inwardly rectifying K + channel found in the brain, inner ear, kidney and eye. To date, 16 mutations in at least 28 patients have been reported. In this paper, we review mutations causing EAST/SeSAME syndrome, clinical manifestations in detail, and efficacy of treatment in previously reported patients. We also report a new Latvian kindred with four patients. In contrast to the majority of previous reports, we found a progressive course of the disorder in terms of hearing impairment and neurologic deficit. The treatment is based on antiepileptic drugs, electrolyte replacement, hearing aids and mobility devices. Future research should concentrate on recognizing the lesions in the central nervous system to evaluate new potential diagnostic criteria and on formally evaluating intellectual disability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes-the role of glucose and other factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmidt, Lone

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values.......We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values....

  14. Latvian dialects in the 21st century: old and new borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stafecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Latvian dialects in the 21st century: old and new borders Although historical regional dialects are still relatively well preserved in Latvia, nowadays one can no longer speak of dialects and sub-dialects in the traditional sense because, due to changes of administrative borders, the traditional sub-dialects are subject to attrition and gradual loss. In particular, the contact zone of Central and High Latvian dialect has changed markedly. The border of High Latvian dialect has moved to the east. Since 2013, a project “Latvian Dialects in the 21st Century: a Socio­linguistic Aspect” is being carried out in order to gain an insight into contemporary Latvian dialect situation, analyzing at least three sub-dialects in each dialect. However, we can speak of dialect borders in another aspect. For instance, the borders between the preservation of dialectal features and the impact of standard language, as well as the borders of maintenance of sub-dialectal feature among the speakers of different age groups. Attention is also paid to the use of sub-dialects in central and peripheral parts of territories. The first research results showed that people who live further from the centre use the sub-dialect more often – especially in communication with family members (including the younger generation, relatives and neighbours. The preliminary results show a different situation among dialects. In the sub-dialects of the Middle dialect, which is closest to Standard Latvian, the borderline between sub-dialect and standard language has almost disappeared, since the infor­mants practically do not feel any difference between them. In the Livonianized dialect, there are several features that are still more or less present in the speech of all generations – generalization of masculine gender, reduc­tion of word endings, etc. However, in this dialect, too, the language used by younger speakers is gradually losing the dialectal features. The situation differs

  15. The relationship between child abuse and adult obesity among california women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-07-01

    Despite clinical studies suggesting that child abuse is associated with adult obesity, very few studies have been conducted with large community or state-based samples. This study examines the relationship between child abuse and adult obesity, relative to other risk factors such as demographics, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity, in a representative sample of California women. Data are from the California Women's Health Survey, a state-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey of California women. Participants included 11,115 nonpregnant women aged 18 or older, who provided complete data for all study variables. The telephone interview included assessment of child abuse (abstracted from the Traumatic Stress Schedule), food insecurity, perceived stress, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, height, and weight. Data were collected in 2002, 2003, and 2004, and analyzed in 2006. Obese (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or higher) women were significantly more likely to report exposure to child abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.42). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and perceived stress, women exposed to child abuse remained significantly more likely to be obese than unexposed women (adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.13-1.40). The population-attributable fraction of obesity associated with any type of abuse was 4.5% (95% CI=2.28-6.55). Exposure to child abuse is associated with adult obesity among California women, even accounting for other relevant variables. This supports the notion that child abuse and its sequelae may be important targets for public health intervention, particularly in subpopulations where the prevalence of child abuse is known to be high.

  16. Why Is Cancer More Depressing for Men than Women among Older White Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    Using data from two waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 8,054), I examine gender differences in psychological adjustment to cancer among older white adults. Results from different types of longitudinal models reveal that cancer has more adverse psychological implications for men than women. Men's higher levels of depression are reduced…

  17. Physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in the Mmasechaba informal settlement in Gauteng. Apart from the questionnaire, anthropometric measurements were recorded and body mass index and waist-to-hip ratios were calculated. The results indicated that the incidence of ...

  18. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  19. Knowing Their Place: Feminist Understandings and Perceptions of Women Adult Educators in Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.; Sanford, K.

    2016-01-01

    Arguing gender inequity remains one of the biggest challenges of our time, and framed within the concept of "pedagogic contact zones", our article shares findings from a five-year feminist, cross-national study of women adult educators and community practitioners in public museums and art galleries in Canada and the United Kingdom.…

  20. Self-reported empathy in adult women with Autism Spectrum Disorders : A systematic mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Francien M; Groen, Yvonne; Becke, Miriam; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is limited research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in females. Although the empathy construct has been examined thoroughly in autism, little attention has been paid to empathy in adult women with this condition or to gender differences within the disorder. OBJECTIVE:

  1. [Food insecurity is associated with obesity in adult women of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma Del Carmen; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Valderrama-Álvarez, Zaira; Melgar-Quiñónez, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the association of food insecurity (FI) and obesity in adults in Mexico. Cross-sectional design. We included adults' data from the health and nutrition national survey 2012 (Ensanut 2012). Measures of weight and height were obtained and BMI was calculated. The level of household food insecurity was measured through the Latin American Scale of Food Security (ELCSA). Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted. 70.6% of the population had some level of food insecurity, 42.6% mild insecurity, 17.7% moderate insecurity and 10.3% severe insecurity. Adults with mild FI had higher probability of obesity (OR: 1.66; 95%CI 1.11-2.50). Women were slightly more likely to be obese (OR: 1.78; 95%CI 1.01-3.12). Mild FI is associated with obesity, particularly among women.

  2. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Larsen, Tine B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... analysed by systematic text condensation influenced by Giorgi's phenomenological method and supplemented by elements from narrative analysis. FINDINGS: The analysis revealed three concepts: solution to an unbearable problem, learning new boundaries and hopes of normalization. These revelatory concepts were...

  3. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.

  4. Life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Shifiona

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems with women in peri-urban Namibie are faced with are multi-dimensional.Like women in other communities they face the pressure of having a number of responsibilities, namely working, being a wife and mother, taking care of their families and perhaps caring for aging parents. Sometimes the pressure can be too overwhelming to manage. As a result, many women become depressed. Studies on depression among black African women in Namibia could not be traced. It was therefore considered to find out how women suffering from depression from this part of the world tell their life stories. The purpose of the study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore and describe the life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia, and secondly to use the information obtained to describe guidelines for psychiatric nurses working with these patients at psychiatric outpatient clinics as well as in the community. A qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature was used. The researcher approached the subjects and their experiences with an open mind. Ten depressed adult women between 21-55 years were involved in the research. The researcher strived to adhere to the principles of trustworthiness. To ensure this Guba’s model (in Krefting, 1991: 217 of trustworthiness was adopted. All the interviews were analysed following Tesch’s method (Creswell, 1994: 154-55. The services of an independent coder were obtained. The results indicated that impaired interpersonal interactions and stressful life events have a negative influence on the daily life of women leading to the development of depressive symptoms. Guidelines to support psychiatric nurses working with depressed women were drawn up.

  5. Life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifiona, N N; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H

    2006-05-01

    The problems women in peri-urban Namibia are faced with are multi-dimensional. Like women in other communities they face the pressure of having a number of responsibilities, namely working, being a wife and mother, taking care of their families and perhaps caring for aging parents. Sometimes the pressure can be too overwhelming to manage. As a result, many women become depressed. Studies on depression among black African women in Namibia could not be traced. It was therefore considered to find out how women suffering from depression from this part of the world tell their life stories. The purpose of the study was two-fold: Firstly, to explore and describe the life stories of depressed adult women in peri-urban Namibia, and secondly to use the information obtained to describe guidelines for psychiatric nurses working with these patients at psychiatric outpatient clinics as well as in the community. A qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature was used. The researcher approached the subjects and their experiences with an open mind. Ten depressed adult women between 21-55 years were involved in the research. The researcher strived to adhere to the principles of trustworthiness. To ensure this Guba's model (in Krefting, 1991: 217) of trustworthiness was adopted. All the interviews were analysed following Tesch's method (Creswell, 1994: 154-55). The services of an independent coder were obtained. The results indicated that impaired interpersonal interactions and stressful life events have a negative influence on the daily life of women leading to the development of depressive symptoms. Guidelines to support psychiatric nurses working with depressed women were drawn up.

  6. Childhood family structure and women's adult overweight risk: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; de Luna, Xavier; Häggström, Jenny; Ivarsson, Anneli; Lindgren, Urban; Nilsson, Karina; Koupil, Ilona

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether women's adult overweight and obesity risk was associated with their childhood family structure, measured as their mothers' marital status history, during the women's first 18 years of life. Using linked register data, we analyzed 30,584 primiparous women born in Sweden in 1975 who were between 19-35 years of age when their height and pre-pregnancy weight was recorded. The outcomes were women's overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) and the predictor was mothers' marital status history, which was summarized using sequence analysis. We carried out nested logistic regression models adjusting for women's age and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Mothers' marital status history was summarized into six clusters: stable marriage, stable cohabitation, married then divorcing, cohabiting then separating, varied transitions, and not with father. In fully adjusted models and compared with women whose mothers belonged to the stable marriage cluster: (1) women whose mothers belonged to the other marital status clusters had higher odds of overweight/obesity (odds ratio (OR) ranging 1.15-1.19; p overweight or obese in adulthood. The finding that even women raised in the context of stable cohabitation had higher odds of being overweight or obese is intriguing as these relationships are socially accepted in Sweden.

  7. Gender role across development in adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dominique N; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the degree of femininity and masculinity at different developmental stages in a group of adult women, some of whom were exposed to elevated prenatal adrenal androgens as a result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21 hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency. Women who had presented to the Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for treatment of CAH due to 21-OH deficiency were included. The control group consisted of sisters of CAH participants and women referred for evaluation of polycystic ovary syndrome. Study participants were given a questionnaire asking them to indicate their degree of masculinity and femininity during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In addition, participants were asked questions related to their play behavior during childhood, including playmate preferences, toy preferences, and admiration of male or female characters during fantasy play. Across participant groups, self-reported femininity decreased in a dose response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure. For all groups, femininity increased through developmental stages. Women with salt-losing CAH remained less feminine than controls into adulthood. Conversely, self-reported masculinity increased in a dose-response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure, across participant groups. Women with CAH showed a decrease in masculinity across developmental stages, such that by adulthood, there were no significant differences in masculinity between controls and the women with CAH. Women with salt-losing CAH were more likely to recall preferences for boy playmates, male-typical toys, and admiration for male characters during childhood than other study participants. Our data support the effect of both prenatal androgen exposure and socialization on gender role behavior in adult women with CAH due to 21-OH deficiency.

  8. Possible Contribution of PTSD to Altered Cortisol Activity in Young Adult Obese African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.

  9. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Comparison of family-planning service quality reported by adolescents and young adult women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Lozano, Rafael; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Associations between age and patient-reported quality of family planning services were examined among young women in Mexico. A repeated cross-sectional analysis of survey data collected in 2006, 2009, and 2014 was performed. Data from women aged 15-29years who had not undergone sterilization and were currently using a modern contraceptive method were included. The primary outcome was high-quality care, defined as positive responses to all five quality items regarding contraceptive services included in the survey. Multivariable logistic regression and marginal probabilities were used to compare adolescents and women aged 20-29years. The responses of respondents using different contraceptive methods were compared. Data were included from 15 835 individuals. The multivariable analysis demonstrated lower odds of reporting high-quality care among women aged 15-19years (odds ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.88) and 20-24years (odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.96) compared with women aged 25-29years. Adolescents using hormonal and long-acting reversible contraception had significantly lower odds of reporting high-quality care compared with women aged 25-29. Adolescents in Mexico reported a lower quality of family planning services compared with young adult women. Continued research and policies are needed to improve the quality of contraceptive services. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drumlins and related glaciogenic landforms of the Madliena Tilted Plain, Central Latvian Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristaps Lamsters

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results on the morphometry and spatial distribution of the glaciogenic landforms and ice flow directions in the Madliena Tilted Plain that occupies the eastern part of the Central Latvian Lowland. Landforms were investigated by usingtopographic maps at scales of 1:25 000 and 1:10 000. There were identified and mapped 1461 glaciogenic landforms such as drumlins, end moraine ridges, eskers, ribbed moraines, marginal ridges, lateral shear margin moraines and recessional formations. Particular attention is given to the morphometry, spatial distribution, and the internal structure of drumlins. Glacial landscape of the study area was formed by the Zemgale ice lobe in course of deglaciation of the Late Weichselian Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, when the ice decay was interrupted by the reactivation of the Middle Lithuanian and the NorthLithuanian glacial phases at the end of the Oldest Dryas (18–15 ka BP. The detailed study of the internal structure of the Brenceni drumlin suggests that it consists of glaciotectonically disturbed glacio-aquatic sediments and of a single till thrust sheet between sand sediments on the flank of the drumlin. Morphometric analysis of the drumlin field shows that the mean length of drumlins is about 850 m; the mean width indicates the average size 280 m, and the mean elongation ratio is 3.0. The obtained statistics compared to the morphometry of drumlins worldwide, show close similarity, so it coincides with the concept that in general morphometry of drumlins is mostly independent of their location and the characteristics of the ice streams.

  12. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  13. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V.; Braemswig, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients 15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  14. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Minooee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM/ body lean mass (BLM in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW. Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27 vs. 15.7% (22. Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS

  15. Childhood sexual abuse and adult binge drinking among Kanak women in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France

    2009-04-01

    The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conducted in 2002-2003, among women aged 18-54 years drawn from the electoral rolls. Childhood sexual abuse before 15 years of age was reported by 11.6% of respondents. Nearly all the perpetrators (96%) were known to the victims (63% being a close relative). The rate of frequent binge drinking amongst the women within the last 12 months was 34%. After controlling for social and demographic factors, an independent association was found between childhood sexual abuse and current binge drinking. This study is the first to analyse the contribution of childhood sexual abuse to the likelihood of later heavy alcohol use in an indigenous population in the South Pacific. The findings call for improving and giving priority to care for children who are victims of violence to prevent long-term health consequences and to develop prevention programs aimed at alcohol-related behaviour in women, while taking into account simultaneous individual and collective factors.

  16. Alexithymia, emotion perception, and social assertiveness in adult women with Noonan and Turner syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Freriks, Kim; Verhaak, Chris M; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2015-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome (TS) are associated with cognitive problems and difficulties in affective information processing. While both phenotypes include short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and a webbed neck, genetic etiology and neuropsychological phenotype differ significantly. The present study examines putative differences in affective information processing and social assertiveness between adult women with NS and TS. Twenty-six women with NS, 40 women with TS, and 40 female controls were matched on age and intelligence, and subsequently compared on (1) alexithymia, measured by the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, (2) emotion perception, evaluated by the Emotion Recognition Task, and (3) social assertiveness and social discomfort, assessed by the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior. Women with TS showed higher levels of alexithymia than women with NS and controls (P-values assertiveness and the level of social discomfort. Women with NS and TS demonstrated different patterns of impairment in affective information processing, in terms of alexithymia and emotion perception. The present findings suggest neuropsychological phenotyping to be helpful for the diagnosis of specific cognitive-affective deficits in genetic syndromes, for the enhancement of genetic counseling, and for the development of personalized treatment plans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  18. Sexual identity and orientation in adult men and women with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Hensel, Devon J; Wiener, John S; Whittam, Benjamin; Cain, Mark P; Misseri, Rosalia

    2017-12-11

    Sexuality has received little attention in spina bifida (SB) care. The aim of this study was to assess sexual identity and orientation in adults with SB. An international online survey to adults with SB was administered over 10-months (recruitment: SB clinics, SB organizations via social media). Collected data included demographics, sexual identity and orientation. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. Median age of 77 men and 119 women was 35 years old (52.0% shunted, 48.5% community ambulators, 42.3% outside United States). Most commonly, men identified as male (96.1%), while 1.3% each described themselves as female, transgender and other. All women reporting sexual identity identified as female (99.2%), 0.8% not providing an answer. Most men reported heterosexual orientation (89.6%), followed by gay (7.8%) and bisexual (2.6%). Most women reported heterosexual orientation (84.9%), followed by bisexual (10.4%), gay/lesbian (2.5%), asexual (0.8%) and other (1.7%). As in the general population, sexual identity typically coincides with biological gender. Sexual orientation of adults with SB mirrors the general population. Due to self-selection, these findings likely do not reflect exact prevalence in the SB population.

  19. Estimates of fruit and vegetable intake in childhood and adult dietary behaviors of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Kreuter, Matthew K; Holt, Cheryl; Steger-May, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how estimates of one's fruit and vegetable intake in childhood are related to 3 current dietary behaviors among African American women: intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure to and preference for fruits and vegetables, and preference for trying new foods. Baseline data from a randomized dietary intervention trial. Ten urban public health centers in St. Louis, Missouri. 1227 African American women. A 33-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, items measuring estimates of childhood fruit and vegetable intake, adult fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to and preference for fruit and vegetable, and preference for trying new foods. Linear regression evaluated the association between predictors and continuous measures; logistic regression determined the association between predictors and categorical measures. Estimates of one's vegetable intake as a child were significantly related to exposure and preference for both fruits and vegetables, trying of new foods, and intake of both fruits and vegetables in adulthood. Estimates of eating fruit as a child were not significantly associated with these adult dietary behaviors. Developmental influences on adult dietary patterns may be stronger for vegetables than fruits among African American women. Additional emphasis is needed regarding exposure to and preference for vegetable intake in childhood.

  20. Health status, quality of life and medical care in adult women with Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Alexandra Ertl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that only a minority of patients with Turner syndrome (TS have adequate medical care after transfer to adult care. Aim of this study: To assess the status of medical follow-up and quality of life (QoL in adult women diagnosed with TS and followed up until transfer. To compare the subjective and objective view of the medical care quality and initiate improvements based on patients’ experiences and current recommendations. Methods: 39 adult women with TS out of 64 patients contacted were seen for a clinical and laboratory check, cardiac ultrasound, standardized and structured questionnaires (SF-36v2 and Beck depression inventory. Results: 7/39 of the patients were not being followed medically at all. Only 2/39 consulted all the specialists recommended. Comorbidities were newly diagnosed in 27/39 patients; of these, 11 related to the cardiovascular system. Patients in our cohort scored as high as the mean reference population for SF-36v2 in both mental and physical compartments. Obese participants had lower scores in the physical function section, whereas higher education was related to higher physical QoL scores. Adult height slightly correlated positively with physical health. Conclusion: Medical follow-up was inadequate in our study cohort of adults with TS. Even though their medical follow-up was insufficient, these women felt adequately treated, leaving them vulnerable for premature illness. Initiatives in health autonomy and a structured transfer process as well as closer collaborations within specialities are urgently needed.

  1. Statin therapy and the risk for diabetes among adult women: do the benefits outweigh the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunsheng; Culver, Annie; Rossouw, Jacques; Olendzki, Barbara; Merriam, Philip; Lian, Bill; Ockene, Ira

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine statin therapy and the risk for diabetes among adult women using a selective review. The literature contains reports of new-onset diabetes associated with statin use. While many studies do not report sex-specific results, there is evidence indicating the risk to benefit ratio may vary by gender. However, the absolute effects are not clear because women have historically been under-represented in clinical trials. A review of the literature indicates that the cardiovascular benefits of statins appear to outweigh the risk for statin-related diabetes. However, the effect may depend upon baseline diabetes risk, dose, and statin potency. Rigorous, long-term studies focused on the risks and benefits of statins in women are unavailable to sort for gender-specific differences. Until this changes, individualized attention to risk assessment, and strong prevention with lifestyle changes must prevail.

  2. Hazardous drinking and dimensions of impulsivity, behavioral approach, and inhibition in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-06-01

    Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all 3 dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than nonhazardous drinkers. This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Inequalities in maintenance of health and performance between young adult women and men in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Dellve, Lotta; Eklöf, Mats; Hagberg, Mats

    2009-04-01

    Because of ageing populations, most high-income countries are facing an imminent scarcity of labour. Maintenance of health and performance in young adults therefore becomes a crucial prerequisite for sustainable societies. One major obstruction to this accomplishment is the striking health inequalities between young women and young men. Previously these inequalities have mainly been studied in a cross-sectional way, focusing on ill-health. In this study, we compared the prevalence of maintained health and performance between young adult women and men and the predictors for this outcome. The cohort consisted of 1266 participants from a homogenous sample of university students in Sweden. A combined assessment of self-rated 'very good' health and un-impaired performance took place at three time points (i.e. maintained health and performance). Potential predictors covered stable conditions in health-related behaviours, conditions at work/school and work-home interference. Young women had less maintained health and performance than young men. No major differences in predictors were found. However, there was a tendency for psychosocial factors to be the most important predictors, especially in women. That young women had less maintained health and performance in a homogenous sample beyond well-known differentiating factors suggests explanations other than observable structural differences between the sexes. This was also indicated by the importance attached to perceived demands, and work-home interference, especially in women. The combination of less scheduled, and more unscheduled, schoolwork (i.e. time-flexibility) negatively affected the maintenance of health and performance in our study population, suggesting a focus for future studies.

  4. The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Sherina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013, ethnicity (p = 0.001, religion (p = 0.002, schooling (p = 0.020, educational level (p = 0.016, marital status (p = 0.001 and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.

  5. Relationship TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in adult women by nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Belén

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ratio assessment TG/HDL-C is an indicator of LDL size, facilitating the detection of individuals with increased atherogenic risk. Estimating the size of the LDL becomes important, especially in patients with TG values near the upper limit of normal values of reference and HDL-C. The objective of the study is to estimate the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance (IR by nutritional status in adult women attending the Foundation for Endocrine Metabolic Diseases Research and Applied Clinical Research (FIEEM.Material and methods: Design Cross-sectional, non-pregnant adult women, apparently healthy, older than 30 years old, attending FIEEM in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Dependent variable: TG/HDL-C ≥ 3.0 considered high value. Independent variables: IR by homeostatic model index HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 categorizing the sample into two groups: with and without IR, and controlled by nutritional status using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (CC. SPSS Statistics 15.0, calculating X2 or Fisher exact test, OR with confidence intervals of 95% and establishing logistic regression p value < 0.05.Results: We evaluated a purposive sample of 104 women (31.4% and 26% IR with TG/HDL-C high. 84.6% were overweight or obese and 88.5% increased CC. Women with BMI had significantly increased 0.15-fold increased risk (95% CI = 0.01 to 1.26 for TG/HDL-C high (p = 0.04 than the control women. There was no significance with increased CC. The ratio TG/HDL-C high IR was significantly correlated (r = 0.30 p = 0.002.Conclusions: Body weight was significantly associated with IR and the ratio TG/HDL-C increased. This ratio correlated significantly with IR in apparently healthy women.

  6. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

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    Andy R. Eugene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men.

  7. Kenyan women adult literacy learners: why their motivation is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwiria, K

    1993-05-01

    Kenya, like other Third World countries, has illiteracy rates for women which are twice those of men (in 1978, 35% of males and 70% of females aged 15 and above were illiterate). Since the beginning of the country's literacy campaign in 1979, women have comprised more than 70% of attendees. While this situation remains the case, the overall enrolment figures for the program have shown a gradual decline from 1979 to 1990 due to a lack of emphasis on individual motivation. Women dominate the literacy programs for several reasons: 1) women historically had less access to formal education than men; 2) the changing economy has forced women to assume extra responsibilities outside the home which make the women want to acquire formal skills; 3) women's schedules are often flexible enough to allow them to attend classes; 4) literacy classes provide women with needed socialization opportunities; and 5) in some communities cultural norms prevent men from attending classes with women. Women also have many obstacles which make their desire to become adult learners difficult to sustain. They have responsibilities which range from child-bearing to management of their family farms which leave them little time for study or class attendance. There is also little encouragement offered the women either at home or in their classes. At home they are confronted with a myriad of demands on their time. Their classes take place in conditions which are not very conducive to learning (classrooms designed for children or open air centers). The literacy teachers are, for the most part, unqualified. They must meet only minimal requirements and receive no training. The women also have less opportunities to practice their new skills outside of the classroom. Women have less time then men to read, and they are less fluent then men in English and Kiswahili, the 2 official languages of Kenya. Because Kenyan society is male-dominated, there is little encouragement given to women who attempt to

  8. Preliminary investigation of foot pressure distribution variation in men and women adults while standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, R; Mishra, A; Anand, Sneh; Ammini, A C

    2011-09-01

    Women and men are anatomically and physiologically different in a number of ways. They differ in both shape and size. These differences could potentially mean foot pressure distribution variation in men and women. The purpose of this study was to analyze standing foot pressure image to obtain the foot pressure distribution parameter - power ratio variation between men and women using image processing in frequency domain. We examined 28 healthy adult subjects (14 men and 14 women) aged between 20 and 45 years was recruited for our study. Foot pressure distribution patterns while standing are obtained by using a PedoPowerGraph plantar pressure measurement system for foot image formation, a digital camera for image capturing, a TV tuner PC-add on card, a WinDvr software for still capture and Matlab software with dedicated image processing algorithms have been developed. Various PedoPowerGraphic parameters such as percentage medial impulse (PMI), fore foot to hind foot pressure distribution ratio (F/H), big toe to fore foot pressure distribution ratio (B/F) and power ratio (PR) were evaluated. In men, contact area was significantly larger in all regions of the foot compared with women. There were significant differences in plantar pressure distribution but there was no significant difference in F/H and B/F ratio. Mean PR value was significantly greater in men than women under the hind foot and fore foot. PMI value was greater in women than men. As compared to men, women have maximum PR variations in the mid foot. Hence there is significant difference at level pfeet can provide suitable guidelines to biomedical engineers and doctor for designing orthotic devices for reliving the area of excessively high pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  10. Women Know Better What Other Women Think and Feel: Gender Effects on Mindreading across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Renata; Bölte, Sven; Dziobek, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Research recurrently shows that females perform better than males on various mindreading tasks. The present study contributes to this growing body of literature by being the first to demonstrate a female own-gender mindreading bias using a naturalistic social cognition paradigm including female and male targets. We found that women performed better at reading others' minds, and that they were specifically more capable to read female targets, an own-gender target effect absent in men. Furthermore, a non-linear negative effect of perceiver age on mindreading performance was examined within a sample covering the age range of 17-70 years, as indicated by a stronger performance decrease setting on by the age of 30 years and continuing throughout middle and old age. These findings add to a more comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors influencing mindreading performance in typically developing adults.

  11. Women Know Better What Other Women Think and Feel: Gender Effects on Mindreading across the Adult Life Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wacker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research recurrently shows that females perform better than males on various mindreading tasks. The present study contributes to this growing body of literature by being the first to demonstrate a female own-gender mindreading bias using a naturalistic social cognition paradigm including female and male targets. We found that women performed better at reading others’ minds, and that they were specifically more capable to read female targets, an own-gender target effect absent in men. Furthermore, a non-linear negative effect of perceiver age on mindreading performance was examined within a sample covering the age range of 17–70 years, as indicated by a stronger performance decrease setting on by the age of 30 years and continuing throughout middle and old age. These findings add to a more comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors influencing mindreading performance in typically developing adults.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of beta human papillomavirus detection in fingernail samples from mid-adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Winer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs have not been evaluated in fingernails from healthy individuals. To determine prevalence and correlates of β-HPVs in fingernails from healthy mid-adult women, we tested archived samples collected from 2011 to 2012 using a multiplex PCR combined with Luminex technology for 46 β-HPV genotypes. One hundred thirteen (61.1% of 185 fingernail samples were positive for β-HPV, and the median number of types detected in positive samples was 2 (interquartile range: 1–4. The most common genotypes detected were HPV-23 (β−2 (13.5%, HPV-38 (β−2 (13.0%, HPV-5 (β−1 (9.2%, HPV-107 (β−2 (8.7%, and HPV-120 (β−2 (8.7%. In multivariate analysis, β-HPV detection was associated with age (prevalence ratio [PR] for women 40–51 years versus 30–39 years = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05–1.62 and race (PR for non-white versus white race = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45–0.94. The prevalence of β-HPV in fingernail samples from healthy mid-adult women was similar to the prevalence of β-HPV reported at other cutaneous sites in prior studies. We did not identify any significant health or sexual behavior predictors of β-HPV detection in fingernails. Our results support the hypothesis that fingers may serve as a source of transmission or autoinoculation of cutaneous HPVs to other anatomic sites. Keywords: Fingernails, Women, Beta-HPV, Prevalence, Mid-adult, Risk factor

  13. [Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the sexual and affective relationships of adult women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María Isabel

    To analyse perceived sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with affective relationships and confidence and communication in existing relationships, related to a past history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and type suffered, among women treated as part of the Catalonian Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Programme (PASSIR). Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,013 women over the age of 18 years, who underwent psychological therapy at any of the 24 PASSIR centres, were enrolled. A structured, anonymised, self-administered Sex History Questionnaire adapted from Wyatt (1985) & Dubé et al. (2005), and the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen, 2000), were used. Statistical analysis was descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Women who suffered childhood sexual abuse had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with lower perceived sexual satisfaction. CSA with penetration or attempted penetration was associated with greater arousal difficulties and greater rejection. Women who experienced CSA were less confident and experienced greater communication difficulties with their partner. It is necessary to identify potential childhood sexual abuse among women who seek therapy due to relationship problems. It is also necessary to continue research into protective factors and therapeutic interventions to alleviate the consequences of CSA in adult life. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Use of contraception and family planning in adolescent and adult women in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Leigh, Betania; Villalobos-Hernández, Aremis; Hernández-Serrato, María I; Suárez, Leticia; de la Vara, Elvia; de Castro, Filipa; Schiavon-Ermani, Raffaela

    2013-01-01

    To offer current evidence about age at sexual initiation and contraceptive use among adolescent and adult women of different age groups, places of residence, and marital status in Mexico. Data were analyzed from ENSANUT 2006 and 2012 surveys on knowledge and use of contraceptives. In 2012 31.2% of 15-19 year old adolescent women had undergone sexual debut. Condom use increased from 31.8% in 2006 to 47.8% in 2012. Women in rural areas reported lower levels of contraceptive use at last sexual intercourse; 47.9% of 30-34 year-old and 53.2% of 35-49 year-old women reported not using any contraception at last sexual intercourse. A high percentage of women did not adopt contraception after the most recent obstetric event: 52% (15-19 years), 44.2% (20-29 years), 42.5% (30-34 years) and 39% (≥35 years)]. Equitable policies to promote contraception, particularly after a post-obstetric event, are needed.

  15. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  16. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

  17. Transference and Countertransference Issues Unique to Long-Term Group Psychotherapy of Adult Women Molested as Children: Trials and Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Veronica D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses transference and countertransference issues associated with long-term psychodynamic group treatment of adult women molested as children. Describes and examines these women's transference reactions toward group members and the therapist. Also explores the specific effects of race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender of the…

  18. Adult women's experiences of urinary incontinence: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Adilson; Hoga, Luiza; Gonçalves, Bruna; Silva, Pâmela; Pereira, Priscilla

    2017-05-01

    Women are affected dramatically by urinary incontinence (UI). This disease is currently considered as epidemic. The objective of this review is to identify, through the best available evidence, how women experience UI worldwide. The current review included studies of adult women who had experienced UI. Women with UI from various social and cultural settings were included in this review. Qualitative data including, but not limited to, study designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were included in this review. All aspects related to the experience of UI endured by women were considered. An initial search of MEDLINE (PubMed) and CINAHL was done, followed by the exploration of all the databases and all identified studies, published in English, Spanish, French and Portuguese. The databases searched were CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Lilacs, Scielo, BVS, BVS-Psi, Scopus, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International and the University of São Paulo Dissertations and Thesis bank and gray literature. Each primary study was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality. The Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Appraisal and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) data extraction form for interpretive and critical research was used to appraise the methodological quality of all papers. Qualitative data were extracted using the JBI-QARI. Qualitative research findings were synthesized using the JBI-QARI. From the 28 studies were included, 189 findings were extracted and they were grouped into 25 categories and eight synthesized findings: (i) cultural and religious backgrounds and personal reluctance contribute to delays in seeking UI treatment; (ii) the inevitable and regrettable problem of UI endured silently and alone affects women's daily activities and their social roles; (iii) poor knowledge and the vague nature of the symptoms mask the fact that UI is a disease; (iv) the experiences

  19. Baseline heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression in young adult women: a two-sample examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although substantial literature discusses sensation seeking as playing a role in the relationship between baseline heart rate and aggression, few published studies have tested the relationships among these variables. Furthermore, most prior studies have focused on risk factors of aggression in men and have largely ignored this issue in women. Two samples (n = 104; n = 99) of young adult women completed measures of resting heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression. Across the two samples of females there was no evidence for the relationships of baseline heart rate with sensation seeking or with aggression that has been consistently shown in males. Boredom susceptibility and disinhibition subscales of sensation seeking were consistently significantly correlated with aggression. The lack of significance and the small effect sizes indicate that other mechanisms are also at work in affecting aggression in young adult women. Finally, it is important to consider the type of sensation seeking in relation to aggression, as only boredom susceptibility and disinhibition were consistently replicated across samples. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce in adult women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Junshi; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Li, Liming

    2011-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in an iron deficient population. This study was an uncontrolled, community-based, before-after study, which was implemented in three counties of Shijiazhuang Municipality. The intervention was a social mobilization and social marketing strategy. Adult women older than 20 years of age participated in the evaluation protocol. The main outcomes included KAP relevant to IDA. Cross-sectional samples were used to assess the outcomes at baseline and 1 year later. Knowledge and attitudes of adult women had changed positively, and the percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P marketing had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women in the iron deficient population.

  1. biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Naser, H.F.O.

    2004-01-01

    this study investigates the biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases.100 women in premenopausal period (between 30-45 years) were divided into 5 groups:group(1) control, group(2) obese,group (3) HCV non-obese, group(4) HCV obese and group (5) other liver diseases. the obtained results indicated that, for all female-studied groups there were very highly significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist ,hip circumferences, while ,there were non-significant differences in height and waist hip ratio.also there were very highly significant differences in AST, ALT,Alkaline phosphatase,GGT,bilirubin, these results may be due to hepatic injury and metabolic dysfunction. there were very highly significant differences in HDL,triglycerides and total lipids, whereas it was significant difference in cholesterol and non-significant for LDL, these differences might be contributed to obesity and hepatitis virus C infection

  2. Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Freitas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2. A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2. Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7. The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women.

  3. The Predictors of Falls in Adult and Senior Women from Cities of Lower Silesia, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domaradzki Arosław

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. balance disorders are considered a significant problem in the elderly as they are associated with an increased incidence of falls. In effect, they can lead to numerous injuries, disability, or even death. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between the risk of falling and various factors (morphology, socioeconomic status, physical fitness, and physical activity level in adult and elderly women. Methods. The study population sample included 149 women aged 47-89 years living in the province of Lower Silesia, Poland. The women were divided into two age groups of younger (n =83,3cage = 59.09 years and older (n = 66, xage = 70.77 years participants. Measures included bMI, marital status, and physical activity, physical fitness, and education levels. Statistical analysis included a chi-squared (%2 test, cluster analysis, logistic regression, and correspondence analysis. Results. bMI and physical fitness were strongly correlated with falls: the higher the bMI (overweight or obese and the lower physical fitness, the greater the risk of falling. The remaining variables showed a weak relationship with falling. Conclusions. The fall risk of women who are overweight or obese or with a low physical fitness level is approximately 2.5 times higher than those with normal and healthy levels of bMI and physical fitness. The presence of both risk factors increased the likelihood of falling.

  4. [Influence of hormonal contraceptives on indices of zinc homeostasis and bone remodeling in young adult women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Tania Mara Rodrigues; Zapata, Carmiña Lucía Vargas; Donangelo, Carmen Marino

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the influence of the use of oral hormonal contraceptive agents (OCA) on the biochemical indices related to metabolic zinc utilization and distribution, and to bone turnover in young adult women. Cross-sectional study. Blood and urine samples from non-users (-OCA; control; n=69) and users of hormonal contraceptives for at least 3 months (+OCA; n=62) were collected under controlled conditions. Indices of zinc homeostasis and of bone turnover were analyzed in serum or plasma (total, albumin-bound and α2-macroglobulin-bound zinc, albumin and total and bone alkaline phosphatase activity), in erythrocytes (zinc and metallothionein) and in urine (zinc, calcium and hydroxyproline). The habitual zinc and calcium intakes were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary zinc intake was similar in both groups and on average above recommended values, whereas calcium intake was similarly sub-adequate in +OCA and -OCA. Compared to controls, +OCA had lower concentrations of total and α2-macroglobulin-bound zinc (11 and 28.5%, respectively, puse decreases serum zinc, alters zinc distribution in major serum fractions with possible effects on tissue uptake, enhances zinc retention in the body and decreases bone turnover. Prolonged OCA use may lead to lower peak bone mass and/or to impaired bone mass maintenance in young women, particularly in those with marginal calcium intake. The observed OCA effects were more evident in women younger than 25 years and in nulliparous women, deserving special attention in future studies.

  5. Sociocultural experiences, body image, and indoor tanning among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Greene, Kathryn; Darabos, Katie; Carpenter, Amanda; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this survey study was to evaluate a model of body image influences on indoor tanning behavior. Participants were 823 young adult women recruited from a probability-based web panel in the United States. Consistent with our hypothesized model, tanning-related sociocultural experiences were indirectly associated with lifetime indoor tanning use and intentions to tan as mediated through tan surveillance and tan dissatisfaction. Findings suggest the need for targeting body image constructs as mechanisms of behavior change in indoor tanning behavioral interventions.

  6. White public regard: associations among eating disorder symptomatology, guilt, and White guilt in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Hubbard, Rebecca R; Tully, Carrie B; Utsey, Shawn O; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2014-01-01

    As a novel investigation of the role of White racial identity, the current study explored the link between White guilt and disordered eating. Young adult women (N=375), 200 of whom self-identified as White. Measures assessed disordered eating, trait guilt, White guilt, and affect. White guilt is interrelated with disordered eating, particularly bulimic symptomatology. Distress tolerance and tendency to experience negative affect moderated the relation between White guilt and several disordered eating variables. Exploration of White guilt in clinical and research settings can inform understanding and treatment of disordered eating. © 2013.

  7. Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Detected in the Oral Cavity and Fingernails of Mid-Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tsung-chieh Jane; Hughes, James P; Feng, Qinghua; Hulbert, Ayaka; Hawes, Stephen E; Xi, Long Fu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Stern, Joshua E; Koutsky, Laura A; Winer, Rachel L

    2015-12-01

    Oral and fingernail human papillomavirus (HPV) detection may be associated with HPV-related carcinoma risk at these nongenital sites and foster transmission to the genitals. We describe the epidemiology of oral and fingernail HPV among mid-adult women. Between 2011 and 2012, 409 women aged 30 to 50 years were followed up for 6 months. Women completed health and behavior surveys and provided self-collected oral, fingernail, and vaginal specimens at enrollment and exit for type-specific HPV DNA testing. Concordance of type-specific HPV detection across anatomical sites was described with κ statistics. Using generalized estimating equations or exact logistic regression, we measured the univariate associations of various risk factors with type-specific oral and fingernail HPV detection. Prevalence of detecting HPV in the oral cavity (2.4%) and fingernails (3.8%) was low compared with the vagina (33.1%). Concordance across anatomical sites was poor (κ history (OR, 11.1; 95% CI, 2.8-infinity), lifetime number of male vaginal sex partners at least 10 (OR vs. 0-3 partners, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.2-infinity), and lifetime number of open-mouth kissing partners at least 16 (OR vs. 0-15 partners, infinity; 95% CI, 2.6-infinity, by exact logistic regression) were each associated with oral HPV detection. Although our findings support HPV DNA deposition or autoinoculation between anatomical sites in mid-adult women, the rarity of HPV in the oral cavity and fingernails suggests that oral/fingernail HPV does not account for a significant fraction of HPV in genital sites.

  8. The role of birth cohorts in studies of adult health: the New York women's birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mary Beth; Flom, Julie; Tehranifar, Parisa; Susser, Ezra

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating associations between early life factors and adult health are often limited to studying exposures that can be reliably recalled in adulthood or obtained from existing medical records. There are few US studies with detailed data on the pre- and postnatal environment whose study populations are now in adulthood; one exception is the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). We contacted former female participants of the New York site of the CPP who were born from 1959 to 1963 and were prospectively followed for 7 years to examine whether the pre- and postnatal environment is associated with adult health in women 40 years after birth. The New York CPP cohort is particularly diverse; at enrolment, the race/ethnicity distribution of mothers was approximately 30% White, 40% Black and 30% Puerto Rican. Of the 841 eligible women, we successfully traced 375 women (45%) and enrolled 262 women (70% of those traced). Baseline data were available for all eligible women, and we compared those who participated with the remaining cohort (n = 579). Higher family socio-economic status at age 7, availability of maternal social security number, and White race/ethnicity were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of tracing. Of those traced, race/ethnicity was associated with participation, with Blacks and Puerto Ricans less likely to participate than Whites (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 0.8, and OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 1.0, respectively). In addition, higher weight at 7 years was associated with lower participation (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92, 0.99), but this association was observed only among the non-White participants. None of the other maternal characteristics, infant or early childhood growth measures was associated with participation or with tracing, either overall or within each racial/ethnic subgroup. Daughters' recall of early life factors such as pre-eclampsia (sensitivity = 24%) and birthweight were generally poor, with the

  9. Study of a cohort of Latvian workers having participated to the decontamination of the nuclear site of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viel, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the consequences attributable to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, it is debated whether post-disaster psycho-pathology is related to the perception of the level of contamination or the level of contamination itself. To address this issue, the authors have assessed the association of various exposure mental and psychosomatic distress, on a sample of 1,1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl clean-up workers registry. The outcome considered was a mixed mental/psychosomatic disorder occurring during the time period 1986-1995. Comparisons between subgroups of the cohort, classified according to exposure type or level, were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work (≥ 28 days) in a 10 km radius from the reactor (relative risk (RR) = 1.39, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR 1.46, 95 percent CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR 1.41,95 percent CI 1.19-1.68), and fresh fruits consumption (≥ 1 time/day) (RR 1.72,95 percent CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental/ psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR 1.82, 95 percent CI 0.89-3.72), is also associated with this outcome, although non significantly. These findings confirm that some exposure variables represent risk factors for mental disorders and suggest some radiation-induced consequences although surely overweight by stress-related effects. (author)

  10. The CHEK2 del5395 is a founder mutation without direct effects for cancer risk in the latvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plonis J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine: 1 whether the checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2 del5395 (g.27417113-27422508 del, NC_000022.11 is a founder mutation in the Latvian population, 2 if there is an association between CHEK2 del5395 mutation and cancer risk, and 3 and whether the CHEK2 del5395 mutation impacts cancer predisposition in Chernobyl disaster liquidators (the civil and military personnel who were called upon to deal with consequences of the 1986 nuclear disaster as well as geriatric populations. We recruited 438 breast cancer patients, 568 colorectal cancer patients, 399 ovarian cancer patients, 419 prostate cancer patients, 526 healthy blood donors, 480 Chernobyl disaster liquidators and 444 geriatric cancer-free participants. DNA samples were isolated from blood samples and subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The truncation of del5395 was estimated by fragment size of the multiplex PCR.All groups were compared to the healthy blood donors using Fisher’s exact test. All p values were two-sided and the odds ratios (OR calculated by two-by-two table. In cancer groups, the del5395 mutation was most frequently observed in the ovarian cancer group (1.00%, OR = 1.32. In control groups, the del5395 mutation was most frequent (0.76% in the healthy donors, which exceeded its frequency in the Chernobyl liquidators group and the geriatric group by 0.01 and 0.08%, respectively. For all groups, the OR appeared to be >1 only in ovarian cancer patients. However, OR rates showed no statistical significance in either cancer or control groups, with the p value fluctuating within the range of 0.39-1.00. The CHEK2 gene del5395 is a founder mutation in the Latvian population, which, however, does not have a direct impact on genetic predisposition toward colorectal, breast, ovarian and prostate cancer.

  11. Patterns and distribution of HIV among adult men and women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Perkins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available While the estimated prevalence of HIV in India experienced a downward revision in 2007, the patterning and distribution of HIV in the population remains unclear. We examined the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India as well as the patterning of other individual demographic and behavioral determinants of HIV status.We conducted logistic regression models accounting for the survey design using nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 100,030 women and men from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health survey which, for the first time, provided objective assessments of HIV seroprevalence. Although there was a weak relationship between household wealth and risk of being HIV-positive, there was a clear negative relationship between individual education attainment and risk of being HIV-positive among both men and women. A 1000 Rupee change in the per capita net state domestic product was associated with a 4% and 5% increase in the risk for positive HIV status among men and women, respectively. State-level income inequality was associated with increased risk of HIV for men. Marital status and selected sexual behavior indicators were significant predictors of HIV status among women whereas the age effect was the most dominant predictor of HIV infection among men.Although the prevalence of HIV in India is low, the lack of strong wealth patterning in the risk of HIV suggests a more generalized distribution of HIV risk than some of India's high-risk group HIV prevention policies have assumed. The positive association between state economic development and individual risk for HIV is intriguing and requires further scrutiny.

  12. Recreational physical activity is inversely associated with asymptomatic gallstones in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Morán, Santiago; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Morán, Segundo; Duque, Ximena; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Macías, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic research suggests that physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of chronic diseases including gallstones. This study explores the association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and risk of asymptomatic gallstones (AG) in adult Mexican women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women from the Health Workers Cohort Study. The study population included Mexican women aged 17-94 years, with no history of gallstone (GS) or cholecystectomy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on weight change, gynecological health history, cholesterol-lowering medications and diuretics, history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), PA and diet. PA was calculated in minutes/day, minutes/week and Metabolic Equivalents (METs)/week. Gallstone diagnosis was performed using real-time ultrasonography. The association between RPA and risk of AG was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results. Of the 4,953 women involved in the study, 12.3% were diagnosed with AG. The participants with AG were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, and had a higher prevalence of DM2 than those without AG. The participants with > 30 min/day of RPA had lower odds of AG (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03), regardless of other known risk factors for gallstone disease. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between RPA time and AG risk, especially in women doing more than 150 min a week of RPA (OR = 0.76; 95%CI: 0.61- 0.95; P = 0.02). These findings support the hypothesis that RPA may protect against AG, although further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this association.

  13. Social support attenuates the harmful effects of stress in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Elizabeth R; Smith, Bruce W

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that social support buffers the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. The study was conducted in the Southwest United States and data were collected from 2006 to 2010. Participants were 52 healthy adult women who completed a baseline questionnaire and a 21-day daily diary. Social support was assessed in the baseline questionnaire and perceived stress and physical symptoms were assessed in the daily diary. Multilevel analyses were used to predict both same day and next day physical symptoms from baseline social support and daily perceived stress. The hypotheses were supported when predicting both same and next day physical symptoms. For the same day, perceived stress and the social support × perceived stress interaction were both related to physical symptoms. For the next day, the social support × perceived stress interaction but not perceived stress was related to physical symptoms when controlling for previous day physical symptoms. The interactions were such that women higher in social support had smaller increases in same and next day physical symptoms on days of higher perceived stress than women lower in social support. Social support may buffer the effects of daily perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. Future research should investigate what aspects and in what contexts social support may reduce the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms and examine how social support may affect the development of long-term health problems through increases in daily physical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations Between Personality and Drinking Motives Among Abstinent Adult Alcoholic Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher Ruiz, Susan; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kemppainen, Maaria I; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S

    2017-07-01

    Men and women differ in personality characteristics and may be motivated to use alcohol for different reasons. The goals of the present study were to characterize personality and drinking motives by gender and alcoholism status in adults, and to determine how alcoholism history and gender are related to the associations between personality traits and drinking motivation. Personality characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, which includes Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie (Social Conforming) scales. To evaluate drinking motivation, we asked abstinent long-term alcoholic men and women, and demographically similar nonalcoholic participants to complete the Drinking Motives Questionnaire, which includes Conformity, Coping, Social and Enhancement scales. Patterns of personality scale scores and drinking motives differed by alcoholism status, with alcoholics showing higher psychopathology and stronger motives for drinking compared with controls. Divergent gender-specific relationships between personality and drinking motives also were identified, which differed for alcoholics and controls. Alcoholic and control men and women differed with respect to the associations between personality traits and motives for drinking. A better understanding of how different personality traits affect drinking motivations for alcoholic men and women can inform individualized relapse prevention strategies. Men and women differed in their personality traits and their motivations for drinking, and these relationships differed for abstinent alcoholic and control groups. Additionally, alcoholics scored higher on Neuroticism and Psychoticism personality traits, and had lower Enhancement and Social Conformity drinking motives than nonalcoholic controls. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. The ecology of anemia: Anemia prevalence and correlated factors in adult indigenous women in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Laura G; Valeggia, Claudia

    2017-05-06

    The Toba/Qom of Namqom are an indigenous community native to the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina. Historically seminomadic foragers, the diet of peri-urban community members has rapidly changed from high-protein, high-fiber to hypercaloric, processed. This study aims to understand the impact of this nutritional transition on aspects of women's health by exploring the relationship between prevalence of anemia and current diet composition, place of birth, and reproductive history. We measured the capillary hemoglobin (Hb) levels of 153 adult women. Each participant was also given two interviews characterizing reproductive history and a 24-hour food recall. The average Hb level was 12.6 g/dL (range 5.8-15.7 g/dL). In our sample, 28% of participants were anemic and 31% were borderline anemic. Iron and vitamin C consumption were negatively associated with Hb levels. Body mass index was marginally associated with Hb levels. Being born in a peri-urban setting, a proxy for early Westernized diet was associated with higher risk of anemia, suggesting developmental experience may play a role. Pregnant and lactating women had lower Hb levels than menstruating and menopausal women. Age, height, parity, and age at first pregnancy were not found to be statistically significant predictors of anemia. Iron deficiency represents a serious health concern for women, particularly pregnant ones. Our results suggest that both past and current nutritional ecology variables may be associated with the risk of anemia. These findings inform public health interventions, since reproductive history may be more difficult to modify than current diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  17. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m 2 ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R 2 =0.474).

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and risky sexual behavior in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, G M Monawar; Berenson, Abbey B; Tennen, Howard; Bauer, Lance O; Wu, Z Helen

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and high-risk sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study interviewed 462 low-income women aged 18-30 years. We used the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist to assess ADHD symptoms. Risky sexual behaviors included sex before 15 years of age, risky sex partners in lifetime, number of sex partners in the last 12 months, condom use in the last 12 months, alcohol use before sex in the last 12 months, traded sex in lifetime, and diagnosed with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in lifetime. Mean ADHD symptom score was 19.8 (SD±12.9), and summary index of all risky sexual behavior was 1.77 (SD±1.37). Using unadjusted odds ratios (OR), women who endorsed more ADHD symptoms reported engaging in more risky sexual behaviors of all types. However, when multivariable logistic regression was applied adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, the adjusted ORs remained significant for having risky sex partners and having ≥3 sex partners in the prior 12 months. We observed some differences in risky sexual behavior between two domains of ADHD. The ADHD symptom score appears to be associated with some risky sexual behaviors and deserves further attention. A brief ADHD screening can identify this high-risk group for timely evaluation and safe sex counseling.

  19. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAXIMUM UNILATERAL SQUAT STRENGTH AND BALANCE IN YOUNG ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McCurdy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help

  1. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women; Cross-sectional study on physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Al-Habsi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour (SB. Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time was self-reported using the Domain- Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population.

  2. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvigneaud Nathalie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ≥ 94 cm (men or ≥ 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are

  3. Does mindfulness have potential in eating disorders prevention? A preliminary controlled trial with young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Melissa J; Wade, Tracey D

    2016-06-01

    This preliminary randomized controlled trial assessed the feasibility of a pilot mindfulness-based intervention with respect to reducing the risk of eating disorders in young women. Forty-four young adult women with body image concerns (Mage  = 20.57, SD = 3.22) were randomly allocated to a mindfulness-based or a dissonance-based intervention (3 × 1 h weekly sessions), or to assessment-only control. Self-report measures of eating disorder risk factors, symptoms and related psychosocial impairment were compared at baseline, post-intervention, and at 1- and 6-month follow up. At post-intervention, acceptability ratings for both interventions were high. Mindfulness participants demonstrated statistically significant improvements relative to control at post-intervention for weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms and related psychosocial impairment; however, these gains were largely lost over follow up. Dissonance participants did not show statistically significant improvements relative to control on any outcomes, despite small to moderate effect sizes. These preliminary findings demonstrate the acceptability and short-term efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach to reducing the risk of disordered eating in young women. This provides support for the continued evaluation of mindfulness in the prevention and early intervention of eating disorders, with increased efforts to produce maintenance of intervention gains. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Implementation of the EU directive on the energy performance of buildings: Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers. Project document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    'Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers' includes major steps in implementing the EU EPB directive in Latvia. The EPB directive includes a number of efforts: 1. A methodology for calculation of the integrated energy performance of buildings 2. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for new buildings 3. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for larger existing buildings subject to major renovation 4. Energy performance certification (energy labelling) of buildings 5. Regular inspection of boilers and of air-conditioning systems in buildings, and assessment of heating installations in older systems. The present project includes activities connected to point 4 and point 5. The results will include 4 steps in implementing the EU EPB directive: 1) A Latvian training of certified independent energy auditors to be active conducting energy audits and issuing energy performance certificates. Including a handbook in energy auditing. 2) A Latvian training of certified independent experts for inspection of boilers, air-con systems and assessing older heating systems. Including a handbook in boiler inspection. 3) A proposal for the institutional set-up for a connected scheme for energy auditing and a scheme for boiler inspection 4) Initial information on the scheme of energy auditors and of the boiler inspection. (au)

  5. Effects on resilience of women family caregivers of adults with serious mental illness: the role of positive cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Bekhet, Abir K; Suresky, M Jane

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the effects of risk and protective factors on resilience in 60 women family members of adults with serious mental illness. Both the risk factors constituting caregiver burden (strain, stigma, client dependence, and family disruption) and protective factors, including eight positive cognitions were found to predict two indicators of resilience: resourcefulness and sense of coherence. The effects of caregiver burden on resourcefulness and sense of coherence were mediated by positive cognitions, lending support to resilience theory and suggesting the need to develop interventions to encourage positive thinking among women caregivers of adults with mental illness.

  6. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted...

  7. Quality of life and body mass index in overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome during a lifestyle modification program

    OpenAIRE

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; Stuyver, Isabelle; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Design: Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Setting: Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Participants: Thirty-three overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. ...

  8. Regional Brain Responses Are Biased Toward Infant Facial Expressions Compared to Adult Facial Expressions in Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Wei, Dongtao; Qiao, Lei; Wang, Xiangpeng; Che, Xianwei

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neutral infant faces compared to neutral adult faces elicit greater activity in brain areas associated with face processing, attention, empathic response, reward, and movement. However, whether infant facial expressions evoke larger brain responses than adult facial expressions remains unclear. Here, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in nulliparous women while they were presented with images of matched unfamiliar infant and adult facial expressions (happy, neutral, and uncomfortable/sad) in a pseudo-randomized order. We found that the bilateral fusiform and right lingual gyrus were overall more activated during the presentation of infant facial expressions compared to adult facial expressions. Uncomfortable infant faces compared to sad adult faces evoked greater activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex-thalamus, and precuneus. Neutral infant faces activated larger brain responses in the left fusiform gyrus compared to neutral adult faces. Happy infant faces compared to happy adult faces elicited larger responses in areas of the brain associated with emotion and reward processing using a more liberal threshold of p facial expressions compared to adult facial expressions among nulliparous women, and this bias may be modulated by individual differences in Interest-In-Infants and perspective taking ability.

  9. Coronary heart disease risk factors in adult premenopausal white women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with a healthy female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Our specific aim was to determine whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients were independent of their higher body mass index (BMI) and centripetal obesity. In adult, premenopausal, white women, CHD risk factors were compared between 488 patients with well-defined PCOS and 351 healthy free-living population controls from the Princeton Follow-up Study (PFS). After excluding women with irregular menses (putative PCOS phenotypes), comparisons were also made between the 261 PFS women with a history of regular menses and the 488 women with PCOS. Fasting lipids, insulin, glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA insulin secretion, blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference were measured. Compared with both the full cohort of 351 PFS women and the subgroup of 261 PFS women with regular menses, women with PCOS had higher BMI, waist circumference, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR (all Ps PCOS, compared with the 351 and 261 PFS women, had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P PCOS women with normal BMI (PCOS cannot be exclusively attributed to their preponderant centripetal obesity. Identification of women with clinical features of PCOS should alert the clinician to potentially increased risk for CHD and prompt CHD risk factor testing.

  10. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  11. Stimuli eliciting sexual arousal in males who offend adult women: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolárský, A; Madlafousek, J; Novotná, V

    1978-03-01

    The sexually arousing effects of short film scenes showing a naked actress's seductive behavior were phalloplethysmographically measured in 14 sexual deviates. These were males who had offended adult women, predominantly exhibitionists. Controls were 14 normal men. Deviates responded positively to the scenes and differentiated strong and weak seduction scenes similarly to normals. Consequently, the question arises of why deviates avoid their victim's erotic cooperation and why they do not offend their regular sexual partners. Post hoc analysis of five scenes which elicited a strikingly higher response in deviates than in normals suggested that these scenes contained reduced seductive behavior but unrestrained presentation of the genitals. This finding further encourages the laboratory study of stimulus conditions for abnormal sexual arousal which occurs during the sexual offense.

  12. Predicting impulsive self-injurious behavior in a sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emma B; Mildred, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Different types of self-injury have been classified as reflecting impulsive and compulsive characteristics (article by Simeon and Favazza [Self-injurious Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment {pp 1-28}. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc, 2001]). The current research used a prospective design to evaluate whether there is a progression between these different types of self-injurious behaviors (SIB) over time. Support was found for a progression from compulsive SIB (including hair pulling, nail-biting, skin picking, scratching, and preventing wounds from healing) to impulsive SIB (including cutting, burning, carving, pin sticking, and punching) in a group of adult women (N = 106). Other factors hypothesized to be linked to this outcome were disordered eating, age, and personality facets of impulsivity (specifically, urgency and lack of perseverance). Of these variables, only urgency positively predicted impulsive SIB at the study's conclusion. These findings are discussed, limitations of the study are noted, and directions for future research are outlined.

  13. Childhood maltreatment, intervening variables, and adult psychological difficulties in women: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Jordan, Carol E

    2009-10-01

    This article reviews the complex relationship between child maltreatment and later psychosocial difficulties among adult women. Specifically addressed are (a) the various forms of childhood maltreatment, (b) the range of potential long-term psychological outcomes, and (c) important contextual variables that mediate or add to these maltreatment-symptom relationships. Among the latter are characteristics of the abuse and/or neglect; effects of impaired parental functioning; premaltreatment and postmaltreatment psychobiology; qualities of the parent-child attachment; abuse and/or neglect-related affect dysregulation that may lead to further symptomatology; the extent to which the child responds with significant emotional or behavioral avoidance; and whether later traumas are also present. Also relevant are sociocultural contributors to both child maltreatment and maltreatment effects, especially poverty and marginalization. Clinical and research implications are considered.

  14. Access to public spaces and physical activity for Mexican adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietza Bojorquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore the association between access to public spaces and physical activity for adult women, controlling and testing interactions with sociodemographic and public spaces characteristics. We combined sociodemographic data from a survey with the adult (18-65 years of age women population of Tijuana, Mexico, conducted in 2014 (N = 2,345; with data from a 2013 study on public spaces in the same city. We evaluated access to public spaces by the presence and total area of public spaces in buffers of 400, 800, 1,000 and 1,600m around the participants’ homes. We measured physical activity with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short. We employed multinomial logistic models to evaluate the association between access to public spaces and physical activity, and tested for interactions between access to public spaces and public spaces quality and sociodemographic characteristics. We observed no interaction between access to public spaces and public spaces quality in their effect on physical activity. There was an association between the presence of public spaces in the 400m buffer, and higher odds of being in the low physical activity level (as opposed to being in the moderate level (coefficient: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.13; 0.87. Participants who used public transport were less likely to be in the low physical activity level (coefficient: -0.57; 95%CI: -0.97; -0.17. We suggest that, in this population, the access to public spaces might be less relevant for physical activity than other elements of the urban environment and sociodemographic characteristics.

  15. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  16. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  17. Being emotionally abused: a phenomenological study of adult women's experiences of emotionally abusive intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.

  18. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit.Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost.These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  19. Smoking Habits and Body Weight Over the Adult Lifespan in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Allison, Matthew; Johnson, Karen C; Ho, Gloria Y F; Tindle, Hilary A; Asao, Keiko; LaMonte, Michael J; Giovino, Gary A; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between smoking habits and weight gain are complex. However, few studies have examined the association of smoking habits with weight gain over the life course. Major smoking parameters and weight gain over time were examined in a large cohort of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at enrollment between 1993 and 1998 (N=161,808) and followed through 2014 (analyses conducted in 2016). Cross-sectional analyses were used to assess the association of smoking and body weight at baseline. Retrospective data were used to correlate smoking status with body weight over a 45-year period prior to enrollment. In addition, the association of smoking with weight gain over 6 years of follow-up was examined. At baseline, women who had quit smoking prior to enrollment weighed 4.7 kg more than current smokers and 2.6 kg more than never smokers. Former, never, and current smokers all gained weight over the 45-year period from age 18 years to time of enrollment (average age, 63 years): 16.8, 16.4, and 14.6 kg, respectively. In prospective analyses, women who were current smokers at baseline but who quit smoking during follow-up gained more than 5 kg by Year 6 compared with current smokers at baseline who continued to smoke. Among long-term quitters, greater intensity of smoking and more recent quitting were associated with greater weight gain. These results suggest that excess weight gain associated with smoking cessation occurs soon after quitting and is modest relative to weight gain in never smokers over the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. U.S. Department of Energy physical protection upgrades at the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center, Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, M.; Hine, C.; Robertson, C.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately five years ago, the Safe, Secure Dismantlement program was started between the US and countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This would be accomplished by strengthening the material protection, control, and accounting systems within the FSU countries. Under the US Department of Energy''s program of providing cooperative assistance to the FSU countries in the areas of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A), the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center (LNRC) near Riga, Latvia, was identified as a candidate site for a cooperative MPC and A project. The LNRC is the site of a 5-megawatt IRT-C pool-type research reactor. This paper describes: the process involved, from initial contracting to project completion, for the physical protection upgrades now in place at the LNRC; the intervening activities; and a brief overview of the technical aspects of the upgrades

  1. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    enhance bone formation or inhibit bone resorption in young adult women, as assessed by biochemical markers of bone metabolism. (2 Subsequent maintenance of a high protein intake for 10 days in these regularly-training, calcium-replete women also showed no effects on bone metabolism.

  2. Socioeconomic related inequality in depression among young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-08-15

    Difficult living conditions in urban areas could result in an increased risk of developing depression, particularly among women. One of the strong predictors of depression is poverty, which could lead to inequality in risk of depression. However, previous studies found conflicting results between poverty and depression. This study examines whether depression was unequally distributed among young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities and investigate the factors contributed to the inequality. Data from 1117 young and middle-adult women in Indonesia׳s major cities (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were analysed. Concentration Index (CI) was calculated to measure the degree of the inequality. The CI was decomposed to investigate the factor contributing most to the inequality. The prevalence of depression was 15% and more concentrated among lower economic group (CI=-0.0545). Compared to the middle-adult group, the prevalence of depression among women in the young-adult group was significantly higher (18% vs 11%, pinequality in both group. Other factors contributing to inequality were smoking in young-adult group and marital status in middle-adult group. Contribution of education to inequality varied for different age groups. Depression is more concentrated among the lower economic groups, with household expenditure being the major factor contributing to the inequality. This finding emphasises the importance of primary care level mental health services, particularly in poorer urban communities. This study is based on a cross-sectional data, and only assesses social determinants of depression. These determinants are important to address in addition to biological determinants and other factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceptions of Adult Women on Losing Their Mothers at an Early Age: Implications for Nursing Care During Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jennie; Huebner, Carroll Gunn; McCoy, Kristen

    To explore the lived experience of women over the age of 21 who lost their mothers before the age of 18. Using qualitative methodology, motherless child-adult women were gathered through emails, word of mouth, and snowballing techniques. Interviews were conducted at the convenience of the women. The women coparticipated with identification of emerging themes using thematic analysis. Eight women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 participated. Eight themes emerged: (1) Understanding: For wounded hearts only; (2) Coming apart: Finding my mother's daughter and self-worth; (3) Unconditional love: Grieving for and identifying with my champion; (4) Finding help: Filling the empty place with God; (5) Pitying the motherless child: Making it worse; (6) Filling in: Others as mother; (7) The ebb and flow: Grieving; and (8) Becoming mother: Taking on the Role. The nurse has the opportunity to improve care for women who lost their mothers before the age of 18 years. During pregnancy, childbirth, and childrearing, the woman may feel sad and anxious without the guidance of her mother. Special ways of caring may be instituted to provide her comfort such as allowing and encouraging her to bring a special item of her mother's to procedures and events so that she may feel connected with her, allowing someone to stand in for her mother, perhaps assisting in finding of another motherless child adult to be with her as needed, and the voicing of understanding of her loss while remaining nonjudgmental about her emotions during these times.

  4. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  5. Online Social Communication Patterns among Young Adult Women with Histories of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Ahmad, Shaikh I.; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult women with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), however available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at three time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidites, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other two groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. PMID:25894439

  6. Online social communication patterns among emerging adult women with histories of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about adult women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at 3 time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidities, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other 2 groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Distribution of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in two portions of placenta of teenager and adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Milena Lima; de Faria Barbosa, Renata; Santo, Raquel Espírito; da Silva Santos, Flávia; de Almeida, Lívia Belcastro; de Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fátima Lucia; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares

    2011-12-01

    The placenta is fundamental for fetal development. The aim of this study was to determine Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn content in the fetal and maternal portions of the placentas of teenage and adult women. Measurement of the minerals was conducted using Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Forty samples from the fetal portion of teenagers and adults and 40 samples from the maternal portion of teenagers and adults were analyzed. There were significant differences in the Ca and Cu concentrations of the placenta's maternal portion when compared to the fetal portion, for both teenagers and adults. There were differences in Fe and Zn concentrations only when comparing the maternal portion of placenta with the fetal portion of the adults. These results suggest important differences in mineral content based on the placental portion. No significant difference was observed between the minerals studied of the maternal portion of teenagers and adults; however, in the fetal portion, mineral concentrations were greater in adults than in teenagers. Therefore, the mineral concentration of the fetal portion of the placenta is influenced by the mother's age. If there is mineral's competition between the mother and fetus during pregnancy in adolescence due to the importance of these minerals in growth and development, then the mechanism and reason for it should be elucidated in future research. In addition, we believe that further research should be carried out on transporters of these minerals in the same portions of the placentas analyzed by our group, in teenagers and adults.

  8. DNA methylation and gene expression of TXNIP in adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Houshmand-Oeregaard

    Full Text Available Fetal exposure to maternal diabetes increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM, possibly mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Low blood TXNIP DNA methylation has been associated with elevated glucose levels and risk of T2DM, and increased skeletal muscle TXNIP gene expression was reported in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism or T2DM. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and skeletal muscle play a key role in the control of whole body glucose metabolism and insulin action. The extent to which TXNIP DNA methylation levels are decreased and/or gene expression levels increased in SAT or skeletal muscle of a developmentally programmed at-risk population is unknown.The objective of this study was to investigate TXNIP DNA methylation and gene expression in SAT and skeletal muscle, and DNA methylation in blood, from adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes (O-GDM, n = 82 or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM, n = 67 in pregnancy compared with offspring of women from the background population (O-BP, n = 57.SAT TXNIP DNA methylation was increased (p = 0.032 and gene expression decreased (p = 0.001 in O-GDM, but these differences were attenuated after adjustment for confounders. Neither blood/muscle TXNIP DNA methylation nor muscle gene expression differed between groups.We found no evidence of decreased TXNIP DNA methylation or increased gene expression in metabolic target tissues of offspring exposed to maternal diabetes. Further studies are needed to confirm and understand the paradoxical SAT TXNIP DNA methylation and gene expression changes in O-GDM subjects.

  9. Acceptability and Feasibility of a Sexual Health Intervention for Young Adult Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Mays, Vickie M; Heilemann, MarySue V; Nyamathi, Adey; Bauermeister, Jose A; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2018-05-16

    To assess the acceptability and feasibility of S2S, a newly adapted behavior intervention to address high-risk sexual behavior. Pilot randomized controlled trial. The Internet and text messages with no in-person interactions. Eighty-eight Black women, ages 18 to 24 years, were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups and self-enrolled in the respective text message program. Participants in the intervention group were sent text messages about sexual health, whereas those in the control group were sent text messages about diet and/or exercise. Participants in each group received 24 text messages, including text-only messages, memes, and infopics. Participants in the intervention group also received videos links. All text messages were sent three times per week for 8 weeks. Quantitative methods were used to analyze data from the message and video platform reports. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze participants' responses to an acceptability and feasibility survey. Overall, the delivery of health promotion text messages was viewed as acceptable and feasible by participants in both groups. Most of the short answer responses from participants were favorable, and responses to the acceptability and feasibility survey yielded a total mean score of 4.01 on a 5-point scale. Results from this study support the idea that evidence-based interventions can be adapted for delivery by text message. This delivery modality is acceptable to young adult Black women and may help decrease barriers that would otherwise prevent them from receiving health promotion messages. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological, socio-demographic, work and lifestyle determinants of sitting in young adult women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; Twisk, Jos W R; Singh, Amika S; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Brown, Wendy J

    2014-01-24

    Sitting is associated with health risks. Factors that influence sitting are however not well understood. The aim was to examine the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of sitting time (including during transport, work and leisure) in young adult Australian women. Self-reported data from 11,676 participants (aged 22-27 years in 2000) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were collected over 9 years in 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009. Generalised Estimating Equations were used to examine univariable and multivariable associations of body mass index (BMI), country of birth, area of residence, education, marital status, number of children, occupational status, working hours, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake and stress with week- and weekend-day sitting time. Compared with women in the respective referent categories, (1) women with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with less than University level education, doing white collar work, working 41-48 hours a week, current smokers, non, rare or risky/high risk drinkers and those being somewhat stressed had significantly higher sitting time; and (2) women living in rural and remote areas, partnered women, those with children, those without a paid job and blue collar workers, those working less than 34 hours a week, and active women had significantly lower sitting time. Among young adult Australian women, those with higher BMI, those born in Asia, those with higher level occupations and long working hours, were most at risk of higher sitting time. These results can be used to identify at-risk groups and inform intervention development.

  11. Non-occupational lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Bangkok, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Shimbo, S.; Watanabe, T.; Srianujata, S.; Banjong, O.; Chitchumroonchokchai, C.; Nakatsuka, H.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N.; Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M.

    1999-01-01

    This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to offer blood, spot urine, boiled rice and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Samples were wet-ashed, and then analyzed for Pb and Cd by ICP-MS. Geometric means for the levels in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B) and urine (Pb-U and Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), and also for dietary intake (Pb-F and Cd-F) were 32.3 μg/l for Pb-B, 0.41 μg/l for Cd-B, 2.06 μg/g creatinine for Pb-U, 1.40 μg/g creatinine for Cd-U, 15.1 μg/day for Pb-F and 7.1 μg/day for Cd-F. Rice contributed 30% and 4% of dietary Cd and Pb burden, respectively. When compared with the counterpart values obtained in four neighboring cities in southeast Asia (i.e. Nanning, Tainan, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur), dietary Pb burden of the women in Bangkok was middle in the order among the values for the five cities. Pb level in the blood was the lowest of the levels among the five cities and Pb in urine was also among the low group. This apparent discrepancy in the order between Pb-B (i.e. the fifth) and Pb-F (the third) might be attributable to recent reduction of Pb levels in the atmosphere in Bangkok. Regarding Cd exposure, Cd levels in blood and urine as well as dietary Cd burden of Bangkok women were either the lowest or the next lowest among those in the five cities. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Barriers to exercise in younger and older non-exercising adult women: a cross sectional study in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-04-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants' number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women's total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained approximately 25% and approximately 30% of the variance of younger and older women's total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  13. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  14. Sexual diversity in the United States: Results from a nationally representative probability sample of adult women and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Herbenick

    Full Text Available In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based, U.S. nationally representative probability survey of 2,021 adults (975 men, 1,046 women focused on a broad range of sexual behaviors. Individuals invited to participate were from the GfK KnowledgePanel®. The survey was titled the 2015 Sexual Exploration in America Study and survey completion took about 12 to 15 minutes. The survey was confidential and the researchers never had access to respondents' identifiers. Respondents reported on demographic items, lifetime and recent sexual behaviors, and the appeal of 50+ sexual behaviors. Most (>80% reported lifetime masturbation, vaginal sex, and oral sex. Lifetime anal sex was reported by 43% of men (insertive and 37% of women (receptive. Common lifetime sexual behaviors included wearing sexy lingerie/underwear (75% women, 26% men, sending/receiving digital nude/semi-nude photos (54% women, 65% men, reading erotic stories (57% of participants, public sex (≥43%, role-playing (≥22%, tying/being tied up (≥20%, spanking (≥30%, and watching sexually explicit videos/DVDs (60% women, 82% men. Having engaged in threesomes (10% women, 18% men and playful whipping (≥13% were less common. Lifetime group sex, sex parties, taking a sexuality class/workshop, and going to BDSM parties were uncommon (each <8%. More Americans identified behaviors as "appealing" than had engaged in them. Romantic/affectionate behaviors were among those most commonly identified as appealing for both men and women. The appeal of particular behaviors was associated with greater odds that the individual had ever engaged in the behavior. This study contributes to our understanding of more diverse adult sexual behaviors than has previously been captured in U.S. nationally representative probability surveys. Implications for sexuality educators, clinicians, and individuals in the general population are discussed.

  15. Decision-making processes shaping the home food environments of young adult women with and without children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskind, Ilana G; Woodruff, Rebecca C; Ballard, Denise; Cherry, Sabrina T; Daniel, Sandra; Haardörfer, Regine; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-06-01

    Although young adult women consume the majority of their total daily energy intake from home food sources, the decision-making processes that shape their home food environments have received limited attention. Further, how decision-making may be affected by the transformative experience of motherhood is unknown. In this study, we explore the factors that influence two key decision-making processes-food choices while grocery shopping and the use of non-home food sources-and whether there are differences by motherhood status. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 women, aged 20-29, living in southwest Georgia. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data stratified by whether or not children were present in the home. Decision-making was affected by numerous factors, which differed across groups. In regard to grocery shopping, women with children more frequently discussed the influence of nutrition and the preferences of children, while women without children more frequently discussed the influence of taste and the preferences of other household members. Cost, convenience, weight control, and pre-planning meals emerged as salient in both groups. In regard to the use of non-home food sources, convenience and taste were discussed by both groups, while social factors were only discussed by women without children. The cost of eating out was the only reason cited for eating inside the home, and this factor only emerged among women with children. Motherhood may be an important contributor to the decision-making processes that shape young adult women's home food environments. Interventions may find success in framing messaging to emphasize factors identified as motivating healthy decisions, such as protecting the health of children, and practical strategies may be adapted from those already in use, such as pre-planning and budgeting for healthy meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual diversity in the United States: Results from a nationally representative probability sample of adult women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Bowling, Jessamyn; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Sanders, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based, U.S. nationally representative probability survey of 2,021 adults (975 men, 1,046 women) focused on a broad range of sexual behaviors. Individuals invited to participate were from the GfK KnowledgePanel®. The survey was titled the 2015 Sexual Exploration in America Study and survey completion took about 12 to 15 minutes. The survey was confidential and the researchers never had access to respondents’ identifiers. Respondents reported on demographic items, lifetime and recent sexual behaviors, and the appeal of 50+ sexual behaviors. Most (>80%) reported lifetime masturbation, vaginal sex, and oral sex. Lifetime anal sex was reported by 43% of men (insertive) and 37% of women (receptive). Common lifetime sexual behaviors included wearing sexy lingerie/underwear (75% women, 26% men), sending/receiving digital nude/semi-nude photos (54% women, 65% men), reading erotic stories (57% of participants), public sex (≥43%), role-playing (≥22%), tying/being tied up (≥20%), spanking (≥30%), and watching sexually explicit videos/DVDs (60% women, 82% men). Having engaged in threesomes (10% women, 18% men) and playful whipping (≥13%) were less common. Lifetime group sex, sex parties, taking a sexuality class/workshop, and going to BDSM parties were uncommon (each <8%). More Americans identified behaviors as “appealing” than had engaged in them. Romantic/affectionate behaviors were among those most commonly identified as appealing for both men and women. The appeal of particular behaviors was associated with greater odds that the individual had ever engaged in the behavior. This study contributes to our understanding of more diverse adult sexual behaviors than has previously been captured in U.S. nationally representative probability surveys. Implications for sexuality educators, clinicians, and individuals in the general population are discussed. PMID:28727762

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among homeless and unstably housed adult women living in a resource-rich urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elise D; Cohen, Jennifer; Dilworth, Samantha E; Grimes, Barbara; Marquez, Carina; Chin-Hong, Peter; Philip, Susan S

    2016-06-01

    The social context of poverty is consistently linked to Trichomonas vaginalis infection, yet few studies regarding T. vaginalis have been conducted exclusively among low-income individuals. We identified social determinants of health associated with prevalent T. vaginalis infection among homeless and unstably housed adult women. Between April and October of 2010, we conducted cross-sectional T. vaginalis screening and behavioural interviews in an existing cohort of San Francisco homeless and unstably housed women. Data were analysed using multivariable logistical regression. Among 245 study participants, the median age was 47 years and 72% were of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. T. vaginalis prevalence was 12%, compared to 3% in the general population, and 33% of infected individuals reported no gynaecological symptoms. In adjusted analysis, the odds of T. vaginalis infection were lower among persons older than 47 years, the population median (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.38), and higher among those reporting recent short-term homeless shelter stays (OR=5.36, 95% CI 1.57 to 18.26). Race and income did not reach levels of significance. Sensitivity analyses indicated that testing all women who report recent unprotected sex would identify more infections than testing those who report gynaecological symptoms (20/30 vs 10/30; p=0.01). The prevalence of T. vaginalis is high among homeless and unstably housed adult women, over one-third of infected individuals have no gynaecological symptoms, and correlates of infection differ from those reported in the general population. Targeted screening and treatment among impoverished women reporting recent unprotected sex, particularly young impoverished women and all women experiencing short-term homelessness, may reduce complications related to this treatable infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Insulin Resistance and Impaired Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Adult Offspring of Women With Diabetes in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2013-01-01

    Context:Offspring of women with diabetes during pregnancy have increased risk of glucose intolerance in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.Objective:We aimed to investigate effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia on insulin secretion and - action in adult offspring of mothers...... a standard oral glucose tolerance test (120 minutes, 75 gram glucose). Pancreatic beta-cell function taking the prevailing insulin sensitivity into account was estimated by disposition indices.Results:Both groups of offspring exposed during pregnancy to either maternal gestational diabetes or type 1 diabetes.......005).Conclusion:Reduced insulin sensitivity as well as impaired pancreatic beta cell function may contribute to the increased risk of glucose intolerance among adult offspring born to women with diabetes during pregnancy....

  19. The Opinion of Latvian Teachers About the Most Suitable Teaching Methods and Possibilities to Make Lessons Interesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porozovs Juris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Student’s learning motivation and learning outcomes depend on the ability of the teacher to interest students, the chosen teaching methods and proficiency to manage the learning process. Teacher who can successfully choose teaching content, material resources and different teaching methods is able to cause interest about his subject. Teacher who is interested in teaching process himself can help students to learn a subject. The aim of the study was to find out the Latvian teachers' opinion about the disturbing factors affecting the achievement of high learning outcomes for students, the most suitable teaching methods and the possibilities to make lessons interesting. The survey of teachers of different schools in Latvia regarding their students’ learning motivation was carried out. The data from 482 teachers’ answers were analysed. The results of the research showed that the majority of surveyed teachers consider that learning motivation of Latvia students has decreased during the last few years. Teachers point out several factors, which do not allow students to reach high learning outcomes, the most important of them are: the inability of students to link career and success with learning and lack of life goals; inability of students to concentrate attention during lessons; indisposition of students to do homework. The teachers consider laboratory works, discussions, project works, group works and teacher’s presentations and narrative of new material as the most suitable teaching methods. Teachers consider that the most important personality trait of teachers and learning motivation for students to improve their skills is the teacher’s ability to teach the subject in an interesting way. Teachers believe that lessons can be made interesting if modern technologies and teaching methods are used during lessons and when the teacher is able to connect the subject with real life.

  20. The Impact of Metal Age® Training Programme on the Well-Being of Latvian Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprūdža Dagmāra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that affect the well-being and health of employees and the productivity of organisations. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Metal Age training programme (MA® on the well-being of office workers, including investigation of work ability, the stress-causing factors and role of leadership. The study was carried out using questions from four international questionnaires about stress, leadership, and work ability. The intervention group had a training course between the surveys using the ME® method. Several employee stress-causing factors were identified: bad relationship with their workmates was mentioned by 94% of workers; competitive and strenuous atmosphere — by more than 80%; psychological violence or bullying at the workplace by more than 80%, and more than 75% of employee’s could not relax after work. Wellness and microclimate in the workplaces were on a relatively high level: the average rating of seven Kiva questions was 7.5. The respondent attitude after ME® did not change significantly. Latvian office workers displayed moderate and good work ability (Work Ability Index, WAI 34.5–38.6. The best work ability was shown in the age group from 20 to 49 (WAI 34.8–39.4; work ability decreased with age. The best correlation was observed between Work Ability Index and “get into situations, that invoke negative feelings” (r = 0.26 and “carrying out ongoing tasks because of other intervening or more urgent matters” (r = −0.24. After ME® the reaction to some stress-causing factors was improved.

  1. [Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent and adult women reported by the public health services in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delziovo, Carmem Regina; Bolsoni, Carolina Carvalho; Nazário, Nazaré Otília; Coelho, Elza Berger Salema

    2017-07-13

    Sexual violence against women is a form of gender violence and both a severe human rights violation and public health problem. This ecological, descriptive, and temporal series study aims to analyze sexual violence against pre-adolescent, adolescent, and adult females in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, in order to describe the characteristics of cases of sexual violence perpetrated against women, reported by health professionals from 2008 a 2013. A total of 15,508 cases of violence were reported, including 2,010 cases of sexual violence (12.9%). Cases of violence totaled 950 reports in the 10 to 14 year bracket (47.3%), 450 in the 15 to 19 year bracket (22.4%), and 610 (30.3%) in women 20 years or older (adults). Adolescent females suffered violence by a single aggressor, at home, at night, with vaginal penetration, and with greater tendency to repeated assault and pregnancy as a result. For females 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years of age, the aggressors were unknown in 32.9% and 33.1% of the reports, respectively. Adult women were sexually assaulted either at home or on public byways, at night or in the early morning hours, by a single aggressor, with vaginal penetration in more than half of the cases, with more physical injuries, and with more subsequent suicide attempts. The information should contribute to awareness-raising of policymakers, health professionals, researchers, and health field professors concerning the importance of reporting violence in order to help develop interventions to prevent such violence against women.

  2. Assessment of thyroid function in children, adults and pregnant and lactating women after long-term salt iodisation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaohui; Li, Mu; Liu, Lixiang; Shen, Hongmei; Kelly, Patrick J; Wang, Yanling; Chen, Zhihui; Wang, Jinbiao; Li, Weidong; Chen, Huixin; Xiao, Bangzhong; Han, Yunfeng; Liu, Shoujun; Liu, Peng

    2018-06-01

    Universal salt iodisation (USI) has been successfully implemented in China for more than 15 years. Recent evidence suggests that the definition of 'adequate iodine' (100-199 µg/l) be revised to 'sufficient iodine' (100-299 µg/l) based on the median urinary iodine concentration (MUI) in school-age children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in populations after long-term salt iodisation and examine whether the definition of adequate iodine can be broadened to sufficient iodine based on the thyroid function in four population groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in six provinces in the northern, central and southern regions of China. Four population groups consisting of 657 children, 755 adults, 347 pregnant women and 348 lactating women were recruited. Three spot urinary samples were collected over a 10-d period and blood samples were collected on the 1st day. In the study, among the adults, pregnant women and lactating women, the prevalence rates of elevated thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid microsomal antibody levels were 12·4, 8·5 and 7·8 %, and 12·1, 9·1 and 9·1 %, respectively. Abnormally high thyroid dysfunction prevalence was not observed after more than 15 years of USI in China because the thyroid dysfunction rates were all <5 %. The recommended range should be cautiously broadened from adequate iodine to sufficient iodine according to the MUI of school-age children considering the high levels of hormones and antibodies in the other populations. Adults, particularly pregnant women positive for thyroid antibodies, should be closely monitored.

  3. Reproductive and relational trajectories leading to pregnancy: Differences between adolescents and adult women who had an abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana I F; Pires, Raquel S A; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela F; Canavarro, Maria Cristina C S P

    2018-05-01

    The literature has been conceptualizing pregnancy occurrence as a multiphase event. However, the different combinations of decisions and behaviors leading to pregnancy that end in abortion remain unexplored in the literature. The aims of the study were to describe the reproductive and relational trajectories leading to pregnancy in women who decide to abort and to explore the differences in this process according to women's age [adolescents (leading to pregnancy were identified. The most frequent trajectory (30.8%) included women who 1) were involved in a long-term romantic relationship, 2) did not plan the pregnancy, 3) were using contraception, and 4) did not identify the contraceptive failure that led to pregnancy. Although this was the most frequent trajectory for both age groups, the remaining trajectories showed a different distribution. Compared to adolescents, adult women's trajectories more frequently included casual relationships with non-use of contraception, or contraceptive use with no contraceptive failure identification. Our study highlights the need to recognize the multiplicity of reproductive and relational trajectories leading to pregnancies that end in abortion and their specificities according to women's age. These findings have important implications for abortion counselling and for the development of age-appropriate guidelines for preventive interventions, by drawing attention to prioritization of different contexts of intervention according women's age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determining the cut-off point of osteoporosis based on the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, body mass index and weight in Taiwanese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Fang; Yang, Rong Sen

    2014-09-01

    To examine the cut-off point of the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, age, weight and body mass index for osteoporosis among young adult Taiwanese women, using a large-scale health examination database containing bone mineral density tests. The cut-off points of osteoporosis risk factors identified earlier focus on menopausal or senior Caucasian and Asian women. However, young adult Asian women have seldom been identified. A retrospective historical cohort study. Using the 2009-2011 health examination database of a large-scale medical centre in northern Taiwan, this study investigated young adult Asian women (i.e. range in age from 30-49 years) in Taiwan who had received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test. This study also explored the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics of osteoporosis among young adult females in Taiwan. This study collected 2454 young adult Asian women in Taiwan. Cochran-Armitage analysis results indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with decreasing weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment method quartiles. According to the results of receiver operating characteristics, weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment tool approaches can generally be used as indicators to predict osteoporosis among young adult Asian women. Results of this study demonstrate that Taiwanese women contracting osteoporosis tend to be young and underweight, as well as having a low body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment scores. Those results further suggest that the assessment indicators for cut-off points are appropriately suitable for young adult women in Taiwan. Early detection is the only available means of preventing osteoporosis. Professional nurses should apply convenient and accurate assessment procedures to help young adult women to adopt preventive strategies against osteoporosis early, thus eliminating the probability of osteoporotic

  5. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  6. Disordered Eating Behaviors in Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Common Problem for Both Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Elizabeth A; Quinn, Sheila M; Ambrosino, Jodie M; Weyman, Kate; Tamborlane, William V; Jastreboff, Ania M

    Emerging adults (EA) with disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) and Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk for severe complications of T1D, and these behaviors have been reported in EA women with T1D. Few studies, though, have included men. This study assessed the prevalence of DEB in both EA men and women with T1D. DEB was measured with the diabetes-specific Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R); scores of 20 or greater indicate need for further evaluation for DEB. A total of 27 women and 33 men (age range = 21 ± 2.5 years) completed the DEPS-R; 27% of women and 18% of men had scores of 20 or greater (p = .23). Hemoglobin A1c level was significantly higher in subjects with elevated DEPS-R scores (10.4 ± 2.1% vs. 7.8 ± 1.3%; p < .001), and DEPS-R scores correlated with increased body mass index values (r = 0.27, p < .05). Clinicians should assess for DEB in both male and female emerging adults with T1D, especially overweight patients with poor glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary patterns and BMI status of adult women in greater Letaba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    prevalence estimated at 31.8% (Micklesfield et ... women, 3) to determine the dietary patterns of women and. 4) to compare the ... Women who were ill, pregnant or lactating .... energy for food preparation (51.9%) and 49.5% .... Alcohol consumption was very low, with 89.3% of ..... confirmed this in that the practices of the.

  8. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  9. Optimization of dose radiation and image quality on computed tomography of thorax in adult women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, G. R.; Casian C, G. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico, Av. IPN No. 5160, 07760 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gaona, E.; Franco E, J. G.; Molina F, N., E-mail: gaen1310@correo.xoc.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Calz. del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The objective of the study is the optimization of the dose (Dlp) and image quality in the exploration of adult women in studies of thorax with computed tomography (CT). The CT is a technique of exploration with high radiation doses to patients with an increase of the risk factors of developing cancer in the future, but X-rays are a very important medical diagnostic tool. We performed a retrospective survey of 50 female patients who had thorax tomography using the automatic protocol established by the manufacturer, a database of dose (Dlp), measures of patient A P and radiological parameters such as kV and m A was obtained. Subsequently, we carry out the prospective study with 30 patients with prescription of thorax tomography, scans were conducted with CT with reduced doses using manual techniques protocol of exploration while maintaining diagnostic image quality. The results show that the prospective study patients received doses lower than 30% on average. In general the dose patients were within the confidence interval of 95% of the levels of diagnostic reference (DRL) adopted by the European Community for CT and the most common value is 400 Dlp for thorax. Comparative image quality study was conducted using the protocol of the manufacturer and the manual protocol and image quality was diagnostic after dose reduction up to 30%. The reduction of radiation dose in female patients in studies of thorax CT helps to reduce risk factors of developing cancer later in life. A thorax tomography study includes the fibro-glandular tissue of the breast which is very sensitive to stochastic effects of radiation. (Author)

  10. The effects of a pilates-aerobic program on maximum exercise capacity of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mikalački

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise such as the Pilates method offers clinical benefits on the aging process. Likewise, physiologic parameters may be improved through aerobic exercise. Methods: In order to compare the differences of a Pilates-Aerobic intervention program on physiologic parameters such as the maximum heart rate (HRmax, relative maximal oxygen consumption (relative VO2max and absolute (absolute VOmax, maximum heart rate during maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max-HRmax, maximum minute volume (VE and forced vital capacity (FVC, a total of 64 adult women (active group = 48.1 ± 6.7 years; control group = 47.2 ± 7.4 years participated in the study. The physiological parameters, the maximal speed and total duration of test were measured by maximum exercise capacity testing through Bruce protocol. The HRmax was calculated by a cardio-ergometric software. Pulmonary function tests, maximal speed and total time during the physical test were performed in a treadmill (Medisoft, model 870c. Likewise, the spirometry analyzed the impact on oxygen uptake parameters, including FVC and VE. Results: The VO2max (relative and absolute, VE (all, P<0.001, VO2max-HRmax (P<0.05 and maximal speed of treadmill test (P<0.001 showed significant difference in the active group after a physical exercise interventional program. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the Pilates exercises through a continuous training program might significantly improve the cardiovascular system. Hence, mixing strength and aerobic exercises into a training program is considered the optimal mechanism for healthy aging.

  11. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Braemswig, J.H. [University Hospital Muenster (DE). Dept. of Pediatrics] [and others

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients <30 years of age at diagnosis were included who had been irradiated between 1979 and 1998. The main tumor types were Hodgkin's disease (38%), Erwing's sarcoma (20%) and nephroblastoma (11%). Patients were classified into three groups according to the position of the ovary in relation to the radiation portals. Group 1 was defined by direct irradiation of both ovaries. Group 2 patients were included with both ovaries potentially located in the radiation portals. In group 3, at least one ovary was not directly irradiated. The median follow-up was 128 months. Results: 16 of 55 analyzed patients were categorized in group 1. In ten of these patients, hormone status was evaluable. The ovarian doses were {>=}15 Gy. Except for one patient treated with 15 Gy all developed hormone failure. Eight of 14 patients of group 2 were evaluable. Seven of these patients developed ovarian failure. 19 of 24 patients in group 3 were evaluable. Nine of these patients developed ovarian failure. The observed difference in the rate of ovarian failure between the groups is statistifcally significant (p=0.045). Conclusion: All patients receiving >15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  12. Circulating Spexin Levels Negatively Correlate With Age, BMI, Fasting Glucose, and Triglycerides in Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda L D; Lam, Wai Ching; Fan, Bao-Min; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Spexin is a newly identified neuropeptide that is involved in satiety control, glucose, and lipids metabolism. It has also been related to human diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether spexin changes with age or not is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between circulating spexin levels and age and to study their interaction effects on body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, and -lipids. This is a cross-sectional study, including 68 healthy adult women whose ages are in a wide range (minimum: 23; median: 38.5; maximum: 64). The serum spexin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine were measured by routine biochemical test. Shapiro-Wilk's test, Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses, χ 2 test, and two-way analysis of variance were used to interpret the data. Serum spexin levels are significantly correlated with age (Spearman r = -0.277, P = 0.022), BMI (Spearman r = -0.445, P glucose (Spearman r = -0.302, P = 0.014), and TG (Spearman r = -0.324, P = 0.008). Spexin levels independently predict the risk of high BMI and high fasting glucose. No interaction effects of spexin and age on BMI and fasting glucose were found. Circulating spexin levels decrease with age, suggesting a possible role of this peptide in aging-related functions and disorders. Further investigations are needed to expand the clinical significance of this finding.

  13. Optimization of dose radiation and image quality on computed tomography of thorax in adult women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, G. R.; Casian C, G.; Gaona, E.; Franco E, J. G.; Molina F, N.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: The objective of the study is the optimization of the dose (Dlp) and image quality in the exploration of adult women in studies of thorax with computed tomography (CT). The CT is a technique of exploration with high radiation doses to patients with an increase of the risk factors of developing cancer in the future, but X-rays are a very important medical diagnostic tool. We performed a retrospective survey of 50 female patients who had thorax tomography using the automatic protocol established by the manufacturer, a database of dose (Dlp), measures of patient A P and radiological parameters such as kV and m A was obtained. Subsequently, we carry out the prospective study with 30 patients with prescription of thorax tomography, scans were conducted with CT with reduced doses using manual techniques protocol of exploration while maintaining diagnostic image quality. The results show that the prospective study patients received doses lower than 30% on average. In general the dose patients were within the confidence interval of 95% of the levels of diagnostic reference (DRL) adopted by the European Community for CT and the most common value is 400 Dlp for thorax. Comparative image quality study was conducted using the protocol of the manufacturer and the manual protocol and image quality was diagnostic after dose reduction up to 30%. The reduction of radiation dose in female patients in studies of thorax CT helps to reduce risk factors of developing cancer later in life. A thorax tomography study includes the fibro-glandular tissue of the breast which is very sensitive to stochastic effects of radiation. (Author)

  14. Women Know Better What Other Women Think and Feel: Gender Effects on Mindreading across the Adult Life Span

    OpenAIRE

    Wacker, Renata; B?lte, Sven; Dziobek, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Research recurrently shows that females perform better than males on various mindreading tasks. The present study contributes to this growing body of literature by being the first to demonstrate a female own-gender mindreading bias using a naturalistic social cognition paradigm including female and male targets. We found that women performed better at reading others’ minds, and that they were specifically more capable to read female targets, an own-gender target effect absent in men. Furtherm...

  15. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20–27 years) and older (28–35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained ≈25% and ≈30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20–35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention. PMID:19440527

  16. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Lovell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years and older (28-35 years adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement. Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained »25% and »30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  17. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  18. Reference intervals for serum osteocalcin concentrations in adult men and women from the study of health in Pomerania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Spielhagen, Christin; Rettig, Rainer; Ittermann, Till; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2013-03-13

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a bone-specific protein produced primarily by osteoblasts during bone formation. Besides its role in bone formation, osteocalcin may play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism and male fertility. To interpret serum OC data, reference intervals adapted to a specific laboratory method are needed. A healthy reference population was selected from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum OC concentrations were measured with the IDS-iSYS N-Mid Osteocalcin assay on the IDS-iSYS Automated System (Immunodiagnostic Systems, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). The reference interval was defined as the central 95% range (2.5th-97.5th percentile). Age-specific reference intervals were calculated by quantile regression for 1107 men (25-79 years) and 545 premenopausal women (25-54 years). The reference interval for 498 postmenopausal women (50-79 years) was calculated irrespective of age. Median (1st-3rd quartile) serum OC concentrations were 15.4 ng/mL (12.0-19.4 ng/mL) in men, 14.4 ng/mL (11.3-18.5 ng/mL) in premenopausal women, and 18.6 ng/mL (13.6-25.6 ng/mL) in postmenopausal women. Serum OC concentrations were highest in men and premenopausal women aged 25-29 years, were stable during midlife, and rose again after 65 years of age in men and at transition to menopause in women. Serum OC concentrations were lower in women taking oral contraceptives or who were under hormone replacement therapy after menopause and in subjects with diabetes mellitus or with body mass index  30 kg/m2 than in subjects without these conditions. We established sex-specific adult reference intervals for the serum OC concentration measured by the IDS-iSYS N-Mid Osteocalcin assay.

  19. Fruit and vegetable consumption and anemia among adult non-pregnant women: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Bishwajit; Yaya, Sanni

    2018-01-01

    Anemia is the most widely prevalent form of micronutrient deficiency that affects over a quarter of the global population. Evidence suggests that the burden of anemia is higher in the developing countries with women of reproductive age and children being the most at-risk groups. The most common causes are believed to be malnutrition and low bioavailability of micronutrients, which usually result from poor dietary habits and inadequate intake of food rich in micronutrients such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Regular consumption of F&V was shown to have protective effect against NCDs; however, evidence on this protective effect against micronutrient deficiency diseases are limited. (1) To measure the prevalence of anemia among adult non-pregnant women in Ghana, and (2) to investigate if there is any cross-sectional relationship between F&V consumption and anemia. This is a cross-sectional study based on data extracted from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Subjects were 4,290 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Hemoglobin levels were measured by HemoCue ® hemoglobin-meter. Association between anemia and F&V consumption was assessed by multivariable regression methods. Findings indicate that well over half (57.9%) of the women were suffering from anemia of some level. The percentage of women consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day were 5.4% and 2.5% respectively. Results of multivariable analysis indicated that among urban women, consumption of 5 servings/day. The findings indicate that urban women who did not maintain WHO recommended level of F&V consumption bear a significantly higher likelihood of being moderate to severely anemic.

  20. Fruit and vegetable consumption and anemia among adult non-pregnant women: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Ghose

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Anemia is the most widely prevalent form of micronutrient deficiency that affects over a quarter of the global population. Evidence suggests that the burden of anemia is higher in the developing countries with women of reproductive age and children being the most at-risk groups. The most common causes are believed to be malnutrition and low bioavailability of micronutrients, which usually result from poor dietary habits and inadequate intake of food rich in micronutrients such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Regular consumption of F&V was shown to have protective effect against NCDs; however, evidence on this protective effect against micronutrient deficiency diseases are limited. Objectives (1 To measure the prevalence of anemia among adult non-pregnant women in Ghana, and (2 to investigate if there is any cross-sectional relationship between F&V consumption and anemia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on data extracted from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Subjects were 4,290 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Hemoglobin levels were measured by HemoCue® hemoglobin-meter. Association between anemia and F&V consumption was assessed by multivariable regression methods. Results Findings indicate that well over half (57.9% of the women were suffering from anemia of some level. The percentage of women consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day were 5.4% and 2.5% respectively. Results of multivariable analysis indicated that among urban women, consumption of 5 servings/day. Conclusion The findings indicate that urban women who did not maintain WHO recommended level of F&V consumption bear a significantly higher likelihood of being moderate to severely anemic.

  1. Teen Pregnancy Among Sexual Minority Women: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Shoshana K; Reese, Bianka M; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between sexual orientation and teen pregnancy (before age 20 years) in a U.S. nationally representative cohort of young adult females aged 24-32 years. A total of 5,972 participants in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were included. Self-reported sexual orientation identity was categorized as heterosexual, and three sexual minority (SM) groups: mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian (combining "mostly homosexual" and "100% homosexual"). Stepwise multivariate regression models were fit to compare odds of teen pregnancy and relative risk ratios of timing of teen pregnancy, between heterosexual and SM groups, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual victimization history, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for sociodemographics and sexual victimization, bisexual women had significantly higher odds than heterosexual peers of teen pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.75); this association was marginally significant after adjusting for sexual risk behaviors. Bisexuals were also more likely to have an early (before age 18 years) teen pregnancy (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.17-3.56). In contrast, lesbian women were significantly less likely to have a teen pregnancy than heterosexual (OR = .47; 95% CI = .23-.97), mostly heterosexual (OR = .46; 95% CI = .21-.99), and bisexual (OR = .29; 95% CI = .12-.71) women in final models. Expanding on extant literature, we found opposing risk patterns for teen pregnancy between bisexual and lesbian women, likely due to distinct patterns of sexual risk taking. Findings suggest that SM-inclusive teen pregnancy prevention efforts tailored to meet the unique needs of SM young women, particularly bisexuals, are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. population. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to “neither agree nor disagree” with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant

  3. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to "neither agree nor disagree" with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant characteristic

  4. Diabetes distress in adult type 1 diabetes mellitus men and women with disease onset in childhood and in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lašaitė, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas; Žalinkevičius, Rimantas; Jurgevičienė, Nijolė; Radzevičienė, Lina

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether or not diabetes distress varies by age of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) onset and/or gender. A total of 700 adult T1DM patients were randomly selected from the Lithuanian Diabetes Registry; 214 of them (30.6%) agreed to participate and were recruited for the study. Diabetes distress (emotional burden, physician-related distress, regimen-related distress, interpersonal distress) was compared in 105 (42 men and 63 women) patients with T1DM diagnosed during 0-18years of life, and in 109 (61 men and 48 women) with T1DM diagnosed in adulthood, using Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS). Adult childhood-onset T1DM women have higher regimen-related distress (36.3±21.3 vs 26.6±16.2, p=0.016) than adulthood-onset women. Adult childhood-onset T1DM women experience higher diabetes distress (higher emotional burden (27.0±22.0 vs 15.6±16.4, p=0.006), physician-related distress (34.4±33.9 vs 20.7±29.4, p=0.024), total diabetes distress (41.2±13.6 vs 34.8±10.9, p=0.011)) than childhood-onset men. Adulthood-onset T1DM women experience higher physician-related distress (39.2±37.6 vs 23.4±32.5, p=0.013), but lower regimen-related distress (26.6±16.2 vs 35.8±21.6, p=0.014) than adulthood-onset men. In conclusion our findings reinforce the interdependence of psychological and biomedical factors in influencing health outcomes and support the need to provide psychological assessment and support to patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Variability in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Screening and Management in Adolescent and Young Adult Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Tamara E; Milliren, Carly E; Walls, Courtney; DiVasta, Amy D

    2015-10-01

    To review the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB) adolescent and young adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a 2-year follow-up. Retrospective chart review. One hundred seventy-three adolescent and young adult women, aged 12-22 years, diagnosed with PCOS. Demographic, health data, and laboratory measures were abstracted from 3 clinic visits: baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up. Subjects were classified as NW, OW, or OB. Longitudinal data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Body mass index, self-reported concerns, and lifestyle changes. Most patients (73%) were OW or OB. Family history of type 2 diabetes was greater in OW (38%) and OB (53%) patients compared with NW (22%) patients (P = .002). Acanthosis nigricans was identified in OW (62%) and OB (21%) patients but not in NW patients (0%; P insulin (P PCOS were OW or OB. Substantial clinical variability existed in cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening; among those screened, OW and OB patients had greater CVD risk factors. Despite self-reported concerns about weight and diabetes risk among OW and OB patients, no clinically significant change in body mass index percentile occurred. Evidence-based interventions and recommendations for screening tests are needed to address CVD risk in adolescents and young adults with PCOS. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of overweight or obesity among ever-married adult women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Saquib, Nazmus; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Saquib, Juliann; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Khan, Jahidur Rahman; Uddin, Md Jasim; Cullen, Mark R; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in Bangladesh. It is higher among Bangladeshi women than among men. This study was conducted to assess a host of demographic and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, separately for the urban and rural women of Bangladesh. We used data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. The BDHS provides cross-sectional data on a wide range of indicators relating to population, health, and nutrition. We analyzed nutrition-related data to identify the factors associated with being overweight or obese among ever-married women aged 18-49 years. Of 16,493 women, about 18 % (95 % CI 17 · 80-18 · 99) were overweight or obese. Unemployed urban women were at 1 · 44 (95 % CI 1 · 18-1 · 76, p women who were involved in manual-labored work. Watching television at least once a week was another significant predictor among urban women (OR 1 · 49; 95 % CI 1 · 24-1 · 80; p women (OR 1 · 31; 95 % CI 1 · 14-1 · 51; p women. The findings of the study indicate that a large number of women in Bangladesh are suffering from being overweight or obese, and multiple factors are responsible for this including, older age, being from wealthy households, higher education, being from food-secured households, watching TV at least once a week, and being an unemployed urban woman. Given the anticipated long-term effects, the factors that are associated with being overweight or obese should be considered while formulating an effective intervention for the women of Bangladesh.

  7. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  8. Prevalence and determining factors related to depression among adult women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Shin, Chol; Park, Sun Young; Yi, Hye Ryeon

    2004-12-01

    Korean women are likely to experience symptoms of depression, possibly due to socially fixed limitations on the roles that Korean women are expected to perform. Also if a Korean woman experiences negative relationship problem or stress in her family, she would feel responsible, which will worsen her depression. Nonetheless, much of the research on depression among Korean women has focused on menopausal women. This study aims to understand the depression of Korean women to provide fundamental data to develop nursing intervention method for promoting women's health. The present investigation assessed the prevalence and correlates of depression in a large sample of Korean women, aged 18 or older, from the general population. With a probability sample of 3312 women drawn from two areas in Korea, a survey, which contains the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and background, was completed. According to CES-D classification criteria, 36.5% of the women in the sample displayed either no depression or mild depression, 55.6% exhibited moderate depression, and 7.8% manifested severe depression. Significant bivariate relationships were observed between depression and each measured background variable except alcohol use. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the strongest combination of predictors of depression included income, menopausal, and marital status. The data support the premise that Korean women disproportionately experience elevated levels of depression. Consistent with the theory, depression may be related to social pressures to conform to the traditional roles. The study suggests the need for further research, primary prevention activities, and increased access to treatment.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure in relation to BMI among adult non-pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Seydou, Ide

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the association between overweight and obesity (in terms of BMI) and diabetes, HBP and diabetes-HBP comorbidity among adult women non-pregnant in Bangladesh. Information about demographics, socioeconomic, blood pressure and blood glucose levels were collected for 2022 women ageing above 35 years were collected from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011). The primary outcome variables were diabetes and high blood pressure. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose value ≥7.0mmol/L and HBP as systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg. Blood pressure and plasma glucose measurement were performed by standard clinical procedures. Data were analysed using cross-tabulation, chi-square tests and logistic regression methods. Mean age of the participants was 41.42 (SD=4.37). 38.7% of the women had BMI values ≥25. The prevalence of HBP, diabetes, and diabetes-HBP comorbidity was respectively 18% and 5.1%, and 2%. The adjusted odds of having diabetes, HBP and Diabetes-HBP comorbidity were respectively 2.14 (p=0.002; 95%CI=1.31-3.48), 2.3 (p=<0.0001; 95%CI=1.70-2.98), and 3.4 (p=0.004; 95%CI=1.47-7.81) times higher among overweight/obese women compared to those with normal weight. Overweight and obesity account for a major proportion of diabetes, HBP and the comorbidity of these two among non-pregnant women. There remains a considerable risk for future expansion of diabetes and HBP as the prevalence of overweight/obesity is rising constantly. Maintaining a healthy BMI needs to be regarded as among the most important diabetes and HBP preventive strategies among Bangladeshi women. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is the pattern of intellectual growth and decline across the adult life span different for men and women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A S; Kaufman-Packer, J L; McLean, J E; Reynolds, C R

    1991-11-01

    Gender comparisons on the WAIS-R were made for 1,480 adults from the standardization sample, ages 20-74 years, to determine whether men and women differ in their age-related patterns of change on tests of fluid and crystallized abilities. Multivariate analyses of covariance and univariate analyses of covariance were conducted, covarying education, to examine the age + gender interactions. These interactions tended to be nonsignificant and trivial for the WAIS-R Verbal and Performance scales and the 11 subtests, which suggests that both men and women maintain their crystallized abilities through old age, but show early, rapid declines in fluid ability. These results were interpreted in terms of the literature on aging and intelligence, gender differences in cognitive abilities, and gender differences in V-P patterns for patients with unilateral brain damage.

  11. As tears go by : Baby tears trigger more brain activity than adult tears in nulliparous women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricx-Riem, M.M.E.; De Carli, P.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines brain activity during the perception of infant and adult tears. Infant tears evoke stronger responses in the visual cortex than adult tears, indicating that infant tears are highly salient. In addition, our study shows that infant

  12. Maternal history of depression is associated with enhanced theory of mind in depressed and nondepressed adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate Leslie; Washburn, Dustin; Theriault, Jordan Eugene; Lee, Lisa; Sabbagh, Mark Alan

    2011-08-30

    Theory of mind forms the basis of social cognition and develops on a stereotyped ontogenetic timetable. Yet, there are individual differences in theory of mind that may be transmitted through genetic and/or environmental mechanisms. In the current study we examined the relation of maternal history of depression to individual differences in theory of mind in a sample of adult women. Sixty-one depressed women (23% with a positive maternal history of depression) and 30 non-depressed women (33% with a positive maternal history of depression) completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task', a test of theory of mind decoding. Women with a maternal history of depression performed better on the Eyes task than those without. Further, the younger the mother's onset of depression, the better the current probands' Eyes task performance. These results are consistent with a broader literature linking hypersensitive social cognition and depression risk. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The moderating role of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Idia B; Hardin, Robin; Kamody, Rebecca C; Herbozo, Sylvia; Kaufman, Caroline

    2018-04-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are developmental periods during the life course that are sometimes associated with heightened stress and engagement in binge eating. Binge eating has been linked to psychiatric comorbidity, poorer physical health, and lower quality of life. However, less is known about protective factors that could buffer against binge eating behaviors. The current study examined the moderating role of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms among emerging adult female college students. Participants were 297 young adult women aged 18-25 years (M age  = 19.22, SD = 1.51; 52% self-identifying as a racial/ethnic minority) with Body Mass Index ranging from 15 to 66 (M BMI  = 25.01, SD = 6.18). Women completed this cross-sectional study while they were attending universities in the Western or Southern United States. Participants provided demographic and height/weight information, and completed the following measures: Perceived Stress Scale, Binge Eating Scale, and Brief Resilience Scale. Higher perceived stress was significantly associated with more severe binge eating symptoms (b = 0.31; p relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms varied by resilience level (b = -0.16; p stress were more likely to engage in binge eating relative to women experiencing low stress; however, resilience attenuated this association. Resilience could be targeted to reduce the negative effects of perceived stress on eating behaviors in young women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of Life and Body Mass Index in Overweight Adult Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome During a Lifestyle Modification Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; Stuyver, Isabelle; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Thirty-three overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. Participants followed a 24-week lifestyle modification program consisting of a diet, exercise, and psychological subprogram. BMI was assessed at Weeks 0, 8, 16, and 24 of the program. The HRQoL was measured at Week 0, 12, and 24 of the program using the PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to evaluate the influence of acne on HRQoL. During a 24-week period no significant decrease in BMI occurred (mean difference = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.38, 4.81]. During that period, there was a significant positive evolution of the total PCOSQ score, F(2, 37.5) = 23.7, the emotions, F(2, 37.9) = 4.2, weight, F(2, 42.1) = 24.8, body hair, F(2, 35.6) = 3.3, and infertility problems domain scores, F(2, 43.1) = 15.64, of the PCOSQ, as well as of the acne VAS score, F(2, 29.3) = 4.2. These effects primarily occurred during the first 12 weeks. In spite of no significant changes in BMI, the HRQoL of overweight adult women with PCOS significantly improved during a 24-week lifestyle modification program. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  15. Hallux Valgus and Lesser Toe Deformities are Highly Heritable in Adult Men and Women: the Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Marian T.; Menz, Hylton B.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate heritability of three common disorders affecting the forefoot: hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar forefoot soft tissue atrophy in adult Caucasian men and women. Methods Between 2002-2008, a trained examiner used a validated foot exam to document presence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy in 2,446 adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Among these, 1,370 participants with available pedigree structure were included. Heritability (h2) was estimated using pedigree structures by Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) package. Results were adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results Mean age of participants was 66 years (range 39 to 99 years) and 57% were female. Prevalence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy was 31%, 29.6% and 28.4%, respectively. Significant h2 was found for hallux valgus (0.29 ~ 0.89, depending on age and sex) and lesser toe deformity (0.49 ~ 0.90 depending on age and sex). The h2 for lesser toe deformity in men and women aged 70+ years was 0.65 (p= 9×10−7). Significant h2 was found for plantar soft tissue atrophy in men and women aged 70+ years (h2 = 0.37; p=3.8×10−3). Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the first findings of heritability of foot disorders in humans, and they confirm the widely-held view that hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities are highly heritable in European-descent Caucasian men and women, underscoring the importance of future work to identify genetic determinants of the underlying genetic susceptibility to these common foot disorders. PMID:23696165

  16. Childhood conduct problems and young adult outcomes among women with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during childhood, in the context of 3 potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data came from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls With ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood, F(1, 118) change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069, and adolescent, F(1, 109) change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083, conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Fat distribution and insulin resistance in young adult nonobese Asian Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz-Garcia, Magdalene; Li, Rong; Grundy, Scott M; Abate, Nicola; Chandalia, Manisha

    2012-10-01

    Although Asian Indian (people of Indian subcontinent descent) men are shown to have higher total and truncal body fat as well as greater insulin resistance compared to white men matched for total body fat and age, data in women are not conclusive. The objective of this study was to compare total and regional fat distribution and insulin sensitivity between healthy young premenopausal Asian Indian and white women of similar body mass index (BMI). Twenty Asian Indian women (65% immigrants and 35% first generation living in Dallas) and 31 white women of similar age and BMI [age 24±3 vs. 25±4; BMI 22±4 vs. 23±5; mean±standard deviation (SD) in Asian Indian and white, respectively] without diabetes were evaluated with anthropometric measurements, underwater weighing for percentage of total body fat mass, magnetic resonance imaging of whole abdomen for measurement of abdominal subcutaneous and intraperitoneal fat mass, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study for measurement of insulin sensitivity. There were no differences in waist or hip circumference, total body subcutaneous abdominal or intraperitoneal fat mass, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels between Asian Indian women and white women. The peripheral glucose disposal rate (Rd) during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was found to be almost identical in the two study groups (median value of 6.9 and 6.8 mg/min per kg of body weight, for Asian Indians and whites, respectively). For similar total or regional fat content, the glucose disposal rate was comparable in the two study groups. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young Asian Indian women do not have excess abdominal or intraperitoneal fat or insulin resistance for similar BMI compared to white women of European descent.

  18. Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

  19. Using novel biomarkers to triage young adult women with minor cervical lesions: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K; Sørbye, S W; Kristiansen, I S; Burger, E A

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the short-term consequences and cost-effectiveness associated with the use of novel biomarkers to triage young adult women with minor cervical cytological lesions. Model-based economic evaluation using primary epidemiological data from Norway, supplemented with data from European and American clinical trials. Organised cervical cancer screening in Norway. Women aged 25-33 years with minor cervical cytological lesions detected at their primary screening test. We expanded an existing simulation model to compare 12 triage strategies involving alternative biomarkers (i.e. reflex human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA/mRNA testing, genotyping, and dual staining) with the current Norwegian triage guidelines. The number of high-grade precancers detected and resource use (e.g. monetary costs and colposcopy referrals) for a single screening round (3 years) for each triage strategy. Cost-efficiency, defined as the additional cost per additional precancer detected of each strategy compared with the next most costly strategy. Five strategies were identified as cost-efficient, and are projected to increase the precancer detection rate between 18 and 57%, compared with current guidelines; however, the strategies did not uniformly require additional resources. Strategies involving HPV mRNA testing required fewer resources, whereas HPV DNA-based strategies detected >50% more precancers, but were more costly and required twice as many colposcopy referrals compared with the current guidelines. Strategies involving biomarkers to triage younger women with minor cervical cytological lesions have the potential to detect additional precancers, yet the optimal strategy depends on the resources available as well as decision-makers' and women's acceptance of additional screening procedures. Women with minor cervical lesions may be triaged more accurately and effectively using novel biomarkers. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Training Status as a Marker of the Relationship between Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and Blood Pressure in Older Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mourão Jacomini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of functional fitness and oxidative capacity on the nitric oxide concentration associated with hemodynamic control in older adult women. The sample consisted of 134 women (65.73 ± 6.14 years old. All subjects underwent a physical examination to assess body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat measurement by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure (BP. Training status (TS was evaluated by indirect determination of maximal oxygen uptake by a treadmill test using Balke protocol modified for older adults. Functional fitness was also evaluated through a “Functional Fitness Battery Test” to determine the general fitness functional index (GFFI. All participants were separated according to the functional fitness (TS1, very weak and weak; TS2, regular; TS3, good and very good. Plasma blood samples were used to evaluate prooxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The general results of this study showed that good levels of TS were related to lower levels of lipoperoxidation and protein damage, higher levels of antioxidant, and higher concentration of nitrite and nitrate. This combination may be responsible for the lower levels of BP in subjects with better TS.

  1. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (Padolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  2. Training Status as a Marker of the Relationship between Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and Blood Pressure in Older Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomini, André Mourão; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; Pinheiro, Lucas Cezar; da Silva, Anderson Bernardino; da Silva, Roberta Fernanda; Trapé, Atila Alexandre; De Angelis, Kátia; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Zago, Anderson Saranz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of functional fitness and oxidative capacity on the nitric oxide concentration associated with hemodynamic control in older adult women. The sample consisted of 134 women (65.73 ± 6.14 years old). All subjects underwent a physical examination to assess body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat measurement by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure (BP). Training status (TS) was evaluated by indirect determination of maximal oxygen uptake by a treadmill test using Balke protocol modified for older adults. Functional fitness was also evaluated through a "Functional Fitness Battery Test" to determine the general fitness functional index (GFFI). All participants were separated according to the functional fitness (TS1, very weak and weak; TS2, regular; TS3, good and very good). Plasma blood samples were used to evaluate prooxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The general results of this study showed that good levels of TS were related to lower levels of lipoperoxidation and protein damage, higher levels of antioxidant, and higher concentration of nitrite and nitrate. This combination may be responsible for the lower levels of BP in subjects with better TS.

  3. Reproductive health outcomes of insured adolescent and adult women who access oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine-Bennett, Tina; Merchant, Maqdooda; Sinclair, Fiona; Lee, Justine W; Goler, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    To assess the level of risk for adolescents and women who seek emergency contraception through various clinical routes and the opportunities for improved care provision. This study looked at a retrospective cohort to assess contraception and other reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and women aged 15-44 years who accessed oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception through an office visit or the call center at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2010 to 2011. Of 21,421 prescriptions, 14,531 (67.8%) were accessed through the call center. In the subsequent 12 months, 12,127 (56.6%) adolescents and women had short-acting contraception (pills, patches, rings, depot medroxyprogesterone) dispensed and 2,264 (10.6%) initiated very effective contraception (intrauterine contraception, implants, sterilization). Initiation of very effective contraception was similar for adolescents and women who accessed it through the call center-1,569 (10.8%) and office visits-695 (10.1%) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-1.13). In the subsequent 6 months, 2,056 (9.6%) adolescents and women became pregnant. Adolescents and women who accessed emergency contraception through the call center were less likely to become pregnant within 3 months of accessing emergency contraception than woman who accessed it through office visits (adjusted OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94); however, they were more likely to become pregnant within 4-6 months (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.60). Among adolescents and women who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, 689 (7.8%) and 928 (7.9%) were positive in the 12 months before and after accessing emergency contraception, respectively. Protocols to routinely address unmet needs for contraception at every call for emergency contraception and all office visits, including visits with primary care providers, should be investigated.

  4. Sexual homicides in South Africa: A national cross-sectional epidemiological study of adult women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Lombard, Carl; Martin, Lorna J; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective national mortuary based study to identify all adult female homicides (18 years and older) and all child homicides (boys and girls homicides validated across the data collection processes. Among the 2670 (95% CI: 2311-2979) adult women killed in 2009, 494 (95% CI: 406-574) were identified as sexual homicides which was 19.8% (95% CI: 17.6-22.0) of all adult female homicides and among 1277 (95% CI: 1091-1462) children killed in SA, sexual homicides were found in 104 (95% CI: 77-132) of the child homicides which was 8.7% (95% CI: 10.9-11.2%) of these murders. Strangulation was the most common cause of death for both children and adult females. A distinct age and sex pattern was found among children with only 1% boy child death identified as a sexual homicide and 92% of all the child sexual homicides were among girls. Strangulation was the most common manner of death among children (35.5%) and perpetrators were seldom strangers. However, no difference in the proportion of convictions between the sexual homicides and non-sexual homicides were found for both adult females and children. Rape homicide is not a rare event in South Africa, with one in five female homicides and nearly one in ten child homicides identified with an associated sexual crime. These high prevalences are amongst the highest levels reported in the literature with our study among the few reporting on the epidemiology of child sexual homicide. Reducing mortality is an important policy goal for South Africa and for the rest of the world and the prevention of female and child homicide is an important part of attaining this goal.

  5. Intimate partner violence among speaking immigrant adult Portuguese women in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Queiroga Souto

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to understand the experiences of intimate partner violence among women from Portuguese-speaking countries living in the Greater Toronto Area. METHOD A social phenomenological study was conducted with ten Portuguese-speaking women who had experienced intimate partner violence who were selected by community centre leaders. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed by categories. RESULTS The consequences of violence included health problems, effects on children, and negative feelings among the victims. Factors preventing the women from leaving abusive partners included religious beliefs, challenging daily jobs, and the need to take care of their husband. Factors that encouraged them to leave included getting support and calling the police. Some women expressed hope for the future either with their husband. Others, desired divorce or revenge. Their plans to rebuild their lives without their husband included being happy, learning English, and being financially stable. CONCLUSION Using these findings can implicate in the improvement of care for these women.

  6. Automobile driving in older adults: factors affecting driving restriction in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Dit Asse, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors associated with driving restriction in elderly men and women. Prospective cohort study of French drivers from 2003 to 2009. The Three-City Cohort of Bordeaux, a prospective study of 2,104 people aged 65 and older. Five hundred twenty-three drivers with a mean age of 76 (273 male, 250 female). Sociodemographic characteristics, driving habits, health variables, cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnosis. Predementia was defined as no dementia at one follow-up and dementia at the next follow-up. Over the 6-year period, 54% of men and 63% of women stopped driving or reduced the distance they drove. Predementia, Parkinson's disease, older age, and a high number of kilometers previously driven were common restriction factors in both sexes. Prevalent dementia, depressive symptomatology, a decline in one or more instrumental activities of daily living, and poor visual working memory were specific factors in men. In women, low income, fear of falling, slow processing speed, and severe decline in global cognitive performance all affected driving restriction. Older women restricted their driving activity more than older men, regardless of the number of kilometers previously driven, physical health, and cognitive status. Factors affecting driving restriction differed according to sex, and women were more likely to stop driving than men in the period preceding a dementia diagnosis. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Reduced bone mineral density in adult women diagnosed with menstrual disorders during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiksten-Almströmer, Marianne; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindën; Hagenfeldt, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in their adolescence. Prospective follow-up study six years after the initial investigation. A youth clinic that is part of the school health system in Stockholm. Eighty-seven women diagnosed with secondary amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea in adolescence. Subjects underwent gynecological examination, evaluation of eating behavior and physical activity. Whole body Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD. BMD. The overall frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis was 52%, and three girls had osteoporosis. Women with previous secondary amenorrhea had significantly lower BMD in the pelvis and lumbar spine than those with previous oligomenorrhea. The strongest predictor of low BMD was a restrictive eating disorder in adolescence and the most important counteraction was high physical activity at follow-up and a body mass index (BMI) > or = 22. Persistent menstrual dysfunction at follow-up was associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and lower frequency of osteopenia. This clinical follow-up study has demonstrated a high frequency of osteopenia in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in adolescence. Previous anorectic behavior was the strongest negative predictor of BMD. It is important to pay attention to an underlying eating disorder in young women with menstrual dysfunction in order to promote bone health.

  8. Frequency of TV viewing and prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult women in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Bishwajit

    2017-01-31

    Research in developed countries has demonstrated an association of varying degrees between watching TV and the risk of being overweight and obese. However, there is no evidence of such an association in the context of the South Asian population. To investigate whether watching TV increases the risk of being overweight and obese among women in Bangladesh. Rural and urban areas in Bangladesh. Participants were 16 624 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. The study was based on cross-sectional data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted in 2014. The main outcome variables were overweight and obesity measured by body mass index. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and multivariable logistic regression models. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the sample population were, respectively, 4.5% (4.18% to 4.82%) and 20% (95% CI 19.39% to 20.61%). In the multivariable analysis, no statistically significant association was found between watching TV and being overweight. However, the odds of being obese among rural women were 63% higher (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.625, 95% CI 1.179 to 2.241) among those who watched less than once a week, and 68% (AOR 1.683, 95% CI 1.029 to 2.751) higher among women who watched TV at least once a week compared to those who did not watch TV at all. Urban women who watched TV at least once a week were 67% more likely to be obese (AOR 1.665, 95% CI 1.079 to 2.568) compared to those who did not watch at all. Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen considerably among women aged between 15 and 49 years since the previous estimates based on BDHS data. Frequent TV watching was associated with a higher risk of being obese among adult women in rural areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  10. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  11. College Graduation Reduces Vulnerability to STIs / HIV among African-American Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218

  12. Recreational Physical Activity and Premenstrual Syndrome in Young Adult Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee R Kroll-Desrosiers

    Full Text Available It is estimated that up to 75% of premenopausal women experience at least one premenstrual symptom and 8-20% meet clinical criteria for premenstrual syndrome. Premenstrual syndrome substantially reduces quality of life for many women of reproductive age, with pharmaceutical treatments having limited efficacy and substantial side effects. Physical activity has been recommended as a method of reducing menstrual symptom severity. However, this recommendation is based on relatively little evidence, and the relationship between physical activity, premenstrual symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome remains unclear.We evaluated the relationship between physical activity and premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual symptoms among 414 women aged 18-31. Usual premenstrual symptom experience was assessed with a modified version of the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences. Total, physical, and affective premenstrual symptom scores were calculated for all participants. Eighty women met criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome, while 89 met control criteria. Physical activity, along with dietary and lifestyle factors, was assessed by self-report.Physical activity was not significantly associated with total, affective, or physical premenstrual symptom score. Compared to the women with the lowest activity, women in tertiles 2 and 3 of activity, classified as metabolic equivalent task hours, had prevalence odds ratios for premenstrual syndrome of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.6-3.7 and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4-2.4, respectively (p-value for trend = 0.85.We found no association between physical activity and either premenstrual symptom scores or the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome.

  13. Enefit gaining Latvian customers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    3. märtsil toimunud Riia linnapea Nils Usakovsi ja Enefiti esindajate kohtumisel räägiti firma tariifidest, mida nad võiks munitsipaalettevõtetele ja -organisatsioonidele pakkuda. Latvenergo tõstab hindu 1. aprillil

  14. Prospective association of polycystic ovary syndrome with coronary artery calcification and carotid-intima-media thickness: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Women's study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Siscovick, David; Merkin, Sharon S; Wang, Erica; Daviglus, Martha L; Schreiner, Pamela J; Sternfeld, Barbara; Williams, O Dale; Lewis, Cora E; Azziz, Ricardo; Schwartz, Stephen M; Wellons, Melissa F

    2014-12-01

    To study the independent associations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and its 2 components, hyperandrogenism and anovulation, with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). At the year 20 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based multicenter cohort of young adults, women (mean age, 45 years) with information on menses and hirsutism in their twenties were assessed for CAC (n=982) and IMT (n=988). We defined PCOS as women who had both irregular menses and hyperandrogenism (n=55); isolated oligomenorrhea (n=103) as women who only had irregular menses; and isolated hyperandrogenism (n=156) as women who had either hirsutism or increased testosterone levels. Logistic regressions and general linear models were used to estimate the associations between components of PCOS and subclinical CVD. The prevalence of CAC was 10.3% overall. Women with PCOS had a multivariable adjusted odds ratio of 2.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-5.60) for CAC. Women with either isolated oligomenorrhea or isolated hyperandrogenism had no increased risk of CAC when compared with unexposed women. Women with PCOS had significantly increased bulb and internal carotid-IMT measurements; however, no significant differences were noted in bulb or internal carotid artery IMT among women with either isolated oligomenorrhea or isolated hyperandrogenism when compared with unexposed women. There were no differences in common carotid-IMT among the 4 study groups. In this study, women with PCOS, manifested as both anovulation and hyperandrogenism, but not women with one of these manifestations alone, were at increased risk for the development of subclinical CVD. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Body Image across the Life Span in Adult Women: The Role of Self-Objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lynch, Jessica E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated body image across life span in cross-section of women ages 20-84 years. Found that although body dissatisfaction remained stable, self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, appearance anxiety, and disordered eating all significantly decreased with age. Self- objectification mediated the relationship between age and disordered…

  16. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  17. The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Batya

    2000-01-01

    This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

  18. Predictors of overweight and obesity in adult women in Nairobi Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbochi Regina W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since obesity in urban women is prevalent in Kenya the study aimed to determine predictors of overweight and obesity in urban Kenyan women. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nairobi Province. The province was purposively selected because it has the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in Kenya. A total of 365 women aged 25–54 years old were randomly selected to participate in the study. Results Higher age, higher socio-economic (SE group, increased parity, greater number of rooms in the house, and increased expenditure showed greater mean body mass index (BMI,% body fat and waist circumference (WC at highly significant levels (p Conclusions The predictors of overweight and obesity showed that urbanization and the nutrition transition were well established in the sample of women studied in the high SE groups. They exhibited a sedentary lifestyle and consumed a diet high in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, and alcohol and lower in fibre and carbohydrate compared with those in the low SE groups.

  19. Social Networks and Community Support: Sustaining Women in Need of Community-Based Adult Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Velmarie L.

    2009-01-01

    Life for uneducated women involves contending with myriad barriers to economic self-sufficiency. The average income for individuals without at least a high school diploma or GED is about $18,734. That income level falls close to the poverty line established by the federal government for a family of three or more. Further compounding the problem…

  20. Is lack of sexual assertiveness among adolescent and young adult women a cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Vaughn I; Sanghvi, Rupal; Wiemann, Constance M

    2002-01-01

    Understanding young women's sexual assertiveness is critical to developing effective interventions to promote sexual health and reduce sexual risk-taking and violence. Young women's perception of their sexual rights may vary according to demographic characteristics, sexual health behaviors and victimization history. Data were collected from 904 sexually active 14-26-year-old clients of two family planning clinics in Texas, reflecting their perceptions of their right to communicate expectations about or control aspects of their sexual encounters. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess which characteristics were independently associated with believing that one never has each specified sexual right. Almost 2096 of women believed that they never have the right to make their own decisions about contraception, regardless of their partner's wishes; to tell their partner that they do not want to have intercourse without birth control, that they want to make love differently or that their partner is being too rough; and to stop foreplay at any time, including at the point of intercourse. Poor grades in school, sexual inexperience, inconsistent contraceptive use and minority ethnicity were independently associated with lacking sexual assertiveness. Many sexually active young women perceive that they do not have the right to communicate about or control aspects of their sexual behavior. Interventions to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancy and coercive sexual behaviors should include strategies to evaluate and address these perceptions.

  1. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...

  2. Loss of smell but not taste in adult women with Turner's syndrome and other congenital hypogonadisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Cristina; Alobid, Isam; Centellas, Silvia; Balasch, Juan; Mullol, Joaquim; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2012-11-01

    To assess the impact of Turner's syndrome (TS) and other congenital hypogonadisms (OCH) on the sense of smell and taste. An analytical study of three independent cohorts was designed: patients affected by TS, OCH, and a control group of healthy women taking contraception. Gynaecological Endocrinology Unit and Smell Clinic in Rhinology Unit of Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. Thirty TS patients between 20 and 50 years of age receiving hormone replacement treatment (HT) were included as the exposed cohort; fourteen age-matched women with OCH taking HT were recruited; forty-three age-matched healthy controls receiving hormone contraception treatment were selected as the control group. This group was matched with an historical cohort of forty healthy women without contraception, used to validate BAST-24 in Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. Clinical history, presence of nasal symptoms, general physical examination, nasal endoscopy, and Barcelona Smell Test-24 (BAST-24) and gustometry were carried out on all patients. TS physical dysmorphology features, intensity of nasal symptoms and signs of nasal obstruction were collected. BAST-24 test included 24 odours to assess both sensory (detection, memory and forced choice) and sensitivity (intensity, irritability, freshness and pleasantness) odour characteristics, as well as 4 tastes to evaluate taste domains (detection and forced choice). Healthy women taking hormone contraception felt odours with more intensity (p=0.002) and less irritability (psmell memory (psmell but not of taste, compared to OCH and healthy controls taking contraception. Smell sensitivity was not affected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting Role Conflict, Overload and Contagion in Adult Women University Students with Families and Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home, Alice M.

    1998-01-01

    Data from 443 women combining work, family, and schooling showed that lower income increased their vulnerability to role conflict. Perceived intensity of student demands was the strongest predictor of role conflict, overload, and contagion (preoccupation with one role while performing another). Conflict and overload were eased somewhat by distance…

  4. Sexist Attitudes Among Emerging Adult Women Readers of Fifty Shades Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Lauren E; Carotta, Christin L; Bonomi, Amy E; Snyder, Anastasia

    2017-02-01

    Stereotypical sexist representations of men and women in popular culture reinforce rigid views of masculinity (e.g., males as being strong, in control, masterful, and aggressive) and femininity (e.g., women as being fragile and weak, unassertive, peaceful, irrational, and driven by emotions). The present study examined associations between the fictional series Fifty Shades-one popular culture mechanism that includes pervasive traditional gender role representations-and underlying sexist beliefs among a sample of 715 women ages 18-24 years. Analyses revealed associations between Fifty Shades readership and sexism, as measured through the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Namely women who reported reading Fifty Shades had higher levels of ambivalent, benevolent, and hostile sexism. Further, those who interpreted Fifty Shades as "romantic" had higher levels of ambivalent and benevolent sexism. Our findings support prior empirical studies noting associations between interacting with aspects of popular culture, such as television and video games, and individual beliefs and behaviors.

  5. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (60) and genetic taste status…

  6. Presence and resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in vaginal specimens of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women and association with other aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Smajlović, Jasmina; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Bektaš, Sabaheta; Halilović, Emir; Nurkić, Jasmina

    2017-02-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S. agalactiae and other aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion and microdilution method(VITEK 2/AES instrument). Results Among 200 vaginal swabs, 17 (8.50%) were positive for S. agalactiae, e. g., 7% (7/100) of pregnant and 10% (10/100) of adult non-pregnant women. In the pregnant group, 71.4% (5/7) of S. agalactiae isolates were susceptible to clindamycin and 85.7%(6/7) to erythromycin. In the adult non-pregnant group, only resistance to clindamycin was observed in one patient (1/10; 10%). S. agalactiae as single pathogen was isolated in 57.14% (4/7) of pregnant and 60% (6/10) of adult non-pregnant S. agalactiae positive women. In mixed microbial cultures S. agalactiae was most frequently associated with Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Conclusion The rate of S. agalactiae positive women in the population of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women of Tuzla Canton, B&H is comparable with other European countries. Large studies are needed to develop a common national strategy for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in B&H, especially during pregnancy. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  7. Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hansen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes Context: In animal studies exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease through only partly understood epigenetic mechanisms....... Human long-term follow-up studies on the same topic are few. Objective: To study the risk of overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, and additionally to study associations between estimates of maternal...... hyperglycemia and outcome in the offspring Design: Follow-up study of 1,066 primarily Caucasians aged 18-27 years. Setting: Center for pregnant women with diabetes, Rigshospitalet, Denmark Participants: Offspring of women with diet-treated GDM (n=168) and an un-exposed reference group (n=141). Offspring...

  8. Vocal parameters and voice-related quality of life in adult women with and without ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Pablo Rodrigo Rocha; Bertoldo, Simão Veras; Costa, Luanne Gabrielle Morais; Serra, Emmeliny Cristini Nogueira; Silva, Eduardo Magalhães; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2013-05-01

    To identify the perceptual and acoustic parameters of voice in adult women with and without ovarian function and its impact on quality of life related to voice. Cross-sectional and analytical study with 106 women divided into, two groups: G1, with ovarian function (n=43) and G2, without physiological ovarian function (n=63). The women were instructed to sustain the vowel "a" and the sounds of /s/ and /z/ in habitual pitch and loudness. They were also asked to classify their voices and answer the voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL) questionnaire. The perceptual analysis of the vocal samples was performed by three speech-language pathologists using the GRBASI (G: grade; R: roughness; B: breathness; A: asthenia; S: strain; I: instability) scale. The acoustic analysis was carried out with the software VoxMetria 2.7h (CTS Informatica). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the perceptual analysis, both groups showed a mild deviation for the parameters roughness, strain, and instability, but only G2 showed a mild impact for the overall degree of dysphonia. The mean of fundamental frequency was significantly lower for the G2, with a difference of 17.41Hz between the two groups. There was no impact on V-RQOL in any of the V-RQOL domains for this group. With the menopause, there is a change in women's voices, impacting on some voice parameters. However, there is no direct impact on their quality of life related to voice. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term follow-up observation of the safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness of Gardasil™ in adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Luna

    Full Text Available Previous analyses from a randomized trial in women aged 24-45 have shown the quadrivalent HPV vaccine to be efficacious in the prevention of infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and external genital lesions (EGL related to HPV 6/11/16/18 through 4 years. In this report we present long term follow-up data on the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in adult women.Follow-up data are from a study being conducted in 5 sites in Colombia designed to evaluate the long-term immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety of the qHPV vaccine in women who were vaccinated at 24 to 45 years of age (in the original vaccine group during the base study [n = 684] or 29 to 50 years of age (in the original placebo group during the base study [n = 651]. This analysis summarizes data collected as of the year 6 post-vaccination visit relative to day 1 of the base study (median follow-up of 6.26 years from both the original base study and the Colombian follow-up.There were no cases of HPV 6/11/16/18-related CIN or EGL during the extended follow-up phase in the per-protocol population. Immunogenicity persists against vaccine-related HPV types, and no evidence of HPV type replacement has been observed. No new serious adverse experiences have been reported.Vaccination with qHPV vaccine provides generally safe and effective protection from HPV 6-, 11-, 16-, and 18-related genital warts and cervical dysplasia through 6 years following administration to 24-45 year-old women.Clinicaltrials.govNCT00090220.

  10. Experiences of racism and the incidence of adult-onset asthma in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F; Yu, Jeffrey; O'Connor, George T; Brown, Timothy A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Chronic stress resulting from experiences of racism may increase the incidence of adult-onset asthma through effects on the immune system and the airways. We conducted prospective analyses of the relation of experiences of racism with asthma incidence in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort of black women in the United States followed since 1995 with mailed biennial questionnaires. Among 38,142 participants followed from 1997 to 2011, 1,068 reported incident asthma. An everyday racism score was created based on five questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency in daily life of experiences of racism (eg, poor service in stores), and a lifetime racism score was based on questions about racism on the job, in housing, and by police. We used Cox regression models to derive multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs for categories of each racism score in relation to incident asthma. The IRRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.19-1.78) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of the 1997 everyday racism score (P for trendracism. Among women who reported the same levels of racism in 1997 and 2009, the IRRs for the highest categories of everyday and lifetime racism were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.55-2.91) and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.20-2.30), respectively. Given the high prevalence of experiences of racism and asthma in black women in the United States, a positive association between racism and asthma is of public health importance.

  11. The effect of increased primary schooling on adult women's HIV status in Malawi and Uganda: Universal Primary Education as a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Julia Andrea

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores the causal relationship between primary schooling and adult HIV status in Malawi and Uganda, two East African countries with some of the highest HIV infection rates in the world. Using data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey and the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, the paper takes advantage of a natural experiment, the implementation of Universal Primary Education policies in the mid 1990s. An instrumented regression discontinuity approach is used to model the relationship between increased primary schooling and adult women's HIV status. Results indicate that a one-year increase in schooling decreases the probability of an adult woman testing positive for HIV by 0.06 (p primary schooling positively affects women's literacy and spousal schooling attainment in Malawi and age of marriage and current household wealth in Uganda. However primary schooling has no effect on recent (adult) sexual behavior. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Career Pursuit Pathways among Emerging Adult Men and Women: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Barr, Tamuz; Livneh, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Vasalampi, Kati; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined career pursuit pathways in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 men) who were followed from age 22 to 29. Employing a semi-structured interview at the age of 29, participants were asked about current work and educational status, work and educational goals and status changes in recent years, and to reflect on the meaning of…

  13. Standardized multidisciplinary evaluation yields significant previously undiagnosed morbidity in adult women with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freriks, K.; Timmermans, J.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Otten, B.J.; Braat, D.D.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Kunst, D.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Besides short stature and gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with various abnormalities. Adults with TS have a reduced life expectancy, mainly related to structural abnormalities of the heart and aorta, and an increased risk of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: Our objective

  14. Long-term effects of previous oxandrolone treatment in adult women with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freriks, K.; Sas, T.C.J.; Traas, M.A.F.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Heijer, M. den; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Wit, J.M.; Alfen-van der Velden, J. van; Otten, B.J.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Gotthardt, M.; Dejonckere, P.H.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Menke, L.A.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Short stature is a prominent feature of Turner syndrome (TS), which is partially overcome by GH treatment. We have previously reported the results of a trial on the effect of oxandrolone (Ox) in girls with TS. Ox in a dose of 0.03 mg/kg per day (Ox 0.03) significantly increased adult

  15. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  16. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  17. Pregnant Women Experiencing IPV: Impact of Supportive and Non-Supportive Relationships with their Mothers and Other Supportive Adults on Perinatal Depression: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Bair-Merritt, Megan; Rose, Linda; Marcantonio, Kristin; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the views of women experiencing interpersonal violence (IPV) and their relationship with their mothers or other supportive adult, and determines how this relationship affected perinatal depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 30 urban and rural pregnant women enrolled in a larger ongoing randomized controlled trial. Data from quantitative instruments that measured depressive symptoms were examined in combination with qualitative interview data collected at base...

  18. Timing of menarche related to carotid artery intima-media thickness in black and white young adult women: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Azad R; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Xu, Ji-Hua; Berenson, Gerald S

    2015-06-01

    The early onset of menarche is related to the adulthood risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. This study examines the relation of early onset of menarche to carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), which is a surrogate marker of CV disease, among asymptomatic young adult women in a black-white community. A cohort of 461 women (31% black, 69% white) aged 24 to 43 years (mean of 35.6 years) were participants in the Bogalusa Heart Study. The age at menarche was retrospectively collected. In addition to CV risk factor variable measurements B-mode ultrasound images of the far walls of carotid artery segments were obtained. The multivariate linear regression model along with mediating effect by Sobel test was applied to analyze menarcheal age effect on carotid artery IMT, adjusting for covariates. Waist to height ratio was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly greater (P = .01) in early menarcheal age (women and also similar direction in black women. Internal carotid artery IMT was the same in early menarcheal age (women but higher (P = .02) in black women. Given as previously mentioned these different associations, the mediation analysis by race was performed. The effect of early menarcheal age (women after adjusting for parental education and age. The mediating effect of waist to height ratio (Sobel test = -2.26 and P = .02) and HOMA-IR (Sobel test = -1.85 and P = .06) on internal carotid artery IMT was noted in white women. The direct effect of early menarcheal age (women. The observed deleterious effect of early onset of menarche on carotid artery IMT in asymptomatic black and white younger adult women has biological, social, and public health implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Do breastfeeding intentions of pregnant inner-city teens and adult women differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ashley; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Furman, Lydia

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the breastfeeding intentions and attitudes of pregnant low-income inner-city teens (age ≤19 years) and non-teens (age ≥20) to determine if age is a significant determinant of intent to breastfeed in this population. We used structured interviews to examine the feeding intentions and attitudes of consecutive healthy pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at the Women's Health Center, MacDonald Women's Hospital, Cleveland, OH (June 1-July 31, 2007). The primary outcome measure was rate of intent to breastfeed among teen versus non-teen participants. Attitudes and self-assessed knowledge regarding breastfeeding were compared between teens and non-teens, and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of age on breastfeeding intent. We interviewed 176 pregnant women (95% African-American, 94% single marital status, median age 22 years [range, 15-41 years], 46 [26%] teens) at a median of 27 weeks of pregnancy. There were no significant differences between teens and non-teens in race, marital status, or timing of first prenatal visit or interview. Rate of intent to breastfeed and planned duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, as well as most measured attitudes about breastfeeding including "back to work" plans, were not significantly different between groups. Significant determinants of feeding intent included primiparity, good self-assessed knowledge about breastfeeding, and having support from the father of the baby. In a population at high risk for choosing not to breastfeed, we found no significant explanatory effect of age on breastfeeding intention, implying that an inclusive targeted breastfeeding intervention program may be effective for both teens and non-teens in a low-income inner-city population. We also found that the support of the father of the baby significantly influenced breastfeeding intent among our participants, suggesting that paternal involvement will be integral to the success of

  20. The effects of periodic interruptions of physical activities on the physical capacities of adult active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Patrícia; Wanderley, Fabio da Silva; Rebelatto, José Rubens

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity programs adapted to the elderly have been proposed with the purpose of minimizing the alterations provoked by aging. These programs usually present break periods of more than 30 days, at least once a year. The aim of this study was to verify if 30-day interruptions cause alterations in the acquisition of physical capacities for senescent women. The study was longitudinal in design, 125 senescent women completed a physical activity program consisting of stretching, aerobic resistance, strength, power and resistance exercises; coordination, agility and flexibility activities; respiratory and relaxation exercises during almost 2 years. Two periods were selected, containing four evaluations with two activities' interruption periods in between the measurements. The main outcome measures were manual pressing strength, flexibility, dynamic balance and physical conditioning (VO2max). During the program there was an increasing tendency for the muscular strength and the VO2max. A significant improvement in flexibility was noted (pprogram, the dynamic balance showed significant difference (pactivities in both studied periods were not enough to significantly alter the values of physical capacities of senescent active women.

  1. Domestic Violence in Pregnant Women: A Study Conducted in the Postpartum Period of Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lucia Helena Mello de; Mattar, Rosiane; Abrahão, Anelise Riedel

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence in adolescent and adult mothers who were admitted to obstetrics services centers in Brazil and to identify risk factors of domestic violence and any adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Researchers used standardized interviews, the questionnaire Abuse Assessment Screen, and a review of patients' medical records. Descriptive statistical analyses were also used. The prevalence of domestic violence among all participants totaled 40.1% (38.5% of adolescents, 41.7% of adults). Factors associated with domestic violence during pregnancy were as follows: a history of family violence, a greater number of sexual partners, and being a smoker. No statistically significant association was found for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Results showed that, in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, pregnancy did not protect a woman from suffering domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikoff, Daniele; Welsh, Brian T; Henderson, Rayetta; Brorby, Gregory P; Britt, Janice; Myers, Esther; Goldberger, Jeffrey; Lieberman, Harris R; O'Brien, Charles; Peck, Jennifer; Tenenbein, Milton; Weaver, Connie; Harvey, Seneca; Urban, Jonathan; Doepker, Candace

    2017-11-01

    To date, one of the most heavily cited assessments of caffeine safety in the peer-reviewed literature is that issued by Health Canada (Nawrot et al., 2003). Since then, >10,000 papers have been published related to caffeine, including hundreds of reviews on specific human health effects; however, to date, none have compared the wide range of topics evaluated by Nawrot et al. (2003). Thus, as an update to this foundational publication, we conducted a systematic review of data on potential adverse effects of caffeine published from 2001 to June 2015. Subject matter experts and research team participants developed five PECO (population, exposure, comparator, and outcome) questions to address five types of outcomes (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone and calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in four healthy populations (adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children) relative to caffeine intake doses determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (comparators: 400 mg/day for adults [10 g for lethality], 300 mg/day for pregnant women, and 2.5 mg/kg/day for children and adolescents). The a priori search strategy identified >5000 articles that were screened, with 381 meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria for the five outcomes (pharmacokinetics was addressed contextually, adding 46 more studies). Data were extracted by the research team and rated for risk of bias and indirectness (internal and external validity). Selected no- and low-effect intakes were assessed relative to the population-specific comparator. Conclusions were drawn for the body of evidence for each outcome, as well as endpoints within an outcome, using a weight of evidence approach. When the total body of evidence was evaluated and when study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response were considered, the evidence generally supports that consumption of up to 400 mg caffeine/day in healthy adults is not associated

  3. a Cross-Sectional Study on Insomnia among Japanese Adult Women in Relation to Night-Time Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, T.; Kabuto, M.; Nitta, N.; Kurokawa, Y.; Taira, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takemoto, T.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to determine the contribution of night-time road traffic noise to insomnia in the general population, 3600 adult Japanese women living in urban residential areas were surveyed. Living near a road with a heavy traffic volume is one of the risk factors for insomnia. The risk for insomnia in the zones 0-20 m from the main roads increased linearly with the night-time traffic volume. This suggests that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas.

  4. Excess Mortality in Women and Young Adults With Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma: A Swedish Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Daniel S; Nilsson, Anna G; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Trimpou, Penelope; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Andersson, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism of various etiologies have excess mortality. The mortality in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), regardless of pituitary function, is less well studied. Our aim was to investigate mortality in patients with NFPA and to examine whether age at diagnosis, gender, tumor treatments, or hormonal deficiencies influence the outcome. NFPA patients were identified and followed up in nationwide health registries in Sweden, 1987-2011. The criteria for identification were tested and validated in a subpopulation of the patients. This was a nationwide, population-based study. A total of 2795 unique patients with NFPA (1502 men, 1293 women) were identified and included in the study. Mean age at diagnosis was 58 years (men, 60 y; women, 56 y) and mean follow-up time was 7 years (range 0-25 y). There were no interventions. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and annual incidence rates were calculated using the Swedish population as reference and presented with 95% confidence intervals. Annual incidence of NFPA was 20.3 (18.8-21.9) cases per 1 million inhabitants. During the observation period, 473 patients died against an expected 431, resulting in an SMR of 1.10 (1.00-1.20). Patients diagnosed at younger than 40 years of age had an increased SMR of 2.68 (1.23-5.09). The SMR for patients with hypopituitarism (n = 1500) was 1.06 (0.94-1.19), and for patients with diabetes insipidus (n = 145), it was 1.71 (1.07-2.58). The SMR was increased in women with NFPA (1.29; 1.11-1.48) but not in men (1.00; 0.88-1.12). Women, but not men, with a diagnosis of hypopituitarism and/or diabetes insipidus also had an increased mortality ratio. SMRs due to cerebrovascular (1.73; 1.34-2.19) and infectious diseases (2.08; 1.17-3.44) were increased, whereas the SMR for malignant tumors was decreased (0.76; 0.61-0.94). This nationwide study of patients with NFPA showed an overall excess mortality in women and in patients with a young age at diagnosis

  5. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms among Young Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Polak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increased interest in the role of vitamin D in depression; however, there have been few studies conducted in younger population groups. Our aim was to investigate the association between vitamin D status and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical young adult sample living in Dunedin, New Zealand. A cross-sectional sample of 615 young adults completed a questionnaire including demographics and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Height, weight and a blood sample for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was obtained. Serum 25(OHD was used to predict depression scores, adjusting for potential confounders including time spent outdoors for 13 consecutive days, BMI, age, sex and ethnicity. Prevalence of low vitamin D was high even in this age group, and serum 25(OHD was negatively associated with depression symptoms before and after adjustment. When investigating the relationship between the presence versus absence of depressive symptoms and quartiles of 25(OHD, participants in the lowest quartile were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared with those in the highest quartile. Although our findings suggest that vitamin D is a predictor of depression symptomatology, even when controlling for time spent outdoors, a randomised controlled trial in this young adult target group is needed to confirm the association.

  6. Modeling lifetime costs and health outcomes attributable to secondhand smoke exposure at home among Korean adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyae; Han, Ah Ram; Choi, Dalwoong; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2017-05-17

    The aim of this research is to estimate lifetime costs and health consequences for Korean adult women who were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home. A Markov model was developed to project the lifetime healthcare costs and health outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of Korean women who are 40 years old and were married to current smokers. The Korean epidemiological data were used to reflect the natural history of SHS-exposed and non-exposed women. The direct healthcare costs (in 2014 US dollars) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were annually discounted at 5% to reflect time preference. The time horizon of the analysis was lifetime and the cycle length was 1 year. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. In the absence of SHS exposure, Korean women will live 41.32 years or 34.56 QALYs before discount, which corresponded to 17.29 years or 15.35 QALYs after discount. The SHS-exposed women were predicted to live 37.91 years and 31.08 QALYs before discount and 16.76 years and 14.62 QALYs after discount. The estimated lifetime healthcare cost per woman in the SHS non-exposed group was US$11 214 before the discount and US$2465 after discount. The negative impact of SHS exposure on health outcomes and healthcare costs escalated as the time horizon increased, suggesting that the adverse impact of SHS exposure may have higher impact on the later part of the lifetime. The result was consistent across a wide range of assumptions. Life expectancy might underestimate the impact of SHS exposure on health outcomes, especially if the time horizon of the analysis is not long enough. Early intervention on smoking behaviour could substantially reduce direct healthcare costs and improve quality of life attributable to SHS exposure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Application of Two Intervention Programs in Order to Optimize Motivation and to Improve Eating Habits in Adult and Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyton Marta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of two intervention programs: a physical exercise program with strategies to support the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness; and a physical exercise program with nutritional education in order to improve the lifestyles of adult and elderly women who practiced functional maintenance. The Self-Determination Theory was applied as the theoretical framework. A sample of 135 women aged between 40 and 88 years (59.66 ± 10.76 who enrolled in a 12-week functional maintenance program and attended 24 exercise classes took part in the study. A quasi-experimental study was performed where strategies to support the three basic psychological needs were applied to one group and strategies for the improvement of eating habits were applied to the other group. No strategy was applied to the control group. The main results showed an improvement in experimental groups I and II when compared to the control group regarding the variables of autonomy, competence, intrinsic regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and eating habits, after the application of the intervention programs. The conclusion is that both intervention programs were successful with this project’s participants and that it is crucial to promote such intervention programs in functional maintenance classes, as they foster healthy lifestyles among participants.

  8. Fatty, Fatty, Two-by-Four: Weight-Teasing History and Disturbed Eating in Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Rita; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We investigated the long-term effect of weight teasing during childhood. Methods. Young adult women (n = 1533; aged 18–26 years) from 3 large universities participated in a survey (Fall 2009 to Spring 2010) that assessed disturbed eating behaviors; weight status at ages 6, 12, and 16 years; and weight-teasing history. Results. Nearly half of the participants were weight-teased as a child. Participants who experienced childhood weight teasing were significantly more likely to have disturbed eating behaviors now than non–weight-teased peers. As the variety of weight teasing insults recalled increased, so did disturbed eating behaviors and current body mass index. Those who recalled their weight at ages 6, 12, or 16 years as being heavier than average endured weight teasing significantly more frequently and felt greater distress than their lighter counterparts. Conclusions. Weight teasing may contribute to the development of disturbed eating and eating disorders in young women. Health care professionals, parents, teachers, and other childcare givers must help shift social norms to make weight teasing as unacceptable as other types of bullying. To protect the health of children, efforts to make weight teasing unacceptable are warranted. PMID:23327257

  9. Application of Two Intervention Programs in Order to Optimize Motivation and to Improve Eating Habits in Adult and Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, Marta; Batista, Marco; Lobato, Susana; Aspano, Mª Isabel; Jiménez, Ruth

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of two intervention programs: a physical exercise program with strategies to support the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness); and a physical exercise program with nutritional education in order to improve the lifestyles of adult and elderly women who practiced functional maintenance. The Self-Determination Theory was applied as the theoretical framework. A sample of 135 women aged between 40 and 88 years (59.66 ± 10.76) who enrolled in a 12-week functional maintenance program and attended 24 exercise classes took part in the study. A quasi-experimental study was performed where strategies to support the three basic psychological needs were applied to one group and strategies for the improvement of eating habits were applied to the other group. No strategy was applied to the control group. The main results showed an improvement in experimental groups I and II when compared to the control group regarding the variables of autonomy, competence, intrinsic regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and eating habits, after the application of the intervention programs. The conclusion is that both intervention programs were successful with this project's participants and that it is crucial to promote such intervention programs in functional maintenance classes, as they foster healthy lifestyles among participants.

  10. When the Asian Girl Speaks: A Comparative Analysis of Two Young Adult Novels in English Written by Asian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalaine Yanilla Aquino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two contemporary award winning young adult novels in English: Sing to the Dawn by Minfong Ho, and A Step from Heaven by An Na. Sing to the Dawn, published in Singapore, won first prize in the 1975 Council of Interracial Books for Children in New York; while A Step from Heaven, published in New York, won the 2002 Michael L. Printz Award. By using feminist and critical stylistics, this paper aims to answer the following questions: Do Asians retain their “voice” even when they write in English and live in foreign lands? Given this situation, how do they make their voice heard? How do the two women Asian writers represent the voice of their young female protagonists? Is the voice still distinctly Asian in spite of speaking in English and being written by Asian writers who have long lived in America? When the Asian girl speaks, who listens? Literally and figuratively speaking, has the Asian female finally found her voice?By answering these questions, this paper aims to identify at least some aspects of the Asian “voice” in English and determine the Asian female identity represented in the two young adult novels.

  11. Vitamin D status predicts hand-grip strength in young adult women living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hurst, P R; Conlon, C; Foskett, A

    2013-07-01

    The identification of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in skeletal muscle tissue and research in muscle strength and development in VDR-null mice confirms a role for vitamin D in muscle function. The relationship between muscle strength and vitamin D status has been explored to some degree in older populations with regard to fall prevention, but there has been very little research in younger adults. This cross-sectional study considered the predictors of muscle strength in 137 young women (19-29 years) living in New Zealand. The following measurements were taken in the latter months of winter: plasma 25OHD, dominant (HGD) and non-dominant hand-grip (HGND) strength (hand-grip dynamometer), counter measure jump, and recreational physical activity (RPA) assessed from a recent physical activity questionnaire (RPAQ). Dietary intake was measured with a four-day food diary, and body composition using air displacement plethysmography. This was a relatively inactive group of women; total RPA ranged from 0 to 3.93h per week, mean (SD) 0.86(0.74) h, approximately 50% comprised outdoor activities. Mean 25OHD was 54(28)nmol/l, HGD and HGND were significantly different (t=6.049, pstrength as the dependent variable (Model R(2)=0.11, p=0.001 non-dominant, R(2)=0.13, pstrength and serum 25OHD, and when each were adjusted to remove this association, 25OHD accounted for 4.3% of HGND and 4.5% of HGD. These results suggest that vitamin D status does have a small but significant association with hand-grip strength in this group of young women. Further investigation in this age group with a randomised controlled trial is justified. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A prospective study of overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among adolescent and young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Hayley H; Haines, Jess; Austin, S Bryn; Field, Alison E

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and overeating and binge eating among adolescent and young adult females in the United States. We investigated incident overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among 4,798 females in the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort study of adolescents and young adults throughout the United States. Participants who reported at least monthly episodes of eating a very large amount of food in a short amount of time in the past year, but not experiencing a loss of control, were classified as overeaters. Those who reported a loss of control while overeating were classified as binge eaters. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the McKnight Risk Factor Survey. Participants were followed between 1999 and 2003. Generalized estimating equations were used for lagged analysis with time-varying covariates. Analyses were adjusted for age, age at menarche, body mass index, and follow-up time. Females reporting depressive symptoms at baseline were two times more likely than their peers to start overeating (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.5) and binge eating (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7, 3.0) during the follow-up. Similarly, females engaging in overeating (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1, 3.4) or binge eating (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9) at baseline were two times more likely than their peers to develop depressive symptoms during the follow-up. These results indicate that it is important to consider depressive symptoms in overeating and binge eating prevention and treatment initiatives targeting adolescent and young adult females. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood and adult socioeconomic position interact to predict health in mid life in a cohort of British women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Low childhood socioeconomic position (cSEP is associated with poorer adult health, even after adult socioeconomic position (aSEP is adjusted for. However, whether cSEP and aSEP combine additively or non-additively in predicting adult health is less well studied. Some evidence suggests that the combination of low cSEP and low aSEP is associated with worse health than would be predicted from the sum of their individual effects. Methods Using data from female members of the British National Child Development Study cohort, we developed continuous quantitative measures of aSEP and cSEP, and used these to predict self-rated health at ages 23, 33, and 42. Results Lower aSEP predicted poorer heath at all ages. Lower cSEP predicted poorer health at all ages, even after adjustment for aSEP, but the direct effects of cSEP were substantially weaker than those of aSEP. At age 23, the effects of cSEP and aSEP were additive. At ages 33 and 42, cSEP and aSEP interacted, such that the effects of low aSEP on health were more negative if cSEP had also been low. Conclusions As women age, aSEP and cSEP may affect their health interactively. High cSEP, by providing a good start in life, may be partially protective against later negative impacts of low aSEP. We relate this to the extended ‘silver spoon’ principle recently documented in a non-human species.

  14. The Effects of Exercise on the Physical Fitness of High and Moderate-Low Functioning Older Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Christopher Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Understanding how exercise affects individuals with varying levels of functional ability will provide further insight into the role of exercise during the aging process. It will also aid in the development of exercise programs that are appropriate for a wider spectrum of older adults. Specifically it was the primary aim of this study to determine and compare the effects of 10 weeks of community-based exercise on the cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and balance fitness components of older adult women with high and moderate-low levels of physical function. Methods. Participants were placed in either the high functioning (n=13 or moderate/low functioning (n=17 groups based on their level of physical functioning. Fitness components were measured by the Senior Fitness Test and physical function was determined by the Composite Physical Function scale. Results. The results of the 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA statistical analysis showed no significant interaction effect for time ⁎ group for any of the six subtests (chair stand, arm curls, 2-minute step, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, and 6-foot up-and-go of the SFT. However, the main effect of time was significant for all fitness components and the main effect of group was significant for all fitness components except lower extremity flexibility. Discussion. Community-based exercise programs offering a variety of exercise types to people with varying levels of functional ability can be useful in maintaining or improving fitness and independence. These programs may also be capable of improving the self-efficacy of lower functioning older adults toward performing daily tasks.

  15. Becoming a Woman in the Dutch Republic : Advice Literature for Young Adult Women of the 17th and 18th Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, Marja; Reeves, Margaret; Cohen, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    In the Dutch republic seventeenth-century authors of marriage manuals and conduct books for women did not distinguish the young, nubile ones from married adults. Marriage was the core teaching, and all were admonished not merely to obey their husbands but also to identify with them. In stressing the

  16. Good Ol' Boys, Mean Girls, and Tyrants: A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences and Survival Strategies of Bullied Women Adult Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedivy-Benton, Amy; Strohschen, Gabriele; Cavazos, Nora; Boden-McGill, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Bullying in higher education is an increasingly common phenomenon that negatively affects organizational climate, completed work's quality and quantity, and students' educational experiences. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the lived experiences of women adult educators who were targets of bullying. Six…

  17. Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Susan A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Morrison, Diane M; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-09-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N=161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex - perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence - and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication.

  18. Desirable possible selves and depression in adult women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Martin G; Hansson, Berit; Lundblad, Suzanna

    2014-06-01

    Possible selves are conceptions of our selves in future states. Previous findings indicated that women with anorexia nervosa tended to have more negative possible selves than a control group, even when rating future situations normally regarded in our society as desirable. The present study investigated whether this was a general pattern in women with eating disorders, relating findings on possible selves to depression. Possible selves concerning treatment were also included. Patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 19), bulimia nervosa (n = 29) or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (n = 18) and a control group (n = 27) rated the valence of five possible selves on Likert's scales. Levels of depression were measured among the patients using the Beck Depression Inventory. The patients rated the valence of the possible selves significantly less positively and more negatively than did the control group. A strong correlation between valence and depression was found in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No such correlation was found in patients with EDNOS. Possible selves concerning future treatment were rated even more negatively. The results indicate that, when compared to a non-patient group, eating disorder patients make more negative evaluations of possible selves usually seen as desirable. Depression may be a mediating factor in these evaluations for the anorexia and bulimia patients.

  19. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of calorie restriction on energy expenditure in overweight and obese adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Jaime, Teresa; Leiva Balich, Laura; Barrera Acevedo, Gladys; de la Maza Cave, María Pía; Hirsch Birn, Sandra; Henríquez Parada, Sandra; Rodríguez Silva, Juan; Bunout Barnett, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) may decrease in subjects on hypocaloric diets, in amounts that exceed body mass loss, favoring weight regain. To verify if a short-term caloric restriction lowers Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) more than predicted by changes in body composition, and if this reduction of EE is related with compliance to the diet. Twenty-two women aged 23-44 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-32 kg/m2, underwent a three-month calorie restriction treatment (20 kcal/kg initial weight) and were encouraged to increase their physical activity. At the beginning and end of the intervention, body composition (DEXA), REE, Physical Activity Energy Expenditure (PAEE) and TEE were assessed, through a combination of indirect calorimetry and actigraphy. Participants, who lost more or equal than 5% of their initial weight were considered compliant with the diet. In the compliant group, REE decreased, when expressed in absolute numbers or when adjusted by fat free mass (FFM) [-164 ± 168 kcal/day (10,6%) and -4,3 ± 4,6 kcal/kg FFM (10,5%)]. This decline was significantly greater than that observed in the non-compliant group [-6,2 ± 1.42 Kcal/day (0.16%) and -0,5 ± 3,4/Kg FFM (0.96%)]. FFM did not change in any of the two groups. At baseline, there was a significant correlation between FFM and REE (r = 0, 56 p women showed a significant reduction in both absolute and adjusted REE, which together with the loss of correlation between REE and FFM at the end of the intervention suggests a metabolic adaptation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Role of endocortical contouring methods on precision of HR-pQCT-derived cortical micro-architecture in postmenopausal women and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalilak, C E; Johnston, J D; Cooper, D M L; Olszynski, W P; Kontulainen, S A

    2016-02-01

    Precision errors of cortical bone micro-architecture from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) ranged from 1 to 16 % and did not differ between automatic or manually modified endocortical contour methods in postmenopausal women or young adults. In postmenopausal women, manually modified contours led to generally higher cortical bone properties when compared to the automated method. First, the objective of the study was to define in vivo precision errors (coefficient of variation root mean square (CV%RMS)) and least significant change (LSC) for cortical bone micro-architecture using two endocortical contouring methods: automatic (AUTO) and manually modified (MOD) in two groups (postmenopausal women and young adults) from high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) scans. Second, it was to compare precision errors and bone outcomes obtained with both methods within and between groups. Using HR-pQCT, we scanned twice the distal radius and tibia of 34 postmenopausal women (mean age ± SD 74 ± 7 years) and 30 young adults (27 ± 9 years). Cortical micro-architecture was determined using AUTO and MOD contour methods. CV%RMS and LSC were calculated. Repeated measures and multivariate ANOVA were used to compare mean CV% and bone outcomes between the methods within and between the groups. Significance was accepted at P young adults, postmenopausal women had better precision for radial cortical porosity (precision difference 9.3 %) and pore volume (7.5 %) with MOD. Young adults had better precision for cortical thickness (0.8 %, MOD) and tibial cortical density (0.2 %, AUTO). In postmenopausal women, MOD resulted in 0.2-54 % higher values for most cortical outcomes, as well as 6-8 % lower radial and tibial cortical BMD and 2 % lower tibial cortical thickness. Results suggest that AUTO and MOD endocortical contour methods provide comparable repeatability. In postmenopausal women, manual modification of endocortical contours led to

  3. Development of the Latvian scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers and air-conditioning systems. Final report institutional set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    To implement EU directive 93/76/EEC on reduction of carbon dioxide emission by increasing energy efficiency and EU directive 2002/91/EC on building energy efficiency, Latvia must establish and institutional scheme and define all the organisations involved. From a general perspective the institutional scheme must as a minimum include the following four key players: the administrator, the operating unit, the auditors or independent experts, and finally the client. Furthermore, institutions dealing with financing of energy efficiency improvement activities, training and certification of experts, information about auditing and energy efficiency etc. need to be involved. At present there is no governmental or private Latvian organisation that could fully rearrange and assume the duties of an energy audit scheme secretariat. It is therefore recommended initially to place the secretariat as a separate, new unit within the Ministry of Economy, financed by the Ministry of Economy, with the intention of establishing at a later stage (after e.g. 5 years) a separate, new agency, an Energy Efficiency Agency partly financed by the incomes from the energy audit and boiler inspection schemes. The Secretariat should, both in its initial phase and later, assign the tasks of training, information campaigns, quality assurance and evaluation to external organisations. (BA)

  4. Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-López, Fernando; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Armitage, Christopher J; Wearden, Alison; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Arrayás-Grajera, Manuel Javier; Girela-Rejón, María J; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Geenen, Rinie; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of widespread chronic pain. People with fibromyalgia report lower levels of Positive Affect and higher levels of Negative Affect than non-fibromyalgia peers. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)-a widely used questionnaire to assess two core domains of affect; namely 'Positive Affect' and 'Negative Affect' -has a controversial factor structure varying across studies. The internal structure of a measurement instrument has an impact on the meaning and validity of its score. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the structural construct validity of the PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia. This population-based cross-sectional study included 442 adult women with fibromyalgia (age: 51.3 ± 7.4 years old) from Andalusia (Southern Spain). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the factor structure of the PANAS. A structure with two correlated factors (Positive Affect and Negative Affect) obtained the best fit; S-B χ(2) = 288.49, df = 155, p Positive Affect and Negative Affect are core dimensions of affect in adult women with fibromyalgia. A structure with two correlated factors of the PANAS emerged from our sample of women with fibromyalgia from Andalusia (Southern Spain). In this model, the amount of variance shared by Positive Affect and Negative Affect was small. Therefore, our findings support to use and interpret the Positive Affect and Negative Affect subscales of the PANAS as separate factors that are associated but distinctive as well.

  5. Association of dietary nitrate with atherosclerotic vascular disease mortality: a prospective cohort study of older adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Bondonno, Catherine P; Lewis, Joshua R; Devine, Amanda; Woodman, Richard J; Croft, Kevin D; Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Beilin, Lawrence J; Prince, Richard L; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2017-07-01

    Background: Nitrate-rich vegetables lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function in humans. It is not known, however, whether increased consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables translates to a lower risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) mortality. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association of nitrate intake from vegetables with ASVD mortality. Design: A total of 1226 Australian women aged 70-85 y without prevalent ASVD and/or diabetes were recruited in 1998 and were studied for 15 y. We assessed demographic and ASVD risk factors at baseline (1998), and we used a validated food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate dietary intake. Nitrate intake from vegetables was calculated by use of a newly developed comprehensive database. The primary outcome was any death attributed to ASVD ascertained by using linked data that were provided via the Western Australian Data Linkage system. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to examine the association between nitrate intake and ASVD mortality before and after adjustment for lifestyle and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results: During a follow-up period of 15,947 person-years, 238 of 1226 (19.4%) women died of ASVD-related causes. The mean ± SD vegetable nitrate intake was 67.0 ± 29.2 mg/d. Each SD higher vegetable nitrate intake was associated with a lower risk of ASVD mortality in both unadjusted [HR: 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.92), P = 0.002] and multivariable-adjusted [HR: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.93), P = 0.004] analyses. This relation was attenuated after further adjustment for diet quality [HR: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.01), P = 0.072]. Higher vegetable nitrate intake (per SD) also was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality [multivariable-adjusted HR: 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.97), P = 0.011]. Conclusions: Nitrate intake from vegetables was inversely associated with ASVD mortality independent of lifestyle and cardiovascular disease risk factors in this population of older adult

  6. Single oral dose pharmacokinetics of decursin and decursinol angelate in healthy adult men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D and decursinol angelate (DA contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957.

  7. Topical Finasteride in Hirsutism: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial on Adult Women

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    F Iraji

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride partially blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone through inhibition of 5 α- reductase in hair follicles. Finasteride cream can penetrate to dermis to arrive at hair follicle due to its solubility. Therefore, it is expected to be used in treatment of hirsutism with less systemic adverse effects. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of finasteride cream 0.5% in management of idiopathic hirsutism. Methods: Finasteride (0.5% and placebo creams were administered to 35 women with hirsutism on the face. Medication and placebo creams, each one was used on one side of the face in an area of excessive hair growth, which were not necessarily symmetrical. The side for the finasteride and placebo creams were chosen randomizly and blindly in 1cm2 areas on each side of the face. Hair numbers were counted and the thickness of all hairs was also measured by micrometer and their mean was calculated, at the start of therapy and after 6 months. Statistical analysis was done in SPSS software using Paired and Student t-tests. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean of hair numbers decreased at placebo-applied side from 12.20 ± 6.15 to 10.50 ± 4.90 (P<0.0001 and at finasteride- treated side from 11.37 ± 6.15 to 8.47 ± 4.62 (p<0.0001. Mean of hair thickness at placebo side decreased from 2.92 ± 0.84µm to 2.72 ± 0.79 µm (p<0.0001 and at finasteride side from 3.17 ± 0.90µm to 2.37 ± 0.79 µm (p<0.0001. Comparison of hair number and thickness showed no statistically significant changes in finasteride versus placebo treated sides. But, according to patients' view points, hair growth rate was diminished and hair was looser on finasteride treated side. Conclusion: Six months of topically applied finasteride (0.5% does not affect on number and thickness of facial hirsutism significantly. Despite lack of objective changes, on questioning, most patients in finastride group

  8. Low nutrient intake among adult women and patients with severe tuberculosis disease in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

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    Mupere Ezekiel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information regarding dietary nutrient intake during tuberculosis disease is lacking. We established the relationship between disease severity or wasting during pulmonary tuberculosis and nutrient intake. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 131 adults with or without pulmonary tuberculosis were screened for human immune-deficiency virus (HIV, wasting, disease severity using 13 item validated clinical TBscore, and 24-hour dietary intake recall. Results Of the 131 participants, 61 were males and 70 females. Overall men and women had similar age. In average 24-hour nutrient intake, the following nutrients: energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin A, and folate were low among patients with severe tuberculosis disease. Patients with moderate-to-severe clinical TBscore had lower average energy intake than patients with mild TBscores (6.11 vs. 9.27 MJ, respectively (p Conclusions Findings suggest that severity of pulmonary tuberculosis and female gender had reduced nutrient intake. Early tuberculosis diagnosis and nutritional support may be important in management of tuberculosis patients.

  9. The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Appearance of Psychological Symptomatology in Adult Women Victims of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jauregui, Paula; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse affects people's ways of thinking, feeling, and observing the world, resulting in dysfunctional beliefs and maladaptive schemas. Thus, consequences of child abuse may persist during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychological consequences (anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression, and hopelessness) of different types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and to study the role of early maladaptive schemas in the onset of symptomatology in adult female victims of child abuse. The sample consisted of 75 women referred by associations for treatment of abuse and maltreatment in childhood. Sexual abuse was the type of maltreatment that was most strongly related to most dysfunctional symptomatology, followed by emotional abuse and physical abuse, whereas physical neglect was the least related. Also, early maladaptive schemas were found to correlate with child abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology. Finally, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology when the effect of other types of abuse was controlled. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention.

  10. Networking among women snowboarders: a study of participants at an International Woman Snowboard Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisjord, M K

    2012-02-01

    The article focuses on women snowboarders' networking and relationships with national snowboard associations and commercial organizers. The study was conducted at an International Women Snowboard Camp, which attracted women snowboarders from five different countries. A qualitative interview was undertaken with participants from each country, eight in total, plus an interview with one of the organizers (a woman). The results indicate that participants from the Nordic countries adopt a more proactive stand to promote snowboarding by organizing specific groups in relation to national associations, particularly the Norwegians and the Finnish. Furthermore, some collaboration across national boarders appeared. The only Swedish participant was associated with several snowboarding communities; whereas the Italian (only one) and the Latvian snowboarders had links with commercial organizers, apparently male dominated in structure. The findings are discussed in the light of Castells' network theory and identity construction in social movements, and gender perspectives. The participants' doing/undoing gender reveals different strategies in negotiating hegemonic masculinity and the power structure in the organizations. Narratives from the Nordic participants reflect undoing gender that impacts on identity constructions in terms of project and/or resistance identity. The Italians and Latvians seemingly do gender while undertaking a subordinate position in the male-dominated structure. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Social patterning of overeating, binge eating, compensatory behaviours and symptoms of bulimia nervosa in young adult women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Heshmati, Amy; Mishra, Gita

    2016-12-01

    To study social patterning of overeating and symptoms of disordered eating in a general population. A representative, population-based cohort study. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), Survey 1 in 1996 and Survey 2 in 2000. Women (n 12 599) aged 18-23 years completed a questionnaire survey at baseline, of whom 6866 could be studied prospectively. Seventeen per cent of women reported episodes of overeating, 16 % reported binge eating and 10 % reported compensatory behaviours. Almost 4 % of women reported symptoms consistent with bulimia nervosa. Low education, not living with family, perceived financial difficulty (OR=1·8 and 1·3 for women with severe and some financial difficulty, respectively, compared with none) and European language other than English spoken at home (OR=1·5 for European compared with Australian/English) were associated with higher prevalence of binge eating. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses indicated increased risk of persistent binge eating among women with a history of being overweight in childhood, those residing in metropolitan Australia, women with higher BMI, smokers and binge drinkers. Overeating, binge eating and symptoms of bulimia nervosa are common among young Australian women and cluster with binge drinking. Perceived financial stress appears to increase the risk of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. It is unclear whether women of European origin and those with a history of childhood overweight carry higher risk of binge eating because of genetic or cultural reasons.

  12. JA ES BŪTU SMUKS, ES GRIBĒTU BŪT MEITENE! (‘If I Were Pretty, I Would Like To Be A Girl!’. Debating Transsexualism In The Latvian Parliament

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    CHOJNICKA JOANNA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates a debate on the issues of legal recognition of gender which took place in the Latvian Parliament in 2009 and which is considered a rich source of material for a two-fold analysis. As an example of gendered discourse, it shows the differences between female and male MPs’ ways of tackling this uncomfortable subject. As a discourse about gender, which allows one to study the speakers’ arguments and attitudes, it reveals prejudice, lack of knowledge and conservative thinking. The analysis thus illustrates the language and arguments employed in the public sphere when discussing face-threatening, taboo topics.

  13. Poor mental health among low-income women in the U.S.: The roles of adverse childhood and adult experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P; Janczewski, Colleen E; Nitkowski, Jenna C

    2018-06-01

    It is well established that exposure to a greater number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases the risk of poor physical and mental health outcomes. Given the predictive validity of ACE scores and other cumulative risk metrics, a similar measurement approach may advance the study of risk in adulthood. We examined the prevalence and interrelations of 10 adverse adult experiences, including household events such as intimate partner violence and extrafamilial events such as crime victimization. We also tested the relation between cumulative adult adversity and later mental health problems, and we examined whether adult adversity mediates the link between childhood adversity and mental health. Data were collected from 501 women in the Families and Children Thriving Study, a longitudinal investigation of low-income families that received home visiting services in Wisconsin. We conducted correlation analyses to assess interrelations among study measures along with multivariate analyses to test the effects of childhood and adult adversity on three outcomes: depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We then fit a structural equation model to test whether the effects of childhood adversity on mental health are mediated by adult adversity. Over 80% of participants endorsed at least one adverse adult experience. Adult adversities correlated with each other and with the mental health outcomes. Controlling for ACEs and model covariates, adult adversity scores were positively associated with depression, anxiety, and PTSD scores. Path analyses revealed that the ACE-mental health connection was mediated by adult adversity. Our findings indicate that mental health problems may be better understood by accounting for processes through which early adversity leads to later adversity. Pending replication, this line of research has the potential to improve the identification of populations that are at risk of poor health outcomes. Copyright © 2018

  14. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  15. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity.

  17. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalijn I Conklin

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development.A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference.We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084], and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]. The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042] and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027].This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity.

  18. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O'Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Billheimer, Dean; Lu Zhenqiang; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2011-01-01

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

  19. Factor structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia from Southern Spain: the al-Ándalus project

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    Fernando Estévez-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of widespread chronic pain. People with fibromyalgia report lower levels of Positive Affect and higher levels of Negative Affect than non-fibromyalgia peers. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS–a widely used questionnaire to assess two core domains of affect; namely ‘Positive Affect’ and ‘Negative Affect’ –has a controversial factor structure varying across studies. The internal structure of a measurement instrument has an impact on the meaning and validity of its score. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the structural construct validity of the PANAS in adult women with fibromyalgia. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 442 adult women with fibromyalgia (age: 51.3 ± 7.4 years old from Andalusia (Southern Spain. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the factor structure of the PANAS. Results: A structure with two correlated factors (Positive Affect and Negative Affect obtained the best fit; S-B χ2 = 288.49, df = 155, p < .001; RMSEA = .04; 90% CI of RMSEA = (.036, .052; the best fit SRMR = .05; CFI = .96; CAIC = −810.66, respectively. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that both Positive Affect and Negative Affect are core dimensions of affect in adult women with fibromyalgia. A structure with two correlated factors of the PANAS emerged from our sample of women with fibromyalgia from Andalusia (Southern Spain. In this model, the amount of variance shared by Positive Affect and Negative Affect was small. Therefore, our findings support to use and interpret the Positive Affect and Negative Affect subscales of the PANAS as separate factors that are associated but distinctive as well.

  20. Self and peer perceptions of childhood aggression, social withdrawal and likeability predict adult substance abuse and dependence in men and women: a 30-year prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane E; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2011-12-01

    While childhood behaviors such as aggression, social withdrawal and likeability have been linked to substance abuse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, the mechanisms by which these variables relate are not yet well established. Self and peer perceptions of childhood behaviors in men and women were compared to assess the role of context in the prediction of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. Participants (N=676) in an ongoing longitudinal project examining the relation between childhood behavior and adult mental health outcomes completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM IV regarding their histories of substance abuse in mid-adulthood (mean age=34, SD=2). In women, higher levels of both self and peer reported aggression were associated with drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and higher levels of peer reported aggression were associated with higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence. As well, higher levels of self-perceived likeability were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. In men, higher levels of peer perceived social withdrawal were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. Findings support the comparison of self and peer perceptions of childhood behavior as a method of assessing the mechanisms by which childhood behaviors impact adult outcomes, and suggest the importance of gender in the relation between childhood behaviors and adult substance abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anorexia Nervosa: A Synthesis of Poetic and Narrative Therapies in the Outpatient Treatment of Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joy M.; Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Current trends for treatment of women with anorexia nervosa often focus on weight gain as the primary therapeutic goal without concurrently addressing psychological concerns. As a result of this singular focus, many women drop out of treatment before recovering. This article offers an alternate treatment model. A synthesized narrative and poetry…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  3. Differences in energy expenditure, amount of physical activity and physical exertion level during a Zumba fitness class among adult women who are normal weight, overweight and obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza-Gómez, Fernando; Báez-San Martin, Eduardo; Araneda, Oscar F; Zavala, Juan P; Hecht, Gernot K; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    One of the most popular expressions of massive group classes of aerobic physical activity is Zumba fitness. The aim of the study was to compare and relate the energy expenditure and the amount and intensity of physical effort during a Zumba fitness class in women with different Body Mass Index (BMI). Body displacements of 61 adult women who performed a one-hour Zumba session were evaluated with triaxial accelerometers. In order to observe the effect of BMI women were divided into normal weight (N.=26), overweight (N.=21) and obese groups (N.=14). The average number of steps was 4533.3±1351 and the percentage of total class time of moderate to vigorous intensity (% MVPA) was 53.8±14.4%. The metabolic intensity average was 3.64±1.1 MET, with an energy expenditure by total body mass of 3.9±1.6 kcal/kg. When analyzing groups, the normal weight group had a greater number of steps (5184.2±1561.1 steps/class) compared to overweight (4244.8±1049.3 steps/class) and obese women (3756.9±685.7 steps/class) with Plower percentage of class time at the lower levels of intensity (sedentary and lifestyle activity levels) and more time at the highest levels (vigorous and very vigorous) compared to obese women (Plower energy expenditure values per kilo of weight (r=-0.40; Plower intensity of effort, energy expenditure and amount of physical activity during a one-hour Zumba class, restricting to overweight and obese women to achieving the effort parameters recommended to control weight and improve cardiovascular fitness.

  4. Depression and body mass index, differences by education: Evidence from a population-based study of adult women in the U.S. Buffalo-Niagara region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell; Nie, Jing; Trevisan, Maurizio; Freudenheim, Jo L

    The relationship between obesity and depression is well described. However, the evidence linking depression and body mass index (BMI) across the broad range of body size is less consistent. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and BMI in a sample of adult women in the Buffalo-Niagara region between 1997 and 2001. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether increased weight status beyond normal-weight was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, and if educational attainment modified the association between obesity and depression. There was a trend for increased weight status to be associated with higher depressive symptoms (obese II/III, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03-2.41), whereas higher education was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms, in an adjusted model including BMI (more than 12 but less than 16 years, OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-0.98; 16 or more years of education, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40-0.93). The association of being obese I with depressive symptoms was different for more educated (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.27-3.62) compared to less educated women (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.50-1.62); the sample was larger for the more educated women and reached statistical significance. There were no differences in the association for obese II/III women in strata of education. There was evidence of risk-difference heterogeneity (0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.93). In this population-based sample of women in western New York state, increased weight was negligibly associated with depressive symptoms. The association of being obese I with depressive symptoms was different for more compared to less educated women. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Air pollution and environmental risk factors for altered lung function among adult women of an urban slum area of Delhi: A prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shweta; Rasania, S K; Bachani, D; Gandhi, Asha; Chhabra, S K

    2018-01-01

    Household and ambient air pollution are jointly responsible for about 7 million premature deaths annually. Women living in slums, with unhealthy environment, both indoors and outdoors, particularly those living close to industrial and/or vehicular pollution zones due to multiple sources of air pollution, are at the higher risk of having impaired lung function tests. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal lung functions and to identify the environmental risk factors associated with them among adult women of 18-59 years. A total of 550 women aged 18-59 years were approached in a representative urban slum. Five hundred consented to participate and 299 had prebronchodilator spirometry satisfying ATS standards. House visits to assess environmental conditions were conducted to determine their association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Chi-square test was used to test the association of risk factors with lung functions. ANOVA was used to test the association of mean values of FEV1 and FVC with age. Out of 299 participants with acceptable spirometric curves, 5% had reduced FEV1/FVC ratio than the normal and 26.8% and 17.4% had lower values than predicted for FVC and FEV1, respectively. Altered lung function was related to age, tobacco smoking, and history of respiratory disease. Both ambient and household air pollution have a deleterious pulmonary effect on long-term women residents of a representative urban slum in Delhi.

  6. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Jane S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009, and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid, and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid. Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.

  7. 'They don't understand…you cut yourself in order to live.' Interpretative repertoires jointly constructing interactions between adult women who self-harm and professional caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Britt-Marie; Oster, Inger; Aström, Sture; Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to illuminate interpretative repertoires that jointly construct the interaction between adult women who self-harm and professional caregivers in psychiatric inpatient care. Participant observations and informal interviews were conducted among six women who self-harm and their professional caregivers in two psychiatric inpatient wards, and analysed using the concept of interpretative repertoires from the discipline of discursive psychology. The analysis revealed four interpretative repertoires that jointly constructed the interaction. The professional caregivers used a "fostering repertoire" and a "supportive repertoire" and the women who self-harmed used a "victim repertoire" and an "expert repertoire." The women and the caregivers were positioned and positioned themselves and people around them within and among these interpretative repertoires to make sense of their experiences of the interaction. It was necessary to consider each woman's own life chances and knowledge about herself and her needs. The participants made it clear that it was essential for them to be met with respect as individuals. Professional caregivers need to work in partnership with individuals who self-harm-experts by profession collaborating with experts by experience. Caregivers need to look beyond behavioural symptoms and recognise each individual's possibilities for agency.

  8. Effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index change among adult women in India: findings from a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index (BMI) change in a follow-up study of 325 women (aged 15-49 years) in Delhi, systematically selected from the 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey samples who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information was collected on height, weight, dietary habits, and sedentary lifestyle through face-to-face interviews. Overall, a 2.0-point increase in mean BMI was found among women in just 4 years. Every second normal-BMI woman, two in five overweight women, and every fourth obese woman experienced a > 2.0-point increase in her mean BMI. High sedentary lifestyle (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.29-5.35) emerged as the main predictor of a > 2.0-point increase in mean BMI in adjusted analysis, but there was weak evidence of association with the dietary covariates. Our findings suggest that a high sedentary lifestyle is a determinant of weight gain among adult women in urban India.

  9. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women

    OpenAIRE

    Saliba,Louise F.; Reis,Rodrigo S.; Brownson,Ross C.; Hino,Adriano A.; Tureck,Luciane V.; Valko,Cheryl; Souza,Ricardo L.R. de; Furtado-Alle,Lupe

    2014-01-01

    The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994) and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217) polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (...

  10. Cross-sectional interview study of fertility, pregnancy, and urogenital schistosomiasis in coastal Kenya: Documented treatment in childhood is associated with reduced odds of subfertility among adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Miller-Fellows

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented an increased risk of subfertility in areas of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as an ecological association between urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence and decreased fertility. This pilot project examined reproductive patterns and the potential effects of childhood urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection and individual treatment experience on adult subfertility among women who were long-term residents in an S. haematobium-endemic region of coastal Kenya.We analyzed findings from 162 in-depth interviews with women of childbearing age in a rural, coastal community, linking them, if possible, to their individual treatment records from previous multi-year longitudinal studies of parasitic infections. Reproductive histories indicated a much local higher local rate of subfertility (44% than worldwide averages (8-12%. Although, due to the very high regional prevalence of schistosomiasis, a clear relationship could not be demonstrated between a history of S. haematobium infection and adult subfertility, among a convenience sub-sample of 61 women who had received documented treatment during previous interventional trials, a significant association was found between age at first anti-schistosomal treatment and later fertility in adulthood, with those women treated before age 21 significantly less likely to have subfertility (P = 0.001.The high subfertility rate documented in this pilot study suggests the importance of programs to prevent and treat pelvic infections in their early stages to preclude reproductive tract damage. The available documented treatment data also suggest that early anti-schistosomal treatment may prevent the fertility-damaging effects of urogenital schistosomiasis, and lend support for programs that provide universal treatment of children in S. haematobium-endemic regions.

  11. Cross-sectional interview study of fertility, pregnancy, and urogenital schistosomiasis in coastal Kenya: Documented treatment in childhood is associated with reduced odds of subfertility among adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Fellows, Sarah C; Howard, Laura; Kramer, Rebekah; Hildebrand, Vanessa; Furin, Jennifer; Mutuku, Francis M; Mukoko, Dunstan; Ivy, Julianne A; King, Charles H

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has documented an increased risk of subfertility in areas of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as an ecological association between urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence and decreased fertility. This pilot project examined reproductive patterns and the potential effects of childhood urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection and individual treatment experience on adult subfertility among women who were long-term residents in an S. haematobium-endemic region of coastal Kenya. We analyzed findings from 162 in-depth interviews with women of childbearing age in a rural, coastal community, linking them, if possible, to their individual treatment records from previous multi-year longitudinal studies of parasitic infections. Reproductive histories indicated a much local higher local rate of subfertility (44%) than worldwide averages (8-12%). Although, due to the very high regional prevalence of schistosomiasis, a clear relationship could not be demonstrated between a history of S. haematobium infection and adult subfertility, among a convenience sub-sample of 61 women who had received documented treatment during previous interventional trials, a significant association was found between age at first anti-schistosomal treatment and later fertility in adulthood, with those women treated before age 21 significantly less likely to have subfertility (P = 0.001). The high subfertility rate documented in this pilot study suggests the importance of programs to prevent and treat pelvic infections in their early stages to preclude reproductive tract damage. The available documented treatment data also suggest that early anti-schistosomal treatment may prevent the fertility-damaging effects of urogenital schistosomiasis, and lend support for programs that provide universal treatment of children in S. haematobium-endemic regions.

  12. Antral follicle count predicts natural menopause in a population-based sample: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Women's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa F; Bates, Gordon Wright; Schreiner, Pamela J; Siscovick, David S; Sternfeld, Barbara; Lewis, Cora E

    2013-08-01

    The timing of menopause is associated with multiple chronic diseases. Tools that predict this milestone have relevance for clinical and research purposes. Among infertile women, a positive relationship exists between antral follicle count (AFC) and response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, a marker of ovarian reserve. However, an age-independent relationship between AFC and menopause has not been demonstrated. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the relationship between AFC measured in women aged 34 to 49 years and incident natural menopause during 7 years of follow-up. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study is a longitudinal community-based study (Chicago, IL; Birmingham, AL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA) begun in 1985-1986. In 2002-2003, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Women's Study measured follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and performed a transvaginal ultrasound protocol that included AFC (2-10 mm follicles on both ovaries). Incident natural menopause was assessed by surveys in 2005-2006 and 2009-2010. In our sample (n = 456), the median (interquartile range) AFC and FSH level were 5 (2-9) and 7.8 (5.6-11.0) mIU/mL, respectively, at a mean (range) age of 42 (34-49) years in 2002-2003. One hundred one women reported natural menopause by 2009-2010. In Cox models, current smoking, stable menses, FSH level higher than 13 mIU/mL, and AFC of 4 or less were independently associated with incident natural menopause. Compared with AFC higher than 4, those with an AFC of 4 or less were nearly twice as likely to have undergone menopause during 7 years of follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.19-3.02) after adjustment for covariates. AFC has been found to be independently associated with natural menopause during 7 years of follow-up after controlling for other markers of ovarian aging.

  13. Sexual behaviors, relationships, and perceived health status among adult women in the United States: results from a national probability sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Past surveys of sexual behavior have demonstrated that female sexual behavior is influenced by medical and sociocultural changes. To be most attentive to women and their sexual lives, it is important to have an understanding of the continually evolving sexual behaviors of contemporary women in the United States. The purpose of this study, the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), was to, in a national probability survey of women ages 18-92, assess the proportion of women in various age cohorts who had engaged in solo and partnered sexual activities in the past 90 days and to explore associations with participants' sexual behavior and their relationship and perceived health status. Past year frequencies of masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse were also assessed. A national probability sample of 2,523 women ages 18 to 92 completed a cross-sectional internet based survey about their sexual behavior. Relationship status; perceived health status; experience of solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, giving oral sex, receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, in the past 90 days; frequency of solo masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse in the past year. Recent solo masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse were prevalent among women, decreased with age, and varied in their associations with relationship and perceived health status. Recent anal sex and same-sex oral sex were uncommonly reported. Solo masturbation was most frequent among women ages 18 to 39, vaginal intercourse was most frequent among women ages 18 to 29 and anal sex was infrequently reported. Contemporary women in the United States engage in a diverse range of solo and partnered sexual activities, though sexual behavior is less common and more infrequent among older age cohorts. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Association between milk and milk product consumption and anthropometric measures in adult men and women in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Satija

    Full Text Available The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries.To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians.Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women, conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders.After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2 was lower among women (OR = 0.57;95%CI:0.43-0.76;p ≤ 0.0001 and men (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.51-0.87;p = 0.005, and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm was lower among men (OR = 0.71;95%CI:0.54-0.93;p = 0.005 and women (OR = 0.79;95%CI:0.59-1.05;p>0.05 who consume ≥1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ≥ 1 portion was associated with obesity (OR = 1.51;95%CI:1.00-2.25;p>0.050 and high WC (OR = 1.65;95%CI:1.08-2.51;p>0.019 among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women.The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore

  15. Serious mental illness among young adult women who use drugs in the club scene: co-occurring biopsychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawental, Maayan; Surratt, Hilary L; Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2018-01-01

    Young women who regularly attend nightclubs are at risk for numerous health and social consequences, including mental distress, sexual and physical victimization and substance dependence. This paper uses a biopsychosocial framework to examine co-occurring mental health problems, victimization, substance dependence, sexual risk and physical pain among a sample of young women who use drugs (N = 222) in Miami's club scene. The majority of women were under 24 years old, Hispanic, and identified as heterosexual. Almost all the women reported past 90-day use of alcohol, ecstasy/MDMA, marijuana, cocaine and prescription opioids and benzodiazepines; 32% of women reported being in a monogamous relationship while 41.9% reported having three or more sexual partners in the past 90 days; 65.3% met DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence; 60.4% met DSM-IV criteria for serious mental illness (SMI) and 59.9% were victimized as minors. Women who had SMI had higher odds of substance dependence, concurrent physical pain, three or more sexual partners in the past 90 days, childhood victimization and severe abuse-related trauma. The high levels of interconnected mental health, victimization, trauma, physical pain, substance dependence and sexual risk factors observed are underreported in the literature, as young women club scene participants appear to be more similar to other marginalized drug-involved populations than previously considered. While further research is needed, it appears these young women are in great need of outreach for primary health, mental health, HIV prevention, increased social support and substance abuse treatment services.

  16. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels. PMID:23704856

  17. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective: To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG, women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1, women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2, women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG for reference in BMD. Results: After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1% and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5% groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal. Conclusion: The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  18. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de Los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo Y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35-55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  19. A Population-based Survey of the Prevalence, Potential Risk Factors, and Symptom-specific Bother of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Adult Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jinghe; Li, Zhaoai; Gong, Jian; Liu, Qing; Liu, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are few in China, and none has been conducted nationwide. To estimate the prevalence and potential risk factors of LUTS and the bother they impose on adult women in China. This is the second analysis of a population-based cross-sectional survey on urinary incontinence conducted between February and July 2006 in six regions of China. Cluster samples were randomly selected for interviews. No intervention was implemented. A modified Chinese Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire was administered. The participants were asked about the presence of individual LUTS and rated their symptom bother. Descriptive statistics, χ(2) tests, receiver operating characteristic curves, and multivariate logistic regressions were used for data analysis. A total of 18 992 respondents (94.96%) were included. The prevalence of any LUTS, storage symptoms, or voiding symptoms was 55.5%, 53.9%, and 12.9%, respectively, and increased with age. Nocturia was the most common symptom (23.4%), followed by urgency (23.3%) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI; 18.9%). Nocturia was most frequently rated as bothersome (93.0%) but was generally minor (80.5%). Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) were most frequently reported as severe (11.5% and 10.8%) or moderate (18.5% and 16.8%) bothers. Any LUTS were more prevalent in urban women (57.1% vs 53.9%). Multiple factors increased the odds of bother and individual LUTS, and older age and coexisting pelvic organ prolapse were strong predictors (pfactors influenced bother and individual LUTS. The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms is high and increases with age in adult women in China. Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence were most frequently regarded as severe or moderate bothers and should be targeted for medical intervention. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to blood lipids - 6 years of follow-up in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxlund, Anne Lene; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2006-01-01

    , the relationship between GL and DeltaTC was modified by age, being particularly strong for the younger men (P = 0.02). In women the relationship between GI and DeltaLDL was modified by age and was stronger for younger rather than older women (P = 0.01). A tendency for a similar interaction was seen for GI......: Prospective study with 6 years of follow-up. Overall dietary GI and GL of each participant were assessed from diet history interviews. SETTING: Population-based study. Subjects Three hundred and thirty-five healthy men and women aged 35-65 years selected randomly from a larger sample of Danish adults. RESULTS......: In men GI was directly related to changes in total cholesterol (DeltaTC), regression coefficient (beta) = 0.0044 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0008-0.0081) and GL was positively related to changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (DeltaLDL), beta = 0.1554 (95% CI: 0.0127-0.2982). Furthermore...

  1. Social media literacy protects against the negative impact of exposure to appearance ideal social media images in young adult women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Natalie C; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J

    2018-05-25

    Frequent exposure to appearance ideal social media is associated with body dissatisfaction. We hypothesised that commercial and peer social media literacy would protect against the negative impact of exposure to social media appearance ideal images on young adults' body image. The study was presented as an investigation of alcohol promotion on social media. Participants were 187 women (M age  = 24.6, SD = 3.7) and 187 men (M age  = 22.8, SD = 3.9) who viewed gender-matched alcohol-related appearance ideal social media images or control images containing alcohol only. Social media literacy was assessed prior to image exposure and body satisfaction measured before and after exposure. A negative effect of ideal image exposure on body satisfaction was observed in both women and men. In women only, commercial-social media literacy moderated the negative effect of exposure, independent of internalization or body comparison. Inclusion of social media literacy skills in prevention interventions is supported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Schopflocher, Don P; el-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems was examined in a community sample of men and women (N = 1,372). As hypothesized, individuals with gambling problems reported greater childhood maltreatment than individuals without gambling problems. Childhood maltreatment predicted severity of gambling problems and frequency of gambling even when other individual and social factors were controlled including symptoms of alcohol and other drug use disorders, family environment, psychological distress, and symptoms of antisocial disorder. In contrast to findings in treatment-seeking samples, women with gambling problems did not report greater maltreatment than men with gambling problems. These results underscore the need for both increased prevention of childhood maltreatment and increased sensitivity towards trauma issues in gambling treatment programs for men and women.

  3. Purposeful exercise and lifestyle physical activity in the lives of young adult women: findings from a diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Arikawa, Andrea; Kaufman, Beth C; Kurzer, Mindy S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2009-12-01

    It is important to know how physical activity is incorporated in women's lives to assess ways they can feasibly attain and maintain lifelong healthy practices. This study aimed to determine whether patterns of activity differed among young women whose physical activity met nationally recommended levels from those who did not. The sample was 42 women (aged 18-30 years) who had completed an exercise intervention (22 from the exercise group, 20 from the control group). Participants recorded pedometer steps and physical activities in diaries including form, duration and perceived exertion during 12 randomly assigned weeks over 26 weeks. We divided the sample into quartiles of moderate to vigorous physical activity to examine the composition of physical activities per quartile. Walking and shopping comprised the majority of physical activity in the lowest quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity. In the second and third quartiles, walking and household/childcare together comprised more than two-thirds of all activities. Only in the highest quartile was cardio activity (not including walking, shopping and household/childcare) the largest proportion of activity; this category stood alone as varying significantly across quartiles of moderate to vigorous physical activity (p activity was not sufficient to meet recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The one-quarter who met recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity did so largely through purposeful physical activities directly associated with exercise. Further research is needed to refine means of more fully measuring physical activities that women frequently perform, with particular attention to household work, childcare and shopping and to differing combinations of activities and levels of exertion by which diverse women can meet the recommended levels. The findings of this small scale study reinforce the ongoing benefit of recommending structured, planned physical

  4. Effect of Dietary Weight Loss on Menstrual Regularity in Obese Young Adult Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Tayseer M; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary weight loss on menstrual regularity in obese adolescent women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A randomized controlled trial was held at the Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, and the Obesity Clinic of the Rheumatology Department at Mansoura University Hospitals between July 2011 and January 2013. Sixty adolescent women with PCOS, body mass index (BMI) greater than 30, and complaints of menstrual irregularities were included in this study. Enrolled women were divided equally and randomly into 2 groups: intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group (n = 30) were subject to an intensive dietary educational program with instructions to follow a conventional energy restricted diet, whereas women in the control group were instructed to follow the same healthy diet of the first group without calorie restriction. Menstrual regularity, weight loss, the effect on waist circumference, and hirsutism score. The 2 groups were initially matched in average body weight, BMI, hirsutism score, and waist circumference. Six months later, there were significant decreases in all parameters in the weight reduction group. In addition, more menstrual episodes were recorded in the weight reduction compared with the control group (3.1 ± 1.2 vs. 2.3 ± 1.3; P = .010). Also, BMI, waist circumference, and hirsutism score were all significantly decreased at the end of the study. Dietary weight loss in adolescent women with PCOS resulted in significant improvement in menstrual regularity, BMI, waist circumference, and hirsutism score. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer among adult women: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Agam B; Pakhare, Abhijit P; Kapoor, Neelkamal; Mehrotra, Ragini; Kokane, Arun Mahadeo

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among Indian women of reproductive age. Unfortunately, despite the evidence of methods for prevention, most of the women remain unscreened. The reported barriers to screening include unawareness of risk factors, symptoms and prevention; stigma and misconceptions about gynecological diseases and lack of national cervical cancer screening guidelines and policies. This study attempts to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer and its screening among women of reproductive age (15-45 years). A facility-based cross-sectional study was done on 400 females of reproductive age who presented to out-patient-department of All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal. Structured questionnaire consisting 20 knowledge items and 7-items for attitude and history of pap smear for practices were administered by one of the investigators after informed consent. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi-Info version 7. Qualitative variables were summarized as counts and percentages while quantitative variables as mean and standard deviation. Predictors of better knowledge, attitude, and practices were identified by binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 442 women were approached for interview of which 400 responded of which two-third (65.5%) had heard of cervical cancer. At least one symptom and one risk factor were known to 35.25% and 39.75% participants. Only 34.5% participants had heard, and 9.5% actually underwent screening test, however, 76.25% of the participants expressed a favorable attitude for screening. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that education age and income were independent predictors of better knowledge. Education level influences attitude toward screening and actual practice depends on age, income, and marital status. This study shows that despite the fact that women had suboptimal level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer, their attitude is favorable for screening

  6. Study of a cohort of Latvian workers having participated to the decontamination of the nuclear site of Chernobyl; Etude d`une cohorte de travailleurs lettons ayant participe a la decontamination du site nucleaire de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, J.F. [Faculte de Medecine de Besancon, 25 (France)

    1999-11-01

    In the consequences attributable to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, it is debated whether post-disaster psycho-pathology is related to the perception of the level of contamination or the level of contamination itself. To address this issue, the authors have assessed the association of various exposure mental and psychosomatic distress, on a sample of 1,1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl clean-up workers registry. The outcome considered was a mixed mental/psychosomatic disorder occurring during the time period 1986-1995. Comparisons between subgroups of the cohort, classified according to exposure type or level, were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work ({>=} 28 days) in a 10 km radius from the reactor (relative risk (RR) = 1.39, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR 1.46, 95 percent CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR 1.41,95 percent CI 1.19-1.68), and fresh fruits consumption ({>=} 1 time/day) (RR 1.72,95 percent CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental/ psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR 1.82, 95 percent CI 0.89-3.72), is also associated with this outcome, although non significantly. These findings confirm that some exposure variables represent risk factors for mental disorders and suggest some radiation-induced consequences although surely overweight by stress-related effects. (author)

  7. "Gymnasts Are Like Wine, They Get Better with Age": Becoming and Developing Adult Women's Artistic Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Kerr, Roslyn; Schubring, Astrid; Cervin, Georgia; Nunomura, Myrian

    2017-01-01

    Women's artistic gymnastics is commonly understood to require early entrance and intense training during childhood. Most gymnasts retire before reaching adulthood. In recent years, the gymnast population at the highest level has "aged." In this article, we adopt a socio-pedagogical perspective to explore the training contexts, pubertal…

  8. Differential adipokine DNA methylation and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Hansen, Ninna S.; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The adipokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin (genes: LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN) play key roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. We hypothes...

  9. Hormonal contraception increases the risk of psychotropic drug use in adolescent girls but not in adults: A pharmacoepidemiological study on 800 000 Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettermark, Sofia; Perez Vicente, Raquel; Merlo, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The burden of depression and anxiety disorders is greater in women, and female sex hormones have been shown to affect mood. Psychological side effects of hormonal contraception (HC) are also a common complaint in the clinic, but few previous studies have investigated this subject. We therefore wanted to investigate whether use of HC was associated with adverse psychological health outcomes, and whether this association was modified by age. All women aged 12-30 years on 31 December 2010, residing in Sweden for at least four years and with no previous psychiatric morbidity (n = 815 662), were included. We followed the women from their first HC use (or 31 December 2010, if they were non-users) at baseline, until a prescription fill of psychotropic drugs or the end of the one-year follow-up. We performed age-stratified logistic regression models and estimated odds ratios (OR) to measure the association between different HC methods and psychotropic drug use, as well as the area under the receiver operating curve to estimate discriminatory accuracy of HC in relation to psychotropic drugs. Overall, we found an association between HC and psychotropic drugs (adjusted OR 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.37). In the age-stratified analysis, the strongest association was found in adolescent girls (adjusted OR 3.46, 95% CI 3.04-4.94 for age 12 to 14 years), while it was non-existent for adult women. We conclude that hormonal contraception is associated with psychotropic drug use among adolescent girls, suggesting an adverse effect of HC on psychological health in this population.

  10. Ethnic differences in family trajectories of young adult women in the Netherlands : Timing and sequencing of events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinepier, T.; van de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research on the family behavior of young adults, family dynamics of children of migrants remain largely unexplored. This is unfortunate as family transitions are strongly interlinked with transitions in other domains (e.g., education, work) and predictive for outcomes

  11. Biological, socio-demographic, work and lifestyle determinants of sitting in young adult women: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijtdewilligen, L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Brown, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sitting is associated with health risks. Factors that influence sitting are however not well understood. The aim was to examine the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of sitting time (including during transport, work and leisure) in young adult

  12. Latvian advertising industry expects growth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti Reklaami Assotsiatsiooni (LRA) aastakonverentsil arutati reklaamitööstuse arengusuundi. Balti reklaamiturule prognoositakse suurt kasvu, kuna praegu kulutatakse kõigest 33 eurot inimese kohta, mis on kümme korda vähem kui näiteks Suurbritannias või Iirimaal

  13. Thixotropic Properties of Latvian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Lakevičs, Vitālijs; Stepanova, Valentīna; Ruplis, Augusts

    2015-01-01

    This research studies Latvia originated Devon (Tūja, Skaņkalne), quaternary (Ceplīši), Jurassic, (Strēļi) and Triassic (Vadakste) deposit clays as well as Lithuania originated Triassic (Akmene) deposit clays. Thixotropic properties of clay were researched by measuring relative viscosity of clay in water suspensions. Relative viscosity is measured with a hopper method. It was detected that, when concentration of suspension is increased, clay suspension’s viscosity also increases. It happens un...

  14. Perceptions of physical activity, activity preferences and health among a group of adult women in urban Ghana: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuakli-Wosornu, Y A; Rowan, M; Gittelsohn, J

    2014-03-01

    Obesity and other lifestyle-related chronic diseases impact urban West African women at high rates. Physical activity (PA) can improve these health outcomes but there is little published data on the associated psychosocial predictors in this population. We aimed to explore preliminary associations between perceptions of PA, PA behaviours, and health in a group of Ghanaian women. Non-experimental, cross-sectional case study using a mixed-methods approach. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of Ghanaian women, fitness trainers and clergy comprised the qualitative phase. A self-administered survey (n=218) comprised the quantitative phase. Constant comparative method, logistic regression, component and factor analyses were used for analysis. Women viewed activities of daily living like housework as PA; rarely utilized organized fitness facilities; understood "rigorous" PA as professional male athleticism; and took interest in socialized PA. Mean age was 49.4 years. Mean body mass index was 30.3 kg/m2. The majority (75.9 %) reported exercising sometimes or often. Half (48.4%) reported a lifestyle-related chronic disease. "Weight loss," "health concerns" and "increased energy," were top motivators for PA. "Can't find the time," "work/family obligations," and "don't have a facility" were top barriers. Presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and prior weight loss correlated with the slimming motivator (adjusted odds ratio 2.59, p=0.008; AOR 3.56, p=0.012; AOR 3.36, p=surveyed, PA motivators and barriers were associated with demographics, PA exposure, and health status. Further research on unique PA perceptions, behaviours and health could catalyze health promotion through culturally relevant fitness programming.

  15. Health and economic impact of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 vaccination of preadolescent girls and cervical cancer screening of adult women in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Sue J; Levin, Carol; Mosqueira-Lovón, N Rocio; Ortendahl, Jesse; Kim, Jane; O'Shea, Meredith; Diaz Sanchez, Mireia; Mendoza Araujo, Maria Ana

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the benefits, cost-effectiveness (i.e., value for money), and required financial costs (e.g., affordability) of adding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to Peru's cervical cancer screening program. Evidence (e.g., coverage, delivery costs) from an HPV vaccination demonstration project conducted in Peru was combined with epidemiological data in an empirically calibrated mathematical model to assess screening (HPV DNA testing three to five times per lifetime) and HPV vaccination under different cost, coverage, and efficacy assumptions. Model outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer reduction, cancer cases averted, lives saved, average life expectancy gains, short-term financial costs, and discounted long-term economic costs. Status quo low levels of screening (e.g., cytologic screening at 10.0% coverage) reduced lifetime risk of cervical cancer by 11.9%, compared to not screening. Adding vaccination of preadolescent girls at a coverage achieved in the demonstration program (82.0%) produced an additional 46.1% reduction, and would cost less than US$ 500 per year of life saved (YLS) at ~US$ 7/dose or ~US$ 1 300 at ~US$ 20/dose. One year of vaccination was estimated to cost ~US$ 5 million at ~US$ 5/dose or ~US$ 16 million at ~US$ 20/dose, including programmatic costs. Enhanced screening in adult women combined with preadolescent vaccination had incremental cost-effectiveness ratios lower than Peru's 2005 per capita gross domestic product (GDP; US$ 2 852, in 2009 US$), and would be considered cost-effective. Preadolescent HPV vaccination, followed by enhanced HPV DNA screening in adult women, could prevent two out of three cervical cancer deaths. Several strategies would be considered "good value" for resources invested, provided vaccine prices are low. While financial costs imply substantial immediate investments, the high-value payoff should motivate creative mechanisms for financing and scale-up of delivery programs.

  16. Effect of stretching program in an industrial workplace on hamstring flexibility and sagittal spinal posture of adult women workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Casimiro, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of a stretching program performed in the workplace on the hamstring muscle extensibility and sagittal spinal posture of adult women. Fifty-eight adult women volunteers (mean age of 44.23 ± 8.87 years) from a private fruit and vegetable company were randomly assigned to experimental (n=27) or control (n=31) groups. The experimental group performed three exercises of hamstrings stretching of 20 seconds per exercise, three sessions a week for a period of 12 weeks. The control group did not participate in any hamstring stretching program. Hamstring flexibility was evaluated through the passive straight leg raise test and toe-touch test, performed both before and after the stretching program. Thoracic and lumbar curvatures and pelvic inclination were measured in relaxed standing and toe-touch test with a Spinal Mouse. Significant increases (p < 0.01) in toe-touch score and straight leg raise angle (in both legs) were found in the experimental group during post-test, while the control group showed a non-significant decrease for both toe-touch score and straight leg raise test. A significant decrease in thoracic curve and significant increase in pelvic inclination were found in the toe-touch test for the experimental group (p <0.05). However, no significant changes were found in standing posture for any group. Hamstring stretching exercises performed in the working place are effective for increasing hamstring muscle extensibility. This increase generates a more aligned thoracic curve and more anterior pelvic inclination when maximal trunk flexion is performed.

  17. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  18. Childhood Maltreatment and Child Protective Services Involvement Among the Commercially Sexually Exploited: A Comparison of Women Who Enter as Juveniles or as Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Andrea N; Madden, Elissa E; Hohn, Kris; Cronley, Courtney M; Davis, Jaya B; Magruder, Karen; Kennedy, M Alexis

    2017-04-01

    A risk for commercial sexual exploitation is childhood maltreatment. It's unknown whether juveniles in commercial sexual exploitation experience more childhood maltreatment than adults or how involved child protective services is in investigating maltreatment, a focus of this study. Women (N = 96) who sold sex commercially completed a cross-sectional questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, t tests, chi-squares, and odds ratios were used to examine differences in background, childhood maltreatment, and child protective services involvement by juvenile or adult entry. Although 93% of participants experienced child maltreatment, juveniles had increased odds of parent/caregiver sexual abuse, being left alone, being kicked out, and running away from a parent/caregiver. There were no differences in cumulative childhood maltreatment resulting in an investigation or removal, indicating that juveniles not investigated or removed by child protective services had as much childhood maltreatment as juveniles who were investigated or removed by child protective services. Results highlight the need for child welfare staff to recognize childhood maltreatment as risks for commercial sexual exploitation.

  19. Loss of sexual interest and premenstrual mood change in women with postpartum versus non-postpartum depression: A nationwide community sample of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Lee, Dong-Woo; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a type of clinical depression that can affect women after childbirth. Few previous studies have explored the association of depressive and physical symptoms among women with PPD in a nationwide community study. A total of 18,807 adults, randomly selected, completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) (response rate 80.2%). PPD was defined as a major depressive episode that began within 4 weeks after delivery. Of 679 female subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), 14.0% (n=95) experienced PPD. Subjects with PPD were significantly more likely to have higher income, education, and reside in an urban area, compared to those with non-PPD. No significant differences were found in number of children. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the loss of sexual interest was the only symptom among 23 depressive symptoms that was significantly associated with depressive episodes among individuals with PPD (AOR=1.91, 95% CI 1.01-3.60) when compared with non-PPD. Loss of sexual interest was also significantly associated with the subjects with lifetime PPD regardless of depressive episode (AOR=1.93, 95% CI 1.12-3.31). Conversely, loss of confidence and loss of pleasure were less frequent in subjects with PPD. Premenstrual mood change (χ(2)=5.57, p=0.0036) and comorbid alcohol use disorder (χ(2)=5.11, p=0.031) showed a valid association with PPD. Loss of sexual interest and premenstrual mood change were associated with women with PPD, whereas those with non-PPD were not, thereby suggesting the possible link between sexual hormones and PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Girls/Women Just Want to Have Fun - A Study of Adult Female Players of Digital Games.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra

    2003-01-01

    In the past twenty-five years, the production of digital games has become a global media industry stretching from Japan, to the UK, France and the US. Despite this growth playing digital games, particularly computer games, is still seen by many as a boy’s pastime and part of boy’s bedroom culture. While these perceptions may serve to exclude, this paper set out to explore the experiences of women who game despite these perceptions. This paper addresses the topic of gender and games fro...

  1. A prospective study of overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among adolescent and young-adult women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Hayley H.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms, overeating and binge eating among adolescent and young-adult females in the United States. Methods We investigated incident overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among 4,798 females in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), a prospective cohort study of adolescents and young adults throughout the United States. Participants who reported at least monthly episodes during the past year of eating a very large amount of food in a short of amount of time, but not experiencing a loss of control, were classified as overeaters. Those who did report a loss of control while overeating were classified as binge eaters. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the McKnight Risk Factor Survey. Participants were followed from 1999 until 2003. Generalized estimating equations were used for lagged-analysis with time-varying covariates. Analyses were adjusted for age, age at menarche, body mass index (BMI), and follow-up time. Results Females reporting depressive symptoms at baseline were two times more likely than their peers to start overeating (odds ratio (OR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 2.5) and binge eating (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.0) during the follow-up. Similarly, females engaging in overeating (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) or binge eaters (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.9) at baseline, were two times more likely than their peers to develop depressive symptoms during the follow-up. Conclusions These results indicates that it is important to consider depressive symptoms in overeating and binge eating prevention and treatment initiatives targeting adolescent and young adult females. PMID:22525111

  2. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  3. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Iliodromiti

    Full Text Available International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268 min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  4. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  5. Factor Structure of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire in a Clinical Sample of Adult Women With Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn E; Jennings, Karen M; Gregas, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    An exploratory factor analysis on the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is presented for a clinical sample of women with anorexia nervosa. THE EDE-Q was completed by 169 participants after admission to an inpatient unit for eating disorders. Results of the current study did not support the four-factor model presented by the EDE-Q. A new four-factor solution was obtained with two factors showing similarity to the Restraint and Eating Concern subscales of the original model. The Shape and Weight Concern items primarily loaded together on one factor, along with preoccupation with food and fear of losing control over eating, two Eating Concern items. Finally, an appearance factor was obtained that supports the results of prior research. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(5), 33-39.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Do energy density and dietary fiber influence subsequent 5-year weight changes in adult men and women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia I; Helge, Jørn W; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    the associations between ED and subsequent changes in BW, and despite a general belief that ED is a major determinant of obesity, the present study did not generally lend support for an association. However, among certain subgroups, an energy-dense diet may be a risk factor for weight development.......OBJECTIVE: We examined whether associations between dietary components and, in particular, energy density (ED) predicted subsequent 5-year weight changes. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The present longitudinal population study was part of the Danish World Health Organization Multinational...... Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) and the 1936 cohort dietary studies. Effects of components were studied in relation to subsequent 5-year weight changes in 862 men and 900 women, 30 to 60 years old. Linear multiple regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Mean 5...

  7. Relation between knee extensors' strength, postural stability and variability of centre of pressure displacement during gait in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza C. de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that variability of walking is related to fall risk similarly as postural control and muscle strength. Joint potential of this group of variables for fall risk assessment is promising, however research interested in relations between them is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between knee extensors' strength, centre of pressure (COP velocity during one-leg stance and variability of COP displacement during various phases of gait cycle in middle-age women. Methods: A single group of 40 healthy women (age 56 ± 4.2 years took part in the study. For assessment of knee extensors' strength (peak torque and average work during concentric and eccentric contractions an isokinetic dynamometer was used. Mean velocity of COP during one-leg stance in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions was assessed on a force plate on a rigid surface with eyes open (two 30 s trials. Variability of COP displacement was assessed for loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing gait cycle phases (determined by vertical ground reaction force in AP and ML directions. It was measured by two force plates positioned in the middle of an 8 m walkway (5 trials at a self-selected speed. For statistical analysis of relationships between variables Pearson correlation was applied. Results: Our results showed significant correlations between eccentric peak torque and COP velocity in AP direction during one-leg stance, eccentric and concentric peak torque and COP variability during loading response in both ML and AP directions and during terminal stance in AP direction. Conclusion: Loading response and terminal stance seems to be more related to knee extensors' strength. Variables derived from postural stability assessment during one-leg stance are independent from variables derived from assessment of COP displacement variability during walking.

  8. Sprint interval and moderate-intensity cycling training differentially affect adiposity and aerobic capacity in overweight young-adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Simon; Fedewa, Michael V; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Schmidt, Michael D; Evans, Ellen M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous cycle training (MICT), with equal estimated energy expenditure during training on body composition and aerobic capacity. Body composition measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and aerobic capacity were assessed following 6 weeks of training in previously inactive overweight/obese young women (n = 52; age, 20.4 ± 1.5 years; body mass index, 30.3 ± 4.5 kg·m -2 , 67.3% white). Training was performed in a group-exercise format that mimicked cycling classes offered by commercial fitness facilities, and included 3 weekly sessions of either 30-s "all-out" sprints followed by 4 min of active recovery (SIT), or continuous cycling at 60%-70% heart rate reserve to expend a similar amount of energy. Participants were randomized to SIT or MICT, attended a similar number of sessions (15.0 ± 1.5 sessions vs. 15.8 ± 1.9 sessions, P = 0.097) and expended a similar amount of energy (541.8 ± 104.6 kJ·session -1 vs. 553.5 ± 138.1 kJ·session -1 , P = 0.250). Without significant changes in body mass (P > 0.05), greater relative reductions occurred in SIT than in MICT in total fat mass (3.6% ± 5.6% vs. 0.6% ± 3.9%, P = 0.007), and android fat mass (6.6% ± 6.9% vs. 0.7% ± 6.5%, P = 0.002). Aerobic capacity (mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) increased significantly following both interventions (P interval cycling reduces adiposity and increases aerobic capacity more than continuous moderate-intensity cycling of equal estimated energy expenditure in overweight/obese young women.

  9. Desigualdades raciais na mortalidade de mulheres adultas no Recife, 2001 a 2003 Racial inequality in the mortality of adult women in Recife, 2001-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Maria dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    of black and white adult women living in Recife, between 2001 and 2003. In this cross-sectional study, 2,943 deaths of women aged between 20 and 59 years were included, identified in the Mortality Information System of the National Health System (SUS, with race/skin color white or black (black + mestizo. Proportional mortality, mortality rates and ratios were obtained. The risk of dying was 1.7 times higher for black women compared to whites. Black women had higher risk of death in all age groups and higher proportion of deaths in public hospitals, of women who did not have a partner (single, widow or separated, who were housewives or worked as domestic servants, and who were less educated. Regarding the underlying causes, black women had a higher mortality rate for all chapters of the International Classification of Diseases and for specific causes of death, except for neoplasm in women aged 20 to 29 years and for breast cancer in women aged 30 to 39 and 50 to 59 years. As age decreases, a large difference between black and white women was found in the risk of deaths caused by external causes. Among black women, there was an increase in the risk of dying due to homicides, motor vehicle accidents, ischemic heart diseases, cerebral vascular and hypertensive diseases, diabetes, and tuberculosis. The findings showed inequality in health, with disadvantages for the black women, which are the expression of human rights violation that challenges social rise and the access to decent health conditions.

  10. Prevalence of Non-responders for Glucose Control Markers after 10 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Adult Women with Higher and Lower Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise training improves performance and biochemical parameters on average, but wide interindividual variability exists, with individuals classified as responders (R or non-responders (NRs, especially between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance. This study assessed the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and the prevalence of NRs in adult women with higher and lower levels of insulin resistance.Methods: Forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2; n = 20 and a group with lower insulin resistance (L-IR, 35 ± 9 years; 27.8 ± 2.8 kg/m2; n = 20. Anthropometric, cardiovascular, metabolic, and performance variables were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks of training.Results: There were significant training-induced changes [delta percent (Δ%] in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR scores in the H-IR group (−8.8, −26.5, −32.1%, p < 0.0001, whereas no significant changes were observed in the L-IR. Both groups showed significant pre-post changes in other anthropometric variables [waist circumference (−5.2, p < 0.010, and −3.8%, p = 0.046 and tricipital (−13.3, p < 0.010, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, supra-iliac (−19.4, p < 0.0001, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, and abdominal (−18.2, p < 0.0001, and −15.6%, p < 0.010 skinfold measurements]. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in the L-IR group (−3.2%, p < 0.010. Both groups showed significant increases in 1RMLE (+12.9, p < 0.010, and +14.7%, p = 0.045. There were significant differences in the prevalence of NRs between the H-IR and L-IR groups for fasting glucose (25 vs. 95%, p < 0.0001 and fasting insulin (p = 0.025 but not for HOMA-IR (25 vs. 45%, p = 0.185.Conclusion: Independent of the “magnitude” of the

  11. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13–19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P teenage mothers had never received prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P Teenage mothers more often experienced preterm delivery and perineal laceration (P Teenage mothers (Teenage mothers had higher risk of inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001). PMID:27559960

  12. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant W Edmonds

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (LTL shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02. Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  13. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior—the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N=739) ages 18–26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed ten months later. Results Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Conclusions Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior. PMID:22547155

  14. Relationships between self-reported lifetime physical activity, estimates of current physical fitness, and aBMD in adult premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen G; Walkley, Jeff W; Rich, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common, and physical activity is important in its prevention and treatment. Of the categories of historical physical activity (PA) examined, we found that weight-bearing and very hard physical activity had the strongest relationships with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) throughout growth and into adulthood, while for measures of strength, only grip strength proved to be an independent predictor of aBMD. To examine relationships between aBMD (total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, tibial shaft, distal radius) and estimates of historical PA, current strength, and cardiovascular fitness in adult premenopausal women. One hundred fifty-two adult premenopausal women (40 ± 9.6 years) undertook aBMD (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and completed surveys to estimate historical physical activity representative of three decades (Kriska et al. [1]), while subsets underwent functional tests of isokinetic strength (hamstrings and quadriceps), grip strength (hand dynamometer), and maximum oxygen uptake (MaxV02; cycle ergometer). Historical PA was characterized by demand (metabolic equivalents, PA > 3 METS; PA > 7 METS) and type (weight-bearing; high impact). Significant positive independent predictors varied by decade and site, with weight-bearing exercise and PA > 3 METS significant for the tibial shaft (10-19 decade) and only PA > 7 METS significant for the final two decades (20-29 and 30-39 years; total body and total hip). A significant negative correlation between high impact activity and tibial shaft aBMD appeared for the final decade. For strength measures, only grip strength was an independent predictor (total body, total hip), while MaxV02 provided a significant independent prediction for the tibial shaft. Past PA > 7 METS was positively associated with aBMD, and such activity should probably constitute a relatively high proportion of all weekly PA to positively affect aBMD. The findings warrant more detailed investigations in a prospective

  15. Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Prevalence of Physician-Diagnosed Urinary Incontinence in Postmenopausal Non-Diabetic Adult Women: Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Byung Il Yoon

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between insulin resistance (IR and urinary incontinence in Korean adult women by analyzing the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES 2007-2009.A nationally representative sample of 5318 non-diabetic Korean women ≥19-years-of-age (3043 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal women was included from KNHANES 2008-2010. IR was measured using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR. Participants in the highest and lowest quartile of HOMA-IR were defined as insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive respectively. Women who have current physician-diagnosed urinary incontinence were classified as having urinary incontinence.Incontinence was found in 9.18% of the total population, 8.51% of the premenopausal population, and 10.86% of the postmenopausal population. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age, reaching a peak at 60-69-years-of-age. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increased significantly with higher HOMA-IR quartiles in pre- and post-menopausal women (p for linear association = 0.0458 and 0.0009 respectively. Among post-menopausal women, those in the highest quartile of HOMA-IR were significantly more likely to have urinary incontinence compared to those in the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.77]. However premenopausal population exhibited no association between incontinence and HOMA-IR quartiles.Our results suggest that the prevalence of incontinence increased across HOMA-IR in non-diabetic adult women, and especially, IR might be a risk factor for incontinence in postmenopausal non-diabetic women.

  16. Inflammation in adult women with a history of child maltreatment: The involvement of mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Christina; Koenig, Alexandra Maria; Schury, Katharina; Geiger, Martha Leonie; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Wilker, Sarah; Waller, Christiane; Gündel, Harald; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    The experience of maltreatment during childhood is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pro-inflammatory phenotype remain unclear. Mitochondria were recently found to principally coordinate inflammatory processes via both inflammasome activation and inflammasome-independent pathways. To this end, we hypothesized that alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress might be at the interface between the association of maltreatment experiences during childhood and inflammation. We analyzed pro-inflammatory biomarkers (levels of C-reactive protein, cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, PBMC composition, lysophosphatidylcholine levels), serum oxidative stress levels (arginine:citrulline ratio, l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels) and mitochondrial functioning (respiratory activity and density of mitochondria in PBMC) in peripheral blood samples collected from 30 women (aged 22-44years) with varying degrees of maltreatment experiences in form of abuse and neglect during childhood. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was associated with an increased ROS production, higher levels of oxidative stress and an increased mitochondrial activity in a dose-response relationship. Moreover, the increase in mitochondrial activity and ROS production were positively associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PBMC. Decreased serum levels of lysophosphatidylcholines suggested higher inflammasome activation with increasing severity of child maltreatment experiences. Together these findings offer preliminary evidence for the association of alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory phenotype observed in individuals with a history of maltreatment during childhood. The results emphasize that the early prevention of child abuse and neglect warrants more attention, as the

  17. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  18. Lubiprostone: evaluation of the newest medication for the treatment of adult women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisha N Lunsford

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tisha N Lunsford, Lucinda A HarrisDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic – School of Medicine, Scottsdale, Arizona, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic disorder that affects primarily female patients and is thought also to afflict approximately 7%–10% of the population of the Western World. Although bowel habits may change over the course of years, patients with IBS are characterized according to their predominant bowel habit, constipation (IBS-C, diarrhea (IBS-D, or mixed type (IBS-M, and treatments are focused toward the predominant symptom. Current treatments for IBS-C have included fiber, antispasmodics, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, and the now severely limited 5-HT4 agonist tegaserod. No one agent has been universally successful in the treatment of this bothersome syndrome and the search for new agents continues. Lubiprostone (Amitiza®, a novel compound, is a member of a new class of agents called prostones and was approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in 2006 at a dose of 24 µg twice daily and then in 2008 for the treatment of IBS-C in women only at a dose of 8 µg twice daily. Its purported mechanism is as a type 2 chloride channel activator, but recent evidence suggests that it may also work at the cystic fibrosis transport receptor. This article will compare the newly proposed mechanism of action of this compound to the purported mechanism and review the structure, pharmacology, safety, efficacy, and tolerability of this new therapeutic option. Clinical trial data leading to the approval of this agent for the treatment of IBS-C and the gender-based understanding of IBS, as well as this agent’s place among existing and emerging therapies, will be examined.Keywords: large intestine, functional bowel disorder, therapy

  19. Educational nutrition messaging at breakfast reduces snack intake and influences snack preferences in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gaines, Brianna L; Kubas, Gabrielle C; Mitchell, Charlayne F; Russell, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Breakfast skipping is associated with increased risk of weight gain and obesity in young adults, possibly due to increased snacking later in the day. Recent research suggests that providing and animal versus a plant source of protein at breakfast can reduce snack intake later in the day. In addition, providing nutrition information via a nutrition label, front-of-pack information, or via text messaging has been shown to help individuals make healthier food choices. The objective of this study was to determine if educational nutrition messaging and protein source influenced snack intake 2 h following the breakfast meal. Participants (n = 33) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: educational nutrition messaging (EM; n = 16) or no messaging (NM; n = 17) group. The study was conducted using a randomized, cross-over design in which each participant received each of two breakfast beverages, whey protein- (WP) and pea protein (PP)- based. Appetite was assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each test breakfast using visual analog scales. Participants were then provided with a selection of healthy and unhealthy snacks for 60 min. There was no effect of protein source on appetite or snack intake. However, participants presented with EM had reduced snack intake over the snacking period compared to NM (P = 0.058) and, of the snacks consumed, the EM group consumed a higher percentage of healthy versus unhealthy snacks compared to NM (P snack intake, but EM may help play a role in reducing snack intake between meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003–2008

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    Mary M. Murphy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. Methods: The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Results: Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789, 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001 and magnesium (P<0.05 below the estimated average requirement (EAR compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05. Potassium and β-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]. Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (P<0.05, However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Conclusion: Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality

  1. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  2. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Louise F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Brownson, Ross C; Hino, Adriano A; Tureck, Luciane V; Valko, Cheryl; de Souza, Ricardo L R; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2014-03-01

    The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994) and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217) polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (2 × 2) were used to analyze the intervention effect between polymorphisms and BMI over the period and after stratification for age and socioeconomic status (SES). The weight loss intervention resulted in decreased BMI over the seven-week period (p polymorphism carriers and non-carriers, and although, the ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms did not moderate weight loss, the Gln27Glu polymorphism carriers showed a lower BMI compared to non-carriers in the low SES (p = 0.018) and the 30-39 y (p = 0.036) groups, suggesting a role for this polymorphism related to BMI control.

  3. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise F. Saliba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713, ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994 and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217 polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (2 x 2 were used to analyze the intervention effect between polymorphisms and BMI over the period and after stratification for age and socioeconomic status (SES. The weight loss intervention resulted in decreased BMI over the seven-week period (p < 0.001, for high and low SES (p < 0.05 and mainly for participants with 30-49 y. The intervention did not result in a statistically significant difference in weight loss between polymorphism carriers and non-carriers, and although, the ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms did not moderate weight loss, the Gln27Glu polymorphism carriers showed a lower BMI compared to non-carriers in the low SES (p = 0.018 and the 30-39 y (p = 0.036 groups, suggesting a role for this polymorphism related to BMI control.

  4. Effect of Multicomponent Training on Blood Pressure, Nitric Oxide, Redox Status, and Physical Fitness in Older Adult Women: Influence of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS3 Haplotypes

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    Atila Alexandre Trapé

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of the genotype or haplotype (interaction of the NOS3 polymorphisms [-786T>C, 894G>T (Glu298Asp, and intron 4b/a] on the response to multicomponent training (various capacities and motor skills on blood pressure (BP, nitrite concentration, redox status, and physical fitness in older adult women. The sample consisted of 52 participants, who underwent body mass index and BP assessments. Physical fitness was evaluated by six-minute walk, elbow flexion, and sit and stand up tests. Plasma/blood samples were used to evaluate redox status, nitrite concentration, and genotyping. Associations were observed between isolated polymorphisms and the response of decreased systolic and diastolic BP and increased nitrite concentration and antioxidant activity. In the haplotype analysis, the group composed of ancestral alleles (H1 was the only one to present improvement in all variables studied (decrease in systolic and diastolic BP, improvement in nitrite concentration, redox status, and physical fitness, while the group composed of variant alleles (H8 only demonstrated improvement in some variables of redox status and physical fitness. These findings suggest that NOS3 polymorphisms and physical training are important interacting variables to consider in evaluating redox status, nitric oxide availability and production, and BP control.

  5. Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Strength in 499 Adult Danish Women and Men: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomographic Study on Peak Bone Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, V.; Folkestad, L.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) allows in vivo assessment of cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), geometry, and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia in unprecedented detail. In this cross-sectional study, we provide normative and de...... and descriptive HR-pQCT data from a large population-based sample of Danish Caucasian women and men (n = 499) aged 20-80 years. In young adults (...

  6. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity and their related socio-demographic and lifestyle factors among adult women in Myanmar, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seo Ah; Lwin, Kyi Tun; Aung, La Seng

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. Material and methods In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015–16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18–49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (23.0–27.4 kg/m2), and obesity (≥27.5 kg/m2). Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and weight status. Results The prevalence of underweight was 14.1%, overweight 28.1% and obesity 13.1%. Among different age groups, the prevalence of underweight was the highest among 18 to 29 year-olds (20.2%), while overweight or obesity was the highest in the age group 30 to 49 years (around 50%). In multinomial logistic regression, being 30 to 49 years old, poorer and richer wealth status, living in all the other regions of Myanmar and ever contraceptive use were inversely and current tobacco use, not working and having less than two children ever born were positively associated with underweight relative to normal weight. Older age, having secondary education, urban residence, wealthier economic status, living with a partner, living in the Northern and Southern regions of Myanmar, having less than two children ever born and having ever used contraceptives were positively and current tobacco use was negatively associated with overweight or obesity relative to normal weight. Conclusions A dual burden of both underweight and overweight or obesity among female adults was found in Myanmar. Sociodemographic and health risk behaviour factors were identified for underweight and overweight or obesity that can guide public health interventions to

  7. Attachment representations and early interactions in drug addicted mothers: a case study of four women with distinct Adult Attachment Interview classifications

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    Alessio ePorreca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children.This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing and U-unresolved/with losses. Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985, while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008.As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  8. A comparison of anthropometric, metabolic and reproductive characteristics of young adult women from opposite-sex and same sex twin pairs

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    Pirkko eKorsoff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal exposure to androgens has been linked to masculinization of several traits. We aimed to determine whether putative female intra-uterine exposure to androgens influences PCOS-related phenotypes, including anthropometric, metabolic and reproductive parameters using a twin design.Methods: Two cohorts of Finnish twins born in 1975-1979 and 1983-1987 formed the basis for the longitudinal FinnTwin16 (FT16 and FinnTwin12 (FT12 studies. Self-reported anthropometric characteristics, disease status and reproductive history were compared between 679 same-sex (SS and 789 opposite-sex (OS female twins (mean age ± SD: 34 ± 1.1 from the wave 5 of data collection in FT16. Serum lipid and lipoprotein subclass concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared in 226 SS and 169 OS female twins (mean age ± SD: 24 ± 2.1 from wave 4 of data collection in FT12 and FT16. Results: Anthropometric measures, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 did not differ significantly between females from SS and OS twin pairs at age 34. Similarly, the prevalence of infertility, age at first pregnancy and number of induced and spontaneous abortions did not differ significantly between these two groups of women. The serum lipid and lipoprotein profile did not differ between females from SS and OS twins at age 24. Conclusion: We found no evidence that androgen overexposure of the female fetus affects obesity, metabolic profile or reproductive health in young adult females. However, these results do not exclude the possibility that prenatal androgen exposure in females could be adversely associated with intermediate phenotypes of PCOS later in life.

  9. Women with Childhood ADHD: Comparisons by Diagnostic Group and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Yu, Jihnhee; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2011-01-01

    This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity, and parental education, and to men with childhood ADHD on age, ethnicity, and IQ. Self- and parent-reports of internalizing, inte...

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder casts a long shadow: findings from a population-based study of adult women with self-reported ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Lewis, D A; Agbeyaka, S K

    2016-11-01

    To develop a sociodemographic and health profile of women with self-reported attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison to women without. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted on data from the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (2012) comparing 107 women aged 20 to 39 years (inclusive) with ADHD to 3801 without ADHD. Depression, generalized anxiety disorder and substance abuse were measured using the WHO-CIDI. Women with ADHD had triple the prevalence of insomnia, chronic pain, suicidal ideation, childhood sexual abuse and generalized anxiety disorder and double the prevalence of substance abuse, current smoking, depressive disorders, severe poverty and childhood physical abuse in comparison with women without ADHD (all P ADHD had substantially higher odds of a wide range of problems. Our results suggest that women with ADHD are particularly vulnerable to early adversities, health and mental health problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, A.; Bemrah, N.; Veyrand, B.; Pollono, C.; Merlo, M.; Desvignes, V.; Sirot, V.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis

  12. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A., E-mail: ami.s.yamada@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Bemrah, N., E-mail: nawel.bemrah@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Veyrand, B., E-mail: bruno.veyrand@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Pollono, C., E-mail: charles.pollono@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Merlo, M., E-mail: mathilde.merlo@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Desvignes, V., E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Sirot, V., E-mail: sirotv@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis.

  13. Recent partner violence and sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk among adolescent and young adult women attending family planning clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072

  14. Where the Boys Are: Attitudes Related to Masculinity, Fatherhood, and Violence toward Women among Low-Income Adolescent and Young Adult Males in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gary; Loewenstein, Irene

    1997-01-01

    Qualitative research with 127 low-income young men and women, aged 14 to 30, in Rio de Janeiro found rigid gender roles with males displaying widespread "machista" attitudes (an exaggerated deep structure of masculinity) and acceptance of violence against women that was greater in low-income urban areas. Implications for working with…

  15. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Yanfeng; Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-01-01

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  16. Benzophenone-type UV filters in urine and blood from children, adults, and pregnant women in China: Partitioning between blood and urine as well as maternal and fetal cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wu, Qian [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Zhang, Yanfeng [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Jing [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n = 101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n = 20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n = 10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p < 0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood. Highlights: • Benzophenone (BP) concentrations are determined in paired blood and urine for the first time. • BP-3 and 4OH-BP partition preferentially into urine. • Cord to

  17. Alcohol consumption and the risk of self-reported perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis in young adult women in a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, P; Grønbæk, M; Kjær, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption has been suggested to be associated with the development of allergic rhinitis (AR), but there is limited data on the topic. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing AR among young...... women. Methods Five thousand eight hundred and seventy Danish women aged 20-29 years participated in a prospective cohort study, and were free of seasonal and perennial AR at baseline (1991-1993). Alcohol consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self......-reported information on seasonal and perennial AR debuting during a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years. Results During follow-up, 831 women developed seasonal AR and 523 women developed perennial AR, corresponding to 14% and 9%. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing perennial AR...

  18. Epidemiology and consequences of women's revictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Kaminski, Amy; Baumrind, Nikki

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Kraemer's approach for nonrandom comorbidity to identify the parameters of revictimization among women, using a diverse, population-based sample. Participants (n = 11,056) are from the California Women's Health Survey. Women were asked about childhood and adult violence and current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Logistic regressions adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, and poverty indicate that women who experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse were 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 5.2-6.4) times more likely to experience adult physical or sexual victimization. Revictimization affected 12% of women, and these women were substantially more likely to report current symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD than women exposed to violence only in childhood or only as an adult. Revictimization is a methodologically distinct concept and is a potent risk factor for adult mental health problems. Prevention should target women exposed to both physical and sexual assault.

  19. Outcome of systemic and analytic group psychotherapy for adult women with history of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....

  20. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Homicides of Adult Women and the Role of Intimate Partner Violence - United States, 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Emiko; Blair, Janet M; Betz, Carter J; Fowler, Katherine A; Jack, Shane P D; Lyons, Bridget H

    2017-07-21

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged ≤44 years.* In 2015, homicide caused the death of 3,519 girls and women in the United States. Rates of female homicide vary by race/ethnicity (1), and nearly half of victims are killed by a current or former male intimate partner (2). To inform homicide and intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention efforts, CDC analyzed homicide data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) among 10,018 women aged ≥18 years in 18 states during 2003-2014. The frequency of homicide by race/ethnicity and precipitating circumstances of homicides associated with and without IPV were examined. Non-Hispanic black and American Indian/Alaska Native women experienced the highest rates of homicide (4.4 and 4.3 per 100,000 population, respectively). Over half of all homicides (55.3%) were IPV-related; 11.2% of victims of IPV-related homicide experienced some form of violence in the month preceding their deaths, and argument and jealousy were common precipitating circumstances. Targeted IPV prevention programs for populations at disproportionate risk and enhanced access to intervention services for persons experiencing IPV are needed to reduce homicides among women.

  1. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India: findings from a nationwide large-scale cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-05-01

    Increasing prevalence of asthma in developing countries has been a significant challenge for public health in recent decades. A number of studies have suggested that ambient air pollution can trigger asthma attacks. Biomass and solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in developing countries the health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. In this study we examined the effect of cooking smoke produced by biomass and solid fuel combustion on the reported prevalence of asthma among adult men and women in India. The analysis is based on 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged between 20 and 49 years included in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005-2006. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, determined by the type of fuel used for cooking such as biomass and solid fuels versus cleaner fuels, on the reported prevalence of asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Since the effects of cooking smoke are likely to be confounded with effects of tobacco smoking, age, and other such factors, the analysis was carried out after statistically controlling for such factors. The results indicate that adult women living in households using biomass and solid fuels have a significantly higher risk of asthma than those living in households using cleaner fuels (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.06-1.49; p = .010), even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. Interestingly, this effect was not found among men (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.77-1.24; p = .846). However, tobacco smoking was associated with higher asthma prevalence among both women (OR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.34-2.21; p effects of biomass and solid fuel use and tobacco smoke on the risk of asthma were greater and more significant in women (OR: 2.16; 95%CI: 1.58-2.94; p countries such as India, where large proportions of the population still rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Decreasing household biomass and solid fuel use

  2. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  3. Long-acting reversible contraception for adolescents and young adults - a cross-sectional study of women and general practitioners in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratlie, Marte; Aarvold, Trine; Skårn, Elling Skeide; Lundekvam, Jonas Andre; Nesheim, Britt-Ingjerd; Askevold, Erik Tandberg

    2014-06-01

    To investigate awareness and use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in the Norwegian primary care sector. We surveyed 359 women aged 16 to 23 years visiting a free sexual health clinic and 140 general practitioners (GPs) in Oslo, Norway, to assess contraceptive usage patterns, knowledge, opinions, and counselling content. Eighty-two percent (n = 295) of the female respondents were current contraceptive users and of this group, 12% (n = 34) were LARC users. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs, 56%) and condoms (20%) were the methods most commonly used. Apart from those two, the women considered themselves insufficiently knowledgeable about other family planning modalities. Knowledge was an independent predictor of current LARC use (p Oslo, Norway. These young women need better contraceptive counselling. Dispelling misconceptions and improved provider training could encourage GPs to cover LARCs when giving contraceptive guidance.

  4. [The effects of 16-weeks pilates mat program on anthropometric variables and body composition in active adult women after a short detraining period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-04-01

    previous studies have analysed the effect of mat Pilates practice on anthropometric variables and body composition in sedentaries. To date no researchs have investigated the benefits of Pilates on these variables after a short detraining period. to determine the effect of a 16-week mat Pilates program on anthropometric variables, body composition and somatotype of women with previous practice experience after three weeks of detraining period. twenty-one women underwent a complete anthropometric assessment according with ISAK guidelines before and after a 16 week mat Pilates program (two days, one hour). All women had one to three years of mat Pilates experience and came to three weeks of detraining period (Christmas holiday). women showed significant decreases for body mass, BMI, upper limb (biceps and triceps) and trunk (subscapular, iliac crest, supraspinale and abdominal) individual skinfolds, 6 and 8 skinfold sums, endomorphy and fat mass; and a significant increases for muscle mass. The mean somatotype was classified as mesomorphic endomorph in the pre- (4.91, 4.01, 1.47) and post-test (4.68, 4.16, 1.69). Eight women changed their somatotype clasification after the intervention program. the practice of mat Pilates for 16 weeks caused changes associated with health state improvements on anthropometric variables, especially on skinfolds which significantly decreased, body composition (fat and muscle masses decreased and increased, respectively) and somatotype (there was a significantly decreased on the endomorph component in experienced women after three week of detraning. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  6. The influence of sexually explicit internet material and peers on stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles: similarities and differences between adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and

  7. Bioavailability of calcium of fresh cheeses, enteral food and mineral water. A study with stable calcium isotopes in young adult women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Guéronnière, V. dela; Schaafsma, G.; Bouley, C.; Luten, J.; Latgé, C.

    1996-01-01

    True fractional Ca absorption from six foods was measured in twelve normal healthy women, aged 20-29 years. The tested foods were commercially available fresh cheese, fresh cheese prepared by new technology and rich in Ca, similar cheese with added Fe, enteral food, mineral water alone and combined

  8. Application and Effect of Mobiletype-Bone Health Intervention in Korean Young Adult Women with Low Bone Mass: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Park, PhD, RN

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Although both experimental groups exhibited positive outcomes in regards to the promotion of bone health, this study did not show an additional effect of the mobile application on self-management ability for the promotion of bone health. Nonetheless, the SbFb application is very meaningful as it is the first application developed with the aim of improving women's bone health.

  9. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan B.; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20–59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Study design Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Results Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. Conclusion The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation. PMID:22901287

  10. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women--associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan B; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-08-06

    To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20-59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  11. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women - associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan B; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20-59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006). Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively). Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  12. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan B. Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20–59 years and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006. Study design. Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Results. Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals of the total population of 20-to-59-year-old Métis. Of those who ideated, 46.2% reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 6.0% indicated that they had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among Métis men than in men who did not report Aboriginal identity in examined jurisdictions. Métis women were more likely to report suicidal ideation compared with Métis men (14.9% vs. 11.5%, respectively. Métis women and men had some common associated risk and protective factors such as major depressive episode, history of self-injury, perceived Aboriginal-specific community issues, divorced status, high mobility, self-rated thriving health, high self-esteem and positive coping ability. However, in Métis women alone, heavy frequent drinking, history of foster care experience and lower levels of social support were significant associated risk factors of suicidal ideation. Furthermore, a significant interaction was observed between social support and major depressive episode. Among Métis men, history of ever smoking was the sole unique associated risk factor. Conclusion. The higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis women compared with Métis men and the observed gender differences in associations with some associated risk and protective factors suggest the need for gender-responsive programming to address suicidal ideation.

  13. Men Want Equality, but Women Don't Expect It: Young Adults' Expectations for Participation in Household and Child Care Chores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Sabrina F.; Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J.; Staebell, Samantha E.; Axelson, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored whether there was a discrepancy between young adults' ideal and expected participation in household and child care chores as well as what variables predicted expectations for future chore division. Three-hundred fifty-eight unmarried, heterosexual participants with no children completed an online questionnaire assessing the…

  14. The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in

  15. Suicidal ideation among Métis adult men and women – associated risk and protective factors: findings from a nationally representative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Mohan B.; Walls, Melissa; Janz, Teresa; Hutchinson, Peter; Turner, Tara; Graham, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Métis men and women (20-59 years) and identify its associated risk and protective factors using data from the nationally representative Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2006).Study design: Secondary analysis of previously collected data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey.Results: Across Canada, lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by an estimated 13.3% (or an estimated 34,517 individuals) of the total populati...

  16. Intuitive Mathematical Knowledge as an Essential Aspect of Contemporary Adult Learning: A case of women street vendors in the city of Gaborone

    OpenAIRE

    Nthogo Lekoko, Rebecca; Getrude Garegae, Kgomotso

    2006-01-01

    The findings of a phenomenological interview study with women street vendors showed a strong link between participants’ perceptions of everyday use of mathematical literacy and the speculations that mathematical use arose spontaneously in response to a practical need. The concept of intuitive mathematics as used indicates that mathematical thinking is an indispensable element of everyday conversation. Although the study finds that intuition and spontaneity are essential principles of lifelong...

  17. Progression of HPV infection to detectable cervical lesions or clearance in adult women: Analysis of the control arm of the VIVIANE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Wheeler, Cosette M; Romanowski, Barbara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Vallejos, Carlos; Minkina, Galina; Pereira Da Silva, Daniel; McNeil, Shelly; Prilepskaya, Vera; Gogotadze, Irina; Money, Deborah; Garland, Suzanne M; Romanenko, Viktor; Harper, Diane M; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Geeraerts, Brecht; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Bozonnat, Marie-Cécile; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    The control arm of the phase III VIVIANE (Human PapillomaVIrus: Vaccine Immunogenicity ANd Efficacy; NCT00294047) study in women >25 years was studied to assess risk of progression from cervical HPV infection to detectable cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The risk of detecting CIN associated with the same HPV type as the reference infection was analysed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models. Infections were categorised depending upon persistence as 6-month persistent infection (6MPI) or infection of any duration. The 4-year interim analysis included 2,838 women, of whom 1,073 (37.8%) experienced 2,615 infections of any duration and 708 (24.9%) experienced 1,130 6MPIs. Infection with oncogenic HPV types significantly increased the risk of detecting CIN grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) versus non-oncogenic types. For 6MPI, the highest risk was associated with HPV-33 (hazard ratio [HR]: 31.9 [8.3-122.2, p 25 years in this study was similar to that in women 15-25 years in PATRICIA. © 2015 The Authors and GlaxoSmithKline. International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  18. Effects of 2-day calorie restriction on cardiovascular autonomic response, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras; Čekanauskaitė, Agnė

    2018-06-02

    Although long-term energy restriction has been widely investigated and has consistently induced improvements in health and cognitive and motor functions, the responses to short-duration calorie restriction are not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 2-day very low-calorie diet on evoked stress, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese women. Nine obese women (body fatness > 32%) aged 22-31 years were tested under two randomly allocated conditions: 2-day very low-calorie diet (511 kcal) and 2-day usual diet. The perceived stressfulness of the diet, cardiovascular autonomic response, and cognitive and motor performances were evaluated before and after each diet. The subjective stress rating of the calorie-restricted diet was 41.5 ± 23.3. Calorie restriction had no detectable effects on the heart rate variability indices, mood, grip strength, or psychomotor functions. By contrast, calorie restriction increased (p restriction evoked moderate stress in obese women, cardiovascular autonomic function was not affected. Calorie restriction had complex effects on cognition: it declined cognitive flexibility, and improved spatial processing and visuospatial working memory, but did not affect mood or motor behavior.

  19. Intimate partner violence against adult women and its association with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms and postpartum depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Kaufman, Jay S; Lo, Bruce; Zonderman, Alan B

    2012-09-01

    To date, few systematic reviews of observational studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate the co-morbidity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and specific depression outcomes in women. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize the extant literature and estimate the magnitude of the association between IPV and key depressive outcomes (elevated depressive symptoms, diagnosed major depressive disorder and postpartum depression). PubMed (January 1, 1980-December 31, 2010) searches of English-language observational studies were conducted. Most of the selected 37 studies had cross-sectional population-based designs, focused on elevated depressive symptoms and were conducted in the United States. Most studies suggested moderate or strong positive associations between IPV and depression. Our meta-analysis suggested two to three-fold increased risk of major depressive disorder and 1.5-2-fold increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms and postpartum depression among women exposed to intimate partner violence relative to non-exposed women. A sizable proportion (9%-28%) of major depressive disorder, elevated depressive symptoms, and postpartum depression can be attributed to lifetime exposure to IPV. In an effort to reduce the burden of depression, continued research is recommended for evaluating IPV preventive strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Young adult's own and parental social characteristics predict injury morbidity: a register-based follow-up of 135,000 men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-04-28

    Sociodemographic differences in injury mortality are well-established, but population-level studies on social patterns of injury morbidity remain few in numbers, particularly among young adults. Yet injuries are the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and disability among young people. Studies among children have shown steep social gradients in severe injuries, but less is known on the social patterning of injuries in late adolescence and early adulthood, when young people are in the process of becoming independent adults. This study examines how young adults' current living arrangements, education, main economic activity, and parental social background are associated with hospital-treated injuries in late adolescence and early adulthood. The study uses prospective, individual-level data gathered from several administrative sources. From a representative 11% sample of the total Finnish population, we included young people between ages 17-29 years during the follow-up (N = 134,938). We used incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models to study hospital-treated injuries and poisonings in 1998-2008. Higher rates of injury were found among young adults living alone, single mothers, the lower educated and the non-employed, as well as those with lower parental social background, experience of childhood family changes or living with a single parent, and those who had left the parental home at a young age. Injury risks were consistently higher among young adults with lower education, but current living arrangements and main economic activity showed some age-related nuances in the associations: both earlier and later than average transitions in education, employment, and family formation associated with increased injury risks. The social differentials were strongest in poisonings, intentional self-harm, and assaults, but social patterns were also found in falls, traffic-related injuries and other unintentional injuries, underlining the existence of multiple

  1. Position Of Hydrogen Energy In Latvian Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanags, M.; Kleperis, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: World energy resources are based on fossil fuels mostly (coal, oil, gas) which don't regenerate and will be run low after 30-80 years. Therefore it is necessary to elaborate alternative energy sources today. Also Latvia's energy balance is based mostly on the burning of fossil fuels and importing it from neighbor countries. One from much outstanding alternative energy sources is hydrogen. Hydrogen itself is a very important and most common element in the universe. Only hydrogen obtained from water and burnt in fuel cell back to water will be the renewed and sustainable fuel. There are hundred years old history of hydrogen related researches in Latvia, and there are researchers nowadays here trying to incorporate Latvia in the Hydrogen Society. The power supply in Latvia is based on local resources - water, wind, biogas (partly from waste), wood, peat, and on imported resources (natural gas, natural liquid gas, oil products (including heavy black oil) and coal. Total demand for electricity in Latvia only partly (63% in 2002) is covered with that produced on the site. If energy for heating in Latvia is produced from fossil fuels mostly (natural gas and heavy oil), than more than half of electricity produced in Latvia are based on local renewable resources. The water resources for the production of electricity in Latvia are almost exhausted - there are 3 large HEPS on Daugava River and more than 100 small HEPS on different rivers all over the Latvia. The building of small power stations in Latvia was accelerated very much after introduction of 'double tariff' for electricity from renewable, but from 2003 this time is over. Unfortunately directly power stations on small rivers made very big ecological distress on country side and no more expansion is welcome. The landfill gas in Latvia is a new resource and would result in additional capacity of 50 MW energy. Nowadays two projects started to realize for gas extraction from Getlini (Riga) and Grobina (Liepaja) landfills. There are some capacity also for wind energy in Latvia, and co-generation stations based on wood/peat/straw pyrolysis will share larger sector in near future. Nevertheless it is not possible to coverall growing demand for electricity from renewable resources only. Possible solution could be combination of biogas produced from local resources (waste/wood/peat/straw) with fuel cells (PC). The hydrogen from biogas and oxygen from air are burnt in fuel cell to produce electricity. There are different technologies to make hydrogen from biogas by using catalysts. Direct hydrogen generation from water (following the storage and distribution for local PC network) using waste electricity from HEPS (nighttime, flooding seasons) also will give remarkable contribution to the electricity produced from renewable sources. (Authors)

  2. Latvian education's uneasy course / Ben Nimmo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nimmo, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Läti Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi andmetel õppis 2004.-2005. õppeaastal 55 protsenti Läti üliõpilastest ärinduse, õiguse ja majandusega seotud erialasid. Haridusministeeriumi kõrghariduse osakonna juhataja Janis Cakste ja Läti Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja tegevdirektor Janis Leja annavad ülevaate sellise olukorra põhjustest ning selgitavad insenerierialade populariseerimise vajadust

  3. The Latvian Armed Forces today / Raimonds Graube

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graube, Raimonds

    1999-01-01

    Ülevaade Läti kaitsevägede olukorrast, eesmärkidest, rahvusvahelisest koostööst ja valmistumisest liitumiseks NATO-ga. Tabelid: Läti kaitsejõudude planeerimise süsteem, käsuliinid, kaitsejõudude struktuur rahu- ja sõjaajal. Raimonds Graube biograafia

  4. Latvian president addresses unfair spending rumors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi sõnul on oluline läbipaistev kommunikatsioon valitsuse ja riigi elanike vahel, et vältida valeinformatsiooni tekkimist Läti majandusliku olukorra kohta. Samuti peab Läti pingutama, et võtta 2012. aastal kasutusele euro

  5. Latvian free press dying off / Kira Savchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savchenko, Kira

    2010-01-01

    Läti päevalehe Diena toimetajateks said poliitilise taustaga Sergejs Ancupovis ja Dzintara Zaluksnis. Päevalehe endised töötajad leiavad, et seoses sellega muutub lehe sisu ning see mõjutab ka ajakirjandusvabadust Lätis

  6. Russian rail chief muses Latvian transit potential

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa Raudtee juhi sõnul kavatseb Venemaa järgmisel aastal tasakaalustada raudteevedude tariife, mis praegu diskrimineerivad Baltimaade sadamaid. Venemaa Raudtee ja Läti Raudtee on loomas strateegilist partnerlust

  7. EC suspicious of Latvian audit results

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Alates 1. novembrist 2010 ei ole Läti Euroopa Liidu Solidaarsusfondist finantseerimist saanud, kuigi selle abil läbiviidavad projektid pole peatatud, kuna see oli riigi otsus. Finantseerimine peaks taastuma juunis, kui Euroopa Komisjoniga lepitakse riigi rahanduse juhtimis- ja järelevalveprogrammis kokku

  8. Latvians awarded with Cross of Liberty

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves avas 12. novembril 2011 Eesti sõjameeste mälestuskirikus Toris mälestustahvli 50 Läti kodanikule, keda Eesti Vabariik on koostöö eest Vabadussõjas austanud Vabadusristi aumärgiga

  9. Viscosity and Plasticity of Latvian Illite Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgelāne, I; Vecstaudža, J; Stepanova, V; Mālers, J; Bērziņa-Cimdiņa, L

    2012-01-01

    Due to viscosity and plasticity, clays and clay minerals are used in civil engineering, pottery and also in cosmetics and medicine as thickening agents and emulsion and suspension stabilizers. The rheological properties of clay suspensions are complex. Mostly it is an interaction between mineral composition, clay particle size and pH value and also depends on clay minerals. Clay-water suspension is non-Newtonian fluid showing thixotropic and pseudoplastic properties. Results showed that plast...

  10. Phenotypic and familial associations between childhood maltreatment and cannabis initiation and problems in young adult European-American and African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Julia D; Agrawal, Arpana; Werner, Kimberly B; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for cannabis initiation and problem use, but the extent to which this association is attributable to shared familial influences is unknown. We estimate the magnitude of associations between childhood maltreatment, timing of cannabis initiation, and cannabis-related problems, in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women, and parse the relative influence of additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and individual-specific environmental (E) factors on these constructs and their covariation. Data were from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.6% AA) in a population-based study of female twins. Logistic regression analyses and twin modeling were used to test for associations, and estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences to childhood maltreatment and cannabis outcomes and their covariation. Maltreatment was significantly associated with increased likelihood of cannabis initiation before age 15 among EAs (OR=6.33) and AAs (OR=3.93), but with increased likelihood of later initiation among EAs only (OR=1.68). Maltreatment was associated with cannabis problems among both groups (EA OR=2.32; AA OR=2.03). Among EA women, the covariation between maltreatment and cannabis outcomes was primarily attributable to familial environment (rC=0.67-0.70); among AAs, only individual-specific environment contributed (rE=0.37-0.40). Childhood maltreatment is a major contributor to early initiation of cannabis as well as progression to cannabis problems in both AA and EA women. Distinctions by race/ethnicity are not in the relative contribution of genetic factors, but rather in the type of environmental influences that contribute to stages of cannabis involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intuitive Mathematical Knowledge as an Essential Aspect of Contemporary Adult Learning: A case of women street vendors in the city of Gaborone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nthogo Lekoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The findings of a phenomenological interview study with women street vendors showed a strong link between participants’ perceptions of everyday use of mathematical literacy and the speculations that mathematical use arose spontaneously in response to a practical need. The concept of intuitive mathematics as used indicates that mathematical thinking is an indispensable element of everyday conversation. Although the study finds that intuition and spontaneity are essential principles of lifelong learning, it concludes with recommendations for an empowerment curriculum that interweaves participants’ experiences and intuition with formal/academic mathematical literacy and psychosocial skills necessary for success in a highly competitive business world.

  12. Association of the weekly practice of guided physical activity with the reduction of falls and symptoms of fibromyalgia in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Latorre-Román, Pedro A; Gutierrez-López, María de la Cabeza; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Martínez-López, Emilio J

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of weekly physical activity on the risk of falls and the impact of fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms on daily function in Spanish women. Fibromyalgia is a common widespread pain condition that has been linked to an increased risk of falling and a low amount of guided physical activity, defined as regular participation in moderate-intensity exercise. Before the development of fall-risk reduction interventions, it is essential to understand the context of falls and fall-related experiences in patients with FM. Ours was a descriptive longitudinal study, wherein 140 women participated, all aged 28-73 years and belonging to AFIXA (Asociación Provincial de Fibromialgia y Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica), the Fibromyalgia Association of Jaén (Andalusia, Spain). The study took place during 2013; data were collected through fall diaries, interviews, and questionnaires. Results showed that weekly physical activity can explain up to 12% of the variance in the fear of falling and 18% of the number of falls per year in patients with FM. However, the weekly physical activity prediction against the perceived impact of FM yielded R values below 10% in the 3 factors and in the total score of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-R). Inactive women were proven to have a significantly higher number of falls per year than active ones (1.86 ± 1.46 vs. 0.69 ± 0.43, p 0.05). In addition, physically active women had a significantly lower intensity in the symptoms of their condition (FIQ-R symptoms: 30.87 ± 8.58 vs. 34.78 ± 7.58 arbitrary units [a.u.], p = 0.014), and lower scores in the total score of the FIQ-R (54.33 ± 21.50 vs. 65.19 ± 19.27 a.u., p = 0.004). Results show that, with at least 1 hour per session of guided physical activity, a higher weekly number of sessions reduced the fear of falling in patients with FM and the total number of falls per year, and is associated with less severe symptoms (FIQ-R3).

  13. Padrões alimentares de mulheres adultas residentes em área urbana no sul do Brasil Dietary patterns of adult women living in an urban area of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Sant'Anna Alves

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar a existência de padrões alimentares em mulheres adultas e fornecer dados para validação do instrumento utilizado. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra representativa de 1.026 mulheres adultas (20 a 60 anos de idade, residentes na região do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Rio Grande do Sul, 2003. O instrumento utilizado para explorar os padrões alimentares foi o Questionário de Freqüência Alimentar, constituído de 70 itens. Para a identificação dos padrões alimentares utilizou-se a análise fatorial de componentes principais. RESULTADOS: O índice de confiança da análise fatorial foi verificado por meio do determinante da matriz de correlação (6,28-4, da medida de adequação amostral (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin=0,823 e do teste de esfericidade de Bartlett (chi²(1225=7406,39; pOBJECTIVE: To explore the dietary patterns of adult women and to provide information for validating the instrument used. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sampling of 1,026 women aged 20 to 60 years living in Southeastern Brazil, in 2003. A 70-item food frequency questionnaire was used to measure food intake. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. RESULTS: The reliability of factor analysis was assessed through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin statistic, that was equal to 0.823, the Bartlett test of sphericity, which reached statistical significance (chi²(1225=7406.39; p<0.001, and the determinant of the correlation matrix (6,28-4. Five dietary patterns were identified, each one consisting of 10 items (foods, which were grouped as healthy food pattern cost 1, healthy food pattern cost 2, healthy food pattern cost 3, risk food pattern cost 1 and risk food pattern cost 3. CONCLUSIONS: There were identified five dietary patterns among adult women. There was a clear difference in terms of the cost of these patterns. These findings suggest that cost may be one of

  14. Comparison of Very Low Energy Diet Products Available in Australia and How to Tailor Them to Optimise Protein Content for Younger and Older Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A. Gibson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Very low energy diets (VLED are efficacious in inducing rapid weight loss but may not contain adequate macronutrients or micronutrients for individuals with varying nutritional requirements. Adequate protein intake during weight loss appears particularly important to help preserve fat free mass and control appetite, and low energy and carbohydrate content also contributes to appetite control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional content (with a focus on protein, nutritional adequacy and cost of all commercially-available VLED brands in Australia. Nutritional content and cost were extracted and compared between brands and to the Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI or adequate intake (AI of macronutrients and micronutrients for men and women aged 19–70 years or >70 years. There was wide variability in the nutritional content, nutritional adequacy and cost of VLED brands. Most notably, even brands with the highest daily protein content, based on consuming three products/day (KicStart™ and Optislim®, ~60 g/day, only met estimated protein requirements of the smallest and youngest women for whom a VLED would be indicated. Considering multiple options to optimise protein content, we propose that adding pure powdered protein is the most suitable option because it minimizes additional energy, carbohydrate and cost of VLEDs.

  15. Childhood sexual abuse: long-term effects on psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, E; Leitenberg, H; Cado, S; Tarran, M J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the experience of childhood sexual abuse is related to long-term psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent community sample of women. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,500 nurses and returned anonymously. Fifty-four women who had been sexually abused as children (age 15 or younger) responded. These subjects were then matched with 54 nonabused control subjects. Although there was no difference on a measure of self-esteem, the abused group reported more symptoms of distress on the Global Severity Index and on seven out of nine subscales of the Derogatis Brief Symptom Inventory. They also reported more disturbance on a scale which examined psychological symptoms that have been commonly reported in the literature to be particularly associated with sexual abuse. These differences between the abused and nonabused groups were evident even after controlling for differences in subjects' perceptions of parental emotional support. Unlike the results for psychological adjustment, however, the abused subjects did not differ from the control subjects on self-reported levels of sexual satisfaction or sexual dysfunction.

  16. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  17. Group A Streptococcus vulvovaginitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Lacy, Judith; Hillard, Paula A

    2008-08-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus-associated vulvovaginitis is uncommon in adult women. Clinicians should include group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus as a possible cause of vulvovaginal symptoms in breastfeeding women. Along with appropriate antibiotic therapy, vaginal estrogen therapy may be considered to diminish susceptibility to recurrent infection in women with vaginal atrophy.

  18. Characteristics of TCM constitutions of adult Chinese women in Hong Kong and identification of related influencing factors: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youzhi; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Yi; Jia, Lei; He, Yanhua; Xue, Steve An; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Chen, Jianping

    2014-05-21

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) refers to an integrated, metastable and natural specialty of individual in morphosis, physiological functions and psychological conditions. It is formed on the basis of innate and acquired endowments in the human life process, which can be divided into normal constitution and unbalanced ones. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of TCMCs of Chinese women in Hong Kong and its acquired influencing factors. Local Chinese women between 30 to 65 years old, were recruited from 18 districts of Hong Kong (n=944), and were assessed using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Physical Constitution Scale for their TCMC types. Social-demographic, reproductive, lifestyle, systemic health and emotional status information were collected through structured questionnaire. The associations between different independent factors and each TCMC type, as well as the complex unbalanced TCMC types were tested individually. Significant factors related to unbalanced TCMC types were identified in final models using multiple factor analysis. A total of 764 (80.9%) participants were diagnosed with unbalanced TCMCs. The most common TCMC type was Qi-deficiency constitution (53.9%), followed by Phlegm-wetness (38.9%), Yang-deficiency (38.2%), Yin-deficiency (35.5), Blood-stasis (35.4) and Qi-depressed (31%) constitution. Six hundred and eleven participants (64.7%) had at least two types of combined and unbalanced constitutions. Stepwise logistic analysis indicated that poor systemic health condition (OR, 1.76-2.89), negative emotions (OR=1.39), overweight (OR=1.58), high educational level (OR=1.18) and mental work (OR=1.44) were significantly positively correlated with certain unbalanced TCMCs. Meanwhile, aging (OR, 0.59-0.73), exercise habit (OR, 0.61-0.79) and reproductive history (OR=0.72) showed inverse associations with unbalanced constitutions. In addition, systemic health condition and emotional status, exercise habit and age

  19. Impact of daily consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels (Cucurbita pepo) on serum iron in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency, anemia, is the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world today. The objective of this study was to consider the effectiveness of consumption of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal and pumpkin seed kernels as two sources of dietary iron on status of iron nutrition and response of hematological characteristics of women at reproductive ages. Eight healthy female, single or non pregnant subjects, aged 20-37 y consumed 30 g of iron fortified ready-to-eat cereal (providing 7.1 mg iron/day) plus 30 g of pumpkin seed kernels (providing 4.0 mg iron/day) for four weeks. Blood samples collected on the day 20 of menstrual cycles before and after consumption and indices of iron status such as reticulocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), serum ferritin, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin and transferrin saturation percent were determined. Better response for iron status was observed after consumption period. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the pre and post consumption phase for higher serum iron (60 +/- 22 vs. 85 +/- 23 ug/dl), higher transferrin saturation percent (16.8 +/- 8.0 vs. 25.6 +/- 9.0%), and lower TIBC (367 +/- 31 vs. 339 +/- 31 ug/dl). All individuals had higher serum iron after consumption. A significant positive correlation (r=0.981, p=0.000) between the differences in serum iron levels and differences in transferrin saturation percentages and a significant negative correlation (r=-0.916, pfoods contribute to maintaining optimal nutritional status and minimizing the likelihood of iron insufficiencies and use of fortified ready-to-eat cereals is a common strategy. The results showed that adding another food source of iron such as pumpkin seed kernels improves the iron status. Additional and longer studies using these two food products are recommended to further determine the effect of iron fortification on iron nutrition and status among the target population, and mainly in young

  20. A cross-sectional examination of non-suicidal self-injury, disordered eating, impulsivity, and compulsivity in a sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emma B; Mildred, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury has been classed as having both impulsive and compulsive characteristics (Simeon & Favazza, 2001). These constructs have been related to disordered eating behaviors such as vomiting (Favaro & Santonastaso, 1998). Utilizing an international sample of adult females, this paper further explored this model, aiming to identify whether all types of disordered eating could be classified as impulsive or compulsive, and whether the impulsive and compulsive groupings reflect underlying trait impulsivity and compulsivity. The hypothesized impulsive and compulsive dimensions did not emerge from the data. Notably however, all self-injurious and disordered eating behaviors were linked to Urgency (an impulsivity facet) to varying degrees; no relationship with trait compulsivity was found. These findings are discussed, study limitations are noted, and relevance for clinical practice is outlined.

  1. Gene Expression and DNA Methylation of PPARGC1A in Muscle and Adipose Tissue From Adult Offspring of Women With Diabetes in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Hjort, Line; Houshmand-Øregaard, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    ) and of women from the background population (O-BP) using a clinical examination, oral glucose tolerance test, and gene expression and DNA methylation of PPARGC1A in skeletal muscle and SAT. Plasma glucose was significantly higher for both O-GDM and O-T1D compared with O-BP (P expression...... in muscle was lower in O-GDM compared with O-BP (P = 0.0003), whereas no differences were found between O-T1D and O-BP in either tissue. PPARGC1A DNA methylation percentages in muscle and SAT were similar among all groups. Decreased PPARGC1A gene expression in muscle has previously been associated...... with abnormal insulin function and may thus contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disease in O-GDM. The unaltered PPARGC1A gene expression in muscle of O-T1D suggests that factors other than intrauterine hyperglycemia may contribute to the decreased PPARGC1A expression in O-GDM....

  2. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Ma, Haijing; Hu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver's sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  3. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  4. Almond Consumption and Processing Affects the Composition of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Healthy Adult Men and Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah D. Holscher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Almond processing has been shown to differentially impact metabolizable energy; however, the effect of food form on the gastrointestinal microbiota is under-investigated. Objective: We aimed to assess the interrelationship of almond consumption and processing on the gastrointestinal microbiota. Design: A controlled-feeding, randomized, five-period, crossover study with washouts between diet periods was conducted in healthy adults (n = 18. Treatments included: (1 zero servings/day of almonds (control; (2 1.5 servings (42 g/day of whole almonds; (3 1.5 servings/day of whole, roasted almonds; (4 1.5 servings/day of roasted, chopped almonds; and (5 1.5 servings/day of almond butter. Fecal samples were collected at the end of each three-week diet period. Results: Almond consumption increased the relative abundances of Lachnospira, Roseburia, and Dialister (p ≤ 0.05. Comparisons between control and the four almond treatments revealed that chopped almonds increased Lachnospira, Roseburia, and Oscillospira compared to control (p < 0.05, while whole almonds increased Dialister compared to control (p = 0.007. There were no differences between almond butter and control. Conclusions: These results reveal that almond consumption induced changes in the microbial community composition of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. Furthermore, the degree of almond processing (e.g., roasting, chopping, and grinding into butter differentially impacted the relative abundances of bacterial genera.

  5. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial to Study the Impact of a Nutrition-Sensitive Intervention on Adult Women With Cancer Cachexia Undergoing Palliative Care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Neha; Naufahu, Jane; Tewfik, Sundus; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Garg, Rakesh; Tewfik, Ihab

    2017-03-01

    Advanced cancer patients with disease progression develop cachexia. Nevertheless, cancer patients at nutritional risk have shown improved body weight and quality of life with oral nutritional supplements. This was a randomized controlled trial in adult female cancer patients (n = 63) attending palliative clinics, with symptoms of cachexia. Eligible patients were randomly distributed into control (n = 33) and intervention (n = 30) groups. Both groups were provided with nutritional and physical activity counseling, but the intervention group received an additional 100 g of Improved Atta (IAtta) for 6 months daily consumption. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of IAtta (with counseling) in enhancing the health status of cachexic patients. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, physical activity level and quality of life parameters were assessed at baseline, after 3 months, and at the end of 6 months. Patients in the control group (n = 15) had significantly decreased body weight ( P = .003), mid-upper-arm circumference ( P = .002), and body fat ( P = .002) by the end of intervention. A trend of body weight gain in the intervention group (n = 17; P = .08) and significant increase of body fat ( P = .002) was observed; moreover, patients reported a significant improvement in fatigue ( P = .002) and appetite scores ( P = .006) under quality-of-life domains at the end of intervention. Embedding a nutrition-sensitive intervention ( IAtta ) within Indian palliative care therapy may improve quality of life and stabilize body weight in cancer cachexia patients.

  6. [Osteoporosis in premenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitringer, Antje; Pietschmann, P

    2002-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease of bone, which is characterized by decreased bone mass and changes in the microarchitecture of bone tissue followed by brittleness of bones and increased risk of fractures. Osteoporosis frequently is a disease of postmenopausal women, nevertheless, in rare cases, osteoporosis can also occur in young adults. There are only few studies on the pathophysiology of "premenopausal osteoporosis"; in addition to idiopathic forms, osteoporosis in young women can be caused by glucocorticoid treatment, by eating disorders or can be associated with pregnancy.

  7. Hookworm infection and anemia in adult women in rural Chiapas, Mexico Anemia e infección por Necator americanus en mujeres en Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula E. Brentlinger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe associations between anemia and hookworm (Necator americanus infection in hospitalized women in rural Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 68 anemic women (defined as having a hemoglobin level OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre anemia severa e infección con Necator americanus en una población de mujeres hospitalizadas en el estado de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el registro de ingresos del año 1999 de un hospital rural en Altamirano, Chiapas, se identificaron a las pacientes con diagnósticos de egreso de anemia (definida como hemoglobina<10mg/dl y/o parasitosis intestinal. También se revisó el registro de transfusiones para identificar a las mujeres mayores de 14 años de edad que recibieron sangre. La revisión de expedientes y el análisis de datos se llevó a cabo en el año 2000. Las comparaciones de las características de las pacientes se hicieron con la prueba t de Student (para variables continuas y la prueba ji2 (para variables categóricas. La significancia estadística se estableció con un valor de p< 0.01. RESULTADOS: En las mujeres en quienes se realizó examen coproscópico, 50% tuvieron N. americanus. La presencia de N. americanus no excluyó la presencia de otro factor de riesgo para anemia, por ejemplo embarazo o hemorragia. Los niveles de hemoglobina de las mujeres infectadas con N. americanus fueron significativamente más bajos (promedio 4.1 g/dl que los de las demás mujeres anémicas (promedio 7.0 gm/dl, y la prevalencia de N. americanus en mujeres anémicas fue más alta (50.0% que en la población atendida por el hospital (1.9%. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque la prevalencia de infección con N. americanus no se considera alta en la población general mexicana, fue importante en las mujeres anémicas que se sometieron a coproscopía en nuestro estudio. Las mujeres anémicas ameritan coproscopía donde existe N. americanus, y pueden

  8. On the potential for iatrogenic effects of psychiatric crisis services: The example of dialectical behavior therapy for adult women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Trevor N; Shaver, Jennifer A; Linehan, Marsha M

    2018-02-01

    Although previous research has suggested that people with a history of using psychiatric crisis services are at higher risk for suicide, it is unclear whether this link is attributable to individual risk factors or iatrogenic effects of service utilization. We examined this question by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a treatment for highly suicidal individuals in which patients took advantage of crisis services less than those in the comparison condition. We hypothesized that crisis-service utilization during a treatment year, rather than pretreatment indicators of suicide risk, would be associated with higher suicide risk after treatment, and that DBT's treatment effects would be partially attributable to this association. Participants were 101 women (Mage = 29.3, 87% Caucasian) with recent suicidal and self-injurious behaviors meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) criteria for borderline personality disorder. We examined relationships between suicidal ideation (using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire; Linehan, 1981), number of suicide attempts (using the Suicide Attempt Self-Injury Interview; Linehan, Comtois, Brown, Heard, & Wagner, 2006), and number of psychiatric inpatient admissions and psychiatric emergency-room (ER) visits (using the Treatment History Interview; Linehan & Heard, 1987) from the years prior to, during, and following treatment. Treatment-year psychiatric ER visits were the sole predictor of the number of follow-up year suicide attempts. Treatment condition and pretreatment inpatient admissions predicted treatment-year psychiatric ER visits. Finally, there was evidence that DBT resulted in fewer suicide attempts at follow-up, in part because getting DBT led to fewer psychiatric ER visits. In this population and context, data suggest that crisis-service utilization conveys risk for suicide. DBT may

  9. Acne in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-e-Silva, M; Ramos-e-Silva, S; Carneiro, S

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the subject of acne in women, a disease that is increasingly common and that can also affect men. Adult acne differs from the type of acne that occurs in teenagers, and it may persist beyond adolescence or have its onset at an older age (adult-onset acne or late acne). Acne can have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients at any age, leading to a negative body image and decrease in self-esteem, and in older patients it can result in discrimination in the workplace and in other social environments. Acne in women must be understood as a specific problem, and here we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, psychology and treatment of this very prevalent problem. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  11. Women's cardiovascular health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Patel, Anushka A

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death among adult women in many parts of India and a major cause of morbidity. In some parts of the world, gender inequities have been observed in cardiovascular healthcare and cardiovascular outcomes. The authors discuss the data for potential disparities in cardiovascular healthcare for women in India. Data on cardiovascular healthcare provision and CVD outcomes among women in India are generally lacking. The little available data suggest that women in rural areas, younger women and girl children with CVD are less likely to receive appropriate management than men, with this disparity most apparent in those of lower socioeconomic status and education. However, there is a particular lack of information about the prevention and management of atherosclerotic heart disease in women from a range of communities that comprise the extremely diverse population of India.

  12. Comparison of Sex-Role Orientation and Personality Variables in Traditional Women and College Re-Entry Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Norma F.

    Studies have indicated that mature women maintain a permanent role identity along two dimensions, i.e., traditional women or nontraditional women. However, the lifeset of many mature adult women may be on the continuum between these two positions, i.e., in the position of "deferred achiever." The personality variables and sex-role orientations of…

  13. Comparison of a Full Food-Frequency Questionnaire with the Three-Day Unweighted Food Records in Young Polish Adult Women: Implications for Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Slowinska, Malgorzata A.; Slowinski, Dariusz; Dlugosz, Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa; Wadolowska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21–26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: −29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: −36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the

  14. Women's series: by women, for women?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuitert, L.; Spiers, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the striking phenomena in the 19th century publishing history is the abundant publication of publisher''s series. This contribution concerns series specifically meant for women. The focus is on Dutch literary series for women, mostly 19th century.

  15. The Electronic Historical Latvian Dictionary Based on the Corpus of Early Written Latvian Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everita Andronova

    2016-12-01

    Główny nacisk położono na opis haseł słownikowych, zawierający istotne uwagi praktyczne i teoretyczne. Omówiono poszczególne części hasła słownikowego, po czym umieszczono komentarz odnoszący się do różnych kwestii związanych z daną częścią (np. wybór hasła wyrazowego i przedstawienia wersji pisowni i do przyję­tych rozwiązań. Szczególną uwagę poświęcono główce hasła, objaśnieniu znaczenia wynikającego z przykładów występujacych w korpusie, różnym rodzajom kolokacji i ich przedstawieniu w słowniku, jak też informacjom etymologicznym. Na końcu zamieszczono zwięzły przegląd oprogramowania słownikowego TLex 2013, oparty na doświadczeniu autorów, zdobytym podczas pracy z tym narzędziem.

  16. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing......This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...

  17. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contaminate. For example, after cutting meat, wash the knife before using it to cut vegetables. COOK: Cook ... Adults Men and Women Moms/ Moms-to-Be Making Healthy Choices in Each Food Group MyPlate Plan ...

  18. Childhood maternal care is associated with DNA methylation of the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in peripheral blood cells in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unternaehrer, Eva; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Burkhardt, Susan C A; Dempster, Emma; Staehli, Simon; Theill, Nathan; Lieb, Roselind; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    In adults, reporting low and high maternal care in childhood, we compared DNA methylation in two stress-associated genes (two target sequences in the oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR; one in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, BDNF) in peripheral whole blood, in a cross-sectional study (University of Basel, Switzerland) during 2007-2008. We recruited 89 participants scoring  33 (n = 42, 35 women) on the maternal care subscale of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) at a previous assessment of a larger group (N = 709, range PBI maternal care = 0-36, age range = 19-66 years; median 24 years). 85 participants gave blood for DNA methylation analyses (Sequenom(R) EpiTYPER, San Diego, CA) and cell count (Sysmex PocH-100i™, Kobe, Japan). Mixed model statistical analysis showed greater DNA methylation in the low versus high maternal care group, in the BDNF target sequence [Likelihood-Ratio (1) = 4.47; p = 0.035] and in one OXTR target sequence Likelihood-Ratio (1) = 4.33; p = 0.037], but not the second OXTR target sequence [Likelihood-Ratio (1) BDNF (estimate = -0.005, 95% CI = -0.025 to 0.015; p = 0.626) or OXTR DNA methylation (estimate = -0.015, 95% CI = -0.038 to 0.008; p = 0.192). Hence, low maternal care in childhood was associated with greater DNA methylation in an OXTR and a BDNF target sequence in blood cells in adulthood. Although the study has limitations (cross-sectional, a wide age range, only three target sequences in two genes studied, small effects, uncertain relevance of changes in blood cells to gene methylation in brain), the findings may indicate components of the epiphenotype from early life stress.

  19. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Carvalheira, Ana; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2017-01-01

    with their bodies than men, particularly in sexual contexts, older women appear to be less vulnerable to body-related dissatisfaction than younger women. Despite the age-specific dynamics of sexual satisfaction and sexual well-being, which parallel age-related decrease in the frequency of sexual activity, research...... findings from different countries show that substantial proportions of aging men and women are satisfied with their sex life. There is some limited evidence that this proportion may be increasing across cohorts. Gender differences in factors that influence sexual satisfaction among older adults appear...... marginal. Conclusion: Older age can affect sexual satisfaction on individual, interpersonal, and culture-related levels. Future research in older adults' sexuality should focus on sexual well-being in women who are without partners, sexual satisfaction among aging lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender...

  20. Caracterização fenotípica de leveduras isoladas da mucosa vaginal em mulheres adultas Phenotypic characterization of yeasts isolated from the vaginal mucosa of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula dos Reis Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    , Candida tropicalis, e Candida guillermondii, o que pode ser explicado pelo uso inadequado de medicamentos e tratamento empírico.PURPOSE: to characterize, phenotypically, yeasts isolated from the vaginal content of 223 symptomatic (S and asymptomatic (A adult women with vulvovaginitis, and to determine the clinical indicators which may lead to the appearance of signs and symptoms related to the mucosa involvement by this pathology. METHODS: a questionnaire with open and closed questions on epidemiological clinical data was applied initially. Then, mycological diagnosis with sowing in Chrom Agar Candida was done, followed by micro-morphological and biochemical identification. Specific methods for the detection of the virulence factors, proteinase and phospholipase were employed. Statistical analysis was performed through χ2 and Pearson's χ2 tests. RESULTS: the most prevalent species found was Candida albicans (87%, S and 67%, A followed by Candida glabrata (4%, S e 17% A. The number of women reporting the use of contraceptives was higher among the symptomatic, 77%. In the two groups studied, about 87% of the women presented regular menstrual cycles and 57% were married with ages between 30 to 40 years old. Concerning the sexual practices, there has been concomitance among anal, oral and vaginal habits from the patients. Only Candida albicans produced the virulence factor phospholipase in 37.5% of them. Proteinase has been detected in Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. This latter virulence factor was mainly associated to isolates from symptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: it is a fact that the vaginal mucosa can be colonized and infected by yeasts, with several Candida species present. Nevertheless, Candida albicans is the most prevalent in the vaginal mucosa of adult women. It is evident the emergence of non-albicans Candida species, some of them with intrinsic resistance to azolics, such as Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida

  1. Women and poverty: a demographic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J B

    1987-01-01

    In the current debate about causes and cures for poverty, much attention is given to women. Women are more likely than men to be poor, and once impoverished, to remain poor for longer periods of time than do men. In addition, a much greater responsibility for raising the next generation of adults belongs to poor women than to poor men. No individual policy response will alleviate poverty among women. Rather, a multi-faceted policy response that recognizes the wide diversity of their situations is necessary. This paper describes the diversity among poor women and suggests a series of appropriate policies.

  2. Adult Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents For Adolescents For Adults Scoliosis Kyphosis Spondylolysis Other Spine Deformities & Conditions Conditions of the Aging ... For Parents For Adolescents For Adults Scoliosis Kyphosis Spondylolysis Other Spine Deformities & Conditions Conditions of the Aging ...

  3. Empowering Women

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note addresses practices for reducing gender inequalities and for empowering women to make a positive contribution to development through agricultural investments. Women make a crucial contribution to the agriculture sector and account for over 40 percent of agricultural labor in developing countries. However, they are frequently marginalized and their contributions under-acknowledged...

  4. Women's studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    On March 31, 1997, the Association for Women Geoscientists will award two Chrysalis Scholarships to women who have returned to school after an interruption in their education for a year or longer. The $750 awards will be given to geoscience master's or Ph.D. candidates to cover expenses in finishing their theses.The application deadline is February 28, 1997.

  5. Adult medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rege S.V.; Patil Harshad; Narayan Sharadendu

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from the cerebellum. It is the most common primary malignant intracranial childhood neoplasm. In adults, medulloblastoma are much less common, accounting for < 1% of all adult brain tumors. Herein, author has described a rare case of cerebellar medulloblastoma in adult.

  6. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  7. Prevalência de sintomas urinários e fatores obstétricos associados em mulheres adultas Prevalence of urinary symptoms and associated obstetric factors in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Dellú

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A incontinência urinária é doença com alta prevalência na população feminina e possui destacadas repercussões físicas, mentais e sociais. OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de sintomas urinários característicos de incontinência urinária associado aos fatores obstétricos. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico transversal em que foram investigadas 194 mulheres adultas, funcionárias da Universidade do Vale do Paraíba, que responderam questões do King's Health Questionnaire. Os sintomas urinários foram relacionados à história obstétrica e analisados pelo teste t de Student não-pareado e pelo teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas urinários foi de 54,3%, sendo maior para incontinência urinária por esforço (55,7%, seguida por nictúria (27,8%, urgência (24,1%, polaciúria (16,7% e enurese noturna (10,2%. Mulheres que engravidaram pelo menos uma vez tiveram 1,75 vezes mais chance de desenvolver os sintomas comparadas as nulíparas, sendo significativo para duas gestações ou mais (p=0,009. Dois partos ou mais aumentaram o risco em 1,57 vezes, independente da via (p=0,019. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de sintomas urinários foi alta e estes estão associados a fatores obstétricos, mostrando-se proporcionalmente maior de acordo com o número de gestações e partos.BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is a disease with high prevalence among the female population and it has important physical, mental and social repercussions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of characteristic urinary symptoms of urinary incontinence and the obstetric factors associated with them. METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study in which 194 adult women employed at the Universidade do Vale do Paraíba were investigated. They answered questions from the King's Health Questionnaire. Urinary symptoms were linked to the obstetric history and analyzed by unpaired Student's t test and by Fisher's exact test

  8. Gender and the Curriculum of Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Sue

    1992-01-01

    The perspectives of four feminist discourses (liberal, radical, Marxist, and socialist) analyze the role of adult education curriculum in reinforcing gender relations. The transformation of gender relations requires a combination of radical strategies such as women-centered, women-only methodology and the theoretical framework of the…

  9. Comparative Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity Of Rural Women In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From each of the 12 villages, 10 rural women were randomly selected from list of registered rural women farmers provided by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) using simple random sampling ... Results indicate that most of the women are young adult of less than or thirty years of age with high literacy level.

  10. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  11. Adolescent Family Context and Adult Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the links between adolescent family context and coming to see oneself as an adult. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors investigate how adolescent family structure, resources, and processes together influence adult identity and whether they do so similarly for men and women. The…

  12. People's Empowerment and Adult Literacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, P. Vasantha

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of data from 1,600 adult participants in Total Literacy Campaigns in India shows how adult acquisition of literacy skills improves their health habits, increases their participation in business startups and voting, and gives them higher aspirations for their children. Children have better enrollment and health status. Women improve their…

  13. Using Transformative Learning as a Framework to Explore Women and Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, Dina

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative narrative inquiry explored women's self-perceptions changed through regular participation in running. Transformative learning theory was considered as a possible explanation for the learning and changes adult women experienced. In-depth interviews of 11 adult women who have been running between 1 to 4 years were conducted. Based…

  14. Voices of Their Own: A Story of the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Kimberly A.

    1992-01-01

    The little known Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers in the 1920s is an example of the marginalization of women in adult education. Its story, focusing on women as adult students and as makers of social change, enriches the history of the field. (SK)

  15. A Comparison of Responses on the Attitudes toward Women Scale and Attitudes toward Feminism Scale: Is There a Difference between College-Age and Later-Life Adults with the Original Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Zinta S.; Felker, Sydney; Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Rickard, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Responses from college-age students and those 50 years and older were compared using the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Attitudes Toward Feminism Scale. Results from a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed groups differed on each scale, suggesting unidimensional scales no longer represent attitudes toward women or feminism.…

  16. Race, Gender, and Critique: African-American Women, White Women, and Domestic Violence in the 1980s and 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on young adult working class and poor African American women and white women, who currently live in a largely inhospitable economy, this paper examines where these women lodge social critique (where they place the cause and imagine the remedy for their troubles). Data from indepth interviews indicate that respondents see the world with a…

  17. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  18. Women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nurse midwives This list may not be all-inclusive. References Freund K. Approach to women's health. In: ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  19. women's entrepreneurship

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-17

    May 17, 2016 ... It describes the economic benefits to women's economic empowerment, .... Public procurement makes up a significant proportion of a ...... vides a comparison of cost effectiveness of programs), Cho and Honorati (2013),.

  20. Leibniz's women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten.

  1. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  2. Maladaptive coping in adults who have experienced early parental loss and grief counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Beverley Lim; Appel, Charlotte W.; von Heymann-Horan, Annika B.

    2017-01-01

    bereaved adults who received grief counseling (N = 822 women, N = 190 men) with bereaved controls who had not (N = 233 women, N = 66 men). Bereaved adults reported significantly more substance use, behavioral disengagement, and emotional eating than non-bereaved adults. Counseling participants reported...

  3. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  4. Women in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  5. Beliefs and motives related to eating and body size: a comparison of high-BMI and normal-weight young adult women from rural and urban areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Caamaño

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment and prevention of obesity and its co-morbidities requires the recognition and understanding of cultural and social aspects of eating practices. The objective of the present study was to identify social factors and beliefs that may explain undesirable eating practices among women with high body mass index (HBMI compared with normal-weight (NW women from rural and urban areas classified as middle-low socioeconomic status (SES in the State of Querétaro, Mexico. Methods A qualitative technique with individual in-depth interviews was used. Fifty-five women with either NW or HBMI from rural and urban areas participated in the study. The responses were analyzed by coding and grouping text fragments into categories in a data matrix, in order to make comparisons between BMI groups and between rural and urban women. Results The habit of skipping breakfast prevailed among women with HBMI who also reported childhood food deprivation. Feelings related to eating seemed to be more important than losing weight among women with HBMI from urban and rural areas. Thus, overweight might be interpreted as a social symbol of the enjoyment of a good life, primarily in rural areas. Overweight was socially accepted when it occurred in children and in married woman, mainly because it is a symbol of the good life that the head of the household provides, and also because women may feel more relaxed about their weight when they already have a partner. The study also revealed that women with HBMI were not sufficiently motivated to lose weight unless they experience a physical indication of poor health. Conclusion The findings from this study are helpful in the understanding of the reasons why strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity may not be as effective as expected. The belief system of particular social groups within different SESs should be considered in order to understand the etiology of obesity and develop

  6. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannel