WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult host present-day

  1. Epidemiological studies of the developmental origins of adult health and disease in Japan: a pediatric perspective in present day Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-10-01

    The origins of adult disease are considered to relate to fetal undernutrition, and this concept is termed "developmental origins of adult health and disease" (DOHaD). Here, we describe several epidemiological studies performed in Japan and discuss whether DOHaD is applicable to children in present day Japan. In a study of healthy children and young adults, it was found that systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and adiponectin were associated with birth weight. Hyperinsulinemia, high blood pressure, elevated transaminase levels and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese children were inversely correlated with birth weight and positively correlated with current weight and waist circumference. Birth weight was related to the development of type 2 diabetes in children. DOHaD is therefore considered to be applicable in Japan. The key considerations of DOHaD are the following two mismatches. The first mismatch pertains to growth and development in response to environmental influences, especially those of nutrition. The second mismatch pertains to the prenatal versus postnatal environment. We consider that the chance of children in present day Japan developing adult diseases is determined by the above mismatches. Pediatricians and schoolteachers should therefore understand the concept of DOHaD, so that they can educate both children and their families regarding an appropriate diet to reduce the likelihood of developing adult diseases in later life.

  2. History Making and Present Day Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2008-01-01

    Review of History Making and Present Day Politics: The meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa, by Hans Erik Stolten (ed.). Uppsala: The Nordic Africa Institute, 2007; pp. 376.......Review of History Making and Present Day Politics: The meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa, by Hans Erik Stolten (ed.). Uppsala: The Nordic Africa Institute, 2007; pp. 376....

  3. Present-day irrigation mitigates heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, David M.; Hirsch, Annette L.; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. An evaluation of the model performance reveals that irrigation has a small yet overall beneficial effect on the representation of present-day near-surface climate. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Our results underline that irrigation has substantially reduced our exposure to hot temperature extremes in the past and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  4. Present-Day Key Roles In Nursing Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bergman

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Present-day nursing administration has many goals, roles and functions. Predominant among the roles are those of: programme planner, manager of material resources, manager of human resources, educator, clinician and researcher. These and other roles relate to clients, colleagues, the agency, the community and the profession. The roles are not discrete, but overlap and intertwine with each other and with the roles of other care providers.

  5. A new present-day velocity field for eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpersdorf, A.; Tavakoli, F.; Hatzfeld, D.; Jadidi, A.; Vergnolle, M.; Djamour, Y.; Nankali, H. R.; Sedighi, M.; Bellier, O.; Shabanian, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2004, extensive GPS campaigns and the upcoming Iranian permanent GPS network are monitoring the present-day deformation in eastern Iran. We present a new GPS velocity field that extends from Central Iran to the Turkmen shield and the Hellmand block on the Eurasian plate. It permits to monitor the right lateral shear across the aseismic Lut block between Central Iran and the Hellmand block, and the resulting shortening across the Kopeh Dagh mountain belt limiting NE Iran towards Turkmenistan. The present-day deformation pattern is used to verify existing tectonic models. Individual instantaneous fault slip rates are compared to short term and long term geological estimates. We find that GPS slip rates are generally coherent with short term geologic determinations (from dating of geomorphologic offsets over some 10-100 ka). Some differences with respect to long term estimates (from total geologic fault offsets and onset ages of several Ma) indicate non-constant slip rates over different time scales or that the onset of the present-day deformation presumed to 3-7 Ma in eastern Iran has to be revised.

  6. SPANISH 1992 (S92) corpus-based analysis of present-day Spanish for medical purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Chandler-Burns, R M

    1994-01-01

    S92 research was begun in 1987 to analyze word frequencies in present-day Spanish for making speech pathology evaluation tools. 500 2,000-word samples of children, adolescents and adults' language were input between 1988-1991, calculations done in 1992; statistical and Lewandowski analyses were carried out in 1993.

  7. Present-day heat flow model of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Laura M; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto; Mansilla, Federico; Ruiz, Javier

    2017-04-03

    Until the acquisition of in-situ measurements, the study of the present-day heat flow of Mars must rely on indirect methods, mainly based on the relation between the thermal state of the lithosphere and its mechanical strength, or on theoretical models of internal evolution. Here, we present a first-order global model for the present-day surface heat flow for Mars, based on the radiogenic heat production of the crust and mantle, on scaling of heat flow variations arising from crustal thickness and topography variations, and on the heat flow derived from the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere beneath the North Polar Region. Our preferred model finds heat flows varying between 14 and 25 mW m(-2), with an average value of 19 mW m(-2). Similar results (although about ten percent higher) are obtained if we use heat flow based on the lithospheric strength of the South Polar Region. Moreover, expressing our results in terms of the Urey ratio (the ratio between total internal heat production and total heat loss through the surface), we estimate values close to 0.7-0.75, which indicates a moderate contribution of secular cooling to the heat flow of Mars (consistent with the low heat flow values deduced from lithosphere strength), unless heat-producing elements abundances for Mars are subchondritic.

  8. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Göǧüş, Oǧuz H.

    2016-09-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of `dynamic topography'. 2-D thermomechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along an N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sublithospheric flow driven by the seismically inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myr. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  9. Deep history impacts present-day ecology and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, Laurie J; Pianka, Eric R

    2005-05-31

    Lizards and snakes putatively arose between the early Jurassic and late Triassic; they diversified worldwide and now occupy many different ecological niches, making them ideal for testing theories on the origin of ecological traits. We propose and test the "deep history hypothesis," which claims that differences in ecological traits among species arose early in evolutionary history of major clades, and that present-day assemblages are structured largely because of ancient, preexisting differences. We combine phylogenetic data with ecological data collected over nearly 40 years to reconstruct the evolution of dietary shifts in squamate reptiles. Data on diets of 184 lizard species in 12 families from 4 continents reveal significant dietary shifts at 6 major divergence points, reducing variation by 79.8%. The most striking dietary divergence (27.6%) occurred in the late Triassic, when Iguania and Scleroglossa split. These two clades occupy different regions of dietary niche space. Acquisition of chemical prey discrimination, jaw prehension, and wide foraging provided scleroglossans access to sedentary and hidden prey that are unavailable to iguanians. This cladogenic event may have profoundly influenced subsequent evolutionary history and diversification. We suggest the hypothesis that ancient events in squamate cladogenesis, rather than present-day competition, caused dietary shifts in major clades such that some lizard clades gained access to new resources, which in turn led to much of the biodiversity observed today.

  10. Did European temperatures in 1540 exceed present-day records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Vogel, Martha M.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Pfister, Christian; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-11-01

    There is strong evidence that the year 1540 was exceptionally dry and warm in Central Europe. Here we infer 1540 summer temperatures from the number of dry days (NDDs) in spring (March-May) and summer (June-August) in 1540 derived from historical documentary evidence published elsewhere, and compare our estimates with present-day temperatures. We translate the NDD values into temperature distributions using a linear relationship between modeled temperature and NDD from a 3000 year pre-industrial control simulation with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Our results show medium confidence that summer mean temperatures (T JJA) and maximum temperatures (TXx) in Central Europe in 1540 were warmer than the respective present-day mean summer temperatures (assessed between 1966-2015). The model-based reconstruction suggests further that with a probability of 40%-70%, the highest daily temperatures in 1540 were even warmer than in 2003, while there is at most a 20% probability that the 1540 mean summer temperature was warmer than that of 2003 in Central Europe. As with other state-of-the-art analyses, the uncertainty of the reconstructed 1540 summer weather in this study is considerable, for instance as extrapolation is required because 1540-like events are not captured by the employed Earth system model (ESM), and neither by other ESMs. However, in addition to paleoclimatological approaches we introduce here an independent methodology to estimate 1540 temperatures, and contribute consequently to a reduced overall uncertainty in the analysis of this event. The characterization of such events and the related climate system functioning is particularly relevant in the context of global warming and the corresponding increase of extreme heat wave magnitude and occurrence frequency.

  11. Satellite galaxies around present-day massive ellipticals

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Pablo; Mármol-Queraltó, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Using the spectroscopic and photometric catalogues of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7), we have explored the satellite distribution around $\\sim$1000 massive (M$_\\star$$\\gtrsim$2$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_\\odot$) visually classified elliptical galaxies down to a satellite mass ratio of 1:400 (i.e. 5$\\times$$10^{8}$$\\lesssim$M$_{sat}$$\\lesssim$2$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_\\odot$). Our host galaxies were selected to be representative of a mass complete sample. The satellites of these galaxies were searched within a projected radial distance of 100 kpc to their hosts. We have found that only 17-23% of the massive ellipticals has at least a satellite down to a mass ratio 1:10. This number increases to 40-52% if we explore satellites down to 1:100 and is $>$55-70% if we go further down to 1:400. The average projected radial distance of the satellites to their hosts is $\\sim$59 kpc (which can be decreased down to 49-51 kpc if we account for incompleteness effects). The number of satellites per galaxy host only increases ve...

  12. Present-day stress field of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, Mark; Morley, Chris; King, Rosalind; Hillis, Richard; Coblentz, David; Hall, Robert

    2010-02-01

    It is now well established that ridge push forces provide a major control on the plate-scale stress field in most of the Earth's tectonic plates. However, the Sunda plate that comprises much of Southeast Asia is one of only two plates not bounded by a major spreading centre and thus provides an opportunity to evaluate other forces that control the intraplate stress field. The Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Sunda plate is usually considered to be controlled by escape tectonics associated with India-Eurasia collision. However, the Sunda plate is bounded by a poorly understood and complex range of convergent and strike-slip zones and little is known about the effect of these other plate boundaries on the intraplate stress field in the region. We compile the first extensive stress dataset for Southeast Asia, containing 275 A-D quality (177 A-C) horizontal stress orientations, consisting of 72 stress indicators from earthquakes (located mostly on the periphery of the plate), 202 stress indicators from breakouts and drilling-induced fractures and one hydraulic fracture test within 14 provinces in the plate interior. This data reveals that a variable stress pattern exists throughout Southeast Asia that is largely inconsistent with the Sunda plate's approximately ESE absolute motion direction. The present-day maximum horizontal stress in Thailand, Vietnam and the Malay Basin is predominately north-south, consistent with the radiating stress patterns arising from the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, the present-day maximum horizontal stress is primarily oriented NW-SE in Borneo, a direction that may reflect plate-boundary forces or topographic stresses exerted by the central Borneo highlands. Furthermore, the South and Central Sumatra Basins exhibit a NE-SW maximum horizontal stress direction that is perpendicular to the Indo-Australian subduction front. Hence, the plate-scale stress field in Southeast Asia appears to be controlled by a combination of Himalayan

  13. ADAPTION OF NONSTANDARD PIPING COMPONENTS INTO PRESENT DAY SEISMIC CODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. T. Clark; M. J. Russell; R. E. Spears; S. R. Jensen

    2009-07-01

    With spiraling energy demand and flat energy supply, there is a need to extend the life of older nuclear reactors. This sometimes requires that existing systems be evaluated to present day seismic codes. Older reactors built in the 1960s and early 1970s often used fabricated piping components that were code compliant during their initial construction time period, but are outside the standard parameters of present-day piping codes. There are several approaches available to the analyst in evaluating these non-standard components to modern codes. The simplest approach is to use the flexibility factors and stress indices for similar standard components with the assumption that the non-standard component’s flexibility factors and stress indices will be very similar. This approach can require significant engineering judgment. A more rational approach available in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which is the subject of this paper, involves calculation of flexibility factors using finite element analysis of the non-standard component. Such analysis allows modeling of geometric and material nonlinearities. Flexibility factors based on these analyses are sensitive to the load magnitudes used in their calculation, load magnitudes that need to be consistent with those produced by the linear system analyses where the flexibility factors are applied. This can lead to iteration, since the magnitude of the loads produced by the linear system analysis depend on the magnitude of the flexibility factors. After the loading applied to the nonstandard component finite element model has been matched to loads produced by the associated linear system model, the component finite element model can then be used to evaluate the performance of the component under the loads with the nonlinear analysis provisions of the Code, should the load levels lead to calculated stresses in excess of Allowable stresses. This paper details the application of component-level finite

  14. New Horizons Constraints on Charon's Present Day Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, S A; Gladstone, G R; Steffl, A J; Cheng, A F; Young, L A; Weaver, H A; Olkin, C B; Ennico, K; Parker, J W; Parker, A H; Lauer, T R; Zangari, A; Summers, M

    2016-01-01

    We report on a variety of standard techniques used by New Horizons including a solar ultraviolet occultation, ultraviolet airglow observations, and high-phase look-back particulate search imaging to search for an atmosphere around Pluto's large moon Charon during its flyby in July 2015. Analyzing these datasets, no evidence for a present day atmosphere has been found for 14 potential atomic and molecular species, all of which are now constrained to have pressures below 0.3 nanobar, as we describe below, these are much more stringent upper limits than the previously available 15-110 nanobar constraints (e.g., Sicardy et al. 2006); for example, we find a 3$\\sigma$ upper limit for an N$_2$ atmosphere on Charon is 4.2 picobars and a 3$\\sigma$ upper limit for the brightness of any atmospheric haze on Charon of I/F=2.6x10$^{-5}$. A radio occultation search for an atmosphere around Charon was also conducted by New Horizons but will be published separately by other authors.

  15. On the curvature of the present-day universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, Thomas [Universite Lyon 1, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5574, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France); Carfora, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: buchert@obs.univ-lyon1.fr, E-mail: mauro.carfora@pv.infn.it

    2008-10-07

    We discuss the effect of curvature and matter inhomogeneities on the averaged scalar curvature of the present-day universe. Motivated by studies of averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies, we contemplate on the question of whether it is sensible to assume that curvature averages out on some scale of homogeneity, as implied by the standard concordance model of cosmology, or whether the averaged scalar curvature can be largely negative today, as required for an explanation of dark energy from inhomogeneities. We confront both conjectures with a detailed analysis of the kinematical backreaction term and estimate its strength for a multi-scale inhomogeneous matter and curvature distribution. Our main result is a formula for the spatially averaged scalar curvature involving quantities that are all measurable on regional (i.e. up to 100 Mpc) scales. We propose strategies to quantitatively evaluate the formula, and pinpoint the assumptions implied by the conjecture of a small or zero averaged curvature. We reach the conclusion that the standard concordance model needs fine tuning in the sense of an assumed equipartition law for curvature in order to reconcile it with the estimated properties of the averaged physical space, whereas a negative averaged curvature is favoured, independent of the prior on the value of the cosmological constant.

  16. The present-day number of tectonic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The number of tectonic plates on Earth described in the literature has expanded greatly since the start of the plate tectonic era, when only about a dozen plates were considered in global models of present-day plate motions. With new techniques of more accurate earthquake epicenter locations, modern ways of measuring ocean bathymetry using swath mapping, and the use of space based geodetic techniques, there has been a huge growth in the number of plates thought to exist. The study by Bird (2003) proposed 52 plates, many of which were delineated on the basis of earthquake locations. Because of the pattern of areas of these plates, he suggested that there should be more small plates than he could identify. In this paper, I gather together publications that have proposed a total of 107 new plates, giving 159 plates in all. The largest plate (Pacific) is about 20 % of the Earth's area or 104 Mm2, and the smallest of which (Plate number 5 from Hammond et al. 2011) is only 273 km2 in area. Sorting the plates by size allows us to investigate how size varies as a function of order. There are several changes of slope in the plots of plate number organized by size against plate size order which are discussed. The sizes of the largest seven plates is constrained by the area of the Earth. A middle set of 73 plates down to an area of 97,563 km2 (the Danakil plate at number 80, is the plate of median size) follows a fairly regular pattern of plate size as a function of plate number. For smaller plates, there is a break in the slope of the plate size/plate number plot and the next 32 plates follow a pattern of plate size proposed by the models of Koehn et al. (2008) down to an area of 11,638 km2 (West Mojave plate # 112). Smaller plates do not follow any regular pattern of area as a function of plate number, probably because we have not sampled enough of these very small plates to reveal any clear pattern.

  17. Comparison of lactase persistence polymorphism in ancient and present-day Hungarian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Dóra; Tömöry, Gyöngyvér; Csányi, Bernadett; Bogácsi-Szabó, Erika; Czibula, Ágnes; Priskin, Katalin; Bede, Olga; Bartosiewicz, László; Downes, C Stephen; Raskó, István

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia varies ethnically and geographically among populations. A C/T-13910 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) upstream of the lactase gene is known to be associated with lactase non-persistence in Europeans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lactase persistent and non-persistent genotypes in current Hungarian-speaking populations and in ancient bone samples of classical conquerors and commoners from the 10th-11th centuries from the Carpathian basin; 181 present-day Hungarian, 65 present-day Sekler, and 23 ancient samples were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by the dCAPS PCR-RFLP method. Additional mitochondrial DNA testing was also carried out. In ancient Hungarians, the T-13910 allele was present only in 11% of the population, and exclusively in commoners of European mitochondrial haplogroups who may have been of pre-Hungarian indigenous ancestry. This is despite animal domestication and dairy products having been introduced into the Carpathian basin early in the Neolithic Age. This anomaly may be explained by the Hungarian use of fermented milk products, their greater consumption of ruminant meat than milk, cultural differences, or by their having other lactase-regulating genetic polymorphisms than C/T-13910. The low prevalence of lactase persistence provides additional information on the Asian origin of Hungarians. Present-day Hungarians have been assimilated with the surrounding European populations, since they do not differ significantly from the neighboring populations in their possession of mtDNA and C/T-13910 variants.

  18. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day greenlandic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed...... ∼200,000 SNPs from more than 10% of the adult Greenlandic population (n = 4,674). We found that recent gene flow from Europe has had a substantial impact on the population: more than 80% of the Greenlanders have some European ancestry (on average ∼25% of their genome). However, we also found...... that the amount of recent European gene flow varies across Greenland and is far smaller in the more historically isolated areas in the north and east and in the small villages in the south. Furthermore, we found that there is substantial population structure in the Inuit genetic component of the Greenlanders...

  19. Massive black hole remnants of the first stars I: abundance in present-day galactic haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, R R; Silk, J; Islam, Ranty R.; Taylor, James E.; Silk, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that present-day galaxies and their dark matter haloes contain a population of massive black holes (MBHs) that form by hierarchical merging of the black hole remnants of the first stars in the Universe. Some of the MBHs may be large enough or close enough to the centre of the galactic host that they merge within a Hubble time. We estimate to what extent this process could contribute to the mass of the super-massive black holes (SMBHs) observed in galactic centres today. The relation between SMBH and galactic bulge mass in our model displays the same slope as that found in observations. Many MBHs will not reach the centre of the host halo, however, but continue to orbit within it. In doing so MBHs may remain associated with remnants of the satellite halo systems of which they were previously a part. Using a semi-analytical approach that explicitly accounts for dynamical friction, tidal disruption and encounters with galactic disks, we follow the hierarchical merging of MBH system...

  20. Adult Immigrants' Media Usage and Its Function in Host Language Training Opportunities: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Media promotes to what extent immigrants learn the host language and cultural values. Consequently, the overall aim of this paper is to identify predictors among adult immigrants in language training and its effect on host language training. The participants (n = 186)-- many of them refugees--were recruited purposefully for the study from one…

  1. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day Greenlandic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Crawford, Jacob E; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E; Grarup, Niels; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Linneberg, Allan; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Nielsen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed ∼200,000 SNPs from more than 10% of the adult Greenlandic population (n = 4,674). We found that recent gene flow from Europe has had a substantial impact on the population: more than 80% of the Greenlanders have some European ancestry (on average ∼25% of their genome). However, we also found that the amount of recent European gene flow varies across Greenland and is far smaller in the more historically isolated areas in the north and east and in the small villages in the south. Furthermore, we found that there is substantial population structure in the Inuit genetic component of the Greenlanders and that individuals from the east, west, and north can be distinguished from each other. Moreover, the genetic differences in the Inuit ancestry are consistent with a single colonization wave of the island from north to west to south to east. Although it has been speculated that there has been historical admixture between the Norse Vikings who lived in Greenland for a limited period ∼600-1,000 years ago and the Inuit, we found no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Similarly, we found no evidence supporting a previously hypothesized admixture event between the Inuit in East Greenland and the Dorset people, who lived in Greenland before the Inuit.

  2. Present-day zonal wind influences projected Indian Ocean Dipole skewness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju

    2016-11-01

    A prominent feature of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is its positive skewness, where positive phases tend to be stronger in amplitude than the negative phase. Positive IOD events are associated with devastating floods over parts of East Africa and India, while Australia and Indonesia experience dry conditions. Under greenhouse warming, climate models project a weakening of the positive IOD skewness, but their simulation of present-day skewness is too weak. Here we show that this bias and the projected skewness change are related to the simulation of the climatological zonal wind in the central equatorial Indian Ocean. In particular, models with overly weak present-day westerlies, which is a common model bias, generate overly weak present-day skewness and a smaller projected reduction in skewness. Improving the ability of models in simulating stronger westerly winds may lead to stronger present-day simulated skewness and a larger skewness reduction in a warmer climate.

  3. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D. A. [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO{sub 2} and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request 22 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  4. Early Hebrew education and its significance for present-day educational theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoeman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Early Hebrew education and its significance for present-day educational theory and practice The history of education in antiquity is not without relevance to present-day educational theory and practice. The focus in this article is on the early Hebrews and their education. A study of early Hebrew education may in itself not provide solutions to current educational problems, but it may be useful in offering new perspectives, encouragement and suggestions for a juture South African educational dispensation.

  5. The Zicheng Site of Tang and Song Mingzhou City in Present-day Ningbo City, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林士民; 亦囡; 曹楠

    2003-01-01

    Present-day Ningbo 宁波 in Zhejiang 浙江 Province was called Mingzhou 明州 in the Tang and Song periods. It was a famous commercial port along the southeastern coastal area, and was ranked as one of the top four ports including Jiaozhou 交州, Guangzhou 广州, and Yangzhou 扬州 in the Tang Dynasty. In the first year of Changqing 长安 reign period of the Tang (AD 821), Mingzhou City was built in thecenter of present-day Ningbo City.

  6. Characterization of early host responses in adults with dengue disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While dengue-elicited early and transient host responses preceding defervescence could shape the disease outcome and reveal mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis, assessment of these responses are difficult as patients rarely seek healthcare during the first days of benign fever and thus data are lacking. Methods In this study, focusing on early recruitment, we performed whole-blood transcriptional profiling on denguevirus PCR positive patients sampled within 72 h of self-reported fever presentation (average 43 h, SD 18.6 h and compared the signatures with autologous samples drawn at defervescence and convalescence and to control patients with fever of other etiology. Results In the early dengue fever phase, a strong activation of the innate immune response related genes were seen that was absent at defervescence (4-7 days after fever debut, while at this second sampling genes related to biosynthesis and metabolism dominated. Transcripts relating to the adaptive immune response were over-expressed in the second sampling point with sustained activation at the third sampling. On an individual gene level, significant enrichment of transcripts early in dengue disease were chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1, CCL8 (MCP-2, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL3 (MIP-1α, antimicrobial peptide β-defensin 1 (DEFB1, desmosome/intermediate junction component plakoglobin (JUP and a microRNA which may negatively regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in dengue infected peripheral blood cells, mIR-147 (NMES1. Conclusions These data show that the early response in patients mimics those previously described in vitro, where early assessment of transcriptional responses has been easily obtained. Several of the early transcripts identified may be affected by or mediate the pathogenesis and deserve further assessment at this timepoint in correlation to severe disease.

  7. Cellulase in Anoplophora glabripennis adults emerging from different host tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-juan; YAN Xiong-fei; LUO You-qing; TIAN Gui-fang; SUN Hong

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate different kinds of cellulase in insect pests, we selected male and female adults of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) emerging from four different host species (Populus alba vat. pyramidalis, P. nigra vat. thevestina (Dode)Bean., P. simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera 8277 Hsu. and Salix matsudana f. lobato-glandulosa) as our research material. The enzyme activitives of three kinds of cellulase in the intestines of the adult insects were measured. The Cx-cellulase isozymes were detected with a CMC-incorporated polyacrylamide gel. The results show that: there are no statistically significant differences between the enzyme activities of males and females emerging from the different host species. The order of magnitude in activity is:Cx-cellulase >β-glycosidase > C1-cellulase. When the adults emerge from the same host species, there are no statistically significant differences between male and female enzyme activities ofβ-glycosidase and C1-cellulase, but the enzyme activity of Cx-cellulase of males is clearly higher than that of females. The patterns and migration of Cx-cellulase isozymes of males and females emerging from different hosts trees are clearly not different, and neither are they different when emerging from the same hosts.

  8. The present-day climate of Greenland : a study with a regional climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, J.

    2010-01-01

    Present-day climate of Greenland Over the past 20 years, the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has warmed. This temperature increase can be explained by an increase in downwelling longwave radiation due to a warmer overlying atmosphere. These temperature changes are strongly correlated to changes in the la

  9. The imprint of exoplanet formation history on observable present-day spectra of hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Mordasini, Christoph; Mollière, Paul; Henning, Thomas; Benneke, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The composition of a planet's atmosphere is determined by its formation, evolution, and present-day insolation. A planet's spectrum therefore may hold clues on its origins. We present a "chain" of models, linking the formation of a planet to its observable present-day spectrum. The chain links include (1) the planet's formation and migration, (2) its long-term thermodynamic evolution, (3) a variety of disk chemistry models, (4) a non-gray atmospheric model, and (5) a radiometric model to obtain simulated spectroscopic observations with JWST and ARIEL. In our standard chemistry model the inner disk is depleted in refractory carbon as in the Solar System and in white dwarfs polluted by extrasolar planetesimals. Our main findings are: (1) Envelope enrichment by planetesimal impacts during formation dominates the final planetary atmospheric composition of hot Jupiters. We investigate two, under this finding, prototypical formation pathways: a formation inside or outside the water iceline, called "dry" and "wet" p...

  10. [Variation of the fibular part of the plantar aponeurosis among present-day Japanese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Y

    1983-03-01

    The plantar aponeurosis consists of the tibial and fibular parts. It is already known that the form of the fibular part markedly varies according to individuals. However, there have been few anatomical observations on this variation and none have statistically analysed it. This paper is concerned with the variation of the fibular part of the aponeurosis. Observations were carried out by dissecting thirty-nine present-day Japanese cadavers. The variations observed were classified into four types according to the Loth's method. It was clarified by means of the Chi-square test that the percentage of the medial fibre bundle is significantly higher in present-day Japanese than in Europeans, that is up to 20.5%. It was also found that the top portion of the medial fibre bundle, if it exists, is the origin of a part of the transverse head of the adductor pollicis muscle and the flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle in some cases.

  11. The mediatic centrality in being and doing religion/politics in present days

    OpenAIRE

    Micael Vier Behs

    2014-01-01

    The article presents an analysis on the churches constituted from the coming of the mediatization while reference phenomenon for the production of senses in present days. It examines, in a private way, the mediatic discursive strategies undertaken by the Universal Church of Kingdom of God (TURD), through device newspaper, in order to provide its insert in the politics field. O artigo apresenta uma análise sobre as igrejas constituídas a partir do advento da midiatiç&at...

  12. The Role of a Poster in the Present-day Society

    OpenAIRE

    MENČÍKOVÁ, Věra

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the problems of visual information and public communication, investigates the role of poster, or billboard in the present-day society. The practical part uses of analysis, synthesis and comparison of theoretical knowledge with artistic experience to create two series of graphic art on the theme ?Women - Gender - position?. These graphic works have the function of poster and billboard. ...

  13. Medieval Sources and Present-Day Folklore Materials on Saints in an Electronic Encyclopedia

    OpenAIRE

    Rangochev, Konstantin; Dimitrova, Margaret; Paneva-Marinova, Desislava

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the variety of the digitized content of an electronic encyclopedia on the veneration of saints according to Bulgarian sources. The emphasis is on medieval Slavonic Church manuscripts and on present-day records of Bulgarian folklore narratives and songs. The combination of these sources provokes discussion of the so-called folklore Christianity and adds new dimensions to the understanding of the role of the cults of saints for culture and of the religiosity ...

  14. A data-driven model of present-day glacial isostatic adjustment in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Karen; Riva, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic measurements of gravity change and vertical land motion are incorporated into an a priori model of present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) via least-squares inversion. The result is an updated model of present-day GIA wherein the final predicted signal is informed by both observational data with realistic errors, and prior knowledge of GIA inferred from forward models. This method and other similar techniques have been implemented within a limited but growing number of GIA studies (e.g., Hill et al. 2010). The combination method allows calculation of the uncertainties of predicted GIA fields, and thus offers a significant advantage over predictions from purely forward GIA models. Here, we show the results of using the combination approach to predict present-day rates of GIA in North America through the incorporation of both GPS-measured vertical land motion rates and GRACE-measured gravity observations into the prior model. In order to assess the influence of each dataset on the final GIA prediction, the vertical motion and gravimetry datasets are incorporated into the model first independently (i.e., one dataset only), then simultaneously. Because the a priori GIA model and its associated covariance are developed by averaging predictions from a suite of forward models that varies aspects of the Earth rheology and ice sheet history, the final GIA model is not independent of forward model predictions. However, we determine the sensitivity of the final model result to the prior GIA model information by using different representations of the input model covariance. We show that when both datasets are incorporated into the inversion, the final model adequately predicts available observational constraints, minimizes the uncertainty associated with the forward modelled GIA inputs, and includes a realistic estimation of the formal error associated with the GIA process. Along parts of the North American coastline, improved predictions of the long-term (kyr

  15. Analysis of present day and future OH and methane lifetime in the ACCMIP simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voulgarakis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Results from simulations performed for the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP are analysed to examine how OH and methane lifetime may change from present day to the future, under different climate and emissions scenarios. Present day (2000 mean tropospheric chemical lifetime derived from the ACCMIP multi-model mean is 9.8 ± 1.6 yr (9.3 ± 0.9 yr when only including selected models, lower than a recent observationally-based estimate, but with a similar range to previous multi-model estimates. Future model projections are based on the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, and the results also exhibit a large range. Decreases in global methane lifetime of 4.5 ± 9.1% are simulated for the scenario with lowest radiative forcing by 2100 (RCP 2.6, while increases of 8.5 ± 10.4% are simulated for the scenario with highest radiative forcing (RCP 8.5. In this scenario, the key driver of the evolution of OH and methane lifetime is methane itself, since its concentration more than doubles by 2100 and it consumes much of the OH that exists in the troposphere. Stratospheric ozone recovery, which drives tropospheric OH decreases through photolysis modifications, also plays a partial role. In the other scenarios, where methane changes are less drastic, the interplay between various competing drivers leads to smaller and more diverse OH and methane lifetime responses, which are difficult to attribute. For all scenarios, regional OH changes are even more variable, with the most robust feature being the large decreases over the remote oceans in RCP8.5. Through a regression analysis, we suggest that differences in emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds and in the simulation of photolysis rates may be the main factors causing the differences in simulated present day OH and methane lifetime. Diversity in predicted changes between present day and future OH was found to be associated more strongly with

  16. Analysis of present day and future OH and methane lifetime in the ACCMIP simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voulgarakis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from simulations performed for the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP are analysed to examine how OH and methane lifetime may change from present-day to the future, under different climate and emissions scenarios. Present-day (2000 mean tropospheric chemical lifetime derived from the ACCMIP multi-model mean is 9.8 ± 1.6 yr, lower than a recent observationally-based estimate, but with a similar range to previous multi-model estimates. Future model projections are based on the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, and the results also exhibit a~large range. Decreases in global methane lifetime of 4.5 ± 9.1% are simulated for the scenario with lowest radiative forcing by 2100 (RCP 2.6, while increases of 8.5 ± 10.4% are simulated for the scenario with highest radiative forcing (RCP 8.5. In this scenario, the key driver of the evolution of OH and methane lifetime is methane itself, since its concentration more than doubles by 2100, and it consumes much of the OH that exists in the troposphere. Stratospheric ozone recovery, which drives tropospheric OH decreases through photolysis modifications, also plays a~partial role. In the other scenarios, where methane changes are less drastic, the interplay between various competing drivers leads to smaller and more diverse OH and methane lifetime responses, which are difficult to attribute. For all scenarios, regional OH changes are even more variable, with the most robust feature being the large decreases over the remote oceans in RCP 8.5. Through a~regression analysis, we suggest that differences in emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds and in the simulation of photolysis rates may be the main factors causing the differences in simulated present-day OH and methane lifetime. Diversity in predicted changes between present-day and future was found to be associated more strongly with differences in modelled climate changes

  17. Analysis of Present Day and Future OH and Methane Lifetime in the ACCMIP Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, A.; Naik, V.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Shindell, D. T.; Young, P. J.; Prather, M. J.; Wild, O.; Field, R. D.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith P.; Cionni, I; Collins, W. J.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Doherty, R. M.; Eyring, V.; Faluvegi, G.; Folberth, G. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Josse, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Nagashima, T.; Plummer, D. A.; Righi, M.; Rumbold, S. T.; Strode, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results from simulations performed for the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) are analysed to examine how OH and methane lifetime may change from present day to the future, under different climate and emissions scenarios. Present day (2000) mean tropospheric chemical lifetime derived from the ACCMIP multi-model mean is 9.8+/-1.6 yr (9.3+/-0.9 yr when only including selected models), lower than a recent observationally-based estimate, but with a similar range to previous multi-model estimates. Future model projections are based on the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), and the results also exhibit a large range. Decreases in global methane lifetime of 4.5 +/- 9.1% are simulated for the scenario with lowest radiative forcing by 2100 (RCP 2.6), while increases of 8.5+/-10.4% are simulated for the scenario with highest radiative forcing (RCP 8.5). In this scenario, the key driver of the evolution of OH and methane lifetime is methane itself, since its concentration more than doubles by 2100 and it consumes much of the OH that exists in the troposphere. Stratospheric ozone recovery, which drives tropospheric OH decreases through photolysis modifications, also plays a partial role. In the other scenarios, where methane changes are less drastic, the interplay between various competing drivers leads to smaller and more diverse OH and methane lifetime responses, which are difficult to attribute. For all scenarios, regional OH changes are even more variable, with the most robust feature being the large decreases over the remote oceans in RCP8.5. Through a regression analysis, we suggest that differences in emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds and in the simulation of photolysis rates may be the main factors causing the differences in simulated present day OH and methane lifetime. Diversity in predicted changes between present day and future OH was found to be associated more strongly with differences in

  18. A present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data of earthquake centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution, P-wave first motion focal mechanism solution and deep hole breakouts, a present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region is compiled. The origi-nal stress data are smoothed for every 200 km ′ 200 km area by taking the average of all stress indicators within each sub-region. The stress map shows the spatial distribution of the orientation of principal stress axes and the stress regimes. An earthquake focal mechanism map for the eastern Asia is also given. The maps of orientation of principal stress axes show that, apart from the strong influence of the collision between the Indian Ocean plate and Eurasian plate, the present-day tectonic stress in eastern Asia is significantly affected by the back-arc extension of the subduction zones. The joint effect of the continental collision at the Himalaya arc and back-arc extension in the Burma arc region may be responsible for the remarkable rotation of the principal stress orientations in southeastern part of the Tibet plateau. The joint action of the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate at Taiwan Island and the back-arc extension of the Ryukyu arc affect the stress field in eastern part of China. There are no strong earthquakes in the present day in the vast back-arc region of the Java trench subduction zone. The back-arc extension there may create a condition favorable to the southward flow of the lithosphere material in southeastern Asia. In the inner part of the Tibet plateau region, roughly demarcated by the Kunlun mountain, the northern and northeastern part is a broad intracontinental compressive zone, while the southern and southwestern part is generally in a normal-faulting stress state.

  19. Electronic inventions and discoveries electronics from its earliest beginnings to the present day

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1983-01-01

    Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from Its Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day provides a summary of the development of the whole field of electronics. Organized into 13 chapters, the book covers and reviews the history of electronics as a whole and its aspects. The opening chapter covers the beginnings of electronics, while the next chapter discusses the development of components, transistors, and integrated circuits. The third chapter tackles the expansion of electronics and its effects on industry. The succeeding chapters discuss the history of the aspects of electronics

  20. Present-day glaciation of Western Asia (on the Turkey territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zimnitskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mean annual air temperatures, total amount of precipitation, current state of glaciers and changes of their areas on some mountains of the Turkish territory are analyzed. The following regions are considered: East-Pontus Mountains, south-eastern part of the Taurus Mountains, volcanic regions Tendurek, Erciyes, and volcanic zone around the Wang Lake. There are seventy glaciers in these regions with their total area of 16.5 km2. It is shown that mostly the present-day glaciers are in state of degradation, and the rock glaciers are typical among them.

  1. Present-day crustal deformation along the El Salvador Fault Zone from ZFESNet GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Alejandra; Martínez-Díaz, José Jesús; Benito, Belén; Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Díaz, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions obtained from new GPS data compiled along the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ). We calculated a GPS-derived horizontal velocity field representing the present-day crustal deformation rates in the ESFZ based on the analysis of 30 GPS campaign stations of the ZFESNet network, measured over a 4.5 year period from 2007 to 2012. The velocity field and subsequent strain rate analysis clearly indicate dextral strike-slip tectonics with extensional component throughout the ESFZ. Our results suggest that the boundary between the Salvadoran forearc and Caribbean blocks is a deformation zone which varies along the fault zone. We estimate that the movement between the two blocks is at least ~ 12 mm yr- 1. From west to east, this movement is variably distributed between faults or segments of the ESFZ. We propose a kinematic model with three main blocks; the Western, Central and Eastern blocks delimited by major faults. For the first time, we were able to provide a quantitative measure of the present-day horizontal geodetic slip rate of the main segments of ESFZ, ranging from ~ 2 mm yr- 1 in the east segment to ~ 8 mm yr- 1, in the west and central segments. This study contributes new kinematic and slip rate data that should be used to update and improve the seismic hazard assessments in northern Central America.

  2. Vulnerability of Louisiana's coastal wetlands to present-day rates of relative sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Krista L.; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Fernandes, Anjali M.

    2017-03-01

    Coastal Louisiana has lost about 5,000 km2 of wetlands over the past century and concern exists whether remaining wetlands will persist while facing some of the world's highest rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR). Here we analyse an unprecedented data set derived from 274 rod surface-elevation table-marker horizon stations, to determine present-day surface-elevation change, vertical accretion and shallow subsidence rates. Comparison of vertical accretion rates with RSLR rates at the land surface (present-day RSLR rates are 12+/-8 mm per year) shows that 65% of wetlands in the Mississippi Delta (SE Louisiana) may keep pace with RSLR, whereas 58% of the sites in the Chenier Plain (SW Louisiana) do not, rendering much of this area highly vulnerable to RLSR. At least 60% of the total subsidence rate occurs within the uppermost 5-10 m, which may account for the higher vulnerability of coastal Louisiana wetlands compared to their counterparts elsewhere.

  3. Mitogenomes from The 1000 Genome Project reveal new Near Eastern features in present-day Tuscans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Carballa

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses have recently been carried out on present-day Tuscans (Central Italy in order to investigate their presumable recent Near East ancestry in connection with the long-standing debate on the origins of the Etruscan civilization. We retrieved mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data from 110 Tuscans analyzed within the context of The 1000 Genome Project. For phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis we made use of a large worldwide database of entire mitogenomes (>26,000 and partial control region sequences (>180,000.Different analyses reveal the presence of typical Near East haplotypes in Tuscans representing isolated members of various mtDNA phylogenetic branches. As a whole, the Near East component in Tuscan mitogenomes can be estimated at about 8%; a proportion that is comparable to previous estimates but significantly lower than admixture estimates obtained from autosomal SNP data (21%. Phylogeographic and evolutionary inter-population comparisons indicate that the main signal of Near Eastern Tuscan mitogenomes comes from Iran.Mitogenomes of recent Near East origin in present-day Tuscans do not show local or regional variation. This points to a demographic scenario that is compatible with a recent arrival of Near Easterners to this region in Italy with no founder events or bottlenecks.

  4. Chemical interactions between the present-day Martian atmosphere and surface minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald; Fegley, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Thermochemical and photochemical reactions between surface minerals and present-day atmospheric constituents are predicted to produce microscopic effects on the surfaces of mineral grains. Relevant reactions hypothesized in the literature include conversions of silicates and volcanic glasses to clay minerals, conversion of ferrous to ferric compounds, and formation of carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates. These types of surface-atmosphere interactions are important for addressing issues such as chemical weathering of minerals, biological potential of the surface environment, and atmospheric stability in both present and past Martian epochs. It is emphasized that the product of these reactions will be observable and interpretable on the microscopic surface layers of Martian surface rocks using modern techniques with obvious implications for sample return from Mars. Macroscopic products of chemical weathering reactions in past Martian epochs are also expected in Martian surface material. These products are expected not only as a result of reactions similar to those proceeding today but also due to aqueous reactions in past epochs in which liquid water was putatively present. It may prove very difficult or impossible however to determine definitively from the relic macroscopic product alone either the exact weathering process which led to its formation or the identity of its weathered parent mineral. The enormous advantages of studying Martian chemical weathering by investigating the microscopic products of present-day chemical reactions on sample surfaces are very apparent.

  5. Chemical interactions between the present-day Martian atmosphere and surface minerals: Implications for sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald; Fegley, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Thermochemical and photochemical reactions between surface minerals and present-day atmospheric constituents are predicted to produce microscopic effects on the surface of mineral grains. Relevant reactions hypothesized in the literature include conversions of silicates and volcanic glasses to clay minerals, conversion of ferrous to ferric compounds, and formation of carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates. These types of surface-atmosphere weathering of minerals, biological potential of the surface environment, and atmospheric stability in both present and past Martian epochs. It is emphasized that the product of these reactions will be observable and interpretable on the microscopic surface layers of Martian surface rocks using modern techniques with obvious implications for sample return from Mars. Macroscopic products of chemical weathering reactions in past Martian epochs are also expected in Martian surface materials. These products are expected not only as a result of reactions similar to those proceeding today but also due to aqueous reactions in past epochs in which liquid water was putatively present. It may prove very difficult or impossible, however, to determine definitively from the relic macroscopic product alone either the exact weathering process which led to its formation of the identity of its weathering parent mineral. The enormous advantages of studying the Martian chemical weathering by investigating the microscopic products of present-day chemical reactions on sample surfaces are very apparent.

  6. Economic Mentalities And Present Day Values In Romanian Business Higher Education. A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MURESAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mentalities and behaviours are the result of the interactions between persons/groups and the environment. The present paper explores the way mentalities and behaviours have been created by and have themselves determined the economic, social and political processes on the present day Romanian territory at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. A historical perspective to the study of mentalities shows that the adaptation of a certain mindset, of the mainstream values characteristic of an epoch, to the changes in the evolution of the economy and society was also responsible for preparing the changes in the development of the economy. The present paper explores the differences between economic and business mentalities of people belonging to developed and emerging market economies by considering their historical development. The paper looks at the importance of the presence in the curriculum of business schools of the history of economy and/or of economic thought disciplines in order to help Romanian business higher education become a driving force in changing present day mentalities into values that pro-actively help Romanian students to become effective employees on the globalized labour markets.

  7. Mitogenomes from The 1000 Genome Project Reveal New Near Eastern Features in Present-Day Tuscans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Amigo, Jorge; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic analyses have recently been carried out on present-day Tuscans (Central Italy) in order to investigate their presumable recent Near East ancestry in connection with the long-standing debate on the origins of the Etruscan civilization. We retrieved mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data from 110 Tuscans analyzed within the context of The 1000 Genome Project. For phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis we made use of a large worldwide database of entire mitogenomes (>26,000) and partial control region sequences (>180,000). Results Different analyses reveal the presence of typical Near East haplotypes in Tuscans representing isolated members of various mtDNA phylogenetic branches. As a whole, the Near East component in Tuscan mitogenomes can be estimated at about 8%; a proportion that is comparable to previous estimates but significantly lower than admixture estimates obtained from autosomal SNP data (21%). Phylogeographic and evolutionary inter-population comparisons indicate that the main signal of Near Eastern Tuscan mitogenomes comes from Iran. Conclusions Mitogenomes of recent Near East origin in present-day Tuscans do not show local or regional variation. This points to a demographic scenario that is compatible with a recent arrival of Near Easterners to this region in Italy with no founder events or bottlenecks. PMID:25786119

  8. PRAGMATIC FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION CODE FAILURE IN PRESENT-DAY DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochtar Elena Ivanovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of communicative regulations within the discourse frames as viewed through the fact of existing interconnection between speech arrangement modes and speech functional destinations; it analyzes the basic maxims of the P. Grice's Cooperation principle, initially formulated from the speaker's viewpoint, and finds out its relevance for the listeners, thus providing identity of speech behavior principles as shared by both participants in the communication process. Comparing each of the cooperative maxims with the communicative parameters of the present-day discourse the author discovers in it frequent violations of the Cooperation principles suggested by P. Grice and concludes that this system of speech relation fails in cases of discourse realizing an effective function. The article observes that the traditional communicative code is being pressed out as the basic regulator of conversation and goes through some pragmatic changes resulting in communication code failure in present day discourse, some other means of securing the perlocutionary effect in affective discourse are introduced by the author, the politeness principle and the principle of style in particular. Considering the basic mechanisms of these aestheticethical principles in application to the discourse of advertising the author finds proofs to them being functionally adequate and communicatively effective.

  9. Present-day mass changes for the Greenland ice sheet and their interaction with bedrock adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olaizola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch in 2002 of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites, several estimates of the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS have been produced. To obtain ice mass changes estimates, data need to be corrected for the effect of deformation changes of the Earth's crust. This is usually done by independently modeling the Glaciological Isostatic Adjustment (GIA trend and then by removing it from the data. Recently, Wu et al. (2010 proposed a new method to simultaneously estimate GIA and the present-day ice mass change, reporting an ice mass loss of around half of the previously published estimates and a general bedrock subsidence concentrated in the central parts of Greenland. This subsidence appears to be counterintuitive since the ice sheet is loosing mass at present. It was suggested by the authors that this could be a new evidence for additional net past ice accumulation.

    In this study, a 3-D ice-sheet model with a surface mass balance forcing based on a mass balance gradient approach has been used to: (a analyze the bedrock response to changes in the ice load in order to evaluate whether bedrock subsidence and ice thinning can exist simultaneously; (b study the magnitude and the pattern of the bedrock movement; and (c evaluate if present-day bedrock subsidence could be the result of a net past mass accumulation.

    Under a sine forcing of the annual temperature, that mimics the temperature variations in the Holocene, mass changes yield a delay of the bedrock response of 200 years. Thinning of the ice as well as bedrock subsidence coexist during this period with an order of magnitude equal to the observations by Wu et al. (2010. Although, the resulting pattern of bedrock changes differs considerable: instead of the general bedrock subsidence reported before, we found areas of bedrock uplift as well as areas of bedrock subsidence. A simulation since the last glacial maximum (with the

  10. Biomarker patterns in present-day vegetation: consistency and variation - A study on plaggen soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Jansen, Boris; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Biomarker patterns in present-day vegetation are commonly used as proxies to reconstruct paleo-vegetation composition, land use history and to elucidate carbon cycling. Plaggen soils are formed by diverse vegetational inputs during century-long plaggen (i.e. sod) application associated with plaggen-agriculture on poor soils in north-western Europe. This resulted in remarkably stable organic matter. Plant source identification by biomarkers could provide insight in yet unknown stabilization mechanisms and the fate of organic matter upon ongoing land use change. The current rationale behind biomarker-based source identification is that patterns observed in present-day vegetation are generally representative with little random variation. However, our knowledge on variability and consistency of biomarker patterns is yet scarce. Therefore, to assess the applicability of biomarkers for source identification in plaggen soils, we analyzed published n-alkane and n-alcohol patterns of species and their various parts which contribute(d) input to plaggen soils. We considered shrubs, trees and grass species and evaluated rescaled patterns (i.e. relative abundances in chain-length range C17-36), odd-over-even predominance (OEP) and predominant n-alkanes. In addition, we explicitly looked into potential sources of systematic variation, e.g. spatial variation (climate, site conditions), temporal variation (seasonality, ontogeny) and laboratory methodology (extraction technique: washing/shaking, Soxhlet/ASE, saponification). We found meaningful clustering of n-alkanes C27, C29, C31 and C33, allowing for clear distinction of input by shrubs, trees and grasses to plaggen soils. Combination of these homologues with complete n-alkane patterns (C17-36) and OEP enabled further differentiation, while n-alcohols patterns were less distinct. Current limitation is the lack of extended and diverse quantitative records on biomarker patterns, especially for n-alcohols, non-leaf and belowground

  11. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Windstorms can cause significant financial damage and they rank among the most hazardous meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Risk associated with windstorms involves the combination of hazardous weather conditions, such as high wind gust speeds, and socio-economic factors, such as the distribution of assets as well as their susceptibilities to damage. A sophisticated risk assessment is important in a wide range of areas and has benefits for e.g. the insurance industry. However, a sophisticated risk assessment needs a large sample of storm events for which high-resolution, quantitative meteorological and/or loss data are available. Latter is typically an aggravating factor. For present-day windstorms in Switzerland, the data basis is generally sufficient to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated impacts. In contrast, historic windstorms are usually described by graphical depictions of the event and/or by weather and loss reports. The information on historic weather events is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. It has primarily been the field of activity of environmental historians to study historic weather extremes and their impacts. Furthermore, the scarce availability of atmospheric datasets reaching back sufficiently in time has so far limited the analysis of historic weather events. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble dataset, a global atmospheric reanalysis currently spanning 1871 to 2012, offers potentially a very valuable resource for the analysis of historic weather events. However, the 2°×2° latitude-longitude grid of the 20CR is too coarse to realistically represent the complex orography of Switzerland, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of smaller-scale features of the surface wind field influenced by the local orography. Using the 20CR as a starting point, this study illustrates a method to

  12. The Combined Landscape of Denisovan and Neanderthal Ancestry in Present-Day Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Sriram; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David

    2016-05-09

    Some present-day humans derive up to ∼5% [1] of their ancestry from archaic Denisovans, an even larger proportion than the ∼2% from Neanderthals [2]. We developed methods that can disambiguate the locations of segments of Denisovan and Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans and applied them to 257 high-coverage genomes from 120 diverse populations, among which were 20 individual Oceanians with high Denisovan ancestry [3]. In Oceanians, the average size of Denisovan fragments is larger than Neanderthal fragments, implying a more recent average date of Denisovan admixture in the history of these populations (p = 0.00004). We document more Denisovan ancestry in South Asia than is expected based on existing models of history, reflecting a previously undocumented mixture related to archaic humans (p = 0.0013). Denisovan ancestry, just like Neanderthal ancestry, has been deleterious on a modern human genetic background, as reflected by its depletion near genes. Finally, the reduction of both archaic ancestries is especially pronounced on chromosome X and near genes more highly expressed in testes than other tissues (p = 1.2 × 10(-7) to 3.2 × 10(-7) for Denisovan and 2.2 × 10(-3) to 2.9 × 10(-3) for Neanderthal ancestry even after controlling for differences in level of selective constraint across gene classes). This suggests that reduced male fertility may be a general feature of mixtures of human populations diverged by >500,000 years.

  13. The Imprint of Exoplanet Formation History on Observable Present-day Spectra of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasini, C.; van Boekel, R.; Mollière, P.; Henning, Th.; Benneke, Björn

    2016-11-01

    The composition of a planet’s atmosphere is determined by its formation, evolution, and present-day insolation. A planet’s spectrum therefore may hold clues on its origins. We present a “chain” of models, linking the formation of a planet to its observable present-day spectrum. The chain links include (1) the planet’s formation and migration, (2) its long-term thermodynamic evolution, (3) a variety of disk chemistry models, (4) a non-gray atmospheric model, and (5) a radiometric model to obtain simulated spectroscopic observations with James Webb Space Telescope and ARIEL. In our standard chemistry model the inner disk is depleted in refractory carbon as in the Solar System and in white dwarfs polluted by extrasolar planetesimals. Our main findings are: (1) envelope enrichment by planetesimal impacts during formation dominates the final planetary atmospheric composition of hot Jupiters. We investigate two, under this finding, prototypical formation pathways: a formation inside or outside the water iceline, called “dry” and “wet” planets, respectively. (2) Both the “dry” and “wet” planets are oxygen-rich (C/O planet’s C/O ratio is planet has typical C/O values between 0.1 and 0.5 depending mainly on the clathrate formation efficiency. Only non-standard disk chemistries without carbon depletion lead to carbon-rich C/O ratios >1 for the “dry” planet. (3) While we consistently find C/O ratios <1, they still vary significantly. To link a formation history to a specific C/O, a better understanding of the disk chemistry is thus needed.

  14. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter windstorms in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Welker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind gusts and associated economic loss patterns of high-impact winter windstorms in Switzerland between 1871 and 2011. A novel approach for simulating windstorm-related gusts and losses at regional to local scales is applied to a sample of 84 windstorms. The approach involves the dynamical downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR ensemble mean to 3-km horizontal grid size using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. Economic losses are simulated at municipal level for present-day asset distribution based on the downscaled (parameterised wind gusts at high spatiotemporal resolution using the open-source impact model climada. A comparison with insurance loss data for two recent windstorms (“Lothar” in 1999, “Joachim” in 2011 indicates that the loss simulation allows to realistically simulate the spatial patterns of windstorm losses. The loss amplitude is strongly underestimated for ‘Lothar’, while it is in reasonable agreement for ‘Joachim’. Possible reasons are discussed. Uncertainties concerning the loss simulation arise from the wind gust estimation method applied; estimates can differ considerably among the different methods, in particular over high orography. Furthermore, the quality of the loss simulation is affected by the underlying simplified assumptions regarding the distribution of assets and their susceptibilities to damage. For the whole windstorm sample, composite averages of simulated wind gust speed and loss are computed. Both composites reveal high values for the densely populated Swiss Plateau and lower values for south-eastern Switzerland; metropolitan areas stand out in the loss composite. Eight of the top 10 events concerning the losses simulated for present-day asset distribution and summed over all Swiss municipalities occurred after 1950. It remains uncertain whether this is due to decadal-scale changes of winter windstorms in Switzerland or merely due to a

  15. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants.

  16. Further progress in the induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness in the adult host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapaport, F.T. (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook); Bachvaroff, R.J.; Waltzer, W.C.; Sato, T.; Asari, H.; Chanana, A.D.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-09-01

    At present, the state of allogeneic unresponsiveness produced in adult dogs by total body irradiation (TBI) and autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT), followed by host exposure to a renal allograft appears to be specific for the kidney donor; it exhibits a degree of organ specificity and appears to be mediated by the retransplanted marrow stem cells. The successful induction of unresponsiveness requires at least one cycle of cell generation in the microenvironment of the irradiated host. One new approach to boosting unresponsiveness involves the exposure of the circulating blood cells of the recipient to extracorporeal irradiation. Neck vessels of dogs were exposed, through an arterio-venous shunt, to radioactive cesium for a cumulative dose of 22-40 thousand rads over 4-5 weeks. Following TBI, ABMT and renal allograft, bilateral nephrectomy was performed. Eight of ten animals thus treated have remained unresponsive to their renal allografts for more than 250 days. Other approaches are also described. (JMT)

  17. The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Sriram; Mallick, Swapan; Dannemann, Michael; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David

    2014-03-20

    Genomic studies have shown that Neanderthals interbred with modern humans, and that non-Africans today are the products of this mixture. The antiquity of Neanderthal gene flow into modern humans means that genomic regions that derive from Neanderthals in any one human today are usually less than a hundred kilobases in size. However, Neanderthal haplotypes are also distinctive enough that several studies have been able to detect Neanderthal ancestry at specific loci. We systematically infer Neanderthal haplotypes in the genomes of 1,004 present-day humans. Regions that harbour a high frequency of Neanderthal alleles are enriched for genes affecting keratin filaments, suggesting that Neanderthal alleles may have helped modern humans to adapt to non-African environments. We identify multiple Neanderthal-derived alleles that confer risk for disease, suggesting that Neanderthal alleles continue to shape human biology. An unexpected finding is that regions with reduced Neanderthal ancestry are enriched in genes, implying selection to remove genetic material derived from Neanderthals. Genes that are more highly expressed in testes than in any other tissue are especially reduced in Neanderthal ancestry, and there is an approximately fivefold reduction of Neanderthal ancestry on the X chromosome, which is known from studies of diverse species to be especially dense in male hybrid sterility genes. These results suggest that part of the explanation for genomic regions of reduced Neanderthal ancestry is Neanderthal alleles that caused decreased fertility in males when moved to a modern human genetic background.

  18. Present-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Rivat, Julie; Fayolle, Adeline; Favier, Charly; Bremond, Laurent; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Bayol, Nicolas; Lejeune, Philippe; Beeckman, Hans; Doucet, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees. Currently, common logging operations do not create suitable openings for the regeneration of these species, whereas deforestation degrades landscapes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, which included paleoecological, archaeological, historical, and dendrological data, we highlight the long-term history of human activities across central African forests and assess the contribution of these activities to present-day forest structure and composition. The conclusions of this sobering analysis present challenges to current silvicultural practices and to those of the future. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20343.001 PMID:28093097

  19. Toward an Assessment of the Global Inventory of Present-Day Mercury Releases to Freshwater Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kocman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are an essential component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg, as inorganic Hg can be converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg in these environments and reemissions of elemental Hg rival anthropogenic Hg releases on a global scale. Quantification of effluent Hg releases to aquatic systems globally has focused on discharges to the global oceans, rather than contributions to freshwater systems that affect local exposures and risks associated with MeHg. Here we produce a first-estimate of sector-specific, spatially resolved global aquatic Hg discharges to freshwater systems. We compare our release estimates to atmospheric sources that have been quantified elsewhere. By analyzing available quantitative and qualitative information, we estimate that present-day global Hg releases to freshwater environments (rivers and lakes associated with anthropogenic activities have a lower bound of ~1000 Mg· a−1. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM represents the single largest source, followed by disposal of mercury-containing products and domestic waste water, metal production, and releases from industrial installations such as chlor-alkali plants and oil refineries. In addition to these direct anthropogenic inputs, diffuse inputs from land management activities and remobilization of Hg previously accumulated in terrestrial ecosystems are likely comparable in magnitude. Aquatic discharges of Hg are greatly understudied and further constraining associated data gaps is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in the global biogeochemical Hg budget.

  20. The low-resolution CCSM2 revisited: new adjustments and a present-day control run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prange

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The low-resolution (T31 version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM2.0.1 is revisited and adjusted by deepening the Greenland-Scotland ridge, changing oceanic mixing parameters, and applying a regional freshwater flux adjustment at high northern latitudes. The main purpose of these adjustments is to maintain a robust Atlantic meridional overturning circulation which collapses in the original model release. The paper describes the present-day control run of the adjusted model which is brought into climatic equilibrium by applying a deep-ocean acceleration technique. The accelerated integration is extended by a 100-year synchronous phase. The simulated meridional overturning circulation has a maximum of 14×106 m3 s−1 in the North Atlantic. Most shortcomings found in the control run are identified as "typical problems" in global climate modelling. Given its good simulation skills and its relatively low resource demands, the adjusted low-resolution version of CCSM2.0.1 appears to be a reasonable alternative to the latest low-resolution Community Climate System Model release (CCSM3.0 if runtime is a critical factor.

  1. The low-resolution CCSM2 revisited: new adjustments and a present-day control run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prange

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The low-resolution (T31 version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM2.0.1 is revisited and adjusted by deepening the Greenland-Scotland ridge, changing oceanic mixing parameters, and applying a regional freshwater flux adjustment at high northern latitudes. The main purpose of these adjustments is to maintain a robust Atlantic meridional overturning circulation which collapses in the original model release. The paper describes the present-day control run of the adjusted model (referred to as "CCSM2/T31x3a" which is brought into climatic equilibrium by applying a deep-ocean acceleration technique. The accelerated integration is extended by a 100-year synchronous phase. The simulated meridional overturning circulation has a maximum of 14×106 m3 s−1 in the North Atlantic. The CCSM2/T31x3a control run is evaluated against observations and simulations with other climate models. Most shortcomings found in the CCSM2/T31x3a control run are identified as "typical problems" in global climate modelling. Finally, examples (simulation of North Atlantic hydrography, West African monsoon are shown in which CCSM2/T31x3a has a better simulation skill than the latest low-resolution Community Climate System Model release, CCSM3/T31.

  2. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  3. Detection of Prominent Stellar Disks in the Progenitors of Present-day Massive Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davari, Roozbeh H; Mobasher, Bahram; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Massive galaxies at higher redshifts ($\\emph{z}$ $>$ 2) show different characteristics from their local counterparts: They are compact and most likely have a disk. In this study, we trace the evolution of local massive galaxies by performing a detailed morphological analysis, namely, fitting single S\\'{e}rsic profiles and performing bulge+disk decompositions. We analyze $\\sim$ 250 massive galaxies selected from all CANDELS fields (COSMOS, UDS, EGS, GOODS-South and GOODS-North). We confirm that both star-forming and quiescent galaxies increase their sizes significantly from $\\emph{z}$ $\\approx$ 2.5 to the present day. The global S\\'{e}rsic index of quiescent galaxies increases over time (from $n$ $\\approx$ 2.5 to $n$ $>$ 4), while that of star-forming galaxies remains roughly constant ($n$ $\\approx$ 2.5). By decomposing galaxy profiles into bulge+disk components, we find that massive galaxies at high redshift have prominent stellar disks, which are also evident from visual inspection of the images. By $z$ $\\ap...

  4. Relation between Art Education and Democracy from Antique Greece to the Present Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali OZTÜRK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is a set of activities that are done in order to ensure the development of knowledge, skills and abilities in human behaviours. Art emphasizes the connection between emotion and thought. Also it has an effective role in the process and development of learning. But art education is a specific process of aesthetic changes in individuals’ behaviours through their own experience. It is known that art and art education are based on very old times such as the humanity history and the reality of it’s been continuously argued from Platon up to date. Democracy which is the other concept of this research is a form of an administration whereas the art is a form of existence. While the artist exists by creating, the democracy tries to exist by will. When it’s looked from the art, certainly, the art does not have the power that brings the freedom and the truth on its own, however without art; this power cannot take a form, because the democracy cannot look at the human’s pains and beauties as sensitive as the art. Aim of this research is to discuss the relation of art education and democracy as a form of implementation and functionality from antique Greece to the present day. The method of the study is descriptive and references in literature are interpreted.

  5. Present-day velocity field and block kinematics of Tibetan Plateau from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qiao, Xuejun; Yang, Shaomin; Wang, Dijin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present a new synthesis of GPS velocities for tectonic deformation within the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, a combined data set of ˜1854 GPS-derived horizontal velocity vectors. Assuming that crustal deformation is localized along major faults, a block modelling approach is employed to interpret the GPS velocity field. We construct a 30-element block model to describe present-day deformation in western China, with half of them located within the Tibetan Plateau, and the remainder located in its surrounding areas. We model the GPS velocities simultaneously for the effects of block rotations and elastic strain induced by the bounding faults. Our model yields a good fit to the GPS data with a mean residual of 1.08 mm a-1 compared to the mean uncertainty of 1.36 mm a-1 for each velocity component, indicating a good agreement between the predicted and observed velocities. The major strike-slip faults such as the Altyn Tagh, Xianshuihe, Kunlun and Haiyuan faults have relatively uniform slip rates in a range of 5-12 mm a-1 along most of their segments, and the estimated fault slip rates agree well with previous geologic and geodetic results. Blocks having significant residuals are located at the southern and southeastern Tibetan Plateau, suggesting complex tectonic settings and further refinement of accurate definition of block geometry in these regions.

  6. The history of time and frequency from antiquity to the present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Judah

    2016-04-01

    I will discuss the evolution of the definitions of time, time interval, and frequency from antiquity to the present day. The earliest definitions of these parameters were based on a time interval defined by widely observed apparent astronomical phenomena, so that techniques of time distribution were not necessary. With this definition, both time, as measured by clocks, and frequency, as realized by some device, were derived quantities. On the other hand, the fundamental parameter today is a frequency based on the properties of atoms, so that the situation is reversed and time and time interval are now derived quantities. I will discuss the evolution of this transition and its consequences. In addition, the international standards of both time and frequency are currently realized by combining the data from a large number of devices located at many different laboratories, and this combination depends on (and is often limited by) measurements of the times of clocks located at widely-separated laboratories. I will discuss how these measurements are performed and how the techniques have evolved over time.

  7. [Psychiatry during National Socialism: historical knowledge, implications for present day ethical debates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, V

    2010-11-01

    This contribution is a synthesis of the results of historical research on psychiatry during the Nazi period and some implications for present day debates in medical ethics. The focus is on three issues: the relationship between physicians and the state, the impact of eugenically and economically motivated health and social policies for psychiatry (e.g. forced sterilization, patient killing/euthanasia) and psychiatric research. Three myths are deconstructed: 1) that medical atrocities were imposed from above by Nazi politicians on apolitical physicians, 2) that mass sterilization and patient killing had nothing to do with contemporary state of the art of medical reasoning and practice and 3) that ethically unacceptable research on psychiatric patients had nothing to do with the contemporary state of the art of biomedical sciences. It is argued that the findings on these issues of Nazi medicine are not specific to Germany and the period between 1933 and 1945 but they were the extreme manifestations of some potential problems implicit in modern medicine in general.

  8. Back to the Future: Estimating Initial Globular Cluster Masses from their Present Day Stellar Mass Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to model the 12 Gyr evolution of a suite of star clusters with identical initial stellar mass functions over a range of initial cluster masses, sizes, and orbits. Our models reproduce the distribution of present-day global stellar mass functions that is observed in the Milky Way globular cluster population. We find that the slope of a star cluster's stellar mass function is strongly correlated with the fraction of mass that the cluster has lost, independent of the cluster's initial mass, and nearly independent of its orbit and initial size. Thus, the mass function - initial mass relation can be used to determine a Galactic cluster's initial total stellar mass, if the initial stellar mass function is known. We apply the mass function - initial mass relation presented here to determine the initial stellar masses of 33 Galactic globular clusters, assuming an universal Kroupa initial mass function. Our study suggests that globular clusters had initial masses that were on average a factor...

  9. Cannabis careers revisited: applying Howard S. Becker's theory to present-day cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of today's sociological research on recreational drug use is (explicitly or implicitly) inspired by Howard Becker's classical model of deviant careers. The aim of the present paper is to directly apply Becker's theory to empirical data on present-day cannabis use and to suggest a revision of the theory. As part of this, we propose a stretch of the sociological approach represented by Becker and followers in order to include, not only recreational drug use, but also use for which young people have sought treatment. The paper is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in treatment for cannabis problems in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest a revision of Becker's career model in relation to four aspects: initiation of cannabis use, differentiation between socially integrated and individualised, disintegrated use, social control from non-users, and the users' moral stance on cannabis. A central point of the paper is that social interaction may both motivate cannabis use, as Becker proposed, and serve as a protective factor against extensive, problematic use.

  10. From light to mass: accessing the initial and present-day Galactic globular cluster mass functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The initial and present-day mass functions (ICMF and PDMF, respectively) of the Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are constructed based on their observed luminosities, the stellar evolution and dynamical mass-loss processes, and the mass-to-light ratio (MLR). Under these conditions, a Schechter-like ICMF is evolved for approximately a Hubble time and converted into the luminosity function (LF), which requires finding the values of 5 free parameters: the mean GC age (\\tA), the dissolution timescale of a $10^5 \\ms$ cluster ($\\tau_5$), the exponential truncation mass (\\mc) and 2 MLR parametrising constants. This is achieved by minimising the residuals between the evolved and observed LFs, with the minimum residuals and realistic parameters obtained with MLRs that increase with luminosity (or mass). The optimum PMDFs indicate a total stellar mass of $\\sim4\\times10^7$ \\ms\\ still bound to GCs, representing $\\sim15%$ of the mass in clusters at the beginning of the gas-free evolution. The corresponding ICMFs resemble ...

  11. Simulation of the present-day climate with the climate model INMCM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, E. M.; Mortikov, E. V.; Kostrykin, S. V.; Galin, V. Ya.; Lykossov, V. N.; Gritsun, A. S.; Diansky, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.; Iakovlev, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we present the fifth generation of the INMCM climate model that is being developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INMCM5). The most important changes with respect to the previous version (INMCM4) were made in the atmospheric component of the model. Its vertical resolution was increased to resolve the upper stratosphere and the lower mesosphere. A more sophisticated parameterization of condensation and cloudiness formation was introduced as well. An aerosol module was incorporated into the model. The upgraded oceanic component has a modified dynamical core optimized for better implementation on parallel computers and has two times higher resolution in both horizontal directions. Analysis of the present-day climatology of the INMCM5 (based on the data of historical run for 1979-2005) shows moderate improvements in reproduction of basic circulation characteristics with respect to the previous version. Biases in the near-surface temperature and precipitation are slightly reduced compared with INMCM4 as well as biases in oceanic temperature, salinity and sea surface height. The most notable improvement over INMCM4 is the capability of the new model to reproduce the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biannual oscillation and statistics of sudden stratospheric warmings.

  12. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Peter; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A di...

  13. Present-day status of investigations of anthropogenic influence on atmospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyev, K. Y.

    1984-05-01

    The present day status of research on global spatial-temporal variability of the total content of atmospheric ozone is described. There is still a probable risk of weakening of the ozone layer as a result of the discharge of fluorocarbons, although in the future attention must also be given to other halogenated compounds which may reach the stratosphere. Should the discharge of fluorocarbons continue at the present rate, this should eventually lead to a decrease in the total ozone content by approximately 10%. For the time being there are no anthropogenically caused changes in the total ozone content. Numerical modeling indicates the existence of latitudinal and seasonal variations which must be taken into account in estimates of the consequences of a decrease in ozone content for man's health and the environment. There is a need for continuing and expanding programs for investigating all the main aspects of the problem, including numerical modeling, long-term global monitoring and laboratory measurements. A priority item is the monitoring of the ozone concentration at altitudes greater than 35 km where it is most responsive to anthropogenic effects.

  14. The influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Krško

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia. The migration of entire ethnic groups – especially after the dissolution of the Roman Empire – led to contact between native and incoming people. Ethnic contact also affected languages of these ethnic groups, as mutual influencing and borrowing of vocabulary occurred. Incoming ethnic groups had to find their way around in the new surroundings as well as identify and distinguish important landmarks, mainly hills, mountains and streams. We can approach the issue of pre-Slavic hydronyms from two points of view: one, by analyzing the names preserved from the time period before the arrival of Slavs in the territory of Slovakia, and two, by analyzing the names whose origin some authors consider to be pre-Slavic. The oldest name of a river from the Slovak region comes from the time period before the arrival of the Slavs. It was recorded by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius in years 166–180 AD as Granoua. It is a record of the river Hron at which Roman legions fought against the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Several historians and linguists believe that besides the rivers Dunaj, Morava and Tisa, other names of big rivers date from before the arrival of Slavs in the central Europe. In the paper, we analyse the names Dunaj, Morava, Váh, Hron, Tisa, Nitra and Hornád.

  15. Pro-colonial or Postcolonial? Appropriation of Japanese Colonial Heritage in Present-day Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Amae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of World War II, the Kuomintang (KMT (Guomindang government has erased all traces of Japanese rule from public space, deeming them “poisonous” to the people in Taiwan. This frenzy, often termed “de-Japanization” or qu Ribenhua in Chinese, included the destruction and alteration of Japanese structures. Yet, with democratization in the 1990s, the Japanese past has been revisited, and many Japa-nese structures have been reconstructed and preserved. This paper examines the social phenomenon of preserving Japanese heritage in present-day Taiwan. It mainly investigates religious/ spiritual architecture, such as Shinto shrines and martial arts halls (Butokuden, war monuments and Japanese statues and busts. A close investigation of these monuments finds that many of them are not restored and preserved in their original form but in a deformed/ transformed one. This finding leads the paper to conclude that the phenomenon is a postcolonial endeavour, rather than being “pro-colonial”, and that the preservation of Japanese heritage contributes to the construction and consolidation of a Taiwan-centric historiography in which Taiwan is imagined as multicultural and hybrid.

  16. Present-day spreading motion of the mid-Atlantic ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Over a long period of time, the spreading rate of the mid-Atlantic ridge has been ascertained by the geological age of the magnetic stripe laid out oneither side of the mid-ocean ridge in conjunction with the annals of the magnetic reversal history. Is the mid-Atlantic ridge still spreading today? How fast is it moving or are there any changes? All these questions remain unsolved. Basedon the newest ITRF2000 velocity field published by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS), the contemporary global plate motion model ITRF2000VEL is constructed, independent of any plate model hypothesis. Solutions for relative Euler's vectors of plate pairs as North America-Eurasia, North America- Africa andSouth America-Africa are obtained, implying current spreading rates of the mid-Atlantic ridge. Comparing them with results from the NNR-NUVEL1A model displays the present-day motion characteristics of the mid-Atlantic ridge that the mid-ridge of the South Atlantic, whose spreading is slowing down, spreads faster than the North Atlantic, whose spreading is speeding up.

  17. Compact High-Redshift Galaxies Are the Cores of Present-Day Massive Spheroids

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Murray, Norman; Quataert, Eliot; Lauer, Tod; Ma, Chung-Pei

    2009-01-01

    Observations suggest that effective radii of high-z massive spheroids are as much as a factor ~6 smaller than low-z galaxies of comparable mass. Given the apparent absence of low-z counterparts, this has often been interpreted as indicating that the high density, compact red galaxies must be 'puffed up' by some mechanism. We compare the ensemble of high-z observations with large samples of well-observed low-z ellipticals. At the same physical radii, the stellar surface mass densities of low and high-z systems are comparable. Moreover, the abundance of high surface density material at low redshift is comparable to or larger than that observed at z>1-2, consistent with the continuous buildup of spheroids over this time. The entire population of compact, high-z red galaxies may be the progenitors of the high-density cores of present-day ellipticals, with no need for a decrease in stellar density from z=2 to z=0. The primary difference between low and high-z systems is thus the observed low-density material at la...

  18. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) to Volatile Components of Host-Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hui; Li Jiquan; Jin Youju

    2003-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of adult A. glabripennis (Motsch.) to volatiles from ashleaf maple(Acer negundo L.) were investigated to identify semiochemicals involved in host location. Measurable electroantennogram (EAG)responses were elicited to all compounds tested, the most effective antennal stimulants were trans-2-hexen-1-al,decyl aldehyde andtrans-2-hexen-1-ol.These profiles were similar between males and females. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, above three com-pounds with certain concentration, trans-2-hexen-1-al (1%), trans-2-hexen-1-ol (1%) and decyl aldehyde (10%), were significantlyattractive to the adults in laboratory. The results show that either EAG or olfactory responding to a particular volatile compound aremarkedly influenced by the concentration.

  19. Present-day erosion of Martian polar terrain by the seasonal CO2 jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Hansen, Candice J.; Aye, Klaus-Michael

    2017-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) detected the new troughs during its campaign for seasonal monitoring of the polar areas. The newly detected dendritic troughs are small shallow branching troughs (≈ 1.4 m wide) similar to the seasonal furrows previously detected in the northern hemisphere (Bourke, 2013). The essential difference between the new troughs and furrows lies in the fact that the troughs in the south are persistent while the northern furrows are erased each Martian year by the sand movement due to summer winds. From year to year the new southern troughs extend and develop new tributaries and their overall geometry turns from linear to dendritic, a characteristic shared with araneiform terrains. We believe that furrows have the same origin as the southern dendritic troughs but do not develop into dendritic shapes because of the high mobility of the dune material into which they are carved. Several locations where new dendritic troughs are observed lie in the vicinity of dunes. This gives us an observational indication that presence of erosive sand material is an important factor in creating (or at least starting) erosive processes that lead to the formation of dendritic troughs. By extrapolation the same mechanism should be acting to create the much larger araneiform terrains. Detection of the present day erosion working in polar areas and creating new topographical features is important for understanding of the processes that shape polar areas. Several years of HiRISE observations provide us with the information about the current rate of erosion and hence help estimate minimum ages of the araneiforms and the surface into which they are carved to be 1.3 × 103 Martian years.

  20. Exploiting Oceanic Residual Depth to Quantify Present-day Dynamic Topography at the Earth's Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Mark; White, Nicky

    2014-05-01

    Convective circulation within the mantle causes vertical motions at the Earth's surface. This dynamic topography is time dependent and occurs on wavelengths of 1000s km with maximum amplitudes of ±2 km. Convective simulation models have been used extensively to make predictions of dynamic topography and have thus far out-paced observational constraints. Here, the well-established relationship between seafloor subsidence and age is used to produce a global map of residual depth anomalies in the oceanic realm. Care is taken to remove other causes of topography, including an isostatic correction for sedimentary loading that takes compaction into account, a correction for variable oceanic crustal thickness, and lithospheric thickening with age away from mid-ocean ridge spreading centres. A dataset including over 1000 seismic reflection profiles and 300 modern wide-angle refraction experiments has been amassed, primarily on old ocean floor adjacent to the continents. Calculation of residual depth yields a map of present-day dynamic topography with amplitudes significantly larger than the errors associated with the corrections. One of the most interesting results occurs along the west coast of Africa, where two full 2000 km wavelengths of dynamic topography have been captured with amplitudes ±1 km that correlate well with the long-wavelength free air gravity anomaly. Comparison with predictive models reveal poor to moderate correlations. This is a direct result of the limited resolution of the mantle tomography models used to set-up convection simulations and also the currently poor understanding of viscosity structure within the Earth. It is hoped that this residual depth dataset should provide an excellent surface boundary constraint for future convective simulation.

  1. Detection of Prominent Stellar Disks in the Progenitors of Present-day Massive Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Roozbeh H.; Ho, Luis C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2017-02-01

    Massive galaxies at high redshifts (z > 2) show different characteristics from their local counterparts: they are compact and most likely have a disk. In this study, we trace the evolution of local massive galaxies by performing a detailed morphological analysis, namely, fitting single Sérsic profiles and performing bulge+disk decompositions. We analyze ∼250 massive galaxies selected from all CANDELS fields (COSMOS, UDS, EGS, GOODS-South, and GOODS-North). We confirm that both star-forming and quiescent galaxies increase their sizes significantly from z ≈ 2.5 to the present day. The global Sérsic index of quiescent galaxies increases over time (from n ≈ 2.5 to n > 4), while that of star-forming galaxies remains roughly constant (n ≈ 2.5). By decomposing galaxy profiles into bulge+disk components, we find that massive galaxies at high redshift have prominent stellar disks, which are also evident from visual inspection of the images. By z ≈ 0.5, the majority of the disks disappear and massive quiescent galaxies begin to resemble the local elliptical galaxies. Star-forming galaxies have lower bulge-to-total ratios (B/T) than their quiescent counterparts in each redshift bin. The bulges of star-forming and quiescent galaxies follow different evolutionary histories, while their disks evolve similarly. Based on our morphological analysis and previous cosmological simulations, we argue that major mergers, along with minor mergers, have played a crucial role in the significant increase in size of high-z galaxies and the destruction of their massive and large-scale disks.

  2. The Cyclicity of the Development of the Global Economic System amid Present-Day Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail N. Dudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is associated with the diversity of causes behind crisis processes in economics and the individuality of each particular crisis. This necessitates classifying them in a detailed fashion. The present downturn is a manifestation of the cyclicity of the development of the global economic system amid present-day globalization and the established architecture of the institutional space. The formal (legislation, contractual rules, corporate norms, etc. and non-formal institutes (rules, customs, traditions, behavior as a whole, etc., undergoing changes in their structure and mechanisms, caused the emergence of financial innovations whose yield surpassed that of the real sector of the economy multifold. This facilitated the concentration of money in financial markets and transforming them into a thing-in-itself. The theory of economic cycles is one of the theories of economic dynamics which explain the movement of the national economy. While the theory of economic growth explores factors and conditions for growth as a long-term trend, the theory of cycles deals with causes behind fluctuations in economic activity through time. Results. In accordance with the aims of this study, the authors established that crises can have the following causes: objective, which are associated with the cyclical development of the system, modernization and restructuring needs, and the impact of external factors, and subjective, which reflect errors in management, shortcomings in the organization of production, and the imperfections of innovation and investment policy. A crisis can take its course manifestly and be easily detected or can be inconspicuous and take its course in a latent form. The most dangerous are crises that affect the system as a whole. In a situation of this kind, there forms a train of complex issues resolving which depends on the timeliness of detecting them and professionalism in managing the organization, municipal

  3. Present-day and future mediterranean precipitation extremes assessed by different statistical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxian, A.; Hertig, E.; Seubert, S.; Vogt, G.; Jacobeit, J.; Paeth, H.

    2015-02-01

    The Mediterranean area is strongly vulnerable to future changes in temperature and precipitation, particularly concerning extreme events, and has been identified as a climate change hot spot. This study performs a comprehensive investigation of present-day and future Mediterranean precipitation extremes based on station data, gridded observations and simulations of the regional climate model (REMO) driven by the coupled global general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Extreme value estimates from different statistical methods—quantile-based indices, generalized pareto distribution (GPD) based return values and data from a weather generator—are compared and evaluated. Dynamical downscaling reveals improved small-scale topographic structures and more realistic higher rainfall totals and extremes over mountain ranges and in summer. REMO tends to overestimate gridded observational data in winter but is closer to local station information. The dynamical-statistical weather generator provides virtual station rainfall from gridded REMO data that overcomes typical discrepancies between area-averaged model rainfall and local station information, e.g. overestimated numbers of rainy days and underestimated extreme intensities. Concerning future rainfall amount, strong summer and winter drying over the northern and southern Mediterranean, respectively, is confronted with winter wetting over the northern part. In contrast, precipitation extremes tend to increase in even more Mediterranean areas, implying regions with decreasing totals but intensifying extremes, e.g. southern Europe and Turkey in winter and the Balkans in summer. The GPD based return values reveal slightly larger regions of increasing rainfall extremes than quantile-based indices, and the virtual stations from the weather generator show even stronger increases.

  4. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Gunter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating reprocessed data sets over a longer period of time, and now include a firn densification model to account for firn compaction and surface processes. A range of different GRACE gravity models were evaluated, as well as a new ICESat surface height trend map computed using an overlapping footprint approach. When the GIA models created from the combination approach were compared to in-situ GPS ground station displacements, the vertical rates estimated showed consistently better agreement than existing GIA models. In addition, the new empirically derived GIA rates suggest the presence of strong uplift in the Amundsen Sea and Philippi/Denman sectors, as well as subsidence in large parts of East Antarctica. The total GIA mass change estimates for the entire Antarctic ice sheet ranged from 53 to 100 Gt yr−1, depending on the GRACE solution used, and with an estimated uncertainty of ±40 Gt yr−1. Over the time frame February 2003–October 2009, the corresponding ice mass change showed an average value of −100 ± 44 Gt yr−1 (EA: 5 ± 38, WA: −105 ± 22, consistent with other recent estimates in the literature, with the mass loss mostly concentrated in West Antarctica. The refined approach presented in this study shows the contribution that such data combinations can make towards improving estimates of present day GIA and ice mass change, particularly with respect to determining more reliable uncertainties.

  5. A test of present-day plate geometries for northeast Asia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Alternative geometries for the present-day configuration of plate boundaries in northeast Asia and Japan are tested using NUVEL-1 and 256 horizontal earthquake slip vectors from the Japan and northern Kuril trenches. Statistical analysis of the slip vectors is used to determine whether the North American, Eurasian, or Okhotsk plate overlies the trench. Along the northern Kuril trench, slip vectors are well-fit by the NUVEL-1 Pacific-North America Euler pole, but are poorly fit by the Pacific-Eurasia Euler pole. Results for the Japan trench are less conclusive, but suggest that much of Honshu and Hokkaido are also part of the North American plate. The simplest geometry consistent with the trench slip vectors is a geometry in which the North American plate extends south to 41 deg N, and possibly includes northern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. Although these results imply that the diffuse seismicity that connects the Lena River delta to Sakhalin Island and the eastern Sea of Japan records motion between Eurasia and North America, onshore geologic and seismic data define an additional belt of seismicity in Siberia that cannot be explained with this geometry. Assuming that these two seismic belts constitute evidence for an Okhotsk block, two published kinematic models for motion of the Okhotsk block are tested. The first model, which predicts motion of up to 15 mm/yr relative to North America, is rejected because Kuril and Japan trench slip vectors are fit more poorly than for the simpler geometry described above. The second model gives a good fit to the trench slip vectors, but only if Okhotsk-North America motion is slower than 5 mm/yr.

  6. Present-day Kinematics of Papua New Guinea from GPS campaign measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulali Idrissi, A.; McClusky, S.; Tregoning, P.

    2013-12-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a complex tectonic region located in the convergence zone between the Australian and Pacific Plate. It occupies arguably one of the most tectonically complicated regions of the world, and its geodynamic evolution involves micro-plate rotation, lithospheric rupture forming ocean basins, arc-continent collision, subduction polarity reversal, collisional orogenesis, ophiolite obduction, and exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic (ultramafic) rocks. In this study we present a GPS derived velocity field based on 1993-2008 survey mode observations at 30 GPS sites. We combine our results with previously published GPS velocities to investigate the deformation in northern and northwestern Papua New Guinea. We use an elastic block model to invert the regional GPS velocities as well as earthquake slip vectors for poles of rotation of several micro-plates. The micro-plate block boundary fault geometry is based on geological mapping and regional seismicity. The results show that fault system north of the Highlands fold and thrust belt is the major boundary between the rigid Australian Plate and the north Highlands block, with convergence occurring at rates of between ~ 6 and 11.5 mm/yr. The relative motion across the northern Highlands block increases to the north to ~ 21-24 mm/yr, meaning that the New Guinea trench is likely accumulating elastic strain and confirming that the new Guinea Trench is an active inter-plate boundary. Our results also show, that the north New Guinea Highlands and the Papuan peninsula are best modelled as two blocks separated by a boundary through the Aure Fold belt Belt complex. This block boundary today is accommodating an estimated 4-5 mm/yr dextral motion. Our model also confirms previous results showing that the Ramu-Markham fault accommodates the deformation associated with the Finisterre arc-continent collision. This new GPS velocity field provides fresh insights into the details of the kinematics of the PNG present-day

  7. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Peter; Trayford, James W.; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-10-01

    The Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A discrepancy in the f250/f350 versus f350/f500 submm colour-colour relation implies that part of the simulated dust is insufficiently heated, likely because of limitations in our sub-grid model for star-forming regions. We also investigate the effect of adjusting the metal-to-dust ratio and the covering factor of the photodissociation regions surrounding the star-forming cores. We are able to constrain the important dust-related parameters in our method, informing the calculation of dust attenuation for EAGLE galaxies in the UV and optical domain.

  8. Statistical dynamical downscaling of present day and future precipitation regimes in southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, David; Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim; Fink, Andreas; Massmeyer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Southeast Asia has been identified as one of the hot-spots of climate change. While the projected changes in annual precipitation are comparatively small, there is a clear tendency towards more rainfall in the dry season and an increase in extreme precipitation events. In this study, a statistical dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is applied to obtain higher resolution and more robust regional climate change projections for tropical Southeast Asia with focus on Vietnam. First, a recent climate (RC) simulation with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a spatial resolution of ~50 km driven by ERA-Interim (1979-2008) is performed for the tropical region of Southeast Asia. For the SDD, six weather types (WTs) are selected for Vietnam during the wet season (April - October) using a k-means cluster analysis of daily zonal wind component in 850 hPa and 200 hPa from the RC run. For each calculated weather type, simulated representatives are selected from the RC run and are then further dynamically downscaled to a resolution of 0.0625° (7 km). By using historical WT frequencies, the simulated representatives are recombined to a high resolution rainfall climatology for the recent climate. It is shown that the SDD is generally able to capture the present day climatology and that the employment of the higher resolved simulated representatives enhances the performance of the SDD. However, an overestimation of rainfall at higher altitudes is found. To obtain future climate projections, an ensemble of eight CMIP5 model members are selected to study precipitation changes. For these projections, WT frequencies of future scenarios under two representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are taken into account for the mid-term scenario (2046-2065) and the long-term scenario (2081-2100). The strongest precipitation changes are found for the RCP8.5 scenario. Most of the models indicate a generally increase in precipitation amount in the wet period over Southeast

  9. Present-day changes of mountain glaciers on the southern slope of the Dzhungarian Alatau range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Kokarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacierization of southern slope of the Dzhungarian (Zhetysu Alatau range was estimated by means of data obtained by operational satellite Landsat 7 surveys on August 19 and September 2011 (sensors ETM+ with the use of digital relief models (ASTER GDEM. Analysis of these materials by means of computer programs ENVI, ERDAS Imagine, MapInfo, and ArcGIS made it possible to obtain a spatial information of glacier systems of the territory under investigation and to define morphological characteristics of glaciers, present-day moraine complexes, glacier lakes as well as other elements of glacial monitoring at the survey moments. To estimate changes of the glacierization the data from previous Inventories of this glacier system as of 1956 and 1972 (P.A. Cherkasov, 1990 and 2000 (authors of this article were used. 30 glaciers being now located on the Chine territory but included into the Inventories of 1956 and 1972 (because the boundaries were changed after 1990 were included into new Inventory.As of 2011, 500 glaciers with total area of their open parts 120.12 km2 were registered in Southern Dzhungaria. 124 glaciers (57% of total number cover area less 0.1 km2 each, and their total area is equal to 9.01 km2 (8% of total area of the glacierization.Total area of the moraines reached 105.6 km2. Volume of open ice calculated by formulas was estimated 4.6 km3. According to calculations, the firn line altitude of the glaciers on the southern slope was equal to 3685 m. As compared to 1956 (3645 m this line lifted by 40 m. 190 glacier lakes with total area 6.0 km2 were found on this territory, among them 19 lakes were classified as especially dangerous for outbursting (their total area – 2.5 km2.For the last 55 years the glacierization area in the Southern Dzhungaria was reduced by 47.4% or, on the average, by 0.86% in every year. It should be noted that for the several last years, the rate of degradation decreased almost twice as compared to earlier years

  10. Simulations of Hydrological Cycle Changes Between the LGM and the Present Day over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; LI Weiliang; HE Jinhai; CHEN Longxun

    2010-01-01

    Based on the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project(ISCCP)data in 1983-2006,it is found that there is a high value center of high cloud amount over the Tibetan Plateau(TP),while there is a high value center of middle cloud amount over the Sichuan Basin extending to the coastal area of southeastern China along the same latitude,and a low one over the TP.The present day(PD)and Last Glacial Maximum(LGM)climates are simulated by using the NCAR Community Climate Model(CCM3)nested with a regional mesoscale model(MM5).Comparing the clouds simulated by MM5 with the ISCCP data,it is found that the main patterns of high and middle clouds over China can be reproduced by MM5,which implies that the climate characteristics of clouds might he dominated by relative humidity.Meanwhile,the vertical distributions of water vapor and temperature are also well simulated by MM5.Furthermore,the hydrological cycle changes between the LGM and PD simulations are examined.The results show that during the LGM,the tropospheric temperature decreases in summer with a high value reduction center in the upper and middle troposphere; in winter,a high value reduction center of temperature appears in the middle troposphere over southern China,while the temperature in the upper and middle troposphere increases over northern China.There obviously exists a positive correlation between the water vapor content and temperature change.The water vapor content mostly decreases with the maximum drop in the near-ground surface layer,but it increases in the upper and middle troposphere over northern China in winter.Changes of water vapor content gradually weaken with the altitude increasing,reaching the minimum in the upper troposphere.The relative humidity can either increase or decrease with the maximum change greater than 15%.It is not conservative on the regional scale,and its change is consistent with the changes of middle and low clouds.During the LGM,the high cloud reduces nationwide except over

  11. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  12. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day greenlandic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand;

    2015-01-01

    ∼200,000 SNPs from more than 10% of the adult Greenlandic population (n = 4,674). We found that recent gene flow from Europe has had a substantial impact on the population: more than 80% of the Greenlanders have some European ancestry (on average ∼25% of their genome). However, we also found...... between the Norse Vikings who lived in Greenland for a limited period ∼600-1,000 years ago and the Inuit, we found no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Similarly, we found no evidence supporting a previously hypothesized admixture event between the Inuit in East Greenland and the Dorset people, who...

  13. Host Factors and Biomarkers Associated with Poor Outcomes in Adults with Invasive Pneumococcal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Hanada

    Full Text Available Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD causes considerable morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify host factors and biomarkers associated with poor outcomes in adult patients with IPD in Japan, which has a rapidly-aging population.In a large-scale surveillance study of 506 Japanese adults with IPD, we investigated the role of host factors, disease severity, biomarkers based on clinical laboratory data, treatment regimens, and bacterial factors on 28-day mortality.Overall mortality was 24.1%, and the mortality rate increased from 10.0% in patients aged ˂50 years to 33.1% in patients aged ≥80 years. Disease severity also increased 28-day mortality, from 12.5% among patients with bacteraemia without sepsis to 35.0% in patients with severe sepsis and 56.9% with septic shock. The death rate within 48 hours after admission was high at 54.9%. Risk factors for mortality identified by multivariate analysis were as follows: white blood cell (WBC count <4000 cells/μL (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-12.8, p < .001; age ≥80 years (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 2.0-21.6, p = .002; serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.5-8.1, p < .001; underlying liver disease (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6-7.8, p = .002; mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.6, p < .001; and lactate dehydrogenase ≥300 IU/L (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0, p = .001. Pneumococcal serotype and drug resistance were not associated with poor outcomes.Host factors, disease severity, and biomarkers, especially WBC counts and serum creatinine, were more important determinants of mortality than bacterial factors.

  14. Interactions of arctic clouds, radiation, and sea ice in present-day and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Melissa Ann

    . In the second half of this study, we explore the effects of super-parameterization on the Arctic climate by evaluating a number of key atmospheric characteristics that strongly influence the regional and global climate. One aspect in particular that we examine is the occurrence of Arctic weather states. Observations show that during winter the Arctic exhibits two preferred and persistent states --- a radiatively clear and an opaquely cloudy state. These distinct regimes are influenced by the phase of the clouds and affect the surface radiative fluxes. We explore the radiative and microphysical effects of these Arctic clouds and the influence on these regimes in two present-day climate simulations. We compare simulations performed with the Community Earth System Model, and its super-parameterized counterpart (SP-CESM). We find that the SP-CESM is able to better reproduce both of the preferred winter states, compared to CESM, and has an overall more realistic representation of the Arctic climate.

  15. Influence of ocean tide dynamics on the climate system from the Cretaceous to present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Thomas, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Global numerical ocean models used for paleo-climate reconstructions generally only consider the ocean's general circulation, but neglect tidal dynamics. However, it has been demonstrated that tidally induced friction at the ocean bottom alters the mean ocean circulation and energy fluxes on timescales larger than one tidal period and up to climate timescales. Thereby the mean ocean circulation and temperature advection is altered and can thus affect climate. We simultaneously modeled the ocean's general circulation and tidal dynamics for five time-slices from the Cretaceous to present day: the Albian (ca. 110 million years ago, Ma), the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (ca. 93 Ma, CTB), the early Eocene (ca. 55 Ma), the early Pliocene (ca. 3.5 Ma), and a pre-industrial period (ca. 1850 AD). These simulations show that the tectonic evolution of ocean basins changes the resonance conditions in the paleo-oceans over time and thus the position of amphydromic systems and the amplitudes of partial tides. Largest amplitudes of the M2 partial tide are obtained during the early Eocene when they are in the global mean by 150% larger than in the CTB, when amplitudes are smallest. The evolution of the tidal system leads to an individual interaction between tidal dynamics and the ocean general circulation for all time-slices. In the Albian a reduction of horizontal velocities of up to 50% is simulated in the deep Indo-Pacific Throughflow (IPT) below 1000m depth. This reduction is the product of tidal residual mean currents induced by tidal waves propagating from the Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean that oppose the prevailing eastward thermohaline currents. In all other time-slices mainly an increase in horizontal transports is simulated. In the CTB both tidal residual mean currents (less than 0.2cm/s in most of the ocean) and the general ocean circulation (less than 0.5cm/s) are small, thus leading to a tidally induced increase by 50% in horizontal velocities in almost half of

  16. Present-day constraint for tropical Pacific precipitation changes due to global warming in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2016-11-01

    The sensitivity of the precipitation responses to greenhouse warming can depend on the present-day climate. In this study, a robust linkage between the present-day precipitation climatology and precipitation change owing to global warming is examined in inter-model space. A model with drier climatology in the present-day simulation tends to simulate an increase in climatological precipitation owing to global warming. Moreover, the horizontal gradient of the present-day precipitation climatology plays an important role in determining the precipitation changes. On the basis of these robust relationships, future precipitation changes are calibrated by removing the impact of the present-day precipitation bias in the climate models. To validate this result, the perfect model approach is adapted, which treats a particular model's precipitation change as an observed change. The results suggest that the precipitation change pattern can be generally improved by applying the present statistical approach.

  17. A NUTRITION OVERVIEW THROUGH CENTURIES. THE PRESENT-DAY NEED OF NUTRITIONAL EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona ILAŞ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The type of alimentation and the food quality of individuals has undergone remarkable changes along with the progress of the human species. This study contains an historical overview regarding human nutrition from the primitive forms until the paradoxes of contemporary alimentation. Nutritional education aims to inform and to train a person about food choices, dosage and cooking, how to identify authentic food and to understand the value of nutrition. Children need a balanced diet in order to grow and to become healthy adults. The importance of nutritional education in school is discussed taking into account the need of creating healthy eating habits which should be followed through the whole life, but also the lack of physical activity to children.

  18. Present-day formation and seasonal evolution of linear dune gullies on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquon, Kelly; Gargani, Julien; Massé, Marion; Conway, Susan J.

    2016-08-01

    adjacent dune) that encompass the active site. South- and SSW-facing dune slopes are those which preferentially host CO2 frost deposits, however, it is only those with angles of ∼20° just below the crest which possess linear dune gullies, suggesting a slope-limited formation process. These observations provide a wealth of temporal and morphometric data that can be used to undertake numerical modeling, to direct future image monitoring and guide laboratory experiments that can be used to better constrain the formation process of these features.

  19. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania between 640 ka and present day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Francke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP, a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points, and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points, respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6

  20. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 640 ka and present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Just, J.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Baumgarten, H.; Vogel, H.; Lacey, J. H.; Sadori, L.; Wonik, T.; Leng, M. J.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.

    2015-09-01

    Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points), and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points) and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points), respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm) mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6 whereas

  1. Relationships between host species and morphometric patterns in Fasciola hepatica adults and eggs from the northern Bolivian Altiplano hyperendemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M A; Darce, N A; Panova, M; Mas-Coma, S

    2001-12-01

    The highest prevalences and intensities of human fasciolosis by Fasciola hepatica are found in the northern Bolivian Altiplano, where sheep and cattle are the main reservoir host species and pigs and donkeys the secondary ones. Morphometric comparisons of many linear measurements, areas and ratios of F. hepatica adults (from sheep, cattle and pigs) and eggs (from sheep, cattle, pigs and donkeys) in natural liver fluke populations of the Bolivian Altiplano, as well as of F. hepatica adults and eggs experimentally obtained in Wistar rats infected with Altiplanic sheep, cattle and pig isolates, were made using computer image analysis and an allometric model. Although morphometric values of adult flukes from natural populations of sheep, cattle, and pigs showed great overlap, there were clear differences in allometric growth. The allometries analyzed were: body area (BA) versus body length (BL), BA versus body width (BW), BA versus perimeter (Pe), BA versus distance between posterior end of body and ventral sucker (P-VS), BL versus BW, BL versus Pe, and BL versus P-VS. These allometries show a good fit in the seven pairs of variables in all the populations examined. Comparative statistical analysis of the allometries shows that fluke adult populations from sheep, cattle and pigs significantly differ in BL versus BW and BL versus P-VS functions. Statistical analysis of F. hepatica egg size shows characteristic morphometric traits in each definitive host species. In experimentally infected rats, fluke adult allometry and egg morphometry do not vary depending on the Altiplanic definitive host species isolate. Our study reveals that the definitive host species decisively influences the size of F. hepatica adults and eggs, and these influences do not persist in a rodent definitive host model.

  2. Peripheral odour perception by adult aphid forms with the same genotype but different host-plant preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardie, J.; Visser, J.H.; Piron, P.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    As adults, the summer (alate virginopara) and autumn (gynopara) winged forms of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, utilise different host plants, the bean Vicia faba, and the spindle tree, Euonymus europaeus, respectively. Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the antennae of these aphid for

  3. Host plant pubescence: Effect on silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, fourth instar and pharate adult dimensions and ecdysteroid titer fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B. Gelman

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to generate physiologically synchronous groups of insects is vital to the performance of investigations designed to test insect responses to intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. During a given instar, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, increase in depth but not in length or width. A staging system to identify physiologically synchronous 4th instar and pharate adult silverleaf whiteflies based on increasing body depth and the development of the adult eye has been described previously. This study determined the effect of host plant identity on ecdysteroid fluctuations during the 4th instar and pharate adult stages, and on the depth, length and width dimensions of 4th instar/pharate adult whiteflies. When grown on the pubescent-leafed green bean, tomato and poinsettia plants, these stages were significantly shorter and narrower, but attained greater depth than when grown on the glabrous-leafed cotton, collard and sweet potato plants. Thus, leaf pubescence is associated with reduced length and width dimensions, but increased depth dimensions in 4th instars and pharate adults. For all host plants, nymphal ecdysteroid titers peaked just prior to the initiation of adult development. However, when reared on pubescent-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred in nymphs that had attained a depth of 0.2 to 0.25 mm (Stage 3 - 4. When reared on glabrous-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred earlier, in nymphs that had attained a depth of only 0.15-0.18 mm (Stage 2 Old - early 3. Therefore, based on ecdysteroid concentration, it appears that Stage-2, -3 and -4/5 nymphs reared on pubescent-leafed plants are physiologically equivalent to Stage-1, -2 Young and -2 Old/3, respectively, nymphs reared on glabrous-leafed plants. The host plant affected the width but not the height of the nymphal-adult premolt ecdysteroid peak. However, leaf pubescence was not the determining factor. Thus

  4. Effect of host-cocoon mass on adult size in the secondary hyperparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus semotus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey A.Harvey; Alex Gumovsky; Rieta Gols

    2012-01-01

    Parasitoids have long proven to be model organisms in studying resourcerelated constraints on immature development.Here we examine the relationship between host cocoon (=pupal) size in the gregarious endoparasitoid wasp,Cotesia glomerata,and development time and adult size in the solitary idiobiont hyperparasitoid,Pteromalus semotus.Little is known about the biology or ecology of this ecto-hyperparasitoid species,although it is one of the major secondary hyperparasitoids of C.glomerata.The size of the adult wasp covaried with the size of the host cocoon at parasitism.Moreover,female wasps were larger than male wasps for a given cocoon size.Adult wasps have remarkably long life-spans,3 months on average.Longevity did not significantly differ with sex.We also examined how larvae of P.semotus exclude other potential competitors.P.semotus is protandrous,with females taking significantly longer to complete their development than males.In experiments where several eggs of P.semotus were placed on individual pupae of C.glomerata,newly hatched hyperparasitoid larvae moved rapidly over the surface of the host and destroyed the eggs of any conspecifics by biting them before they would initiate feeding on host tissues.Our results are discussed in relation to those with other studies with solitary ichneumonid idiobiont hyperparasitoids of C.glomerata.

  5. Cultured human embryonic neocortical cells survive and grow in infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and interconnect with host brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Jin-sheng; YU Jian; CUI Chun-mei; ZHAO Zhan; HONG Hua; SHENG Wen-li; TAO Yu-qian; LI Ling; HUANG Ru-xun

    2005-01-01

    Background There are no reports on exnografting cultured human fetal neocortical cells in this infracted cavities of adult rat brains. This study was undertaken to observe whether cultured human cortical neurons and astrocytes can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and whether they interconnect with host brains.Methods The right middle cerebral artery was ligated distal to the striatal branches in 16 adult stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats. One week later, cultured cells from human embryonic cerebral cortexes were stereotaxically transferred to the infarcted cavity of 11 rats. The other 5 rats receiving sham transplants served as controls. For immunosuppression, all transplanted rats received intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A daily starting on the day of grafting. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin, neurofilament, and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) was performed on brain sections perfused in situ 8 weeks after transplantation.Results Grafts in the infarcted cavities of 6 of 10 surviving rats consisted of bands of neurons with an immature appearance, bundles of fibers, and GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes, which were unevenly distributed. The grafts were rich in synaptophysin, neurofilament, and MAP2-positive neurons with long processes. The graft/host border was diffuse with dendrites apparently bridging over to the host brain, into which neurofilament immunopositive fibers protruded. Conclusion Cultured human fetal brain cells can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of immunodepressed rats and integrate with the host brain.

  6. Determining larval host plant use by a polyphagous lepidopteran through analysis of adult moths for plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert G; Head, Graham; Mierkowski, Mary

    2007-06-01

    Many polyphagous insect species are important economic pests on one or more of their crop hosts. For most important insect pests, the common crop hosts are well-known, but knowledge of weedy and unmanaged hosts is limited. Furthermore, the relative contribution of different hosts to local and regional populations has rarely been ascertained because this requires having some way to determine which plant hosts are the source of the adult moths observed ovipositing in a crop field at a given place and time. One way of determining the larval host of polyphagous pest species is to analyze for several plant-derived chemicals that are each specific to a different small set of related plant species and are preserved in detectable amounts in adult moths. In this paper, we describe novel methods for analyzing adults of the polyphagous lepidopteran, the tobacco budworm (TBW) Heliothis virescens (F.), for plant secondary metabolites, specifically cotinine and gossypol, which are diagnostic for larval feeding on tobacco and cotton, respectively. Cotinine was extracted from individual TBW moths with acetic acid and methanol, then concentrated and analyzed directly by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The same moths then were analyzed for bound gossypol by creating a Schiff's base that used aniline, and the resulting dianilino-gossypol complex was quantified using high pressure chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) as the detector. Based on analysis of standards, the detection limit for the cotinine was less than 1.5 ppb by dry weight. Comparable standards were not available for the gossypol derivative so a quantitative limit of detection could not be calculated. When TBW moths reared on known hosts were analyzed for gossypol and/or cotinine, all of the moths reared on tobacco or cotton were correctly identified, although some false positives were recorded with the gossypol method. Analysis of TBW moths of various ages and at various

  7. Using present-day observations to detect when anthropogenic change forces surface ocean carbonate chemistry outside preindustrial bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Adrienne J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Feely, Richard A.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Cronin, Meghan F.; McPhaden, Michael J.; Morell, Julio M.; Newton, Jan A.; Noh, Jae-Hoon; Ólafsdóttir, Sólveig R.; Salisbury, Joseph E.; Send, Uwe; Vandemark, Douglas C.; Weller, Robert A.

    2016-09-01

    One of the major challenges to assessing the impact of ocean acidification on marine life is detecting and interpreting long-term change in the context of natural variability. This study addresses this need through a global synthesis of monthly pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) climatologies for 12 open ocean, coastal, and coral reef locations using 3-hourly moored observations of surface seawater partial pressure of CO2 and pH collected together since as early as 2010. Mooring observations suggest open ocean subtropical and subarctic sites experience present-day surface pH and Ωarag conditions outside the bounds of preindustrial variability throughout most, if not all, of the year. In general, coastal mooring sites experience more natural variability and thus, more overlap with preindustrial conditions; however, present-day Ωarag conditions surpass biologically relevant thresholds associated with ocean acidification impacts on Mytilus californianus (Ωarag conditions approached Ωarag = 1. Global and regional models and data syntheses of ship-based observations tended to underestimate seasonal variability compared to mooring observations. Efforts such as this to characterize all patterns of pH and Ωarag variability and change at key locations are fundamental to assessing present-day biological impacts of ocean acidification, further improving experimental design to interrogate organism response under real-world conditions, and improving predictive models and vulnerability assessments seeking to quantify the broader impacts of ocean acidification.

  8. Filozofia i świat współczesny (Philosophy and the present-day world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Judycki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at showing what role philosophical education should fulfill in the present-day world. One of the main causes of cultural, scientific and technological development of the Western civilization can be seen in the close cooperation between philosophy, theology, science and humanities. Although modern science functions independently from philosophy, it is nevertheless possible that even today fundamental theoretical problems in science and speculative philosophical problems are closely connected and mutually influence each other.Characteristic for present-day world is the broad access to education and information, but new means of information which we possess today are also used as means of manipulation. Philosophical education can fulfill the role of a defense mechanism against manipulation because it leads to the development of critical attitude and to the very broad understanding of natural and social world. Only uncompromising desire for truth, broad understanding of natural and social world, the habit of critical thinking could in an important way influence the development of true tolerance and harmony in the social life in the present-day world.

  9. Analysis of large new South African dataset using two host-specificity indices shows generalism in both adult and larval ticks of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinaze, Marcela P A; Hellard, Eléonore; Horak, Ivan G; Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-03-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens can have considerable impacts on the health of livestock, wildlife and people. Knowledge of tick-host preferences is necessary for both tick and pathogen control. Ticks were historically considered as specialist parasites, but the range of sampled host species has been limited, infestation intensity has not been included in prior analyses, and phylogenetic distances between hosts have not been previously considered. We used a large dataset of 35 604 individual collections and two host-specificity indices to assess the specificity of 61 South African tick species, as well as distinctions between adult and juvenile ticks, for 95 mammalian hosts. When accounting for host phylogeny, most adult and juvenile ticks behaved as generalists, with juveniles being significantly more generalist than adults. When we included the intensity of tick infestation, ticks exhibited a wider diversity of specificity in all life stages. Our results show that ticks of mammals in South Africa tend to behave largely as generalists and that adult ticks are more host-specific. More generally, our analysis shows that the incorporation of life-stage differences, infestation intensity and phylogenetic distances between hosts, as well as the use of more than one specificity index, can all contribute to a deeper understanding of host-parasite interactions.

  10. Very high resolution modelling of the Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Present day conditions and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, Ruth; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Boberg, Fredrik; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Langen, Peter; Rodehacke, Christian; Stendel, Martin; Yang, Shuting

    2014-05-01

    Recent experiments with the Regional Climate Model (RCM) HIRHAM5 have produced new surface mass balance (SMB) estimates at the unprecedented high horizontal resolution of 0.05 degrees (~5.5km). These simulations indicate a present day SMB of 347 ± 98 Gt/year over the whole ice sheet averaged over the period 1989 - 2012 driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. We validate accumulation rates over the ice sheet using estimates from shallow firn cores to confirm the importance of resolution to accurate estimates of accumulation. Comparison with PROMICE and GC-Net automatic weather station observations shows the model represents present day climate and climate variability well when driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Comparison with a simulation at 0.25 degrees (~27km) resolution from the same model shows a significantly different calculated SMB over the whole ice sheet, largely due to changes in precipitation distribution over Greenland. The very high resolution requires a more sophisticated treatment of sub-grid scale processes in the snow pack including meltwater retention and refreezing and an enhanced albedo scheme. Our results indicate retention processes account for a significant proportion of the total surface budget based on a new parameterization scheme in the model. SMB projections, driven by the EC-Earth Global Climate Model (GCM) at the boundaries for the RCP 4.5 scenario indicate a declining surface mass balance over the 21st century with some compensation for warmer summer temperatures and enhanced melt in the form of increased precipitation. A cold bias in the driving GCM for present day conditions suggests that this simulation likely underestimates the change in SMB. However, the downscaled precipitation fields compare well with those in the reanalysis driven simulations. A soon-to-be complete simulation uses driving fields from the GCM running the RCP8.5 scenario.

  11. Past agricultural land use and present-day fire regimes can interact to determine the nature of seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhler, John D; Orrock, John L

    2016-06-01

    Historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes can have significant effects on contemporary ecosystems. Although past agricultural land use can lead to long-term changes in plant communities, it remains unclear whether these persistent land-use legacies alter plant-consumer interactions, such as seed predation, and whether contemporary disturbance (e.g., fire) alters the effects of historical agriculture on these interactions. We conducted a study at 27 sites distributed across 80,300 ha in post-agricultural and non-agricultural longleaf pine woodlands with different degrees of fire frequency to test the hypothesis that past and present-day disturbances that alter plant communities can subsequently alter seed predation. We quantified seed removal by arthropods and rodents for Tephrosia virginiana and Vernonia angustifolia, species of conservation interest. We found that the effects of land-use history and fire frequency on seed removal were contingent on granivore guild and microhabitat characteristics. Tephrosia virginiana removal was greater in low fire frequency sites, due to greater seed removal by rodents. Although overall removal of V. angustifolia did not differ among habitats, rodents removed more seeds than arthropods at post-agricultural sites and non-agricultural sites with low fire frequencies, but not at non-agricultural sites with high fire frequencies. Land-use history and fire frequency also affected the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and removal of V. angustifolia. Our results suggest that historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes may alter seed predation by shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators among habitats, with potential consequences for the establishment of rare plant species consumed by one or both predators.

  12. Linguistic change: the grammatical environment of participial non-finite clauses in Old English and in present-day English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper reports on the final results 1 of the author's study of the use of participial nonfinite clauses and dependent clauses in Old English (OE and in present-day English (PE, in relation to the nature of their respective grammatical environment. It ensues from the research into the early stages of syntactic change, which started as team work at the universities of Ljubljana and Maribor in 1986, under the guidance and coordination of Janez Orešnik.

  13. Adult fecundity, host plant preferences, field activity and parasitism in the leaf weevil Phyllobius pyri (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiald, H E; Straw, N A; Stewart, A J A

    2010-06-01

    Adults of the leaf weevil Phyllobius pyri (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feed on a wide variety of broadleaved trees and occasionally cause severe defoliation in newly established farm woodlands. There is little information, however, on the relative susceptibility of different tree species to damage or on the habitat associations of adults and larvae of P. pyri, which might indicate the conditions that predispose trees to attack. Captures of adult P. pyri in emergence and flight traps in the current study indicated population densities in grassland of 0.5-6.4 adults per m2 at emergence but higher densities up to 13.5 per m2 in young pine plantations, where there was a mixture of grassy patches and young, naturally regenerating birch trees. The close proximity of larval food resources (grass roots) and a favoured adult host-plant, which also occurs in young farm woodlands, provided ideal conditions for P. pyri and allowed high population densities to develop. Feeding and performance experiments indicated that cherry, birch, oak and hornbeam were most susceptible to P. pyri, whereas field maple, hawthorn, rowan, lime and especially ash were resistant. Adult female P. pyri emerged in May reproductively immature and fed on tree foliage for 15.9+/-0.9 days before laying their first batch of eggs. Adults lived for 33.3+/-1.5 days, on average, and females laid a mean of 191.9+/-34.5 eggs (maximum=589) during their lifetime. Eggs hatched after 16-20 days. During 2003 and 2004, 11-16% of adult P. pyri were parasitised by Pygostylus falcatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and 19-29% were parasitised by Rondania fasciata (Diptera: Tachinidae).

  14. Iceland hotspot track in southeast Greenland causes huge present-day vertical viscoelastic motion of the bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael; van Dam, Tonie; Wahr, John; Bamber, Jonathan; Wouters, Bert; Helm, Veit; Willis, Michael; Csatho, Beata; Knudsen, Per; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Kjær, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    The process of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) represents the ongoing response of the solid Earth to past ice mass loss that occurred following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21 ka B.P.). The magnitude of the GIA uplift depends on the temporal history of the ice load and is highly sensitive to variations in upper mantle viscosity. Greenland GIA is thought to be well contained and due to relative high viscosity, influence of more recent changes e.g. since the Little Ice Age have minor present-day effect (GIA. We identify an unexpected GIA anomaly of ~12 mm/yr in southeast Greenland, which we interpret as linked to a zone of warmer upper mantle caused by the Iceland hotspot track that would reduce the viscosity and produce greater viscoelastic uplift due to recent ice mass changes. We reconsider the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet since LGM and estimate a total ice mass loss equivalent to sea level rise of 4.9 m since LGM. Our observations suggest southeast and northwest Greenland, subject to present-day major ice loss, also contributed by significantly more mass loss on millennia scale than previously estimated.

  15. Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Vizcaino, Miren; Fyke, Jeremy; van Kampenhout, Leo; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-09-01

    We present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) as simulated by the global, coupled ocean-atmosphere-land Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a horizontal resolution of {˜ }1° in the past, present and future (1850-2100). CESM correctly simulates present-day Antarctic sea ice extent, large-scale atmospheric circulation and near-surface climate, but fails to simulate the recent expansion of Antarctic sea ice. The present-day Antarctic ice sheet SMB equals 2280 ± 131 {Gt year^{-1}}, which concurs with existing independent estimates of AIS SMB. When forced by two CMIP5 climate change scenarios (high mitigation scenario RCP2.6 and high-emission scenario RCP8.5), CESM projects an increase of Antarctic ice sheet SMB of about 70 {Gt year^{-1}} per degree warming. This increase is driven by enhanced snowfall, which is partially counteracted by more surface melt and runoff along the ice sheet's edges. This intensifying hydrological cycle is predominantly driven by atmospheric warming, which increases (1) the moisture-carrying capacity of the atmosphere, (2) oceanic source region evaporation, and (3) summer AIS cloud liquid water content.

  16. Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

    2008-04-01

    According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

  17. Nymphal and adult performance of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), as a potential alternative host for egg parasitoids multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Wilsimar A.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Correa-Ferreira, Beatriz S. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2001-12-15

    This research aimed to evaluate the potential of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as host for multiplication of egg parasitoids, by determining the nymphal and adult performance of E. heros from laboratory and the field, comparing with Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), under mass conditions. One hundred eggs of E. heros and N. viridula were placed among the leaves of soybean plants contained in cages (50x50x70 cm) and observation were made until adult emergence. The nymphs fed on soybean pods, dry soybean and peanuts seeds. The number of nymphs that reached adulthood and the development time were calculated. The survivorship and reproduction performance of laboratory and field populations of E. heros and N. viridula were evaluated during 13 weeks in February-May 1999. The number of eggs produced by 100 pairs of stink bugs per cage containing the same diet was recorded. Nymphal development time of E. heros and N. viridula was 33.0 and 34.0 days and 65.0% and 71.3% of nymphs reached adulthood, respectively. Adults of E. heros reared under laboratory conditions produced 2.5 times more eggs (5547.0 eggs/cage) than those collected in the field (2262.7 eggs/cage). The adult field population of E. heros had reduced reproduction and longevity due to parasitism by Hexacladia smithii Ash. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The N. viridula adults collected in the field produced 1.7 times more eggs (6304.9 eggs/cage) than those reared in the laboratory (3609.2 eggs/cage). E. heros laboratory reared is a promising host for egg parasitoids multiplication when compared with N. viridula collected in the field. (author)

  18. MOCCA-SURVEY Database I. Accreting White Dwarf Binary Systems in Globular Clusters I. Cataclysmic Variables -- present-day population

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, Diogo T; Askar, Abbas; Leigh, Nathan; Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, which is the first in a series of papers associated with cataclysmic variables and related objects, we introduce the CATUABA code, a numerical machinery written for analysis of the MOCCA simulations, and show some first results by investigating the present-day population of cataclysmic variables in globular clusters. Emphasis was given on their properties and the observational selection effects when observing and detecting them. In this work we analysed in this work six models, including three with Kroupa distributions of the initial binaries. We found that for models with Kroupa initial distributions, considering the standard value of the efficiency of the common envelope phase adopted in BSE, no single cataclysmic variable was formed only via binary stellar evolution, i. e., in order to form them, strong dynamical interactions have to take place. We show and explain why this is inconsistent with observational and theoretical results. Our results indicate that the population of cataclysmic var...

  19. A High-resolution 3D Geodynamical Model of the Present-day India-Asia Collision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B.; Baumann, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-resolution, 3D geodynamic model of the present-day India-Asia collision system. The model is separated into multiple tectonic blocks, for which we estimate the first order rheological properties and the impact on the dynamics of the collision system. This is done by performing systematic simulations with different rheologies to minimize the misfit to observational constraints such as the GPS-velocity field. The simulations are performed with the parallel staggered grid FD code LaMEM using a numerical resolution of at least 512x512x256 cells to resolve dynamically important shear zones reasonably well. A fundamental part of this study is the reconstruction of the 3D present-day geometry of Tibet and the adjacent regions. Our interpretations of crust and mantle lithosphere geometry are jointly based on a globally available shear wave tomography (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013) and the Crust 1.0 model (Laske et al. http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust1.html). We regionally refined and modified our interpretations based on seismicity distributions and focal mechanisms and incorporated regional receiver function studies to improve the accuracy of the Moho in particular. Results suggest that we can identify at least one "best-fit" solution in terms of rheological model properties that reproduces the observed velocity field reasonably well, including the strong rotation of the GPS velocity around the eastern syntax of the Himalaya. We also present model co-variances to illustrate the trade-offs between the rheological model parameters, their respective uncertainties, and the model fit. Schaeffer, A.J., Lebedev, S., 2013. Global shear speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophysical Journal International 194, 417-449. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt095

  20. Similarities in the Spatial Pattern of the Surface Flux Response to Present-Day Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, G.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that present-day greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols can produce remarkably similar patterns of climate response in fully coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulations, despite having significantly different spatial patterns of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) forcing. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms of ocean-atmosphere interaction that could lead to the response pattern formation. Surface flux perturbations are a crucial pathway by which TOA forcing is communicated to the ocean, and may be a vital link in explaining the spatial similarities in the fully coupled responses to disparate TOA forcing patterns—a phenomenon with implications for detection and attribution, as well as the climate sensitivity to different forcers. We analyze the surface energy budget response to present-day aerosols versus GHGs in single forcing, fixed SST, atmospheric GCM experiments to identify mechanisms for response pattern formation via surface flux perturbations. We find that, although the TOA forcing spatial patterns of GHGs and aerosols are largely uncorrelated, their surface radiative and heat flux patterns are significantly anti-correlated. Furthermore, this anti-correlation is largely explained by similar (but sign-reversed) spatial patterns of surface latent and sensible heat flux response to the two forcers, particularly over the winter-hemisphere extratropical oceans. These are, in turn, driven by spatially similar perturbations in surface winds from changes in mean tropical and midlatitude circulation. These results suggest that the mean atmospheric circulation, which has many anti-symmetric responses to GHG and aerosol forcings, is an efficient homogenizer of spatial patterns in the surface heat flux response to heterogeneous TOA forcings, creating an atmosphere-only pathway for similarities in the fully coupled response.

  1. Present-day strain partitioning and strain transfer across the Fairweather and Denali Faults in SW Yukon - SE Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Schmidt, M.

    2012-12-01

    In SW Yukon - SE Alaska, the present-day Pacific - North America relative motion is highly oblique to the main plate boundary, resulting in strong strain partitioning tectonics that link the Aleutian subduction to the west to Queen-Charlotte transform to the south. This transition region is also the site of present-day orogeny and accretion of the allochthonous Yakutat Terrane to the Northern Cordillera. We present results from new campaign and permanent GPS stations deployed in SW Yukon, combined with STEEP data from SE Alaska, straddling the Fairweather and Denali Faults. GPS data are processed with the NRCan PPP software to derive long-term velocities and are corrected for transient effects primarily due to Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to recent ice mass loss. In the southern region (from Yakutat, AK to Whitehorse, YK), our preferred model gives slip rates of 49.9 +/- 2.6 mm/a on the Fairweather Fault and 1.1 +/- 1.0 mm/a on the Denali Fault; i.e., over 95% the Pacific - North America strike-slip motion is accommodated on the main plate-boundary fault. However, the fault-normal component is strongly partitioned, with ~25% of the Pacific - North America convergence transferred inland, into the Yukon and Northern Cordillera. This strain transfer could explain the seismicity observed in the Mackenzie Mountains 500 - 800 km from the coast. In the northern region (from Yakutat, AK to Beaver Creek, YK), the Pacific - North America convergence is strongly partitioned, with less than ~60% accommodated on the Chugach-St. Elias Fault and the residual motion distributed between the Pamplona thrust zone to the south (~15%) and internal shortening of the St. Elias Mountains to the north (~25%), where few faults and little seismicity are observed. The new GPS data also helps address the activity and slip rate of a potential "Connector Fault" that would link the Fairweather and Totschunda Faults, bypassing the Denali Fault in SW Yukon.

  2. Present-day oxidative subsidence of organic soils and mitigation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverel, Steven J.; Ingrum, Timothy; Leighton, David

    2016-05-01

    Subsidence of organic soils in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta threatens sustainability of the California (USA) water supply system and agriculture. Land-surface elevation data were collected to assess present-day subsidence rates and evaluate rice as a land use for subsidence mitigation. To depict Delta-wide present-day rates of subsidence, the previously developed SUBCALC model was refined and calibrated using recent data for CO2 emissions and land-surface elevation changes measured at extensometers. Land-surface elevation change data were evaluated relative to indirect estimates of subsidence and accretion using carbon and nitrogen flux data for rice cultivation. Extensometer and leveling data demonstrate seasonal variations in land-surface elevations associated with groundwater-level fluctuations and inelastic subsidence rates of 0.5-0.8 cm yr-1. Calibration of the SUBCALC model indicated accuracy of ±0.10 cm yr-1 where depth to groundwater, soil organic matter content and temperature are known. Regional estimates of subsidence range from 1.8 cm yr-1. The primary uncertainty is the distribution of soil organic matter content which results in spatial averaging in the mapping of subsidence rates. Analysis of leveling and extensometer data in rice fields resulted in an estimated accretion rate of 0.02-0.8 cm yr-1. These values generally agreed with indirect estimates based on carbon fluxes and nitrogen mineralization, thus preliminarily demonstrating that rice will stop or greatly reduce subsidence. Areas below elevations of -2 m are candidate areas for implementation of mitigation measures such as rice because there is active subsidence occurring at rates greater than 0.4 cm yr-1.

  3. Variability in leaf damage among cultivars of lychee, host of Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sri Lankan weevil has imposed heavy damage on the canopy of various ornamental and fruit trees since it was first detected in South Florida in 2000. One of the more heavily damaged fruit trees is lychee, Litchi chinensis (Sapindales: Sapindaceae). As part of a study to better understand host cho...

  4. Complex Bedforms and Complex Water Masses: A Case Study from the Tertiary to Present-day, Pelotas Basin, Offshore Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P.; Badalini, G.; Wrigley, S.; Walker, R.; Argent, J.; Hernandez-Molina, J.; de Santa Ana, H.; Soto, M.; Tomasini, J.

    2015-12-01

    varied both spatially and temporally and operated at various water depths. This complexity continues Present-day and is spectacularly imaged by pseudo time-lapse seismic data from the Present-day water column. These data, which are commonly neglected, highlight the true complexity of ocean currents and show how discrete dynamic water masses mix and move over time.

  5. Present day school readers in rapport with the dramatic works of a once-banned Albanian author

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besa Shingjergji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of reading, rereading, scrutinizing, re-scrutinizing and appraising an author’s work is not finite; moreover it is very dynamic and full of suprises. No doubt that the appraisal and reappraisal is too complex, including cultural, literary, gender and genre components. This becomes more obvious when referring to an author whose works had been locked up in library stacks during the whole 45 years of totalitarian rule in Albania, and whose appraisal process cannot help facing up to the critical thinking led by biased politicization. In this study the appraisal of the works of one of the most outstanding Albanian writers of the 30s of the twentieth century, Etëhem Haxhiademi, will be done by presenting them in rapport with the present-day school, pre-university and university level readers. This reappraisal is conducted with a cold logic, devoid of the vindictive political principles which brought the distorted evaluation of the authors’ works, as it happened for many other authors as well, and is striving to place the writer into the system of the genuine literary values. Once the reader’s inquisitiveness has been satisfied, even after reading a less-known or, moreover, an oblivious or banned literary work, he/she begins reading and rereading it, looking closely into it, essaying to find a proper place for this work in the general system of the national, inter-balkanic and international literary values. E. Haxhiademi’s literary work was known by an older generations of readers whose esthetic satisfaction it brought forth was confined in their consciousness: it was unknown or partly known, not by direct reading but by several interpretations of others, by a middle generation of readers who displayed a certain artistic uncertainty and indifference. However, nowadays it is intently being studied although in excessively fragmentary ways and in many cases even unsuitable ones, by the younger generation of readers who should have a

  6. Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican demography approximates the present-day ancestry of Mestizos throughout the territory of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; González-Martín, Antonio; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Anaya-Palafox, Manuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2009-07-01

    Over the last 500 years, admixture among Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans, principally, has come to shape the present-day gene pool of Mexicans, particularly Mestizos, who represent about 93% of the total Mexican population. In this work, we analyze the genetic data of 13 combined DNA index system-short tandem repeats (CODIS-STRs) in 1,984 unrelated Mestizos representing 10 population samples from different regions of Mexico, namely North, West, Central, and Southeast. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test demonstrated low but significant differentiation among Mestizos from different regions (F(ST) = 0.34%; P = 0.0000). Although the spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) predicted clustering Mestizo populations into four well-delimited groups, the main differentiation was observed between Northwest when compared with Central and Southeast regions. In addition, we included analysis of individuals of Amerindian (Purepechas), European (Huelva, Spain), and African (Fang) origin. Thus, STRUCTURE analysis was performed identifying three well-differentiated ancestral populations (k = 3). STRUCTURE results and admixture estimations by means of LEADMIX software in Mestizo populations demonstrated genetic heterogeneity or asymmetric admixture throughout Mexico, displaying an increasing North-to-South gradient of Amerindian ancestry, and vice versa regarding the European component. Interestingly, this distribution of Amerindian ancestry roughly reflects pre-Hispanic Native-population density, particularly toward the Mesoamerican area. The forensic, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed herein.

  7. Long-lasting transcurrent tectonics in SW Alps evidenced by Neogene to present-day stress fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauve, Victorien; Plateaux, Romain; Rolland, Yann; Sanchez, Guillaume; Bethoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand; Darnault, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The SW Alps are an active orogen undergoing intra-mountainous extension and peripheral compression. We discuss the significance of syn-orogenic extension based on a comparison of paleo-stress derived from fault-slip data inversion reflecting the long-term (< 12 Ma) evolution of SW Alps and the present-day stress state obtained by the inversion of the focal mechanisms of the last 30-years seismicity. The resulting stress states of long-term and active tectonic regimes are in good agreement, showing that extension accompanies strike-slip and reverse faulting in the southern part of the belt. The extensional deformation regime is limited to specific tectonic domains that can be interpreted as ‘transitional' between pure strike-slip segments where the deformation concentrates on inherited ductile shear zones that were formed between 32° and 20 Ma ago. We thus propose that the extensional deformation in the SW Alps can be defined as a local deformation in a pull-apart type domain (High Durance - Jausiers area) or above slowly exhuming internal massifs (Dora Maira - Ivrea Body) along a curved boundary between the slowly rotating Apulian block and the relatively immobile Western Europe. The transcurrent fault system merges into a compressional front along the Mediterranean - Ligurian coast mainly to the east of San Remo.

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCE IN THE USSR AS MEANS OF FORMING HUMANITARIAN SPACE FOR PRESENT-DAY RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golomazova Tamara Nikolaevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the current task of the social policy of Russia is solution of the housing problem. In Russia today there is a lack of housing, especially modern housing of good quality. In the article the experience of mass housing construction in the USSR is considered. The reasons of housing crisis in the USSR and the ways of its overcome, which were offered in the 60—80th of the 20th century are analyzed. The author pays special attention to the positive component of the experience of overcoming the housing crisis, but also its disadvantages are underlined. The author believes, that in future specialists we should form not only a knowledge of housing construction experience in the USSR, but the understanding of the importance of this experience and opportunity to use it in the contemporary Russian conditions. The author points out, what exactly can be used to solve the housing problem of present-day Russia basing on this experience.

  9. A novel GIS-based tool for estimating present-day ocean reference depth using automatically processed gridded bathymetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurecka, Mirosława; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Migoń, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computing the present-day value of the reference depth (dr) which is an essential input information for assessment of past sea-level changes. The method applies a novel automatic geoprocessing tool developed using Python script and ArcGIS, and uses recent data about ocean floor depth, sediment thickness, and age of oceanic crust. The procedure is multi-step and involves creation of a bathymetric dataset corrected for sediment loading and isostasy, delineation of subduction zones, computation of perpendicular sea-floor profiles, and statistical analysis of these profiles versus crust age. The analysis of site-specific situations near the subduction zones all around the world shows a number of instances where the depth of the oceanic crust stabilizes at a certain level before reaching the subduction zone, and this occurs at depths much lower than proposed in previous approaches to the reference depth issue. An analysis of Jurassic and Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere shows that the most probable interval at which the reference depth occurs is 5300-5800 m. This interval is broadly consistent with dr estimates determined using the Global Depth-Heatflow model (GDH1), but is significantly lower than dr estimates calculated on a basis of the Parsons-Sclater Model (PSM).

  10. Dusty wind of W Hya. Multi-wavelength modelling of the present-day and recent mass-loss

    CERN Document Server

    Khouri, T; de Koter, A; Decin, L; Min, M; de Vries, B L; Lombaert, R; Cox, N L J

    2015-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars go through a period of intense mass-loss at the end of their lives in a phase known as the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). During the AGB a significant fraction of their initial mass is expelled in a stellar wind. This process controls the final stages of their evolution and contributes to the chemical evolution of galaxies. However, the wind-driving mechanism of AGB stars is not yet well understood, especially so for oxygen-rich sources. Characterizing both the present-day mass-loss and wind structure and the evolution of the mass-loss rate of such stars is paramount to advancing our understanding of this processes. We modelled the dust envelope of W Hya using an advanced radiative transfer code. The dust model was analysed in the light of a previously calculated gas-phase wind model and compared to measurements available in the literature, such as infrared spectra, infrared images, and optical scattered light fractions. We find that the dust spectrum of W Hya can partly be ex...

  11. Evaluation of Present-day Aerosols over China Simulated from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H.; Chang, W.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of aerosols over China lead to strong radiative forcing that is important for both regional and global climate. To understand the representation of aerosols in China in current global climate models, we evaluate extensively the simulated present-day aerosol concentrations and aerosol optical depth (AOD) over China from the 12 models that participated in Atmospheric Chemistry & Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), by using ground-based measurements and satellite remote sensing. Ground-based measurements of aerosol concentrations used in this work include those from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET) and the observed fine-mode aerosol concentrations collected from the literature. The ground-based measurements of AOD in China are taken from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), the sites with CIMEL sun photometer operated by Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and from Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET). We find that the ACCMIP models generally underestimate concentrations of all major aerosol species in China. On an annual mean basis, the multi-model mean concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon are underestimated by 63%, 73%, 54%, 53%, and 59%, respectively. The multi-model mean AOD values show low biases of 20-40% at studied sites in China. The ACCMIP models can reproduce seasonal variation of nitrate but cannot capture well the seasonal variations of other aerosol species. Our analyses indicate that current global models generally underestimate the role of aerosols in China in climate simulations.

  12. Progressive migration of slab break-off along the southern Tyrrhenian plate boundary: Constraints for the present day kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabba, Claudio; Palano, Mimmo

    2017-04-01

    The Ionian subduction in the central Mediterranean, just 200 km wide, is one of the narrowest in the world. Its evolution has involved a progressive disruption of the subducting slab, contemporaneous to the retreat and step-wise opening of back-arc basins. In this study, we analyse velocity anomalies of the upper mantle, together with the most comprehensive set of earthquake locations and kinematic indicators available for Italy, to reconstruct the geodynamics and tectonic evolution of the Ionian subduction system. Along the Sicilian boundary, we identify an eastward migration of the slab edge with detachment of the Ionian oceanic lithosphere. We hypothesize that the progressive detachment of the slab took place along lithospheric transform faults of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. Among the main active kinematic elements of the Ionian accretionary wedge, we suggest that a ∼400-km-long and highly segmented shear zone formed by the Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni fault system and the Ionian fault represents the surface expression of such a lithospheric tearing. The present day convergence between the Eurasian and African plates is accommodated both at the frontal thrust of the flexed Hyblean margin in southern Sicily and offshore along the Tyrrhenian Sea. Lithospheric bending favors the wedging of the mantle underneath northern Sicily, while magmatic fluids are channeled along slab tears.

  13. Present-Day Crustal Vertical Motion Around the Ordos Block Constrained by Precise Leveling and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin; Liu, Liwei; Zhou, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Precise leveling data observed in the period of 1970-2014 around the Ordos block were collected and processed to estimate present-day crustal vertical movement. Vertical rates of 6 GPS sites were employed as a priori constraints to define the reference frame. The velocity field shows that the interior of the Ordos block moves upward at a rate of 3 mm/a as a stable block. With respect to the central Ordos, the grabens and rifts around the Ordos block are undergoing subsidence, while the northeastern and southwestern Ordos uplift at the average rates of 2 and 1 mm/a, respectively. To the southeastern margin of the Ordos block, the Weihe and southern Shanxi grabens are subsiding at the rates of 4-6 mm/a. The subsidence of the Shanxi graben indicates that the graben is experiencing extensional movement on a long timescale. To the northwestern margin of the Ordos block, the Hetao and Yinchuan rifts are subsiding at the rates of 2-3 mm/a. A 2-D buried faulting model is used to infer the normal or reverse dip-slip rates. Our solution shows that most of the normal slip rates along the faults in the grabens and rifts are ~2 mm/a.

  14. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  15. The Herschel view of the dominant mode of galaxy growth from z = 4 to the present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Béthermin, M.; Inami, H.; Dickinson, M.; Magnelli, B.; Wang, T.; Aussel, H.; Daddi, E.; Juneau, S.; Shu, X.; Sargent, M. T.; Buat, V.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giavalisco, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Magdis, G.; Morrison, G. E.; Papovich, C.; Santini, P.; Scott, D.

    2015-03-01

    our findings on the cosmic SFR history and on the origin of present-day stars: more than two-thirds of present-day stars must have formed in a regime dominated by the "main sequence" mode. As a consequence we conclude that, although omnipresent in the distant Universe, galaxy mergers had little impact in shaping the global star formation history over the last 12.5 billion years. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Present-day crustal deformation along the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System in Tierra del Fuego from repeated GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; Perdomo, R.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Del Cogliano, D.; Fritsche, M.; Richter, A.; Dietrich, R.

    2011-03-01

    The present-day deformation of the earth crust in the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego main island (southernmost South America) is here investigated based on repeated geodetic GPS observations. The island is traversed by the active transform boundary between the South American and Scotia tectonic plates, represented by the Magallanes-Fagnano fault system. Since 1993 a regional network comprising to date 29 GPS sites has been observed almost every year. The complete set of accumulated observations was processed using the Bernese GPS software and state-of-the-art processing strategies and models. The utilization of homogeneous GPS products resulting from a reprocessing of the global IGS network warrants a stable realization of a global reference frame. For each GPS site 3-D positions and linear velocities with error estimates were obtained. A strain analysis of the horizontal velocity components revealed the zones of major deformation activity. A 30-km-wide deformation belt centred on the main trace of the fault system was identified. This belt is bordered to the north (South America) and south (Scotia) by geodynamically stable zones, which move horizontally with a relative average velocity of 4.4 ± 0.6 (east) and -0.3 ± 0.4 (north) mm a-1. Within the deformation belt a maximum strain rate in the order of 0.25 μstrain per year has been detected. A pronounced change in the deformation style from transtension (east) to transpression (west) is observed. The area of predominating shortening of the crust coincides with a local rotation minimum and relative uplift. Throughout the period covered by the GPS observations the displacements and deformations occurred to be linear with time.

  17. A spectral formalism for computing three-dimensional deformations due to surface loads. 2: Present-day glacial isostatic adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Davis, J. L.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1994-01-01

    Using a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, linear viscoelastic Earth model, we predict present-day three-dimensional surface deformation rates and baseline evolutions arising as a consequence of the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. In general, we use realistic models for the space-time geometry of the final late Pleistocene deglaciation event and incorporate a gravitationally self-consistent ocean meltwater redistribution. The predictions of horizontal velocity presented differ significantly, in both their amplitude and their spatial variation, from those presented in earlier analysis of others which adopted simplified models of both the late Pleistocene ice history and the Earth rheology. An important characteristic of our predicted velocity fields is that the melting of the Laurentide ice sheet over Canada is capable of contributing appreciably to the adjustment in Europe. The sensitivity of the predictions to variations in mantle rheology is investigated by considering a number of different Earth models, and by computing appropriate Frechet kernels. These calculations suggest that the sensitivity of the deformations to the Earth's rheology is significant and strongly dependent on the location of the site relative to the ancient ice sheet. The effects on the predictions of three-dimensional deformation rates of altering the ice history or adopting approximate models for the ocean meltwater redistribution have also been considered and found to be important (the former especially so). Finally, for a suite of Earth models we provide predictions of the velocity of a number of baselines in North America and Europe. We find that, in general, both radial and tangential motions contribute significantly to baseline length changes, and that these contributions are a strong function of the Earth model. We have, furthermore, found a set of Earth models which, together with the ICE-3G deglaciation chronology, produce predictions of baseline length changes that are

  18. The influence of land cover change in the Asian monsoon region on present-day and mid-Holocene climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dallmeyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the general circulation model ECHAM5/JSBACH, we investigate the biogeophysical effect of large-scale afforestation and deforestation in the Asian monsoon domain on present-day and mid-Holocene climate. We demonstrate that the applied land cover change does not only modify the local climate but also change the climate in North Africa and the Middle East via teleconnections. Deforestation in the Asian monsoon domain enhances the rainfall in North Africa. In parts of the Sahara summer precipitation is more than doubled. In contrast, afforestation strongly decreases summer rainfall in the Middle East and even leads to the cessation of the rainfall-activity in some parts of this region.

    Regarding the local climate, deforestation results in a reduction of precipitation and a cooler climate as grass mostly has a higher albedo than forests. However, in the core region of the Asian monsoon the decrease of evaporative cooling in the monsoon season overcompensates this signal and results in a net warming. Afforestation has mainly the opposite effect, although the pattern of change is less clear. It leads to more precipitation in most parts of the Asian monsoon domain and a warmer climate except for the southern regions where a stronger evaporation decreases near-surface temperatures in the monsoon season.

    When prescribing mid-Holocene insolation, the pattern of local precipitation change differs. Afforestation particularly increases monsoon rainfall in the region along the Yellow River which was the settlement area of major prehistoric cultures. In this region, the effect of land cover change on precipitation is half as large as the orbitally-induced precipitation change. Thus, our model results reveal that mid- to late-Holocene land cover change could strongly have contributed to the decreasing Asian monsoon precipitation during the Holocene known from reconstructions.

  19. Modeling of Present-Day Atmosphere and Ocean Non-Tidal De-Aliasing Errors for Future Gravity Mission Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann-Wolf, I.; Dobslaw, H.; Mayer-Gürr, T.

    2015-12-01

    A realistically perturbed synthetic de-aliasing model consistent with the updated Earth System Model of the European Space Agency (Dobslaw et al., 2015) is now available for the years 1995 -- 2006. The data-set contains realizations of (i) errors at large spatial scales assessed individually for periods between 10 -- 30, 3 -- 10, and 1 -- 3 days, the S1 atmospheric tide, and sub-diurnal periods; (ii) errors at small spatial scales typically not covered by global models of atmosphere and ocean variability; and (iii) errors due to physical processes not represented in currently available de-aliasing products. The error magnitudes for each of the different frequency bands are derived from a small ensemble of four atmospheric and oceanic models. In order to demonstrate the plausibility of the error magnitudes chosen, we perform a variance component estimation based on daily GRACE normal equations from the ITSG-Grace2014 global gravity field series recently published by the University of Graz. All 12 years of the error model are used to calculate empirical error variance-covariance matrices describing the systematic dependencies of the errors both in time and in space individually for five continental and four oceanic regions, and daily GRACE normal equations are subsequently employed to obtain pre-factors for each of those matrices. For the largest spatial scales up to d/o = 40 and periods longer than 24 h, errors prepared for the updated ESM are found to be largely consistent with noise of a similar stochastic character contained in present-day GRACE solutions. Differences and similarities identified for all of the nine regions considered will be discussed in detail during the presentation.Dobslaw, H., I. Bergmann-Wolf, R. Dill, E. Forootan, V. Klemann, J. Kusche, and I. Sasgen (2015), The updated ESA Earth System Model for future gravity mission simulation studies, J. Geod., doi:10.1007/s00190-014-0787-8.

  20. Historical and Present Day Mercury Contamination From Gold Mining in Three Feeding Guilds of Bats From the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Divoll, T.

    2014-12-01

    Miners in many countries use mercury as an amalgam to separate gold from river sediments. In the last twenty years the price of gold has risen and the number of small-scale, artisanal gold mining operations in the Amazon basin have also increased. The influx of mercury into natural river systems has detrimental consequences for the surrounding ecosystem and for organisms, particularly those at higher trophic levels. Toxic mercury levels have been shown to impair reproductive, neurological and behavioral functioning of organisms. I used bats (Chiroptera) as a mammalian model system to study mercury contamination and accumulation due to gold mining from field caught and museum collection specimens in Amazonian Perú and showed that: (1) Total mercury concentrations in Amazonian bat species have increased over time since the 1920's; (2) Bat species from sites with current active mining have higher concentrations of mercury than non-mining sites, with some species having levels exceeding those considered toxic for mammals; (3) Higher trophic levels of bats (piscivores and insectivores) bioaccumulate more mercury than bats of lower trophic levels (frugivores); (4) Bats located in present day uncontaminated sites have the same mercury levels as bats collected in the 1920's from the Amazon basin. The variety of bat feeding guilds allowed for a comparison of how mercury accumulation is affected by diet within one taxonomic order. The novel use of museum specimens allowed for a look back into the historical timeline of mercury contamination in the Amazon basin. Bats represent a new and exciting study system since, like humans, they are mammals and should therefore show similar neurochemical and behavioral responses to this toxic element.

  1. The influence of land cover change in the Asian monsoon region on present-day and mid-Holocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmeyer, A.; Claussen, M.

    2011-06-01

    Using the general circulation model ECHAM5/JSBACH, we investigate the biogeophysical effect of large-scale afforestation and deforestation in the Asian monsoon domain on present-day and mid-Holocene climate. We demonstrate that the applied land cover change does not only modify the local climate but also change the climate in North Africa and the Middle East via teleconnections. Deforestation in the Asian monsoon domain enhances the rainfall in North Africa. In parts of the Sahara summer precipitation is more than doubled. In contrast, afforestation strongly decreases summer rainfall in the Middle East and even leads to the cessation of the rainfall-activity in some parts of this region. Regarding the local climate, deforestation results in a reduction of precipitation and a cooler climate as grass mostly has a higher albedo than forests. However, in the core region of the Asian monsoon the decrease in evaporative cooling in the monsoon season overcompensates this signal and results in a net warming. Afforestation has mainly the opposite effect, although the pattern of change is less clear. It leads to more precipitation in most parts of the Asian monsoon domain and a warmer climate except for the southern regions where a stronger evaporation decreases near-surface temperatures in the monsoon season. When prescribing mid-Holocene insolation, the pattern of local precipitation change differs. Afforestation particularly increases monsoon rainfall in the region along the Yellow River which was the settlement area of major prehistoric cultures. In this region, the effect of land cover change on precipitation is half as large as the orbitally-induced precipitation change. Thus, our model results reveal that mid- to late-Holocene land cover change could strongly have contributed to the decreasing Asian monsoon precipitation during the Holocene known from reconstructions.

  2. Changing black carbon transport to the Arctic from present day to the end of 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Chaoyi; Flanner, Mark G.

    2016-05-01

    Here we explore how climate warming under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) impacts Arctic aerosol distributions via changes in atmospheric transport and removal processes. We modify the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model to track distributions and fluxes of 200 black carbon-like tracers emitted from different locations, and we conduct idealized experiments with and without active aerosol deposition. Changing wind patterns, studied in isolation, cause the Arctic burdens of tracers emitted from East Asia and West Europe during winter to increase about 20% by the end of the century while decreasing the Arctic burdens of North American emissions by about 30%. These changes are caused by an altered winter polar dome structure that results from Arctic amplification and inhomogeneous sea ice loss and surface warming, both of which are enhanced in the Chukchi Sea region. The resulting geostrophic wind favors Arctic transport of East Asian emissions while inhibiting poleward transport of North American emissions. When active deposition is also considered, however, Arctic burdens of emissions from northern midlatitudes show near-universal decline. This is a consequence of increased precipitation and wet removal, particularly within the Arctic, leading to decreased Arctic residence time. Simulations with present-day emissions of black carbon indicate a 13.6% reduction in the Arctic annual mean burden by the end of the 21st century, due to warming-induced transport and deposition changes, while simulations with changing climate and emissions under RCP8.5 show a 61.0% reduction.

  3. Historical land-use induced evapotranspiration changes estimated from present-day observations and reconstructed land-cover maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Boisier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent model intercomparison studies, within the framework of the LUCID project, have revealed large discrepancies in the evapotranspiration (ET changes simulated between the preindustrial period and the present in response to the historical change in land use. Distinct land-surface parameterizations are behind those discrepancies, but understanding those differences and attributing them to specific causes rely on evaluations using still very limited measurements. Model benchmarking studies with observed global-scale ET are required in order to reduce the current uncertainties in the impacts of land use in terrestrial water flows. Here we present a new estimate of historical land-use induced changes in ET based on three different state-of-the-art observation-based ET products. These products are used to derive regression models of ET as a function of land-cover partitioning, leaf area index and environmental variables. We then reconstruct past ET changes based on the set of land-cover maps of 1870 and 1992 used in LUCID. Our results show an average decrease in global terrestrial ET of 1260 ± 850 km3 yr−1 between the preindustrial period and the present-day. This estimate is of the same order but larger in magnitude than the model-mean change in ET simulated within LUCID, and substantially weaker in magnitude than other estimates based on observations. Although decreases in ET dominate in deforested regions, large summertime increases in ET are diagnosed over areas of large cropland expansion. The multiple ET reconstructions carried out here show a large spread that we attribute principally to the different land-cover maps adopted and to the crops' ET rates that are derived from the various products assessed. We therefore conclude that the current uncertainties of past ET changes could be reduced efficiently with improved historical land-cover reconstructions and better estimates of cropland ET.

  4. Present-day kinematics and fault slip rates in eastern Iran, derived from 11 years of GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpersdorf, A.; Manighetti, I.; Mousavi, Z.; Tavakoli, F.; Vergnolle, M.; Jadidi, A.; Hatzfeld, D.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Bigot, A.; Djamour, Y.; Nankali, H.; Sedighi, M.

    2014-02-01

    We analyze new GPS data spanning 11 years at 92 stations in eastern Iran. We use these data to analyze the present-day kinematics and the slip rates on most seismogenic faults in eastern Iran. The east Lut, west Lut, Kuhbanan, Anar, Dehshir, and Doruneh faults are confirmed as the major faults and are found to currently slip laterally at 5.6 ± 0.6, 4.4 ± 0.4, 3.6 ± 1.3, 2.0 ± 0.7, 1.4 ± 0.9, and 1.3 ± 0.8 mm/yr, respectively. Slip is right-lateral on the ~NS striking east Lut, west Lut, Kuhbanan, Anar, and Dehshir faults and left-lateral on the ~EW Doruneh fault. The ~NS faults slice the eastern Iranian crust into five blocks that are moving northward at 6-13 mm/yr with respect to the stable Afghan crust at the eastern edge of the collision zone. The collective behavior of the ~NS faults might thus allow the Arabian promontory to impinge northward into the Eurasian crust. The ~NS faults achieve additional NS shortening by rotating counterclockwise in the horizontal plane, at current rates up to 0.8°/Ma. Modeling the GPS and available geological data with a block rotation model suggests that the rotations have been going on at a similar rate (1 ± 0.4°/Ma) over the last 12 Ma. We identify large strains at the tips of the rotating east Lut, west Lut, and Kuhbanan faults, which we suspect to be responsible for the important historical and instrumental seismicity in those zones.

  5. Population structure and paternal admixture landscape on present-day Mexican-Mestizos revealed by Y-STR haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Flores, J; Dondiego-Aldape, R; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Anaya-Palafox, M; Nuño-Arana, I; Canseco-Avila, L M; Flores-Flores, G; Morales-Vallejo, M E; Barojas-Pérez, N; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Campos-Gutiérrez, R; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2010-01-01

    Mestizos currently represent most of the Mexican population (>90%); they are defined as individuals born in the country having a Spanish-derived last name, with family antecedents of Mexican ancestors back at least to the third generation. Mestizos are result of 500 years of admixture mainly among Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves. Consequently, a complex genetic pattern has been generated throughout the country that has been scarcely studied from the paternal point of view. This fact is important, taking into account that gene flow toward the New World comprised largely males. We analyzed the population structure and paternal admixture of present-day Mexican-Mestizo populations based on Y-STRs. We genotyped at least 12 Y-STRs in DNA samples of 986 males from five states: Aguascalientes (n = 293); Jalisco (n = 185); Guanajuato (n = 168); Chiapas (n = 170); and Yucatán (n = 170). AmpFlSTR Y-filer and Powerplex-Y(R) kits were used. Inclusion of North and Central Y-STR databases in the analyses allowed obtaining a Y-STR variability landscape from Mexico. Results confirmed the population differentiation gradient previously noted in Mestizos with SNPs and autosomal STRs throughout the Mexican territory: European ancestry increments to the Northwest and, correspondingly, Amerindian ancestry increments to the Center and Southeast. In addition, SAMOVA test and Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis autocorrelogram plot suggested preferential gene flow of males with neighboring populations in agreement with the isolation-by-distance model. Results are important for disease-risk studies (principally male-related) and for human identification purposes, because Y-STR databases are not available on the majority of Mexican-Mestizo populations.

  6. Sources and pathways of 90Sr in the North Atlantic-Arctic region: present day and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Johannessen, Ola M; Pettersson, Lasse H

    2009-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of the anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs and (90)Sr, originating from nuclear bomb testing, the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the Irish Sea (UK), and from the Ob and Yenisey river discharges to the Arctic Ocean, have been simulated using the global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The physical model is forced with daily atmospheric re-analysis fields for the period of 1948-1999. Comparison of the temporal evolution of the observed and the simulated concentrations of (90)Sr has been performed in the Kara Sea. The relative contributions of the different sources on the temporal and spatial distributions of the surface (90)Sr are quantified over the simulated period. It follows that the Ob river discharge dominated the surface (90)Sr over most of the Arctic Ocean and along the eastern and western coasts of Greenland before 1960. During the period of 1980-1990, the atmospheric fallout and the Ob river discharge were equally important for the (90)Sr distribution in the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to explore the possible dispersion of accidental released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers under a global warming scenario (2 x CO(2)). The difference between the present-day and the global warming scenario runs indicates that more of the released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is confined to the Arctic Ocean in the global warming run, particularly in the near coastal, non-European part of the Arctic Ocean.

  7. Impact of urban emission on air-quality over central Europe: present day and future emissions perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Karlicky, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the impact of present-day and future urban emission from central European cities on the regional air-quality (AQ), based on a modeling couple of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 and the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the present (2001-2010) decade and two future decades (2026-2035 and 2046-2055) either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. As we are interested on the impact of emission changes only, the impact of different driving meteorological conditions in the future (due to climate change) are not considered. The emissions used is the TNO MEGAPOLI European emission database that includes country/sector based scenarios for years 2030 and 2050, which were used for the encompassing decades. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The model was also validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas further from, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. The future urban emission AQ fingerprint is, in general, slightly smaller than in

  8. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  9. Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the AeroCom present-day and pre-industrial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schulz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine different global models with detailed aerosol modules have independently produced instantaneous direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. The anthropogenic impact is derived from the difference of two model simulations with prescribed aerosol emissions, one for present-day and one for pre-industrial conditions. The difference in the solar energy budget at the top of the atmosphere (ToA yields a new harmonized estimate for the aerosol direct radiative forcing (RF under all-sky conditions. On a global annual basis RF is −0.22 Wm−2, ranging from +0.04 to −0.41 Wm−2, with a standard deviation of ±0.16 Wm−2. Anthropogenic nitrate and dust are not included in this estimate. No model shows a significant positive all-sky RF. The corresponding clear-sky RF is −0.68 Wm−2. The cloud-sky RF was derived based on all-sky and clear-sky RF and modelled cloud cover. It was significantly different from zero and ranged between −0.16 and +0.34 Wm−2. A sensitivity analysis shows that the total aerosol RF is influenced by considerable diversity in simulated residence times, mass extinction coefficients and most importantly forcing efficiencies (forcing per unit optical depth. The clear-sky forcing efficiency (forcing per unit optical depth has diversity comparable to that for the all-sky/ clear-sky forcing ratio. While the diversity in clear-sky forcing efficiency is impacted by factors such as aerosol absorption, size, and surface albedo, we can show that the all-sky/clear-sky forcing ratio is important because all-sky forcing estimates require proper representation of cloud fields and the correct relative altitude placement between absorbing aerosol and clouds. The analysis of the sulphate RF shows that long sulphate residence times are compensated by low mass extinction coefficients and vice versa. This is explained by more sulphate particle humidity growth and thus higher extinction in those models where short-lived sulphate

  10. Gut transcriptome of replete adult female cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a Babesia bovis-infected bovine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekin, Andrew M; Guerrero, Felix D; Bendele, Kylie G; Saldivar, Leo; Scoles, Glen A; Dowd, Scot E; Gondro, Cedric; Nene, Vishvanath; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Brayton, Kelly A

    2013-09-01

    As it feeds upon cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is capable of transmitting a number of pathogenic organisms, including the apicomplexan hemoparasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. The R. microplus female gut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adult females feeding on a bovine host infected with B. bovis and adult females feeding on an uninfected bovine. RNA was purified and used to generate a subtracted cDNA library from B. bovis-infected female gut, and 4,077 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced. Gene expression was also measured by a microarray designed from the publicly available R. microplus gene index: BmiGI Version 2. We compared gene expression in the tick gut from females feeding upon an uninfected bovine to gene expression in tick gut from females feeding upon a splenectomized bovine infected with B. bovis. Thirty-three ESTs represented on the microarray were expressed at a higher level in female gut samples from the ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf compared to expression levels in female gut samples from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. Forty-three transcripts were expressed at a lower level in the ticks feeding upon B. bovis-infected female guts compared with expression in female gut samples from ticks feeding on the uninfected calf. These array data were used as initial characterization of gene expression associated with the infection of R. microplus by B. bovis.

  11. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (Pworms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing apoptosis and host interactions in schistosome infection.

  12. Using GPS and absolute gravity observations to separate the effects of present-day and Pleistocene ice-mass changes in South East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, T.; Francis, O.; Wahr, J.; Khan, S. A.; Bevis, M.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2017-02-01

    Measurements of vertical crustal uplift from bedrock sites around the edge of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) can be used to constrain present day mass loss. Interpreting any observed crustal displacement around the GrIS in terms of present day changes in ice is complicated, however, by the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) signal. With GPS observations alone, it is impossible to separate the uplift driven by present day mass changes from that due to ice mass changes in the past. Wahr et al. (1995) demonstrated that viscoelastic surface displacements were related to the viscoelastic gravity changes through a proportionality constant that is nearly independent of the choice of Earth viscosity or ice history model. Thus, by making measurements of both gravity and surface motion at a bedrock site, the viscoelastic effects could be removed from the observations and we would be able to constrain present day ice mass changes. Alternatively, we could use the same observations of surface displacements and gravity to determine the GIA signal. In this paper, we extend the theory of Wahr et al. (1995) by introducing a constant, Z, that represents the ratio between the elastic changes in gravity and elastic uplift at a particular site due to present day mass changes. Further, we combine 20 yrs of GPS observations of uplift with eight absolute gravity observations over the same period to determine the GIA signal near Kulusuk, a site on the southeastern side of the GrIS, to experimentally demonstrate the theory. We estimate that the GIA signal in the region is 4.49 ± 1.44mm/yr and is inconsistent with most previously reported model predictions that demonstrate that the GIA signal here is negative. However, as there is very little in situ data to constrain the GIA rate in this part of Greenland, the Earth model or the ice history reconstructions could be inaccurate (Khan et al., 2016). Improving the estimate of GIA in this region of Greenland will allow us to better determine

  13. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  14. Present-day cosmic abundances. A comprehensive study of nearby early B-type stars and implications for stellar and Galactic evolution and interstellar dust models

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda; 10.1051/0004-6361/201118158

    2012-01-01

    Aims. A sample of early B-type stars in OB associations and the field within the solar neighbourhood is studied comprehensively. Present-day abundances for the astrophysically most interesting chemical elements are derived. Methods. High-resolution and high-S/N spectra of early B-type stars are analysed in NLTE. Atmospheric parameters are derived from the simultaneous establishment of independent indicators, from multiple ionization equilibria and the hydrogen Balmer lines. Results. Teff is constrained to 1-2% and logg to less than 15% uncertainty. Absolute values for metal abundances are determined to better than 25% uncertainty. The synthetic spectra match the observations reliably over almost the entire visual spectral range. Conclusions. A present-day cosmic abundance standard is established. Our results i) resolve the discrepancy between a chemical homogeneous local gas-phase ISM and a chemically inhomogeneous young stellar component, ii) facilitate the amount of heavy elements locked up in the interstel...

  15. The influence of dynamic vegetation on the present-day simulation and future projections of the South Asian summer monsoon in the HadGEM2 family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. M.; Levine, R. C.

    2012-11-01

    Various studies have shown the importance of Earth System feedbacks in the climate system and the necessity of including these in models used for making climate change projections. The HadGEM2 family of Met Office Unified Model configurations combines model components which facilitate the representation of many different processes within the climate system, including atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, and Earth System components including the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle and tropospheric chemistry. We examine the climatology of the Asian summer monsoon in present-day simulations and in idealised climate change experiments. Members of the HadGEM2 family are used, with a common physical framework (one of which includes tropospheric chemistry and an interactive terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle), to investigate whether such components affect the way in which the monsoon changes. We focus particularly on the role of interactive vegetation in the simulations from these model configurations. Using an atmosphere-only HadGEM2 configuration, we investigate how the changes in land cover which result from the interaction between the dynamic vegetation and the model systematic rainfall biases affect the Asian summer monsoon, both in the present-day and in future climate projections. We demonstrate that the response of the dynamic vegetation to biases in regional climate, such as lack of rainfall over tropical dust-producing regions, can affect both the present-day simulation and the response to climate change forcing scenarios.

  16. Preindustrial to present-day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed time-slice simulations from 17 global models, participating in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, to explore changes in present-day (2000 hydroxyl radical (OH concentration and methane (CH4 lifetime relative to preindustrial times (1850 and to 1980. A comparison of modeled and observation-derived methane and methyl chloroform lifetimes suggests that the present-day global multi-model mean OH concentration is overestimated by 5 to 10% but is within the range of uncertainties. The models consistently simulate higher OH concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere (NH compared with the Southern Hemisphere (SH for the present-day (2000; inter-hemispheric ratios of 1.13 to 1.42, in contrast to observation-based approaches which generally indicate higher OH in the SH although uncertainties are large. Evaluation of simulated carbon monoxide (CO concentrations, the primary sink for OH, against ground-based and satellite observations suggests low biases in the NH that may contribute to the high north–south OH asymmetry in the models. The models vary widely in their regional distribution of present-day OH concentrations (up to 34%. Despite large regional changes, the multi-model global mean (mass-weighted OH concentration changes little over the past 150 yr, due to concurrent increases in factors that enhance OH (humidity, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions, and UV radiation due to decreases in stratospheric ozone, compensated by increases in OH sinks (methane abundance, carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic carbon (NMVOC emissions. The large inter-model diversity in the sign and magnitude of preindustrial to present-day OH changes (ranging from a decrease of 12.7% to an increase of 14.6% indicate that uncertainty remains in our understanding of the long-term trends in OH and methane lifetime. We show that this diversity is largely explained by the different ratio of the

  17. Preindustrial to Present-Day Changes in Tropospheric Hydroxyl Radical and Methane Lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, V.; Voulgarakis, A.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, M.; Prather, M. J.; Young, P. J.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Collins, W. J.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Doherty, R.; Eyring, V.; Faluvegi, G.; Folberth, G. A.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Nagashima, T.; vanNoije, T. P. C.; Plummer, D. A.; Righi, M.; Rumbold, S. T.; Skeie, R.; Shindell, D. T.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have analysed time-slice simulations from 17 global models, participating in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), to explore changes in present-day (2000) hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration and methane (CH4) lifetime relative to preindustrial times (1850) and to 1980. A comparison of modeled and observation-derived methane and methyl chloroform lifetimes suggests that the present-day global multi-model mean OH concentration is overestimated by 5 to 10% but is within the range of uncertainties. The models consistently simulate higher OH concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) compared with the Southern Hemisphere (SH) for the present-day (2000; inter-hemispheric ratios of 1.13 to 1.42), in contrast to observation-based approaches which generally indicate higher OH in the SH although uncertainties are large. Evaluation of simulated carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, the primary sink for OH, against ground-based and satellite observations suggests low biases in the NH that may contribute to the high north–south OH asymmetry in the models. The models vary widely in their regional distribution of present-day OH concentrations (up to 34%). Despite large regional changes, the multi-model global mean (mass-weighted) OH concentration changes little over the past 150 yr, due to concurrent increases in factors that enhance OH (humidity, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, and UV radiation due to decreases in stratospheric ozone), compensated by increases in OH sinks (methane abundance, carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic carbon (NMVOC) emissions). The large inter-model diversity in the sign and magnitude of preindustrial to present-day OH changes (ranging from a decrease of 12.7% to an increase of 14.6%) indicate that uncertainty remains in our understanding of the long-term trends in OH and methane lifetime. We show that this diversity is largely explained by the different ratio of the

  18. Calibrating a glaciological model of the Greenland ice sheet from the Last Glacial Maximum to present-day using field observations of relative sea level and ice extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Matthew J. R.; Milne, Glenn A.; Huybrechts, Philippe; Long, Antony J.

    2009-08-01

    We constrain a three-dimensional thermomechanical model of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) evolution from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka BP) to the present-day using, primarily, observations of relative sea level (RSL) as well as field data on past ice extent. Our new model (Huy2) fits a majority of the observations and is characterised by a number of key features: (i) the ice sheet had an excess volume (relative to present) of 4.1 m ice-equivalent sea level at the LGM, which increased to reach a maximum value of 4.6 m at 16.5 ka BP; (ii) retreat from the continental shelf was not continuous around the entire margin, as there was a Younger Dryas readvance in some areas. The final episode of marine retreat was rapid and relatively late (c. 12 ka BP), leaving the ice sheet land based by 10 ka BP; (iii) in response to the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) the ice margin retreated behind its present-day position by up to 80 km in the southwest, 20 km in the south and 80 km in a small area of the northeast. As a result of this retreat the modelled ice sheet reaches a minimum extent between 5 and 4 ka BP, which corresponds to a deficit volume (relative to present) of 0.17 m ice-equivalent sea level. Our results suggest that remaining discrepancies between the model and the observations are likely associated with non-Greenland ice load, differences between modelled and observed present-day ice elevation around the margin, lateral variations in Earth structure and/or the pattern of ice margin retreat.

  19. Estimating heat stress from climate-based indicators: present-day biases and future spreads in the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Ducharne, A.; Sultan, B.; Braconnot, P.; Vautard, R.

    2015-08-01

    The increased exposure of human populations to heat stress is one of the likely consequences of global warming, and it has detrimental effects on health and labor capacity. Here, we consider the evolution of heat stress under climate change using 21 general circulation models (GCMs). Three heat stress indicators, based on both temperature and humidity conditions, are used to investigate present-day model biases and spreads in future climate projections. Present day estimates of heat stress indicators from observational data shows that humid tropical areas tend to experience more frequent heat stress than other regions do, with a total frequency of heat stress 250-300 d yr-1. The most severe heat stress is found in the Sahel and south India. Present-day GCM simulations tend to underestimate heat stress over the tropics due to dry and cold model biases. The model based estimates are in better agreement with observation in mid to high latitudes, but this is due to compensating errors in humidity and temperature. The severity of heat stress is projected to increase by the end of the century under climate change scenario RCP8.5, reaching unprecedented levels in some regions compared with observations. An analysis of the different factors contributing to the total spread of projected heat stress shows that spread is primarily driven by the choice of GCMs rather than the choice of indicators, even when the simulated indicators are bias-corrected. This supports the utility of the multi-model ensemble approach to assess the impacts of climate change on heat stress.

  20. Preindustrial to present day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed results from 17 global models, participating in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, to explore trends in hydroxyl radical concentration (OH and methane (CH4 lifetime since preindustrial times (1850 and gain a better understanding of their key drivers. For the present day (2000, the models tend to simulate higher OH abundances in the Northern Hemisphere versus Southern Hemisphere. Evaluation of simulated carbon monoxide concentrations, the primary sink for OH, against observations suggests low biases in the Northern Hemisphere that may contribute to the high north-south OH asymmetry in the models. A comparison of modelled and observed methyl chloroform lifetime suggests that the present day global multi-model mean OH concentration is slightly overestimated. Despite large regional changes, the modelled global mean OH concentration is roughly constant over the past 150 yr, due to concurrent increases in OH sources (humidity, tropospheric ozone, and NOx emissions, together with decreases in stratospheric ozone and increase in tropospheric temperature, compensated by increases in OH sinks (methane abundance, carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic carbon (NMVOC emissions. The large intermodel diversity in the sign and magnitude of OH and methane lifetime changes over this period reflects differences in the relative importance of chemical and physical drivers of OH within each model. For the 1980 to 2000 period, we find that climate warming and a slight increase in mean OH leads to a 4.3 ± 1.9% decrease in the methane lifetime. Analysing sensitivity simulations performed by 10 models, we find that preindustrial to present day climate change decreased the methane lifetime by about 4 months, representing a negative feedback on the climate system. Further, using a subset of the models, we find that global mean OH increased by 46.4 ± 12.2% in response to

  1. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    level for centuries to come. Our new deglaciation history and GIA uplift estimates suggest that studies that use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to infer present-day changes in the GrIS may have erroneously corrected for GIA and underestimated the mass loss by about 20...... and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basinwide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted...

  2. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat A.; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    , large GIA uplift rates of +12 mm/year are found in southeast Greenland. These rates are due to low upper mantle viscosity in the region, from when Greenland passed over the Iceland hot spot about 40 million years ago. This region of concentrated soft rheology has a profound influence on reconstructing...... level for centuries to come. Our new deglaciation history and GIA uplift estimates suggest that studies that use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to infer present-day changes in the GrIS may have erroneously corrected for GIA and underestimated the mass loss by about 20...

  3. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  4. Purification of a chymotrypsin-like enzyme present on adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from infected mice and its characterization as a host carboxylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igetei, Joseph E; Liddell, Susan; El-Faham, Marwa; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified material was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and its derived peptides found to belong to mouse carboxylesterase 1C. Its ability to hydrolyse α- or β-naphthyl acetates, which are general esterase substrates, has been confirmed. A similar carboxylesterase was purified and characterized from rat blood. Additional evidence to support identification of the enzyme as a carboxylesterase has been provided. Possible roles of the enzyme in the mouse host-parasite relationship could be to ease the passage of worms through the host's blood vessels and/or in immune evasion.

  5. Seismological Structure of the 1.8Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America and its affinity to present-day Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    How tectonic processes operated and changed through the Precambrian is debated: what was the nature and scale of orogenic events and were they different on the younger, hotter, more ductile Earth? The geology of northern Hudson Bay records the Paleoproterozoic collision between the Western Churchill and Superior plates: the 1.8Ga Trans-Hudson Orogeny (THO) and is thus an ideal study locale to address this issue. It has been suggested, primarily on the strength of traditional field geology, that the THO was comparable in scale and style to the present-day Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen (HKTO). However, understanding of the deep crustal architecture of the THO, and how it compares to the evolving HKTO is presently lacking. Through joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave data, we obtain new Moho depth estimates and shear velocity models for the crust and upper mantle. Archean crust in the Rae, Hearne and Churchill domains is thin and structurally simple, with a sharp Moho; upper crustal wavespeed variations are readily attributed to post-formation events. However, the Paleoproterozoic Quebec-Baffin segment of the THO has a deeper Moho and more complex crustal structure. Our observations are strikingly similar to recent models, computed using the same methods, of the HKTO lithosphere, where deformation also extends >400km beyond the collision front. On the strength of Moho character, present-day crustal thickness, and metamorphic grade, we thus propose that southern Baffin experienced uplift of a similar magnitude and spatial extent to the Himalayas during the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogeny.

  6. Cenozoic ecological history of South East Asian peat mires based on the comparison of coals with present day and Late Quaternary peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Morley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat swamps are more widespread in Sundaland than in any other equatorial region. Also, Cenozoic deposits from the area are rich in coals. The developmental pattern of present day peat swamps from the region has often been used to help clarify that of coals in the geological record. This paper initially reviews the ecology of present day ombrotrophic, rheotrophic and brackish mangrove peat swamps, and their pattern and timing of development during the Holocene and latest Pleistocene based on palynological studies. Then, it attempts to examine the developmental pattern of the peats which led to the formation of Cenozoic coals across the region, based on both published and unpublished datasets generated during the course of hydrocarbon exploration programmes. It is concluded that Cenozoic coals reflect a greater variety of peat forming settings than occurs in the region today. Extensive brackish water peats formed during the Middle and Late Eocene and Middle and Late Miocene, these often being laterally very extensive. Rheotrophic peats also formed widely through most of the Cenozoic. Ombrotrophic kerapah type peats are first recognised in the Late Oligocene, based on their content of common Casuarina type and Dacrydium pollen, and were particularly common during the Early and Late Miocene in the Sunda shelf region. Kerapah peats sometimes developed great thickness. Basinal peats, on the other hand, increased in representation during the course of the Miocene. No convincing evidence for doming in Cenozoic peats has yet been noted, but on the other hand, no really thick coals, which may have been formed from basinal peats, have so far been studied. As a consequence, examples of doming in the rock record from this area are probably yet to be found.

  7. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones: a study of Northern Hemisphere CCM1 model blocking events in present-day and double CO{sub 2} concentration atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, A.R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Oglesby, R.J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Mokhov, I.I. [Russian Acad. of Sci., Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Phys.

    1997-03-01

    Using output made with the national center for atmospheric research (NCAR) community climate model version 1 (CCM1), the characteristics of blocking events over the Northern Hemisphere in a ten-year present day control simulation with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 330 ppm were compared to those in a previously analyzed observational three-year climatology. The characteristics of blocking events in a double present-day CO{sub 2} concentration simulation were then compared to those in the control simulation in order to evaluate how these characteristics might change in an increased CO{sub 2} atmosphere. The results demonstrated that in the Northern Hemisphere the CCM1 correctly simulated many characteristics of blocking events such as average annual number of occurrences, annual variations is size and intensity, and preferred formation regions. A more detailed analysis (i.e., by region and season) revealed some differences between the CCM1 and observed blocking events for characteristics such as mean frequency of occurrence, intensity, size and duration. In addition, the model failed to capture adequately the occurrence of blocking events over the western Asian continent. A comparison of the double CO{sub 2} concentration run to the control showed that, in general, blocking events were more persistent and weaker, but of similar size in the increased CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Also, some statistically significant regional and seasonally dependent changes were found in the frequency of occurrence, duration, and intensity. Finally, a correlation between block size and intensity, significant at the 99% confidence level, was found in each climatology. This result is similar to a correlation found in the analysis of observations. (orig.). With 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Present-day cosmic abundances. A comprehensive study of nearby early B-type stars and implications for stellar and Galactic evolution and interstellar dust models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, M.-F.; Przybilla, N.

    2012-03-01

    Context. Early B-type stars are ideal indicators for present-day cosmic abundances since they preserve their pristine abundances and typically do not migrate far beyond their birth environments over their short lifetimes, in contrast to older stars like the Sun. They are also unaffected by depletion onto dust grains, unlike the cold/warm interstellar medium (ISM) or H ii regions. Aims: A carefully selected sample of early B-type stars in OB associations and the field within the solar neighbourhood is studied comprehensively. Quantitative spectroscopy is used to characterise their atmospheric properties in a self-consistent way. Present-day abundances for the astrophysically most interesting chemical elements are derived in order to investigate whether a present-day cosmic abundance standard can be established. Methods: High-resolution and high-S/N FOCES, FEROS and ELODIE spectra of well-studied sharp-lined early B-type stars are analysed in non-LTE. Line-profile fits based on extensive model grids and an iterative analysis methodology are used to constrain stellar parameters and elemental abundances at high accuracy and precision. Atmospheric parameters are derived from the simultaneous establishment of independent indicators, from multiple ionization equilibria and the Stark-broadened hydrogen Balmer lines, and they are confirmed by reproduction of the stars' global spectral energy distributions. Results: Effective temperatures are constrained to 1-2% and surface gravities to less than 15% uncertainty, along with accurate rotational, micro- and macroturbulence velocities. Good agreement of the resulting spectroscopic parallaxes with those from the new reduction of the Hipparcos catalogue is obtained. Absolute values for abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe are determined to better than 25% uncertainty. The synthetic spectra match the observations reliably over almost the entire visual spectral range. Three sample stars, γ Ori, o Per and θ1 Ori D, are

  9. ADULT DRAGONFLY COMMUNITIES IN TROPICAL RIVERS OF THE NORTHERN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: SPECIES COMPOSITION, BIOTOPE AND HOST PLANT PREFERRENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wahizatul Afzan A; Che Salmah M R

    2005-01-01

    Adult dragonfly communities were dominated by Libellulidae as 29 species were successfully collected from this family in marginal areas of Saleh, Setul and Serdang rivers. Zygopterans Coenagrionidae, Platycnemididae, Calopterygidae were common while Gomphidae and Chlorocyphidae were rather rare. Libellulids Neurothemis fluctuans, Trithemis aurora, Crocothemis servilia, T. festiva and Orthetrum chrysis were widely distributed in shaded, muddy areas. Among the zygopterans, Pseudagrion pruinosumwas the most dominant species. Agriocnemis femina, Ictinogomphus rapax, Cratilla lineata, Lathrecista asiatica, Neurothemis tullia, Tholymis tillarga and Copera ciliata were strictly found at Saleh River implicating their preference for smaller, slow moving and polluted river with floating microphytes and few other surrounding plant species. Neurobasis chinensis and Vestalis gracilis were only found in open, undisturbed, fast flowing waters of Setul and Serdang rivers. Generally the adults perched on marginal vegetation as well as those on the river bank areas.

  10. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  11. Human responses to eruptions of Etna (Sicily) during the late-Pre-Industrial Era and their implications for present-day disaster planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Sangster, Heather

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarises: the characteristics of eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 and 1923; the ways in which human responses evolved during the period and the lessons this history holds for the management of present-day volcanic and volcano-related disasters. People responded to eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; through the mutual support of a village or larger settlement and as citizens of the State. During the study period and with the exception of limited financial aid and preservation of law and order, the State was a minor player in responding to eruptions. Families and extended families provided shelter, accommodation and often alternative agricultural employment; whilst supportive villages communities displayed a well developed tendency to learn from experience (e.g. innovating techniques to bring land back into cultivation and avoiding the risks of phreatic activity as lava encountered water and saturated ground) and providing labour to enable household chattels and agricultural crops to be salvaged from land threatened with lava incursion. Eruptions were widely believed to be 'Acts of God', with divine punishment frequently being invoked as a primary cause of human suffering. Elaborate rituals of propitiation were performed to appease a supposed angry God, but this world-view did not produce a fatalistic attitude amongst the population preventing people from coping with disasters in a generally effective manner. Despite present day emergencies being handled by the State and its agencies, some features of nineteenth century responses remain in evidence, including salvaging all that may be easily removed from a building and/or agricultural holding, and explanations of disaster which are theistic in character. Lessons from eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 to 1923 are that the former should be encouraged, whilst the latter does not prevent people acting to preserve life and property or obeying the authorities

  12. Hazard responses in the pre-industrial era: vulnerability and resilience of traditional societies to volcanic disasters and the implications for present-day disaster planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Heather

    2014-05-01

    A major research frontier in the study of natural hazard research involves unravelling the ways in which societies have reacted historically to disasters, and how such responses influence current policies of disaster reduction. For societies it is common to classify responses to natural hazards into: pre-industrial (folk); industrial; and post-industrial (comprehensive) responses. Pre-industrial societies are characterised by: a pre-dominantly rural location; an agricultural economic focus; artisan handicrafts rather than industrial production, parochialism, with people rarely travelling outside their local area and being little affected by external events and a feudal or semi-feudal social structure. In the past, hazard assessment focused on the physical processes that produced extreme and potentially damaging occurrences, however from the middle of the twenty-first century research into natural hazards has been cast within a framework defined by the polarities (or opposites) of vulnerability and resilience, subject to a blend of unique environmental, social, economic and cultural forces in hazardous areas, that either increase or decrease the impact of extreme events on a given society. In the past decade research of this type has been facilitated by a 'revolution' of source materials across a range of languages and in a variety of electronic formats (e.g. official archives; major contemporary and near-contemporary publications - often available as reprints; national and international newspapers of record; newsreel-films; and, photographs) and in the introduction of more reliable translation software (e.g. Systrans) that provides far more scope to the researcher in the study of natural hazards than was the case even a few years ago. Knowledge of hazard responses in the pre-industrial era is, not only important in its own right because it reveals indigenous strategies of coping, but also informs present-day disaster planners about how people have reacted to past

  13. Report on the present day situation and technical perspectives of renewable energies; Rapport sur l'etat actuel et les perspectives techniques des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C.; Le Deaut, J.Y.

    2001-11-01

    This work, carried out by the parliamentary office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices on request of the French National Assembly and Senate, takes stock of the present day situation and technical perspectives of development of renewable energy sources and of research needs of the French industry in this domain: 1 - renewable energies: key-technologies for the energy supply of developing countries and for a rational consumption in transportation systems and accommodations of developed countries (energies technically different from fossil or nuclear energies; fundamental energy sources for a developing world; different national goals in Europe depending on the available natural resources and on the political realities; a minor interest in France for the domestic power generation but a major interest for transports, residential and tertiary sectors and export); 2 - priority choices given to the French renewable energy resources: renewable electricity (photovoltaic, wind, biomass), thermal technologies (solar, geothermal, biomass); 3 - future policy: sustain of renewable electricity production with the revival of research, industry and technical cooperation. (J.S.)

  14. [Hygienic features of working conditions and their impact on the health of women engaged in the present-day manufacture of paper wallpaper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichugina, N N

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to comprehensively assess working conditions and their impact on the health of female workers engaged in the manufacture of present-day paper wallpaper. A complex of sanitary-and-hygienic, clinical-and-physiological, sociomedical, and statistical studies was used to tackle the tasks set in the investigation. Stage 1 made a sanitary-and-hygienic assessment of industrial factors (microclimate, noise, vibration, the content of toxicants and dust) in the workplaces of female workers from the papering shops using an Elita rolling automatic machine. The following stage analyzed morbidity among the workers and identified a number of functional parameters. A combination of poor factors characterizing their parameters and exceeding the sanitary standards influenced on the workers engaged in the manufacture of paper wallpaper. The leading harmful industrial factors are heating microclimate, production noise, and the working air level of harmful chemical substances in the working air. The production process under such microclimatic conditions causes the body's thermal changes characterized by the senses of total warm discomfort and the tension of thermoregulatory mechanisms, as confirmed by weighed mean skin temperature studies and decreased working capacity. The working conditions in the manufacture of wallpaper products are shown to result in an increase in female morbidity.

  15. Laser-assisted cavity preparation and adhesion to erbium-lased tooth structure: part 2. present-day adhesion to erbium-lased tooth structure in permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Roeland Jozef Gentil; Delme, Katleen Ilse Maria

    2010-04-01

    With the introduction of the Er:YAG laser, it has become possible to remove enamel and dentin more effectively and efficiently than with other lasers. Thermal damage is reduced, especially in conjunction with water spray. Since FDA (Federal Drug Administration) approval of the Er:YAG laser in 1997--for caries removal, cavity preparation and conditioning of tooth substance - there have been many reports on the use of this technique in combination with composite resins. Moreover, cavity pretreatment with Er:YAG laser (laser etching) has been proposed as an alternative to acid etching of enamel and dentin. Reports evaluating the adhesion of glass-ionomer cements to Er:YAG-lased tooth substance are scarce. This article reviews the literature regarding adhesion and sealing efficacy using different (pre)treatment protocols in association with Er:YAG laser preparation. Recent research has shown that lasing of enamel and dentin may result in surface and subsurface alterations that have negative effects on both adhesion and seal. It is concluded that at present, it is advisable to respect the conventional pretreatment procedures as needed for the respective adhesive materials. Although the majority of present day reports show that microleakage and bond strength are negatively influenced by laser (pre)treatment (compared with conventional preparation), there is ongoing discussion of how adhesion is best achieved on Er:YAG-lased surfaces.

  16. Estimation of present-day inter-seismic deformation in Kopili fault zone of north-east India using GPS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Barman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current study reports the present-day inter-seismic deformation of Kopili fault zone of north-east India and slip rate estimate of Kopili fault using five epochs of global positioning system (GPS data collected from seven campaigns and five permanent sites. The rate of baseline length change of the GPS sites across the Kopili fault indicates ∼2.0 mm/yr E–W convergence across the fault. The fault parallel GPS site velocities clearly indicate dextral slip of the Kopili fault. The fault normal velocities show convergence across the Kopili fault, suggesting it to be a transpressional fault. The fault parallel velocities are inverted for fault slip and locking depth using an elastic dislocation model. The first-order, best-fit elastic dislocation model suggest average right lateral slip of 2.62 ± 0.79 mm/yr and a shallow locking depth (3 ± 2 km of the Kopili Fault. The slip of the Kopili fault is contributing to seismic moment accumulation (∼70.74 × 1015 Nm/yr, sufficient to drive possible future earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.17.

  17. DNA analysis of a 30,000-year-old Urocitellus glacialis from northeastern Siberia reveals phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerman, Marina; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E.; Ermakov, Oleg A.; Golenishchev, Fedor N.; Gubin, Stanislav V.; Mintz, Eugenia; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L.; Titov, Sergei V.; Zanina, Oksana G.; Formozov, Nikolai A.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El’ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed 14C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El’ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia. Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on complete cytochrome b gene sequences of five Late Pleistocene arctic ground squirrels and those of modern U. parryii from 21 locations across western Beringia, provided no support for earlier proposals that ancient arctic ground squirrels from Siberia constitute a distinct species. In fact, we observed genetic continuity of the glacialis mitochondrial DNA lineage in modern U. parryii of the Kamchatka peninsula. When viewed in a broader geographic perspective, our findings provide new insights into the genetic history of U. parryii in Late Pleistocene Beringia. PMID:28205612

  18. ‘... conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’: The exposition of the Heidelberg Catechism in the light of present-day criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius W.C. (Natie van Wyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is a contribution to the 450 year celebrations of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC. Sunday 14, Questions and Answers 35 and 36 receive attention. It deals with the two statements of the creed ‘… conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’. The exposition of the HC is compared to the catechisms of Zacharias Ursinus and John Calvin in order to capture something about the historicity of the text. The exposition of the creed is an on-going process. Karl Barth, Eberhard Busch and Jan Milič Lochman are good examples of Reformed theologians who remain faithful to the intention of the HC, but who explain these statements with present-day criticism in mind. The exposition of Peter Berger is valuable because this sceptic argues that the opinion of modern, liberal Protestantism is of no value. The article concludes that the ‘virgin birth’ as such has no great value. It is only one aspect of the Christian gospel. It also does not proof the divinity of Christ. The divinity of Christ is presupposed.

  19. Analysis of the transcriptome of adult Dictyocaulus filaria and comparison with Dictyocaulus viviparus, with a focus on molecules involved in host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiola, Stefano; Young, Neil D; Sternberg, Paul W; Strube, Christina; Korhonen, Pasi K; Mitreva, Makedonka; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Hofmann, Andreas; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-03-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause diseases of major economic importance in animals. Key representatives are species of Dictyocaulus (=lungworms), which cause bronchitis (=dictyocaulosis, commonly known as "husk") and have a major adverse impact on the health of livestock. In spite of their economic importance, very little is known about the immunomolecular biology of these parasites. Here, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the adult transcriptome of Dictyocaulus filaria of small ruminants and compared it with that of Dictyocaulus viviparus of bovids. We then identified a subset of highly transcribed molecules inferred to be linked to host-parasite interactions, including cathepsin B peptidases, fatty-acid and/or retinol-binding proteins, β-galactoside-binding galectins, secreted protein 6 precursors, macrophage migration inhibitory factors, glutathione peroxidases, a transthyretin-like protein and a type 2-like cystatin. We then studied homologues of D. filaria type 2-like cystatin encoded in D. viviparus and 24 other nematodes representing seven distinct taxonomic orders, with a particular focus on their proposed role in immunomodulation and/or metabolism. Taken together, the present study provides new insights into nematode-host interactions. The findings lay the foundation for future experimental studies and could have implications for designing new interventions against lungworms and other parasitic nematodes. The future characterisation of the genomes of Dictyocaulus spp. should underpin these endeavours.

  20. Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I Oncogenesis: Molecular Aspects of Virus and Host Interactions in Pathogenesis of Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available     The study of tumor viruses paves the way for understanding the mechanisms of virus pathogenesis, including those involved in establishing infection and dissemination in the host tumor affecting immune-compromised patients. The processes ranging from viral infection to progressing malignancy are slow and usually insufficient for establishment of transformed cells that develop cancer in only a minority of infected subjects. Therefore, viral infection is usually not the only cause of cancer, and further environmental and host factors, may be implicated. HTLV-I, in particular, is considered as an oncovirus cause of lymphoproliferative disease such as adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and disturbs the immune responses which results in HTLV-I associated meylopathy/tropical spastic parapresis (HAM/TSP. HTLV-I infection causes ATL in a small proportion of infected subjects (2-5% following a prolonged incubation period (15-30 years despite a strong adaptive immune response against the virus.   Overall, these conditions offer a prospect to study the molecular basis of tumorgenicity in mammalian cells. In this review, the oncogencity of HTLV-I is being considered as an oncovirus in context of ATL.    

  1. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from ACCMIP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996–2000. We evaluated the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements.

    Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5–3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period. We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Jungfraujoch and Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2–3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean.

    For the ice core evaluation, models tend to capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes well at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice-core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct

  2. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post-Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael; van Dam, Tonie; Bamber, Jonathan L; Wahr, John; Willis, Michael; Kjær, Kurt H; Wouters, Bert; Helm, Veit; Csatho, Beata; Fleming, Kevin; Bjørk, Anders A; Aschwanden, Andy; Knudsen, Per; Munneke, Peter Kuipers

    2016-09-01

    Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basin-wide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted, large GIA uplift rates of +12 mm/year are found in southeast Greenland. These rates are due to low upper mantle viscosity in the region, from when Greenland passed over the Iceland hot spot about 40 million years ago. This region of concentrated soft rheology has a profound influence on reconstructing the deglaciation history of Greenland. We reevaluate the evolution of the GrIS since LGM and obtain a loss of 1.5-m sea-level equivalent from the northwest and southeast. These same sectors are dominating modern mass loss. We suggest that the present destabilization of these marine-based sectors may increase sea level for centuries to come. Our new deglaciation history and GIA uplift estimates suggest that studies that use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to infer present-day changes in the GrIS may have erroneously corrected for GIA and underestimated the mass loss by about 20 gigatons/year.

  3. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tides, extra-tropical storm surges and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Mason, Matthew S.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of extreme water levels along low-lying, highly populated and/or developed coastlines can lead to considerable loss of life and billions of dollars of damage to coastal infrastructure. Therefore it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood management, engineering and future land-use planning. This ensures the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. This paper estimates for the first time present day extreme water level exceedence probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia. A high-resolution depth averaged hydrodynamic model has been configured for the Australian continental shelf region and has been forced with tidal levels from a global tidal model and meteorological fields from a global reanalysis to generate a 61-year hindcast of water levels. Output from this model has been successfully validated against measurements from 30 tide gauge sites. At each numeric coastal grid point, extreme value distributions have been fitted to the derived time series of annual maxima and the several largest water levels each year to estimate exceedence probabilities. This provides a reliable estimate of water level probabilities around southern Australia; a region mainly impacted by extra-tropical cyclones. However, as the meteorological forcing used only weakly includes the effects of tropical cyclones, extreme water level probabilities are underestimated around the western, northern and north-eastern Australian coastline. In a companion paper we build on the work presented here and more accurately include tropical cyclone-induced surges in the estimation of extreme water level. The multi-decadal hindcast generated here has been used primarily to estimate extreme water level exceedance probabilities but could be used more widely in the future for a variety of other research and practical

  4. Paleo-oil-Water Contact and Present-Day Gas-Water Contact:Implication for Evolution History of Puguang Gas Field,Sichuan Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Pingping; Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Wang Cunwu; Zhang Xuefeng

    2008-01-01

    The Puguang (普光) gas field is the largest gas field found in marine carbonate in China.The Puguang gas field experienced complicated evolution history from paleo-oil pool to gas pool.The purpose of this article is to reveal the evolution history of Puguang gas field through systematic study on the relationship between paleo-oil-water contact (POWC) and present-day gas-water contact (PGWC).POWC was recognized by observing the change of relative content of residual solid bitumen in the cores,and PGWC was observed using log and drilling stem test data.Two types of relationship between POWC and PGWC were observed in the Puguang gas field:POWC is above PGWC,and POWC is below PGWC.The former is normal as oil cracking may cause gas-water contact to move downward.The latter can be interpreted by lateral gas re-migration and re-accumulation caused by changes in structural configuration.The relationship between POWC and PGWC suggests that during oil charge,the southwestern and northwestern parts of the Puguang gas field were structurally lower than the northeastern and southeastern parts.Thrusting from Xuefengshan (雪峰山) since Yanshanian movement and from Dabashan (大巴山) since Himalayan movement resulted in the relative uplift of the southwestern and northwestern parts of the Puguang structure,which significantly changed the structural configuration.Based on the paleo-structure discussed in this article,the most probable migration directions of paleo-oil were from the northwest to the southeast and from the southwest to the northeast.Consequently,the evolution history of the Puguang gas field can be divided into three stages,namely,oil charging (200-170 Ma),cracking oil to gas (155-120 Ma),and gas pool adjustment (1200-0Ma).

  5. A High-resolution Multiband Survey of Westerlund 2 with the Hubble Space Telescope. III. The Present-day Stellar Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Peter; Nota, Antonella; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Pasquali, Anna; Tosi, Monica; Christian, Carol

    2017-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of the stellar population and the present-day mass function (PDMF) of the Westerlund 2 (Wd2) region using the data from our high-resolution multiband survey with the Hubble Space Telescope. We used state-of-the-art artificial star tests to determine spatially resolved completeness maps for each of the broadband filters. We reach a level of completeness of 50% down to F555W=24.8 mag (0.7 {M}ȯ ) and F814W=23.3 mag (0.2 {M}ȯ ) in the optical and F125W=20.2 mag and F160W=19.4 mag (both 0.12 {M}ȯ ) in the infrared throughout the field of view. We had previously reported that the core of Wd2 consists of two clumps: namely the main cluster and the northern clump. From the spatial distribution of the completeness-corrected population, we find that their stellar surface densities are 1114 {stars} {{pc}}-2 and 555 {stars} {{pc}}-2, respectively, down to F814W=21.8 mag. We find that the PDMF of Wd2 has a slope of {{Γ }}=-1.46+/- 0.06, which translates to a total stellar cluster mass of (3.6+/- 0.3)\\cdot {10}4 {M}ȯ . The spatial analysis of the PDMF reveals that the cluster population is mass-segregated and most likely primordial. In addition, we report the detection of a stellar population of spatially uniformly distributed low-mass (< 0.15 {M}ȯ ) stars, extending into the gas ridges of the surrounding gas and dust cloud, as well as a confined region of reddened stars, likely caused by a foreground CO cloud. We find hints that a cloud–cloud collision might be the origin of the formation of Wd2.

  6. Interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming on coral reef associated epilithic algal communities under past, present-day and future ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, N.; Cantin, N. E.; Strahl, J.; Kaniewska, P.; Bay, L.; Wild, C.; Uthicke, S.

    2016-06-01

    Epilithic algal communities play critical ecological roles on coral reefs, but their response to individual and interactive effects of ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) is still largely unknown. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and calcification of early epilithic algal community assemblages exposed for 6 months to four temperature profiles (-1.1, ±0.0, +0.9, +1.6 °C) that were crossed with four carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) levels (360, 440, 650, 940 µatm), under flow-through conditions and natural light regimes. Additionally, we compared the cover of heavily calcified crustose coralline algae (CCA) and lightly calcified red algae of the genus Peyssonnelia among treatments. Increase in cover of epilithic communities showed optima under moderately elevated temperatures and present pCO2, while cover strongly decreased under high temperatures and high-pCO2 conditions, particularly due to decreasing cover of CCA. Similarly, community calcification rates were strongly decreased at high pCO2 under both measured temperatures. While final cover of CCA decreased under high temperature and pCO2 (additive negative effects), cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased at high compared to annual average and moderately elevated temperatures. Thus, cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased in treatment combinations with less CCA, which was supported by a significant negative correlation between organism groups. The different susceptibility to stressors most likely derived from a different calcification intensity and/or mineral. Notably, growth of the epilithic communities and final cover of CCA were strongly decreased under reduced-pCO2 conditions compared to the present. Thus, CCA may have acclimatized from past to present-day pCO2 conditions, and changes in carbonate chemistry, regardless in which direction, negatively affect them. However, if epilithic organisms cannot further acclimatize to OW and OA, the interacting effects of both factors may change

  7. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat A.; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael; van Dam, Tonie; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Wahr, John; Willis, Michael; Kjær, Kurt H.; Wouters, Bert; Helm, Veit; Csatho, Beata; Fleming, Kevin; Bjørk, Anders A.; Aschwanden, Andy; Knudsen, Per; Munneke, Peter Kuipers

    2016-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basin-wide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted, large GIA uplift rates of +12 mm/year are found in southeast Greenland. These rates are due to low upper mantle viscosity in the region, from when Greenland passed over the Iceland hot spot about 40 million years ago. This region of concentrated soft rheology has a profound influence on reconstructing the deglaciation history of Greenland. We reevaluate the evolution of the GrIS since LGM and obtain a loss of 1.5-m sea-level equivalent from the northwest and southeast. These same sectors are dominating modern mass loss. We suggest that the present destabilization of these marine-based sectors may increase sea level for centuries to come. Our new deglaciation history and GIA uplift estimates suggest that studies that use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to infer present-day changes in the GrIS may have erroneously corrected for GIA and underestimated the mass loss by about 20 gigatons/year. PMID:27679819

  8. 松墨天牛成虫对寄主颜色的视觉选择研究%Visual selection of adult Monochamus alternatus to host colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健敏; 代艳梅; 陈晓鸣; 杨子祥; 陈飞; 孙宝刚

    2012-01-01

    为验证视觉信息在松墨天牛Monochamus alternatus Hope成虫寄主选择中的作用,并探索其对寄主健康状况的偏好,本文通过林间对寄主云南松针叶的色彩比对,选取国际标准色卡对应卡色作为视觉信号源,对松墨天牛雌、雄成虫的视觉选择进行了研究.研究表明,松墨天牛雌虫选择最多的颜色分别是:棕红色(选择率26.67%),赭石棕(选择率20.00%),栗棕色(选择率16.67%);松墨天牛雄虫选择最多的颜色为:信号褐(选择率26.67%),棕红色(选择率23.33%),栗棕色(选择率20.00%).雌、雄成虫均偏好选择棕褐色系,对应于林间衰弱和濒死寄主针叶呈现的颜色,说明松墨天牛成虫通过视觉判断偏好攻击长势衰弱的林木,属于次期性蛀干害虫.%The article aims at proving visual effect in host selection of adult Monochamus alternatus, and exploring their preference to host health status. Based on color comparison with the coniferous colors of Pinus yunnanensis in woodlands, corresponding colors are chosen from the international standard color cards (RAL) and are used as visual signal source to investigate visual selection of male and female M. alternatus. The paper reveals that female M. alternatus choose red brown ( selectivity: 26. 61%) , ochre brown (selectivity; 20.00%) and chestnut brown (selectivity-. 16.67%) most; while males select signal brown (selectivity; 26.67%), red brown (selectivity; 23.33%) and chestnut brown ( selectivity: 20. 00% ) most. Both females and males prefer brown series which are coniferous colors of weak and dying host trees, that is to say, adult M. alternatus, which prefers attacking weak trees based on vision decision, belongs to secondary xylophagous insect.

  9. Climatic controls on biophysical interactions in the Black Sea under present day conditions and a potential future (A1B) climate scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannaby, Heather; Fach, Bettina A.; Arkin, Sinan S.; Salihoglu, Baris

    2015-01-01

    A dynamical downscaling approach has been applied to investigate climatic controls on biophysical interactions and lower trophic level dynamics in the Black Sea. Simulations were performed under present day conditions (1980-1999) and a potential future (2080-2099) climate scenario, based on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario. Simulations project a 3.7 °C increase in SST, a 25% increase in the stability of the seasonal thermocline and a 37 day increase in the duration of seasonal stratification. Increased winter temperatures inhibited the formation of Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) waters resulting in near complete erosion of the CIL, with implications for the ventilation of intermediate water masses and the subduction of riverine nutrients. A 4% increase in nitrate availability within the upper 30 m of the water column reflected an increase in the retention time of river water within the surface mixed-layer. Changes in thermohaline structure, combined with a 27% reduction in positive wind stress curl, forced a distinct change in the structure of the basin-scale circulation. The predominantly cyclonic circulation characteristic of contemporary conditions was reversed within the southern and eastern regions of the basin, where under A1B climatic conditions, anticyclonic circulation prevailed. The change in circulation structure significantly altered the horizontal advection and dispersion of high nutrient river waters originating on the NW self. Net primary production increased by 5% on average, with much spatial variability in the response, linked to advective processes. Phytoplankton biomass also increased by 5% and the higher nutrient environment of the future scenario caused a shift in species composition in favour of larger phytoplankton. No significant change in zooplankton biomass was projected. These results constitute one of many possible future scenarios for the Black Sea, being dependent on the modelling

  10. Will the French Riviera disappear? Ancient and present day submarine landslides along the north-western Ligurian Margin (NW Mediterranean) under the microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, V.; Migeon, S.; Larroque, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    The integration between seismic-reflection and bathymetric data highlighted more than one thousand and three hundred ancient and recent scars and Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) related to submarine failures along the whole northern margin of the Ligurian Basin. Several types of failures are pointed out along the margin according to their morphology, distribution and origin: (1) Numerous superficial landslides affected largely the inner walls of canyons and the upper continental slope at the vicinity of the main mountain-supplied rivers where the sedimentation rates are the strongest and thus contribute to the progressive stressing of the slope. This type of scars is mainly observed in the western margin where the thickness of plio-quaternary sediment is the lowest. (2) Large-scale scars and successive MTDs affecting the upper part of interfluves in the Gulf of Genova (Finale Slide and Portofino Slide) could have been triggered by earthquakes as well as by indirect effects of the last sea level drop. (3) At the north-eastern margin, offshore of Imperia, there is a large promontory bounded by a network of N60°E faults on its southern side and characterized by the presence of many landslides of variable sizes associated to unconformities could correspond to the different phases of recent, and perhaps present-day, uplift of the Imperia Promontory. (4) Deep scars along the base of the continental slope and possibly related to the seismic activity of a neighbouring fault, as the Cirque Marcel located near the Marcel Fault which appears on the seafloor as a 10-km long scarp trending N60°E. (5) In the western basin, near of the foot of the continental slope, the bathymetry is mark by a convexity which corresponds on the seismic data to the superposition of several thick MTDs. (6) In the deep basin and the eastern part of the Ligurian Basin, the thick plio-quaternary deposits are constitute by an alternation between continuous reflectors corresponding to hemipelagic

  11. Structure of the present-day velocity field of the crust in the area of the Central-Asian GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzikov, S. I.; Mukhamediev, Sh. A.

    2010-07-01

    The structure of the vector field of present-day horizontal velocities on the Earth’s surface is investigated with the use of the territory covered by the Central-Asian GPS network as an example. A method of identification of groups of GPS points (statistically rigid clusters), for which the rate of change in distances between them is virtually zero, is proposed and realized. Sites of the Earth’s surface (regions) containing such groups of GPS points, within the required measurement accuracy, move in the horizontal plane as two-dimensional rigid bodies. The clustering algorithm, which is based on the Student t statistics in determining the so-called statistical “sample cost,” is developed and carefully tested. The results of identification of regions take into account possible random errors in velocity measurements and do not depend on the chosen frame of reference. The method of identification of regions is sufficiently stable with respect to variations in the number of GPS sites used for clustering. Of all the sites of the Central-Asian GPS network, 323 points were selected for clustering. These sites were measured from 3 to 11 times over an 11-year interval of observations (1995-2005). The estimates of errors of velocity measurement for these sites must not exceed 1.0 mm/yr. As a result, 29 statistically rigid clusters, containing from 3 to 17 GPS sites, were identified, and the kinematic regimes of motion of regions corresponding to these clusters were determined with respect to the stable part of Eurasia. With the general direction of the translatory motion of regions toward the north, the majority of them rotate counterclockwise. Nearly one third of GPS sites do not participate in the formation of clusters; these points fall into the interregional space (IRS), which is characterized by increased strain rates. The IRS structure is partitioned into zones with four directions, of which two directions virtually coincide with directions of the principal

  12. External impacts on traditional commons and present-day changes: a case study of iriai forests in Yamaguni district, Kyoto, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisaku Shimada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese iriai forests have been regarded as a model of institutions for collective action in the sustainable use of resources in studies on commons, as pointed out by Ostrom (1990 and McKean (1996. However, present-day iriai forests that have survived decades of legal and even greater economic and social challenges have undergone significant alteration. While we know that external conditions such as foreign competition from low-cost timber have depressed the Japanese forestry industry and thus reduced the health of Japanese forests as a whole, we do not know about the current state of the iriai forests in particular. Adaptation to external impacts is crucial for the survival of the commons in a modern industrialized society. This study examines external impacts on traditional commons and the resultant institutional changes in current Japan. We cannot easily track the changes in traditional commons without deep understanding of many cases, because the factors affecting their functioning are complex and diverse. Therefore, we opted to use the case study method to improve the empirical foundations for analyzing these complex phenomena. Our goal was to examine the institutional changes resulting from one source of pressure found in many commons near urbanizing areas in postwar Japan – an increase in newcomers – as well as from the pressure of foreign competition in forest products. We chose eleven villages in the Yamaguni district in Kyoto city that manage their own common forests and studied the documented rules in these communities. We used participant observation and also conducted interviews with villagers to obtain their sense of change over time, the impact of globalization, and the current status of the commons. This paper derived the following conclusions. First, the village community can adapt its institutions to external influences by supporting continuous institutional change. Second, although village communities can overcome most

  13. Present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone from inversion of focal mechanism solutions: A successful trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard M., Franck A.; Castilla, Raymi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a compilation of 16 present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone (PBZ), and particularly in western and along northern Venezuela. As a trial, these new stress tensors along PBZ have been calculated from inversion of 125 focal mechanism solutions (FMS) by applying the Angelier & Mechler's dihedral method, which were originally gathered by the first author and published in 2005. These new tensors are compared to those 59 tensors inverted from fault-slip data measured only in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks, compiled in Audemard et al. (2005), which were originally calculated by several researchers through the inversion methods developed by Angelier and Mechler or Etchecopar et al. The two sets of stress tensors, one derived from geological data and the other one from seismological data, compare very well throughout the PBZ in terms of both stress orientation and shape of the stress tensor. This region is characterized by a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato), occasionally compressional, regime from the southern Mérida Andes on the southwest to the gulf of Paria in the east. Significant changes in direction of the maximum horizontal stress (σH = σ1) can be established along it though. The σ1 direction varies progressively from nearly east-west in the southern Andes (SW Venezuela) to between NW-SE and NNW-SSE in northwestern Venezuela; this direction remaining constant across northern Venezuela, from Colombia to Trinidad. In addition, the σV defined by inversion of focal mechanisms or by the shape of the stress ellipsoid derived from the Etchecopar et al.'s method better characterize whether the stress regime is transpressional or compressional, or even very rarely trantensional at local scale. The orientation and space variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the addition of the two major neighbouring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (

  14. Grainsize Patterns and Bed Evolution of the Rhone River (France): A Present-day Snapshot Following a Century and a Half of Human Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, T.; Parrot, E.; Piegay, H.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 150 years the Rhône River has been heavily altered by human infrastructures. The first wave (1860 - 1930) of modifications consisted of dikes and groynes designed to narrow the channel and promote incision in order to facilitate navigation. A second period (1948 - 1986) involved the construction of a series of canals and dams for hydroelectricity production. These works bypass multiple reaches of the original channel and drastically reduce the discharge and sediment load reaching them. A comprehensive study underway is aimed at describing the present-day morphology of the Rhone along its 512 km length from its source at Lake Geneva to its sink at the Mediterranean Sea and quantifying the role of management works in the evolution to its current state. Grainsize distributions and armour ratios were determined using a combination of Wolman counts on bars and in shallow channels and dredge samples collected from a boat in navigable reaches. Long profiles were constructed from historical bathymetric maps and bathymetric data collected between 1950 - 2010. Differential long profiles highlighting changes in bed elevation due to sediment storage and erosion were analyzed for three different periods: post-channelization, post-dam construction, and a recent period of major floods. Results show a complex discontinuous pattern in grainsize associated with hydraulic discontinuities imposed by dams. The D50 for bypass reaches is 45 mm compared to a D50 of 34 mm in the non-bypass reaches. The lower D50 as well as a finer tailed distribution in non-bypass reaches reflects fining associated with storage upstream of dams. Armour ratios are on average around 2 but are notably higher for reaches in the middle section of the Rhone. The average incision rate was 1.8 cm/yr for the period of post-channelization and 1.2 cm/yr following dam construction, suggesting the post-dam Rhone was already partially armoured due to incision associated with channelization preceding dam

  15. 塔里木盆地现今地热特征%Present-day geothermal regime in Tarim basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯昌格; 刘绍文; 王良书; 李成

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flow are key parameters that describe the thermal regime of sedimentary basin,and are so vital for understanding the tectono-thermal evolution and associated hydrocarbon resource potential assessment of oil and gas bearing basin.Here we show the distribution pattern of the updated present-day geothermal gradient and calculate 38 terrestrial heat flow values in the Tarim basin,one of the biggest sedimentary basins in China,based on the formation temperature data from approximately 470 wells and 941 thermal conductivity of rocks within this basin.Our results show that the present-day geothermal gradient of Tarim basin varies between 17~32 ℃/km with a mean value of 22.6±3.0 ℃/km, and the terrestrial heat flow ranges from 26.2 to 65.4 Mw/m~2 with a mean of 43.0±8.5 Mw/m~2,suggesting a thermal regime of cold basin with low temperature and low heat flow,as compared with other large-middle scale sedimentary basins in China.This low thermal regime also makes Tarim basin to share the similar geothermal characteristics of other typical craton basins in the world.Generally,the geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flow in uplift areas are usually larger than those in the depressions.We also find that the discovered oil and gas fields in Tarim are usually with relatively large geothermal gradient,the cause for this coincidence is not clear but the upward movement and accumulation of hot fluid below is speculated to account for this positive geothermal anomaly.Finally,we summarize the factors that influence the geothermal distribution of basin as deep structure,tectonic evolution and basement pattern of basin,thermal physical properties of rocks and hydrocarbon accumulation as well.%地温梯度和大地热流是揭示盆地现今热状态的重要参数,它们对理解盆地的构造一热演化过程及油气资源评价等方面均具有重要意义.利用塔里木盆地约470口井的地层测试温度资料和941

  16. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations, and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996–2000. We evaluate the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5–3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period. We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2–3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to adequately capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct temporal trend at the Tibetan

  17. Evaluation Of Present-Day Climate-Induced Desertification In El-Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert Of Egypt, Based On Integration Of MEDALUS Method, GIS And RS Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Hossam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited to fourth percent or less of the country’s total land area, Egypt’s agricultural landscape is threatened by the repercussions of climate change, desertification, soil depletion, and looming water scarcity. Outside of the Nile river valley and scattered fertile pockets in the desert oases, the vast majority of land is desert: rocky, parched and unable to support conventional farming. According to Egyptian National Action Program 2005 (ENAP, Egypt covers an area of about one million km2 ~ 100 million hectares, out of which about of 76.5 thousands km2 ~ 7.6% of the total area are inhabited, and the remaining (92.4% area is desert. Desertification is a very complex process governed by several variables which influence each other. It is thus not possible to conclude for the general picture from a single factor alone. This process has a high rate in arid and hyper-arid countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this research was to evaluation the present-day climate-induced desertification in El-Dakhla Oasis, so in this study, the newest method for evaluating and mapping of desertification was used. The mathematic method was carried out by European Commission (EC, (MEditerranean Desertification And Land Use at the MEDALUS project and booked as ESAs in 1999 integrated with remote sensing and GIS. All indices of the model were revised before using, and regarding to the region condition these indices were defined as key indices which were: Temperature, precipitation, wind, albedo, ground water and soil benchmark, and each benchmark has some sub-layers getting from their geometric mean. Based on the MEDALUS model, each sub-benchmark was quantified according to its quality and given a weighting of between 1.0 and 2.0. All benchmarks should be reinvestigated and adjusted to local conditions. Ultimately, desertification severity was classified in four level including low, moderate, Severe and high Severe. ArcGIS 10 was used to analysis and

  18. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, D. T.; Bernsten, T.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L. W.; McConnell, J. R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S. T.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations, and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000. We evaluate the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5-3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period.We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to adequately capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct temporal trend at the Tibetan Plateau ice cores

  19. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  20. Triage: Napoleon to the present day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagg, C R

    2004-01-01

    Triage, the sorting of patients according to the severity of their injuries and the need for urgent surgery was a concept developed by Dr. Larrey, a military surgeon in Napoleon's army. The evolution of the concept in military medicine from that time to the present is described. Triage in civilian practice first became a serious issue with the development of dialysis for chronic renal failure in the 1960s and the problem of the allocation of this scarce and very expensive treatment. With new developments in organ transplantation and technology it continues to be an issue today.

  1. Cities, Counties and Universities Look for Ways to Prevent Underage Drinking--Social Host Laws Make Adults Responsible for Alcohol Served on Their Property to Those Under 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Glynn R.

    2008-01-01

    Municipalities and colleges are adding Social Host ordinances to their list of tactics to prevent underage drinking. The ordinances, which focus on the locations where underage drinking takes place, hold property owners responsible for making sure those under 21 don't consume alcohol in their home, apartment or any venue they own. MADD (Mothers…

  2. β2-1 Fructan supplementation alters host immune responses in a manner consistent with increased exposure to microbial components: results from a double-blinded, randomised, cross-over study in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sandra T; Green-Johnson, Julia M; Brooks, Stephen P J; Ramdath, D Dan; Bercik, Premysl; Avila, Christian; Inglis, G Douglas; Green, Judy; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-28

    β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects' regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood was analysed for clinical, biochemical and immunological variables. Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken. β2-1 Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion. With respect to immune function, β2-1 fructan supplementation increased serum IL-4, circulating percentages of CD282+/TLR2+ myeloid dendritic cells and ex vivo responsiveness to a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. β2-1 Fructans also decreased serum IL-10, but did not affect C-reactive protein or serum/faecal Ig concentrations. No differences in host well-being were associated with either treatment, although the self-reported incidence of GI symptoms and headaches increased during the β2-1 fructan phase. Although β2-1 fructan supplementation increased faecal bifidobacteria, this change was not directly related to any of the determined host parameters.

  3. Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible.

  4. Linguistic Problems of Adult Migrant Workers and Socio-linguistic Problems of Migrant Workers' Children Being Educated in the Host Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, Albert

    This article examines the linguistic problems of adult migrant workers and sociolinguistic problems of their children. The introduction states provisions for migrant workers' ethnic and linguistic rights. An examination of the actual situation leads to the general statement that linguistic rights of migrant workers are passively tolerated and not…

  5. The Role of Within-Host Competition for Coexistence in Multiparasitoid-Host Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Ellen; Pérez-Vila, Saleta; Etienne, Rampal S

    2016-01-01

    Multiparasitism (females of multiple species parasitizing the same host) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in parasitoids, yet the role of within-host competition has been mostly ignored in multiparasitoid-host models. Here we study the effect of varying the degree of competition at different life stages: competition over oviposition sites (between-adult competition) and larval competition over resources within the host (within-host competition). We adapt a Nicholson-Bailey model to allow for varying levels of between-adult competition (varying the overlap in species distributions) and within-host competition (varying the number of offspring that can successfully emerge from a host). Surprisingly, while stronger between-adult competition reduces coexistence, stronger within-host competition promotes it. Asymmetric between-adult competition (a fecundity difference between the two species) reduces coexistence when compared to symmetric competition; this can be counteracted by asymmetric within-host competition (within-host competitive advantage of the lower-fecundity species), but only when within-host competition is strong and the correlation between the parasitoids' distributions is intermediate. We discuss our results in the context of the interaction between two parasitoid species, Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti, which have strongly correlated distributions and high levels of multiparasitism in the field. We conclude that either low or asymmetric within-host competition is unlikely to explain their coexistence.

  6. Using present-day patterns of interseismic coupling to model the C.E. 1707 Hōei earthquake and simulate tsunami inundation of Lake Ryuuoo in the Bungo Channel, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, H. E.; Woodruff, J. D.; Loveless, J. P.; Cheng, W.; Weiss, R.; Kanamaru, K.

    2015-12-01

    The C.E. 1707 Hōei event is often considered the worst-case scenario for a Nankai Trough earthquake and tsunami impacting southwestern Japan, and recent estimates of the earthquake's magnitude have exceeded MW 9. However, when paired with tsunami simulations, previously published earthquake models for the event fail to match sedimentological and historical records of 1707 tsunami height in Shikoku and Kyushu. Specifically, models do not produce a sufficiently large tsunami in the northern Bungo Channel and Seto Inland Sea without also over-predicting tsunami heights along the open Pacific coastlines of Shikoku and Kyushu. Here, we apply a newly developed rupture model that uses present-day patterns of geodetically imaged interseismic coupling to inform patterns in coseismic slip. Along the southwestern extent of the plate interface (the Hyuga-nada area), there is a region of weak coupling up-dip along the trench axis and a region of strong coupling down-dip beneath Shikoku and Kyushu. Following this pattern, the new earthquake model produces less coseismic uplift offshore and greater subsidence in an inland region that includes the Bungo Channel. This combination of regional subsidence and a tsunami wave more focused to the Bungo Channel results in inundation patterns more consistent with historical and sedimentological observations in the Hyuga-nada area. We also run the tsunami simulation on a high-resolution grid around Lake Ryuuoo, a back-barrier lake in the northern Bungo Channel that contains a marine overwash deposit from the 1707 tsunami. We apply a simple sediment transport model to demonstrate that the coupling-based rupture scenario produces flow over Lake Ryuuoo's barrier capable of transporting the maximum grain size observed in the lake's 1707 deposit. These findings suggest that spatial trends in our present-day coupling model are more consistent with inundation patterns observed for large tsunamis generated by coseismic rupture along the Nankai

  7. Genetic architecture underlying host choice differentiation in the sympatric host races of Lochmaea capreae leaf beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudi, Shaghayegh; Reinhold, Klaus; Engqvist, Leif

    2016-04-01

    Speciation in herbivorous insects has received considerable attention during the last few decades. Much of this group's diversity originates from adaptive population divergence onto different host plants, which often involves the evolution of specialized patterns of host choice behaviour. Differences in host choice often translates directly into divergence in mating sites, and therefore positive assortative mating will be created which will act as a strong barrier to gene flow. In this study, we first explored whether host choice is a genetically determined trait in the sympatric willow and birch host races of the leaf feeding beetle Lochmaea capreae, or whether larval experience influences adult host choice. Once we had established that host choice is a genetically based trait we determined its genetic architecture. To achieve this, we employed a reciprocal transplant design in which offspring from pure willow and birch cross-types, F1, F2 and backcrosses were raised on each host plant and their preference was determined upon reaching adulthood. We then applied joint-scaling analysis to uncover the genetic architecture of host preference. Our results suggest that rearing host does not have a pronounced effect on adult's host choice; rather the segregation pattern implies the existence of genetic loci affecting host choice in these host races. The joint-scaling analysis revealed that population differences in host choice are mainly influenced by the contribution of additive genetic effects and also maternally inherited cytoplasmic effects. We explore the implications of our findings for evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation.

  8. Autoimmune Demyelinating Polyneuropathy as a Manifestation of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Adult Cord Blood Transplantation in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Hogan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated demyelinating disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a rare entity with unclear etiology. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP has been reported after related and adult unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantation but no such case has been reported after unrelated cord blood transplantation. We hereby present the first case of AIDP after double umbilical cord blood transplantation (DUCBT. A 55-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL received a cord blood transplant for relapsed refractory disease with high risk cytogenetics. On day 221, patient presented with skin rash, tingling in both lower extremites, and ascending paralysis that progressed rapidly over the course of 2 days. The workup resulted in a diagnosis of AIDP and administration of intravenous immunoglobulins plus steroids was initiated. Motor and sensory powers were fully recovered and his chronic GVHD was managed for several months with single agent sirolimus.

  9. Seafloor morphology of the Eurasia-Nubia (Africa) plate boundary between the Tore-Madeira Rise and the Straits of Gibraltar: a case of coexistent Mesozoic through Present day features of tectonic, oceanographic and sedimentary origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrinha, Pedro; Duarte, João.; Valadares, Vasco; Batista, Luis; Zitellini, Nevio; Grácia, Eulalia; Lourenço, Nuno; Rosas, Filipe; Roque, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The joint use of more than 10.000 km multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 180.000km2 of multibeam swath bathymetry and backscatter allowed for a new vision of the seafloor tectonic and geomorphic processes of the area that encompasses the present day plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia, between the Gibraltar Straits and the Tore-Madeira Rise, in the southern sector of the North Atlantic Ocean. The interpretation of this data allowed for the detailed description of the seafloor morphology (i.e. a morphologic map) and the classification of the morphologic features in what respects the genetic process and age. It can be seen that in the same region coexist morphologic features that result from tectonic processes associated with the Triassic-Cretaceous break-up of Pangea, the Paleogene-Miocene compressive phase, the Miocene through Present subduction under the Gibraltar Arc (Gutscher et al., 2002), the Pliocene-Quaternary wrench tectonics and possible coeval plate boundary (Zitellini et al., 2009), the Present day mud volcanism and propagation of the compressive deformation along the West Continental Margin of Portugal (Terrinha et al., 2009). Interpretation of the seismic profiles together with the bathymetry allows the understanding of endogenous and exogenous processes that creates reliefs associated with active structures (related to the Miocene through Present compressive stress field). Other reliefs generated in Mesozoic times by analogous processes can be as well preserved as these active ones. In what concerns exogenous processes, the analysis of the two datasets (reflection seismics and bathymetry) allowed for the description of morphologic features associated with oceanic currents that interact with the seafloor forming these important features. As is the case of the well known active contourites but also less known features, like giant scours at 4 km water depth that have recently been described, suggesting the interaction of deep currents and

  10. 米象成虫触角感器及其取食偏好性%Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla and host preference of adult rice weevil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林喜建; 黄蓬英; 刘馨怡; 陈伟军; 陈思涵; 蔡立君

    2016-01-01

    米象Sitophilus oryzae (L.)是重要的储粮害虫,如何有效防控仍是世界性的研究难题.应用扫描电镜研究了米象成虫触角感器的超微结构,证实了米象触角上仅分布3种感器,分别为毛形感器、刺形感器及锥形感器;采用嗅觉行为仪测定了米象对5种粮食的取食偏好性,结果表明:粮食对米象的引诱由强至弱依次为:燕麦>湖北丁优大米>黑米>莲子>薏米;同时观察了5种粮食对米象F1代种群生长发育的影响,发现在莲子中米象F1代发育历期最长,米象F1代种群数量在供试粮食中由多到少依次为:黑米>燕麦>薏米>湖北丁优大米>莲子.研究其触角感器与取食偏好可为探索米象防治新途径提供理论依据.%Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae ( L.) is one of the most destructive pests to stored products. To develop an effective S.oryzae management, ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of adult rice weevil was investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and followed by observation on behavioral responses of adult S.oryzae to five common types of grain by Y-tube olfactometer and influences of feed on population development. Antennal sensilla observations were in accordance with previous study that there were only three types of antennal sensilla, including sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica and sensilla chaetica in S.oryzae. Oat was significantly more attractive to adult S.oryzae than other types of grain, which was followed by Hubei Dingyou rice, black rice, lotus seed and pearl barley in a descending order. S.oryzae F1 generation needed the longest time for developmental period in lotus seed. Furthermore, population of F1 generation varied among different types of grain, with the largest population in black rice, followed by in oat, pearl barley, Hubei Dingyou rice and lotus seed in a descending order. The findings were attributed to the development of comprehensive pest prevention and management.

  11. Maturation Feeding Preference of Adult Agrilus mali and Related Host Plant Leaf Volatiles%苹小吉丁成虫补充营养的偏好性及相关植物挥发物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓宁; 伊志豪; 王明; 刘德广; 廖书江; 许正

    2016-01-01

    study was to clarify suitable host plants for its adult supplemental feeding and analyze plant leaf volatiles involved in the process.[Method]In this study,four plant species ( i. e. ,Malus halliana,Malus domestica,Pyrus betulifolia and Amygdalus persica) were used to determine its feeding preference and we also analyzed the composition of leaf volatiles from the four species with dynamic headspace collecting procedures and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS).[Result]The results showed that there were significant differences in host selection and feeding amount of A. mail adult on the above mentioned four species. Adults of A. mali preferred to feed on leaves of M. halliana over M. domestica,and the two species in the genus of Malus were preferred compared to P. betulifolia or A. persica. A. mali adults consumed more leaves of M. halliana than those of M. domestica. It was not found that A. mali adults consumed P. betulifolia or A. persica leaves. In addition,the results from GC-MS analyses indicated that there were significant differences in leaf volatile composition and contents among the four species. A total of 71 volatile components were identified,including five alkanes,two ethers,eight alcohols,two ketones,nine aldehydes,22 esters,3 alkenes and 20 terpenoids. Factor analysis showed that factor 1,2 and 3 explained 41. 98%,31. 82% and 19. 83% of the total variance,respectively; M. domestica,A. persica and M. halliana contributed the most to the first three factors,respectively.[Conclusion]Both M. halliana and M. domestica were suitable hosts for A. mali adults supplemental feeding,whereas P. betulifolia or A. persica was not suitable. The unique volatile components from the four species,such as ( Z)-3-hexen-1-ol,hexyl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene,(E,E)-α-farnesene,(E)-nerolidol,β-caryophyllene,(Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and linalool,might play important roles in the process of A. mali adults orientation of host plants,however their specific roles need to be

  12. Multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of invasive fungal infections in adult patients. Prophylaxis, empirical, preemptive or targeted therapy, which is the best in the different hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Zaragoza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Zaragoza1, Javier Pemán2, Miguel Salavert3, Ángel Viudes2, Amparo Solé4, Isidro Jarque5, Emilio Monte6, Eva Romá6, Emilia Cantón71Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain; 2Servicio de Microbiología; 3Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas; 4Unidad de Trasplante Pulmonar; 5Servicio de Hematología; 6Servicio de Farmacia; 7Unidad de Microbiología Experimental, Centro de Investigación, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia, SpainAbstract: The high morbidity, mortality, and health care costs associated with invasive fungal infections, especially in the critical care setting and immunocompromised host, have made it an excellent target for prophylactic, empiric, and preemptive therapy interventions principally based on early identification of risk factors. Early diagnosis and treatment are associated with a better prognosis. In the last years there have been important developments in antifungal pharmacotherapy. An approach to the new diagnosis tools in the clinical mycology laboratory and an analysis of the use new antifungal agents and its application in different clinical situations has been made. Furthermore, an attempt of developing a state of the art in each clinical scenario (critically ill, hematological, and solid organ transplant patients has been performed, trying to choose the best strategy for each clinical situation (prophylaxis, pre-emptive, empirical, or targeted therapy. The high mortality rates in these settings make mandatory the application of early de-escalation therapy in critically ill patients with fungal infection. In addition, the possibility of antifungal combination therapy might be considered in solid organ transplant and hematological patients.Keywords: invasive fungal infections, prophylaxis, empirical therapy, preemptive treatment, targeted therapy

  13. Excavation on the Sub-city Site of Tang and Song Mingzhou City in Present-day Ningbo City, Zhejiang%浙江宁波市唐宋子城遗址

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁波市文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    It is known from excavation on the sub-city site of Tang and Song Mingzhou City in present-day Ningbo, Zhejiang, that the Tang walls of the sub-city were built of rammed earth and surfaced with bricks. The first phase of the Song sub-city wall, belonging to the Northern Song, has brick foundations and a brick-surfaced body. In the second phase, i.e. the Southern Song, the sub-city walls were built of long narrow stones and bricks for the foundations and of brick-covered rammed earth for the upper part, and parts of the walls were survivals from the Tang sub-city. Carefully constructed drains, level grounds and inspection wells were found within the Tang sub-city walls. On the Song ruins, neatly arranged pillars of buildings and brick roads, level grounds, drains and flower terraces were seen in the sub-city. Among the objects unearthed are mainly celadon vessels from Yue kilns, and also products from Longquan kilns, structural members and Persian pottery.

  14. Digeneans of cetaceans: taxonomy, evolutionary history and host specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Fraija Fernández, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Parasitism is an extremely successful lifestyle among animals. In fact, every free-living organism is believed to harbour at least a parasite species, and cetaceans are not the exception. Host-parasite systems offer a suitable model for studying systematics, evolution, biogeography and ecology because the evolutionary fate of parasites is linked to that of their hosts. In particular, present-day associations between cetaceans and their parasites have been shaped by unique historical events. T...

  15. Simulated variations of eolian dust from inner Asian deserts at the mid-Pliocene, last glacial maximum, and present day: contributions from the regional tectonic uplift and global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhengguo; Liu, Xiaodong; An, Zhisheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Loess Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Xi' an (China); Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Northern Tibetan Plateau uplift and global climate change are regarded as two important factors responsible for a remarkable increase in dust concentration originating from inner Asian deserts during the Pliocene-Pleistocene period. Dust cycles during the mid-Pliocene, last glacial maximum (LGM), and present day are simulated with a global climate model, based on reconstructed dust source scenarios, to evaluate the relative contributions of the two factors to the increment of dust sedimentation fluxes. In the focused downwind regions of the Chinese Loess Plateau/North Pacific, the model generally produces a light eolian dust mass accumulation rate (MAR) of 7.1/0.28 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr during the mid-Pliocene, a heavier MAR of 11.6/0.87 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr at present, and the heaviest MAR of 24.5/1.15 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr during the LGM. Our results are in good agreement with marine and terrestrial observations. These MAR increases can be attributed to both regional tectonic uplift and global climate change. Comparatively, the climatic factors, including the ice sheet and sea surface temperature changes, have modulated the regional surface wind field and controlled the intensity of sedimentation flux over the Loess Plateau. The impact of the Tibetan Plateau uplift, which increased the areas of inland deserts, is more important over the North Pacific. The dust MAR has been widely used in previous studies as an indicator of inland Asian aridity; however, based on the present results, the interpretation needs to be considered with greater caution that the MAR is actually not only controlled by the source areas but the surface wind velocity. (orig.)

  16. δ18O water isotope in the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.0 – Part 3: A palaeo-perspective based on present-day data–model comparison for oxygen stable isotopes in carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Caley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O are among the most useful tools in palaeoclimatology/palaeoceanography. Simulation of oxygen stable isotopes allows testing how the past variability of these isotopes in water can be interpreted. By modelling the proxy directly in the model, the results can also be directly compared with the data. Water isotopes have been implemented in the global three-dimensional model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM, allowing fully coupled atmosphere–ocean simulations. In this study, we present the validation of the model results for present-day climate against the global database for oxygen stable isotopes in carbonates. The limitation of the model together with the processes operating in the natural environment reveal the complexity of use the continental calcite-δ18O signal of speleothems for a global quantitative data–model comparison exercise. On the contrary, the reconstructed surface ocean calcite-δ18O signal in iLOVECLIM does show a very good agreement with the late Holocene database (foraminifers at the global and regional scales. Our results indicate that temperature and the isotopic composition of the seawater are the main control on the fossil-δ18O signal recorded in foraminifer shells when all species are grouped together. Depth habitat, seasonality and other ecological effects play a more significant role when individual species are considered. We argue that a data–model comparison for surface ocean calcite δ18O in past climates, such as the Last Glacial Maximum (≈ 21 000 yr, could constitute an interesting tool for mapping the potential shifts of the frontal systems and circulation changes throughout time. Similarly, the potential changes in intermediate oceanic circulation systems in the past could be documented by a data (benthic foraminifers-model comparison exercise whereas future investigations are necessary in order to quantitatively compare the results with data for the deep ocean.

  17. Suscetibilidade do ambiente a ocorrências de queimadas sob condições climáticas atuais e de futuro aquecimento global Environmental susceptibility for the occurance of vegetacion burning under present day and future clobal warming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anailton Sales Mélo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As queimadas, a nível global, são a segunda maior fonte de emissões de gases de efeito estufa. Um passo importante para a redução dos impactos das queimadas é por meio de investigação da suscetibilidade, que um determinado ambiente possui para a queima ou mesmo para o alastramento do fogo (risco de fogo. Diante da necessidade de se conhecer possíveis implicações das mudanças na circulação atmosférica em um futuro próximo, pretende-se neste trabalho investigar a suscetibilidade do ambiente à ocorrência de queimadas, baseado no índice de risco de queimadas, a saber: o Índice de Haines (IH. Para tanto, dados de modelagem numérica do modelo ECHAM5/MPI-OM, e dados das reanálises do NCEP são empregados para os cálculos do IH em dois períodos: atual (1980-2000 e projeções climáticas para o final do século (2080-2100. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que o modelo de risco de fogo reproduz bem as áreas com maior incidência de queimadas sob condições atuais, e que sob condições de aquecimento global detectou-se um aumento na área de risco em especial para a região Amazônica.Vegetation burning is the second source of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. An important step to reduce the climate impact of these emissions is to investigate the atmospheric susceptibility of a region for fire development (fire risk. This study aims to investigate the environmental susceptibility to fire development, based on the burning risk index: the Haines Index (HI. The study is carried out with data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model and the NCEP reanalysis data, to calculate the HI during two periods: present day (1980-2000 and climate projections for the end of the 21st century (2080-2100. Based upon the results, we concluded that the Haines index could reproduce properly the areas with the highest fire incidence under present conditions. Moreover, it has been found an enlargement in the fire risk area under global

  18. Assessing the volcanic hazard for Rome: 40Ar/39Ar and In-SAR constraints on the most recent eruptive activity and present-day uplift at Colli Albani Volcanic District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, F.; Gaeta, M.; Giaccio, B.; Jicha, B. R.; Palladino, D. M.; Polcari, M.; Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Florindo, F.; Stramondo, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar data which allow us to refine the recurrence time for the most recent eruptive activity occurred at Colli Albani Volcanic District (CAVD) and constrain its geographic area. Time elapsed since the last eruption (36 kyr) overruns the recurrence time (31 kyr) in the last 100 kyr. New interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, covering the years 1993-2010, reveal ongoing inflation with maximum uplift rates (>2 mm/yr) in the area hosting the most recent (<200 ka) vents, suggesting that the observed uplift might be caused by magma injection within the youngest plumbing system. Finally, we frame the present deformation within the structural pattern of the area of Rome, characterized by 50 m of regional uplift since 200 ka and by geologic evidence for a recent (<2000 years) switch of the local stress-field, highlighting that the precursors of a new phase of volcanic activity are likely occurring at the CAVD.

  19. 冬虫夏草菌寄主小金蝠蛾人工饲养成虫生物学特性%Study on Biological Characteristics of Artificial Breeding Adults of Hepialus Xiaojinensis the Larval Host of Cordyceps sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向丽; 陈士林; 代勇; 韩开华; 王强; 陈学平; 周祖基; 叶萌; 周宇爝

    2012-01-01

    小金蝠蛾是冬虫夏草茵的优良寄主之一,人工培育成虫能否正常交尾及产卵直接关系到种源的持续利用,是目前冬虫夏草人工培育产业的制约因子之一.本文通过对人工饲养小金蝠蛾两个世代(R1、R2)成虫的形态、羽化、交尾、产卵、寿命等生物学特征与其野生亲本进行比较,研究人工培育条件下小金蝠蛾成虫的交尾、产卵能力,为人工培育种源及种群的可持续利用提供依据.研究结果表明,人工饲养条件下小金蝠蛾成虫的平均体长、体重、含卵量、产卵量、寿命均为野生亲本>R1>R2,但在羽化、交尾、产卵等行为上野生亲本与R1、R2不存在明显差异;人工饲养两个世代幼虫的种群增长率分别为177.27%和117.56%,表明人工饲养条件下小金蝠蛾种群可实现持续利用.%Hepialus xiaojinensis is one of the best host species of Cordyceps sinensis. In artificial culturing of C. Sinensis, the reproductive ability in host adults of Hepialus is one of the limiting factors. In this study, the comparison experiments were conducted on the reproductive characteristics of H. Xiaojinensis adults between wild parents and their artificial breeding descendants, and the biological characteristics, such as morpha, emergence, copulation,oviposition, life span, were observed. The results indicated, the weight of breeding adults is lighter and the life span is shorter than wild parents. The significant difference(P0.05) was presented between Rl and R2. Fortunately, the behaviors of emergence, copulation and oviposition were similar between wild parents and their artificial breeding descendants. Further more, the population growth rate of R2 and R3 was 177.27% and 117.56% respectively, therefore. The sustainable utility of the artificial breeding population of H. Xiavjinensis was obtained.

  20. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as

  1. Human Capital and Its Development in Present-Day Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nureev, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the broad sense of the word human capital is a specific form of capital that is embodied in people themselves. It consists of the individual's reserve of health, knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivations that enable him to increase his labor productivity and give him an income in the form of wages, salaries, and other income. The structure…

  2. Moral Questions and Dilemmas: Early Times to Present Day Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Small

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to look at developments which have occurred in ethical behaviour in a nation’s armed forces. The paper begins with the Greeks and their concept of arête ‘manly virtue’, and concludes with reference to courses in ethics conducted in various military academies. In Australia, the Department of Defence and the RAN have played a role in developing codes of conduct for all ranks, from senior officer to junior recruit. The paper suggests that developing an understanding of ethics in a military/naval context should be addressed at four levels. Criteria should be identified for identifying relevant ethical behaviour; agreement should be reached about what constitutes ethical behaviour; programs should be developed at recruit and officer cadet level; and finally, curricula in military/naval ethics should be an integral part of the program in military training establishments.

  3. Present-day aeolian activity in Herschel Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Marco; Silvestro, Simone; Vaz, David A.; Michaels, Timothy; Bourke, Mary C.; Komatsu, Goro; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2016-02-01

    In this report, we show evidence for ripple and dune migration in Herschel Crater on Mars. We estimate an average dune migration of 0.8 m and a minimum ripple migration of 1.1 m in a time span of 3.7 Earth-years. These dunes and ripples are mainly shaped by prevailing winds coming from the north, however we also report the presence of secondary winds which elongate the barchans' horns. Such a complex wind scenario is likely caused by the influence of winds blowing off the western crater rim as suggested by the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS), an atmospheric mesoscale model. A multi-directional wind regime at the local scale is also supported by the observed bimodal distribution of the ripple trends. For the first time, a survey integrating the assessment of dune and ripple migration is presented, showing how dune topography can influence the migration patterns of ripples and how underlying topography appears to control the rates of dune migration.

  4. [Present-day metal-cutting tools and working conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, V P

    1990-01-01

    Polyfunctional machine-tools of a processing centre type are characterized by a set of hygienic advantages as compared to universal machine-tools. But low degree of mechanization and automation of some auxiliary processes, and constructional defects which decrease the ergonomic characteristics of the tools, involve labour intensity in multi-machine processing. The article specifies techniques of allowable noise level assessment, and proposes hygienic recommendations, some of which have been introduced into practice.

  5. [Fire worship on Soratte: form prehistory to present days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Fire has always been involved in human thoughts, believes and actions. For many psychological reasons fire has been considered as living power: red as the human blood, warm as the human body, clearly shines in the night. Fire worship is very common, especially in regions where terrestrial fire is believed to be the image of the heavenly fire. Fire worship has represented the base for symbolic systems involved in the cultural-anthropological evolution of populations settled close to mount Soratte. Fire cults in this region have originated in independent and long-time separated contexts, according to available knowledge. Hirpi Sorani, ancient inhabitants of mount Soratte territory, celebrated Sorano Apollo by a famous fire walking ceremony, with a likely cathartic and apotropaic meaning, as reported by ancient Roman writers. The victory of Christianity over paganism caused the decline of these religious practices. The beginning of the XIX century witnessed the establishment ofa new kind of devotion to the Virgin Mary at the mount Soratte. Today, this religious piety-linked identity has weakened due to changes in lifestyles,from an agricultural to one based on outside home employment, and has been largely shifted on cultural and anthropological bases. In conclusion, fire worship at mount Soratte has evolved because of external influences and local inhabitants have reacted by asserting their own identity.

  6. Present day serpentinization in New Caledonia, Oman and Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Trescases, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Geochemical evidence for modern low-temperature serpentinization has been found in three new localities. Apparently the low-temperature reactions are a common mode of formation of the lizardite-chrysotile and brucite assemblage. Possibly the 18O content of serpentine formed at low temperatures is in part inherited from the pyroxene and olivine. ?? 1978.

  7. Tooth polishing: Relevance in present day periodontal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Charu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Time has seen the emergence of more efficient and effective devices like jet abrasives. However, the role of rubber cups with prophy angles cannot be overlooked as they are still being widely used and provide an economical alternative. Owing to several shortcomings associated with the air polishing device using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 , trends are shifting towards the usage of low abrasive powders. Recent demonstration of Glycine Powder Air Polishing (GPAP in removing subgingival biofilm results in less gingival erosion than hand instrumentation or NaHCO 3 air-polishing. Despite the emergence of latest advances in polishing, data suggesting selective polishing of teeth is compelling.

  8. The Present Day Problems of Infections Diseases with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thearticlereviewsthemajorup-to-dateproblemsconcerning certain aspect of infections diseases treatment in children. Droplet infections, acute gastrointestinal infections, neuroinfections, viral herpes infections and viral hepatitis in children are fully characterized and described in detail. In addition, we give an outline of the ways and attitudes enabling to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes.

  9. NANOMATERIALS AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRESENT-DAY CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in the field of nanotechnologies have converted the concrete into a high-tech material; its structure may be "tailored" to specific functional criteria, including strength, durability, and reduced environmental impacts. This feature will help keep the concrete as the main structural material in the foreseeable future. Nanotechnologies are still on the way from the pool of basic sciences to industrial enterprises. Today full-scale practical application of nanotechnologies in the construction industry is extremely limited for the reason of high costs of their implementation. However, the strongest potential of nanotechnologies is concentrated in the improvement of the properties of conventional materials and processes. Recent progress of nanotechnologies prompts us that many of the problems that are now considered as fantastic will be successfully resolved in the coming decade. Portland cement is one of the most widely used materials; it has a huge though underexplored potential. A better understanding and precise identification of the engineering properties of the complex structure of cement materials in the nanoscale science will give way to a new generation of concrete.

  10. Some Critical Observations on Present-Day English Lexicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikberg, Kay

    Some aspects of the field of lexicology in general, and of English lexicology in particular, are examined in light of current linguistic theory. Definitions of lexicology, its role in linguistics, the concept and nature of lexical competence, the relationship of grammar and lexicon, and the process of lexicalization are reviewed. Conversion and…

  11. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  12. Rhetorical Aspects of Discourses in Present-day Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as well as an analytical tool for the critique of public argumentation. This led to the development of new theories from New Rhetoric over Rhetorical Criticism to theories of genre and discourse, reflecting the view that rhetoric must be understood and used against the social and cultural framework...... in which it is embedded. The contributions of this book reflect this multi-faceted approach to rhetoric, discourse and genre through their focus upon and analysis of different institutionalised discourses. Thus, within the three sections of political, journalistic and organisational discourse, the articles...

  13. Status of disulfiram in present day alcoholic deaddiction therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatty, Princy Louis; Saldanha, Elroy

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Assessment of safety and efficacy profile of disulfiram (DSM) in the alcoholic de-addiction regimen. Objectives: a. Assessment of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) profile; b. Evaluation of effectiveness of various deaddiction regimen; c. Defaulters and dropouts Patients and Methods: Fifty-one patients in a de-addiction center were investigated on 0th , 30th and 60th day along with psychiatric evaluation, ADR surveillance was made. Statistical analysis was done thereafter. Results: 125 mg DSM given OD for 2 months. 76.5% patients had taken full course of treatment, 45% didn't complain of any ADR. Of ADR reported 27.4% had drowsiness, 21.4% tiredness, 7.8% skin manifestation. Conclusion: DSM is the main drug among naltrexone, acamprosate, nalmefene and other drugs used in alcoholic de-addiction. Relative and effectiveness is lost by the degree of dropouts and hence relapses. Low-dose DSM had decreased adverse effects with 76.5% patients taking the full course of treatment. DSM alters liver functions as there were significant changes in the lab parameters of SGPT(P=0.007), SGOT(P=0.001), GGT(P=<0.001) between first and third samples. Occurrence of ADR is not the cause of default; patients find it confusing to differentiate between the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and those due to ADR of DSM. PMID:21431004

  14. The ethical debate on present day paternity testing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, G

    2006-01-01

    The last years, the number of paternity tests on buccal swabs sold over the internet as "test kits", has steeply increased. The commercial providers of these services facilitate controversial practices, including clandestine sampling at home, anonymous sending off for analysis, motherless testing and using "stolen" personal objects containing biological material (combs, cigarette butts). This has led to concern on the consequences on the family unit--especially the child--which may suffer emotionally, physically and financially. In reaction, legal initiatives are appearing throughout Europe. The UK Human Genetics Commission has advised that the non-consensual obtaining and analysis of personal genetic information should be a new criminal offence. The German Federal Court of Justice has ruled that paternity tests performed without the mother's knowledge are inadmissible as evidence in lawsuits. French law strictly forbids the application of DNA testing without the involvement of the court system. In Belgium, a proposal for law has been laid down where the offering to

  15. Cultures and politics in the present-day Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same author over recent years (see Appendix.

  16. Syphilis: An Old Disease With Present-Day Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Candice J; Bachmann, Laura H

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis continues to be a burden on the public health system. While men who have sex with men and HIV-infected individuals are the most affected populations, syphilis rates have also increased in reproductive-aged women, resulting in concurrent increases in congenital syphilis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are requisite components of syphilis control.

  17. 松材线虫雌虫尾部形态和寄主的关系%The Relationship between the Tail Morphology of Adult Female Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Its Host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文霞; 杨宝君

    2005-01-01

    Tenninal mucro of adult female was the distinct character between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) and its allied species Bursaphe/enchus mucronatus (Bb). In general, Bx had no mucro. But it could have mucro in some situations. In the test, Bx without mucro was inoculated on Chineses pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii). The results showed that 85% of adult females Bx isolated from Chinese pine had terminal mucro. On Japanese black pine only 4.2% of adult females Bx had terminal mucro. Bx with terminal mucro from Chinese pine was re-inoculated on the fungus, Pestalotia sp. and Japanese black pine. It was found that 100% adult females had no terminal mucro on the fungus and 3.4% with terminal mucro on Japanese black pine.

  18. Host reproductive phenology drives seasonal patterns of host use in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Burkett-Cadena

    Full Text Available Seasonal shifts in host use by mosquitoes from birds to mammals drive the timing and intensity of annual epidemics of mosquito-borne viruses, such as West Nile virus, in North America. The biological mechanism underlying these shifts has been a matter of debate, with hypotheses falling into two camps: (1 the shift is driven by changes in host abundance, or (2 the shift is driven by seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of mosquitoes. Here we explored the idea that seasonal changes in host use by mosquitoes are driven by temporal patterns of host reproduction. We investigated the relationship between seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes and host reproductive phenology by examining a seven-year dataset of blood meal identifications from a site in Tuskegee National Forest, Alabama USA and data on reproduction from the most commonly utilized endothermic (white-tailed deer, great blue heron, yellow-crowned night heron and ectothermic (frogs hosts. Our analysis revealed that feeding on each host peaked during periods of reproductive activity. Specifically, mosquitoes utilized herons in the spring and early summer, during periods of peak nest occupancy, whereas deer were fed upon most during the late summer and fall, the period corresponding to the peak in births for deer. For frogs, however, feeding on early- and late-season breeders paralleled peaks in male vocalization. We demonstrate for the first time that seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes track the reproductive phenology of the hosts. Peaks in relative mosquito feeding on each host during reproductive phases are likely the result of increased tolerance and decreased vigilance to attacking mosquitoes by nestlings and brooding adults (avian hosts, quiescent young (avian and mammalian hosts, and mate-seeking males (frogs.

  19. Patterns of gregarine parasitism in dragonflies: host, habitat, and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Jason L; Vodopich, Darrell S

    2010-06-01

    Gregarines are ubiquitous protozoan parasites that infect arthropods worldwide. More than 1,600 gregarine species have been described, but only a small percentage of invertebrates have been surveyed for these apicomplexan parasites. Adult dragonfly populations were surveyed for gregarines at two reservoirs in Texas, USA for 2 years. Gregarine prevalence and intensity were compared intraspecifically between host genders and reservoirs, among wing loads, and through time. Of the 29 dragonfly species collected, 41% hosted gregarines. Nine of these dragonfly species were previously undocumented as hosts. Among the commonly collected hosts, prevalence ranged from 18 to 52%. Parasites were aggregated among hosts and had a median intensity of five parasites per host. Gregarines were found only in hosts exceeding a minimum wing load, indicating that gregarines are likely not transferred from the naiad to adult during emergence. Prevalence and intensity increased during both years, suggesting that gregarine oocyst viability parallels increasing host population densities and may be short-lived. Prevalence and intensity also differed between dragonfly populations at two reservoirs. Regression analyses revealed that host species, host gender, month, and year were significant explanatory variables related to gregarine prevalence and intensity. Abundant information on odonate distributions, diversity, and mating activities makes dragonfly-gregarine systems excellent avenues for ecological, evolutionary, and parasitological research. Our results emphasize the importance of considering season, hosts, and habitat when studying gregarine-dragonfly ecology.

  20. Placing Advocacy at the Heart of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Adult educators know that adults and families change their lives through adult education. Adult education also positively impacts a host of social and economic issues. Yet this fact is largely unknown or misunderstood by the general public. Resources have become increasingly scarce, while at the same time adult educators are asked to do more with…

  1. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela C Stotz

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo. In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó, and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  2. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Gisela C; Suárez, Lorena H; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  3. Baculovirus Host-Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne M. Thiem; Xiao-Wen Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Baculoviruses are used as microbial insecticides, protein expression vectors, epitope display platforms, and most recently as vectors for gene therapy. Understanding the mechanisms that control baculovirus host-range and tissue tropisms are important for assessing their safety and for improving their properties for these biotechnology applications. In the past two decades some progress has been made and several baculovirus genes that influence host-range have been identified. Despite this progress, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that restrict baculovirus host-range is still limited. Here we review what is currently known about baculovirus genes that influence virus host-range.

  4. Wolbachia-Host Interactions: Host Mating Patterns Affect Wolbachia Density Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Xiao; Zhang, Xiang-Fei; Chen, Da-Song; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and cause an array of effects on host reproduction, fitness and mating behavior. Although our understanding of the Wolbachia-associated effects on hosts is rapidly expanding, our knowledge of the host factors that mediate Wolbachia dynamics is rudimentary. Here, we explore the interactions between Wolbachia and its host, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our results indicate that Wolbachia induces strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), increases host fecundity, but has no effects on the longevity of females and the mating competitiveness of males in T. urticae. Most importantly, host mating pattern was found to affect Wolbachia density dynamics during host aging. Mating of an uninfected mite of either sex with an infected mite attenuates the Wolbachia density in the infected mite. According to the results of Wolbachia localization, this finding may be associated with the tropism of Wolbachia for the reproductive tissue in adult spider mites. Our findings describe a new interaction between Wolbachia and their hosts.

  5. Wolbachia-Host Interactions: Host Mating Patterns Affect Wolbachia Density Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Xiao Zhao

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and cause an array of effects on host reproduction, fitness and mating behavior. Although our understanding of the Wolbachia-associated effects on hosts is rapidly expanding, our knowledge of the host factors that mediate Wolbachia dynamics is rudimentary. Here, we explore the interactions between Wolbachia and its host, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our results indicate that Wolbachia induces strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI, increases host fecundity, but has no effects on the longevity of females and the mating competitiveness of males in T. urticae. Most importantly, host mating pattern was found to affect Wolbachia density dynamics during host aging. Mating of an uninfected mite of either sex with an infected mite attenuates the Wolbachia density in the infected mite. According to the results of Wolbachia localization, this finding may be associated with the tropism of Wolbachia for the reproductive tissue in adult spider mites. Our findings describe a new interaction between Wolbachia and their hosts.

  6. Identification of cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) host plants in central Texas and compendium of reported hosts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Esquivel, S V

    2009-06-01

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an early-season pest of developing cotton in Central Texas and other regions of the Cotton Belt. Cotton fleahopper populations develop on spring weed hosts and move to cotton as weed hosts senesce or if other weed hosts are not readily available. To identify weed hosts that were seasonably available for the cotton fleahopper in Central Texas, blooming weed species were sampled during early-season (17 March-31 May), mid-season (1 June-14 August), late-season (15 August-30 November), and overwintering (1 December-16 March) periods. The leading hosts for cotton fleahopper adults and nymphs were evening primrose (Oenothera speciosa T. Nuttall) and Mexican hat [Ratibida columnifera (T. Nuttall) E. Wooton and P. Standley], respectively, during the early season. During the mid-season, silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium A. Cavanilles) was consistently a host for fleahopper nymphs and adults. Woolly croton (Croton capitatus A. Michaux) was a leading host during the late season. Cotton fleahoppers were not collected during the overwintering period. Other suitable hosts were available before previously reported leading hosts became available. Eight previously unreported weed species were documented as temporary hosts. A compendium of reported hosts, which includes >160 plant species representing 35 families, for the cotton fleahopper is provided for future research addressing insect-host plant associations. Leading plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Onagraceae. Results presented here indicate a strong argument for assessing weed species diversity and abundance for the control of the cotton fleahopper in the Cotton Belt.

  7. Host preference and suitability of grasses for Oebalus pugnax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, GA; Gore, J; Cook, D; Bond, JA; Musser, FR; Adams, CA

    2014-01-01

    The rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Carpocorini), though graminaceous, discriminates among its numerous host grass species. This could represent a feeding preference, it could be related to host suitability for growth and development. To clarify the role of host grass discrimination, two laboratory studies were conducted: (1) free-choice tests to evaluate preferences of O. pugnax among 11 wild host grass species found in three rice-producing counties of the central Mississippi Delta (MS, USA), and (2) no-choice tests to evaluate the impact of rice (Oryza sativa L.), junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link], and dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) (all Poaceae), on the development of O. pugnax from second instar to adult. In the free-choice test, four experiments were conducted, each with four sets of host grass species and observed 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 h after release in cages. Approximately 4 h was necessary for O. pugnax to settle on preferred host grasses. Oebalus pugnax showed a feeding preference for junglerice over all 10 other grass species. Bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum Flueggé, was the least preferred. The no-choice tests showed significant effect of host grass species on O. pugnax mean development time of nymphal survival to adults. Survival of nymphs was lower and mean development time was longer on dallisgrass compared to rice and junglerice. Knowledge of O. pugnax rate of growth and development on host grasses could be useful in the future development of rice integrated pest management strategies. PMID:25635144

  8. Host-parasite interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Dale B; Gerling, Dan; Blackburn, Michael B; Hu, Jing S

    2005-12-01

    There is relatively little information available concerning the physiological and biochemical interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids. In this report, we describe interactions between aphelinid parasitoids and their aleyrodid hosts that we have observed in four host-parasite systems: Bemisia tabaci/Encarsia formosa, Trialeurodes vaporariorum/E. formosa, B. tabaci/Eretmocerus mundus, and T. lauri/Encarsia scapeata. In the absence of reported polydnavirus and teratocytes, these parasitoids probably inject and/or produce compounds that interfere with the host immune response and also manipulate host development to suit their own needs. In addition, parasitoids must coordinate their own development with that of their host. Although eggs are deposited under all four instars of B. tabaci, Eretmocerus larvae only penetrate 4th instar B. tabaci nymphs. A pre-penetrating E. mundus first instar was capable of inducing permanent developmental arrest in its host, and upon penetration stimulated its host to produce a capsule (epidermal in origin) in which the parasitoid larva developed. T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci parasitized by E. formosa initiated adult development, and, on occasion, produced abnormal adult wings and eyes. In these systems, the site of parasitoid oviposition depended on the host species, occurring within or pressing into the ventral ganglion in T. vaporariorum and at various locations in B. tabaci. E. formosa's final larval molt is cued by the initiation of adult development in its host. In the T. lauri-E. scapeata system, both the host whitefly and the female parasitoid diapause during most of the year, i.e., from June until the middle of February (T. lauri) or from May until the end of December (E. scapeata). It appears that the growth and development of the insects are directed by the appearance of new, young foliage on Arbutus andrachne, the host tree. When adult female parasitoids emerged in the spring, they laid unfertilized male

  9. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, F.A.; Hall, A.R.; A., Buckling; P.D., Scanlan

    2015-01-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts
    and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote
    host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range
    are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite h

  10. Lensed Quasar Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, C Y; Rix, H W; Keeton, C R; Falco, E E; Kochanek, C S; Lehár, J; McLeod, B A; Peng, Chien Y.; Impey, Chris D.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Keeton, Charles R.; Falco, Emilio E.; Kochanek, Chris S.; Lehar, Joseph; Leod, Brian A. Mc

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational lensing assists in the detection of quasar hosts by amplifying and distorting the host light away from the unresolved quasar core images. We present the results of HST observations of 30 quasar hosts at redshifts 1 1.7 is a factor of 3--6 higher than the local value. But, depending on the stellar content the ratio may decline at z>4 (if E/S0-like), flatten off to 6--10 times the local value (if Sbc-like), or continue to rise (if Im-like). We infer that galaxy bulge masses must have grown by a factor of 3--6 over the redshift range 3>z>1, and then changed little since z~1. This suggests that the peak epoch of galaxy formation for massive galaxies is above z~1. We also estimate the duty cycle of luminous AGNs at z>1 to be ~1%, or 10^7 yrs, with sizable scatter.

  11. The artist as host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Anke; Maat, Hermen; Lancel, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In this publication you will find: Hosting the hybrid city This is a text in which Hermen Maat and Karen Lancel provide insights into the meaning of the word ‘role’ and into the position of the role of the ‘host’ in their own artistic practice. Their artistic research into this role was the starting

  12. Avian host defense peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, M.; van Dijk, A.; Haagsman, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense

  13. Influence of host age and host deprivation on longevity,egg load dynamics and oviposition rate in Microplitis rufiventris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMAT MOHAMED HEGAZI; GEHAN MOHAMED ABD EL-AZIZ; AHMED YOUSEF EL-SHAZLY; WEDAD EMAM KHAFAGI

    2007-01-01

    Adult size, longevity, egg load dynamics and oviposition of Microplitis rufiventris Kok. which began their development in the first, second, third (preferred hosts) or fourth (non-preferred hosts) instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were studied. The parasitoid size was largely determined by the initial host size at parasitism. Non-ovipositing females derived from older hosts lived for longer periods than those derived from younger ones. However, the ovipositing females, irrespective of their size, lived for almost the same periods. At emergence, the oviducts of adult females contain a significant amount of mature eggs available for oviposition for a few hours on eclosion day. Egg load increases during the early phase of adult life. The amount of additional mature eggs and rate of egg maturation per hour was greater for wasps derived from preferred hosts compared with those in females derived from non-preferred hosts. The pattern of egg production in M. rufiventris females depended on the availability of hosts for parasitization. Host-deprived females depleted the egg complement with aging; the longer the host deprivation, the lower the oviduct egg load.Marked reduction in both realized or potential fecundity of host-deprived females was observed following host availability. Host privation for more than 3 days induced a marked deficit fecundity pattern through the female's life. The realized fecundity was determined by the interaction among host availability, the number of eggs that are matured over the female's life span, oviposition rate and host size from which the female was derived. These results suggest that: (i) M. rufiventris wasp is a weak synovigenic species; (ii) the maturation of additional eggs is inhibited once the maximum oviduct egg load is reached; (iii) the egg load of the newly emerged female is significantly less than the realized fecundity; and (iv)because M. rufiventris females oviposit fewer eggs when they begin depleting their

  14. Kentucky's Moonlight Schools: An Enduring Legacy of Adult Learning Principles and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, James B.; Decker, Martha M.

    2004-01-01

    Honoring the past through knowledge of a powerful movement from the beginning of the last century has been found to contain useful, relevant, meaningful information for present-day practitioners in adult education. The compelling story of an adult education project, begun nearly 100 years ago by Cora Wilson Stewart and known as "The Moonlight…

  15. Adult Literacy in Africa: The Push and Pull Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolewa, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the question of why Africa has made such slow progress towards the goal of eradicating illiteracy, and why it remains an exceptionally disadvantaged region in this respect. The article surveys the history of the development of literacy in Africa from colonial times to the present day, focusing on the role of adult education in…

  16. Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Natalie A.; Taylor, Julie Lounds

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we examine the ways in which researchers have defined successful adult outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) from the first systematic follow-up reports to the present day. The earliest outcome studies used vague and unreliable outcome criteria, and institutionalization was a common marker of poor outcomes.…

  17. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

  18. Characterization of exoplanet hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Jeff A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of exoplanet hosts and the stellar sample from which they are drawn provides abundances and other properties that quantitively constrain models of planet formation. The program Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME determines stellar parameters by fitting observed spectra, though line lists must be selected wisely. For giant planets, it is now well established that stars with higher metallicity are more likely to have detected companions. Stellar metallicity does not seem to affect the formation and/or migration of detectable planets less massive than Neptune, especially when considering only the most massive planet in the system. In systems with at least one planet less than 10 times the mass of Earth, the mass of the most massive planet increases dramatically with host star metallicity. This may reflect metallicity dependent timescales for core formation, envelope accretion, and/or migration into the detection zone.

  19. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  20. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarroel, Julia; Kleinheinz, Kortine Annina; Jurtz, Vanessa Isabell

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within...... reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference...... phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k) is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST...

  1. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Villarroel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2].

  2. Polymyositis - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  3. Host specificity and temporal and seasonal shifts in host preference of a web-spider parasitoid Zatypota percontatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenko, Stanislav; Michalková, Veronika; Zwakhals, Kees; Pekár, Stano

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge about polysphinctine parasite wasps' interactions with their spider hosts is very fragmented and incomplete. This study presents the host specificity of Zatypota percontatoria (Müller) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and its adaptation to varying host availability. Two years of field observations show that Z. percontatoria is a stenophagous parasitoid that parasitizes only five closely related web-building spiders of the family Theridiidae (Araneae). Within the Theridiidae it attacks only species belonging to a small group of species, here called the "Theridion" group. These hosts have a similar biology, but are available at different levels of abundance and at different sizes over the season. Laboratory experiments showed that this wasp species ignores linyphiid, araneid or dictynid spiders and accepts only theridiid spiders of the "Theridion" group. In the field study, wasp females preferred older juvenile and sub-adult female spider instars with intermediate body size. Only 5% of the parasitized spiders were males. Parasitism in the natural population of theridiid spiders was on average 1.3%. Parasitism was most frequent on two species, Theridion varians Hahn in 2007 and Neottiura bimaculata Linnaeus in 2008. The parasitization rate was positively correlated with spider abundance. The wasp responded adaptively to seasonal changes in host abundance and host body size and shifted host preference according to the availability of suitable hosts during, as well as between, seasons. In spring and summer the highest percentage of parasitism was on T. varians and in autumn it was on N. bimaculata.

  4. The influence of host and bacterial genotype on the development of disseminated disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The factors that govern the development of tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that some strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are more capable of causing disseminated disease than others and may be associated with polymorphisms in host genes responsible for the innate immune response to infection. We compared the host and bacterial genotype in 187 Vietnamese adults with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 237 Vietnamese adults with uncomplicated p...

  5. Host Preference by Monochamus alternatus (Hope) during Maturation Feeding on Pine Species and Masson Pine Provenances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Host preferences pine of the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternates (Hope), during maturation feeding on 8 conifer trees and 40 masson pine provenances, were investigated using 3 types of laboratory bioassay of consistent feeding preference, feeding area and visitation frequency. M. alternatus adults have the highest frequency of feeding and prefer to feed on the branches of P. massoniana and P. densiflora and had significant host selectivity on 8 conifer trees in the area of Nanjing. The adult feeding vi...

  6. Integration of Visual and Olfactory Cues in Host Plant Identification by the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yv, Fei L; Hai, Xiaoxia; Wang, Zhigang; Yan, Aihua; Liu, Bingxiang; Bi, Yongguo

    2015-01-01

    Some insects use host and mate cues, including odor, color, and shape, to locate and recognize their preferred hosts and mates. Previous research has shown that the Asian longicorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), uses olfactory cues to locate host plants and differentiate them from non-host plants. However, whether A. glabripennis adults use visual cues or a combination of visual and olfactory cues remains unclear. In this study, we tested the host location and recognition behavior in A. glabripennis, which infests a number of hardwood species and causes considerable economic losses in North America, Europe and Asia. We determined the relative importance of visual and olfactory cues from Acer negundo in host plant location and recognition, as well as in the discrimination of non-host plants (Sabina chinensis and Pinus bungeana), by female and male A. glabripennis. Visual and olfactory cues from the host plants (A. negundo), alone and combined, attracted significantly more females and males than equivalent cues from non-host plants (S. chinensis and P. bungeana). Furthermore, the combination of visual and olfactory cues of host plants attracted more adults than either cue alone, and visual cues alone attracted significantly more adults than olfactory cues alone. This finding suggests that adult A. glabripennis has an innate preference for the visual and/or olfactory cues of its host plants (A. negundo) over those of the non-host plant and visual cues are initially more important than olfactory cues for orientation; furthermore, this finding also suggests that adults integrate visual and olfactory cues to find their host plants. Our results indicate that different modalities of host plant cues should be considered together to understand fully the communication between host plants and Asian longhorned beetles.

  7. Effects of host plant on life-history traits in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinosci, Cassandra; Magalhães, Sara; Macke, Emilie; Navajas, Maria; Carbonell, David; Devaux, Céline; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Studying antagonistic coevolution between host plants and herbivores is particularly relevant for polyphagous species that can experience a great diversity of host plants with a large range of defenses. Here, we performed experimental evolution with the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae to detect how mites can exploit host plants. We thus compared on a same host the performance of replicated populations from an ancestral one reared for hundreds of generations on cucumber plants that were shifted to either tomato or cucumber plants. We controlled for maternal effects by rearing females from all replicated populations on either tomato or cucumber leaves, crossing this factor with the host plant in a factorial design. About 24 generations after the host shift and for all individual mites, we measured the following fitness components on tomato leaf fragments: survival at all stages, acceptance of the host plant by juvenile and adult mites, longevity, and female fecundity. The host plant on which mite populations had evolved did not affect the performance of the mites, but only affected their sex ratio. Females that lived on tomato plants for circa 24 generations produced a higher proportion of daughters than did females that lived on cucumber plants. In contrast, maternal effects influenced juvenile survival, acceptance of the host plant by adult mites and female fecundity. Independently of the host plant species on which their population had evolved, females reared on the tomato maternal environment produced offspring that survived better on tomato as juveniles, but accepted less this host plant as adults and had a lower fecundity than did females reared on the cucumber maternal environment. We also found that temporal blocks affected mite dispersal and both female longevity and fecundity. Taken together, our results show that the host plant species can affect critical parameters of population dynamics, and most importantly that maternal and environmental

  8. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina O. Igboin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed.

  9. Volatile fragrances associated with flowers mediate the host plant alternation of a polyphagous mirid bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important insect pest of cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and exhibits a particularly broad host range. Adult A. lucorum greatly prefers host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatiall...

  10. The Gut Microbiota and their Metabolites : Potential Implications for the Host Epigenome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, Mona; Plösch, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota represents a metabolically active biomass of up to 2 kg in adult humans. Microbiota-derived molecules significantly contribute to the host metabolism. Large amounts of bacterial metabolites are taken up by the host and are subsequently utilized by the human body. For instance, sho

  11. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  12. Host Integration Server 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulThurrott; 杨岩

    2005-01-01

    微软发布的Host Integration Server(HIS)2004,是IBM大型主机集成服务器的一个重要的更新,添加了一些重要的新特点和改进。与大多数微软公司协同工作的产品不同,HIS 2004的设计目的是为了移植,而不是纯粹的集成,事实上它将会帮助客户从现有的传统平台中得到更多的价值——在这种情况下,所指的产品就是IBM大型主机和iSeries(也就是以前的AS/400)系列机型。

  13. Avian host defense peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  14. Selection of artificial hosts for oviposition by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae: influence of adult food and effect of experience Seleção de hospedeiros artificiais para oviposição por Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae selvagem: influência do alimento do adulto e efeito da experiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara A. B. S. Leal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influence the selection of oviposition substrates by insects. The aim of the present work was to find answers to the following questions related to the oviposition behavior of Anastrepha obliqua. Can carbohydrates (glucose or sucrose present in the adult diet have influence on the female preference for an oviposition substrate with similar composition? Can the previous experience with a host containing one of mentioned carbohydrates interfere in further selection of oviposition substrates? The results showed that the kind of carbohydrate present in the adult diet did not affect the female preference for an artificial oviposition substrate, neither when it was presented by itself nor in combination with brewer's yeast. The effect of experience in the oviposition behavior was observed when there was a previous contact with artificial oviposition substrates containing yeast and sucrose. The data are discussed in terms of the behavioral plasticity presented by this species in relation to feeding and oviposition behaviors.Vários fatores podem atuar durante a seleção de substratos para oviposição por insetos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo responder às seguintes questões relacionadas ao comportamento de oviposição de Anastrepha obliqua. O carboidrato presente na dieta do adulto (glicose ou sacarose pode influenciar a preferência da fêmea por um substrato para oviposição com composição semelhante? A experiência prévia com um hospedeiro que possui um dos dois carboidratos citados pode interferir em escolhas futuras entre substratos para oviposição? Os resultados indicaram que o tipo de carboidrato presente na dieta do adulto não exerceu influência sobre a preferência das fêmeas por um substrato artificial para oviposição, tanto quando em combinação com lêvedo de cerveja ou quando sozinho. O efeito da experiência no comportamento de oviposição foi notado quando o contato prévio foi com substratos

  15. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host.

  16. Molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (Nematoda: Uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Steven A; Lyons, Eugene T; Pagan, Christopher; Hyman, Derek; Lewis, Edwin E; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Bell, Cameron M; Castinel, Aurelie; Delong, Robert L; Duignan, Padraig J; Farinpour, Cher; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Kuiken, Thijs; Morgades, Diana; Naem, Soraya; Norman, Richard; Parker, Corwin; Ramos, Paul; Spraker, Terry R; Berón-Vera, Bárbara

    2013-12-01

    Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, Uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Uncinaria hamiltoni from South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). One hundred and thirteen individual hookworms, including an outgroup species, were sequenced for four genes representing two loci (nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the described species and five undescribed species. The molecular evidence shows that U. lucasi parasitises both C. ursinus and E. jubatus, whereas U. hamiltoni parasitises O. flavescens and A. australis. The five undescribed hookworm species were each associated with single host species (Z. californianus, A. pusillus, P. hookeri, M. leonina and M. monachus). For parasites of otarids, patterns of Uncinaria host-sharing and phylogenetic relationships had a strong biogeographic component with separate clades of parasites from northern versus southern hemisphere hosts. Comparison of phylogenies for these hookworms and their hosts suggests that the association of U. lucasi with northern fur seals results from a host-switch from Steller sea lions. Morphometric data for U. lucasi shows marked host-associated size differences for both sexes, with U. lucasi individuals from E. jubatus significantly larger. This result suggests that adult growth of U. lucasi is reduced within the

  17. Occurrence and host specificity of a neogregarine protozoan in four milkweed butterfly hosts (Danaus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Paola A; Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    Throughout their global range, wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are infected with the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE). In monarchs, OE infection reduces pupal eclosion, adult lifespan, adult body size and flight ability. Infection of other butterfly hosts with OE is rare or unknown, and the only previously published records of OE infection were on monarch and queen butterflies (D. gilippus). Here we explored the occurrence and specificity of OE and OE-like parasites in four Danaus butterfly species. We surveyed wild D. eresimus (soldier), D. gilippus (queen), D. petilia (lesser wanderer), and D. plexippus (monarch) from five countries to determine the presence of infection. We conducted five cross-infection experiments, on monarchs and queen butterflies and their OE and OE-like parasites, to determine infection probability and the impact of infection on their hosts. Our field survey showed that OE-like parasites were present in D. gilippus, D. petilia, and D. plexippus, but were absent in D. eresimus. Infection probability varied geographically such that D. gilippus and D. plexippus populations in Puerto Rico and Trinidad were not infected or had low prevalence of infection, whereas D. plexippus from S. Florida and Australia had high prevalence. Cross-infection experiments showed evidence for host specificity, in that OE strains from monarchs were more effective at infecting monarchs than queens, and monarchs were less likely to be infected by OE-like strains from queens and lesser wanderers relative to their own natal strains. Our study showed that queens are less susceptible to OE and OE-like infection than monarchs, and that the reduction in adult lifespan following infection is more severe in monarchs than in queens.

  18. Intercultural Competence in Host Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial work in intercultural education has been done on the intercultural competences of mobile students engaging in international study visits, there is a need to explore intercultural competences in host students. This chapter seeks to answer questions about the challenges......-secondary students hosting same-age Chinese students in homestays during a four-day study visit to Denmark in 2012. Qualitative data from student portfolios and focus group interviews are analysed with a focus on host students’ pre-understandings, experiences during the visit and overall reflections on the host...

  19. Development of Some Larval Nematodes in Experimental and Natural Animal Hosts: An Insight into Development of Pathological Lesions vis-a-vis Host-Parasite Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective third-stage larvae of three spiruroid nematodes, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus of pigs and Spirocerca lupi of dogs, were recovered from 14 species of coprophagous beetles belonging to 4 different genera. These larvae were fed to rabbits and/or guinea pigs to study their development in these experimental hosts. Larvae of A. strongylina reached the adult stage in all rabbits and one guinea pig. The adult worms recovered in these hosts were 40% and 4%, respectively, and became diminutive in comparison to their natural hosts. The larvae of P. sexalatus became reencysted in the gastric wall of rabbits inducing marked pathological changes. The infective larvae of S. lupi became reencapsulated in the stomach wall of the rabbit and also showed development in the aortic wall. Adults of Toxocara canis of dog, collected from 5 different regions of the Indian subcontinent, varied significantly in size. The mouse passage of infective larvae of one of these types led to the recovery of the adults from the experimental dogs that were smaller in size and caused severe pathology in natural experimental hosts. Developmental effects shown in experimental hosts and host specificity are of value in understanding the evolution of nematode parasitism.

  20. Give-and-take: interactions between DNA transposons and their host plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooner, Hugo K; Weil, Clifford F

    2007-12-01

    Recent genome sequencing efforts have revealed how extensively transposable elements (TEs) have contributed to the shaping of present day plant genomes. DNA transposons associate preferentially with the euchromatic or genic component of plant genomes and have had the opportunity to interact intimately with the genes of the plant host. These interactions have resulted in TEs acquiring host sequences, forming chimeric genes through exon shuffling, replacing regulatory sequences, mobilizing genes around the genome, and contributing genes to the host. The close interaction of transposons with genes has also led to the evolution of intricate cellular mechanisms for silencing transposon activity. Transposons have thus become important subjects of study in understanding epigenetic regulation and, in cases where transposons have amplified to high numbers, how to escape that regulation.

  1. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Stockton

    Full Text Available Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate

  2. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Dara G; Martini, Xavier; Patt, Joseph M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a) whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b) the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate Rutaceae in the area

  3. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  4. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  5. Stennis hosts 2010 Special Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sarah Johnson, 28, of Gulfport, carries in the Olympic torch to signal the start of the 2010 Area III Special Olympic games at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on March 27. Stennis volunteers hosted special needs athletes from across the area for the event. Stennis is an annual host of the games.

  6. Host factors in nidovirus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Adriaan Hugo de

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between nidoviruses and the infected host cell was investigated. Arterivirus RNA-synthesising activity was shown to depend on intact membranes and on a cytosolic host protein which does not cosediment with the RTC. Furthermore, the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA) blocks repl

  7. Host Adaptation of Staphylococcal Leukocidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human and animal pathogen of global importance and has the capacity to cause disease in distinct host populations, using a large arsenal of secreted proteins to evade the host immune response. Amongst the immune evasion proteins of S. aureus, secreted cytotoxins play a pre

  8. THE READING OF MURATHAN MUNGAN’S ‘A PRESENT-DAY CINDERELLA’ WITHIN THE CONTEXTT OF INTERTEXTUAL RELATIONS MURATHAN MUNGAN’IN “ZAMANIMIZIN BİR KÜLKEDİSİ” ADLI ÖYKÜSÜNÜN METİNLERARASI İLİŞKİLER BAĞLAMINDA OKUNMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahide KURT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available No text can be in existence solitarily in literary process, but it does emerge through interrelating with preexisting texts. Because texts can maintain their continuousness with the subsequent. Intertextuality explains dimensions of this interrelation by setting forth a text‟s interrelatedness with the preexistent ones. It is seen that an author converts an existent text within the frame of originality in an intertextual relation which is densely put into practice in postmodern narratives. The story of Murathan Mungan –who is a postmodern writer– named „A Present-day Cinderella‟ is a reinterpretation of „the Cinderella tale‟. The author utilizes the tale as a subtext and composes his story by following traces of this tale. In this article, common points and differences of Murathan Mungan‟s story and the Cinderella tale are goint to be determined in the context of intertextual relations Hiçbir metin yazınsal süreçte tek başına varolamaz; ancak önceki metinlerle kurduğu ilişkiler düzleminde ortaya çıkar. Çünkü metinler kendilerinden sonraki metinlerde sürekliliklerini devam ettirir. Metinlerarasılık, metnin kendinden önceki metinlerle ilişkisini ortaya koyarak bu ilişkinin boyutlarını açıklar. Postmodern anlatılarda kullanılan metinlerarasılık yönteminde, anlatıcının varolan bir metni özgünlük çerçevesinde dönüştürdüğü görülür. Postmodernist bir yazar olan Murathan Mungan‟ın “Zamanımızın Bir Külkedisi” adlı öyküsü de Külkedisi masalının uyarlanarak tekrardan yorumlanmasıdır. Yazar, Külkedisi masalını alt metin olarak kullanır ve öyküsünü bu metnin izlerini takip ederek oluşturur.Bu makalede Murathan Mungan‟ın “Zamanımızın Bir Külkedisi” adlı öyküsünün Külkedisi masalıyla birleştiği ve ayrıldığı noktalar metinlerarası ilişkiler kapsamında tespit edilmeye çalışılacaktır.

  9. Salmonellae interactions with host processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRock, Doris L; Chaudhary, Anu; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-04-01

    Salmonellae invasion and intracellular replication within host cells result in a range of diseases, including gastroenteritis, bacteraemia, enteric fever and focal infections. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that salmonellae use to alter host cell physiology; through the delivery of effector proteins with specific activities and through the modulation of defence and stress response pathways. In this Review, we summarize our current knowledge of the complex interplay between bacterial and host factors that leads to inflammation, disease and, in most cases, control of the infection by its animal hosts, with a particular focus on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. We also highlight gaps in our knowledge of the contributions of salmonellae and the host to disease pathogenesis, and we suggest future avenues for further study.

  10. Host specialisation and competition asymmetry in coleopteran parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bili, Mikaël; Cortesero, A M; Outreman, Y; Poinsot, D

    2016-09-01

    When specialists and generalists compete for a limited resource, specialists are more constrained because they are less likely to find an alternative resource. In parasitoids with overlapping host ranges, asymmetric competition should therefore exist where specialists are more likely to win the host in a contest. Competition between parasitoids has been studied mostly in hymenopterans. In hymenopteran parasitoid wasps, females must reach the host to lay their eggs and can thus strongly influence the outcome of competition between future offspring by killing eggs or larvae of competitors. We studied competition between the free-ranging larvae of two sympatric coleopteran parasitoid rove beetles (one specialist, Aleochara bilineata and a generalist, Aleochara bipustulata) with overlapping host ranges competing in agricultural fields for pupae of the cabbage root fly. In these species, females lay their eggs in the soil, then first instars find the host where they will develop as solitary parasitoids and deal with potential competitors. Because adult longevity and fecundity favour the generalist, we postulated that first instars of the specialist would be superior larval competitors. Accordingly, we studied the outcome of encounters between first instars of the two species provided with a single host. Irrespective of its release prior to or simultaneously with its generalist competitor, the larva of the specialist most often won. Moreover, specialist larvae still won half of the encounters when generalist larvae were given a 24-h advantage. This might explain the coexistence of the two species in the field.

  11. Experimentally induced host-shift changes life-history strategy in a seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savković, Uroš; ĐorĐević, Mirko; Šešlija Jovanović, Darka; Lazarević, Jelica; Tucić, Nikola; Stojković, Biljana

    2016-04-01

    Expansion of the host range in phytophagous insects depends on their ability to form an association with a novel plant through changes in host-related traits. Phenotypic plasticity has important effects on initial survival of individuals faced with a new plant, as well as on the courses of evolutionary change during long-term adaptation to novel conditions. Using experimental populations of the seed beetle that evolved on ancestral (common bean) or novel (chickpea) host and applying reciprocal transplant at both larval and adult stage on the alternative host plant, we studied the relationship between the initial (plastic) phases of host-shift and the subsequent stages of evolutionary divergence in life-history strategies between populations exposed to the host-shift process. After 48 generations, populations became well adapted to chickpea by evolving the life-history strategy with prolonged larval development, increased body mass, earlier reproduction, shorter lifespan and decreased plasticity of all traits compared with ancestral conditions. In chickpea-adapted beetles, negative fitness consequences of low plasticity of pre-adult development (revealed as severe decrease in egg-to-adult viability on beans) exhibited mismatch with positive effects of low plasticity (i.e. low host sensitivity) in oviposition and fecundity. In contrast, beetles adapted to the ancestral host showed high plasticity of developmental process, which enabled high larval survival on chickpea, whereas elevated plasticity in adult behaviour (i.e. high host sensitivity) resulted in delayed reproduction and decreased fecundity on chickpea. The analysis of population growth parameters revealed significant fluctuation during successive phases of the host-shift process in A. obtectus.

  12. HOST PLANT PREFERENCES OF BEMISIA TABACI GENNADIUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYing; HUANGJian; MARui-yan; HANJu-cai

    2003-01-01

    The preferences of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius for five host plants:poinsettia, tomato, cabbage,sweet potato and flowering Chinese cabbage, was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer and a desiccator in the labo-ratory. The results show that B. tabaci adults were attracted by the odors of the five plants. The order of prefer-ence was poinsettia > flowering Chinese cabbage > sweet potato > cabbage > tomato. Preference was extremely sig-nificant between poinsettia and the other four plants, and between flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and toma-to. There was no significant difference in preference for flowering Chinese cabbage and sweet potato, sweet pota-to, cabbage and tomato or between cabbage and tomato.

  13. Implantation of human bot fly larvae in host skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A C R; Nascimento, M F A; Serafim, L R

    2010-01-01

    Adult males of Mus musculus each infested with four first-instar (L1) larvae of Dermatobia hominis (Linneaus, Jr.) were used as donors of larvae to other mice (recipients). Larvae at four (L1), six (early L2), 12 (L2), or 20 (L3) days postinfestation (dpi), were implanted into the skin of each recipient. Only two of 38 mice (5.3%) were refractory to implants and three died after implantation. Developmental times (pre- plus postimplantation) of implanted larvae were of similar duration to those in larvae that completed their development in the original mice. The L3 that emerged from implanted hosts developed to pupae and fertile adult specimens, whose L1 descendants were used to maintain the D. hominis life cycle in our laboratory. The model described here has several potential applications, including studies of the host relationship with specific instars and the development of management and control measures to combat this Neotropical myiasis.

  14. Towards host-to-host meeting scheduling negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Megasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different scheme of meeting scheduling negotiation among a large number of personnel in a heterogeneous community. This scheme, named Host-to-Host Negotiation, attempts to produce a stable schedule under uncertain personnel preferences. By collecting information from hosts’ inter organizational meeting, this study intends to guarantee personnel availability. As a consequence, personnel’s and meeting’s profile in this scheme are stored in a centralized manner. This study considers personnel preferences by adapting the Clarke Tax Mechanism, which is categorized as a non manipulated mechanism design. Finally, this paper introduces negotiation strategies based on the conflict handling mode. A host-to-host scheme can give notification if any conflict exist and lead to negotiation process with acceptable disclosed information. Nevertheless, a complete negotiation process will be more elaborated in the future works.

  15. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher...... as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert...

  16. Host factors influencing viral persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, A; Ørding Andreasen, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    host were used. Our results reveal that very different outcomes may be observed depending on virus strain and immunocompetence of the host. Thus while CD4+ cells are not critical during the initial phase of virus control, infectious virus reappear in mice lacking CD4+ cells, B cells or CD40 ligand...... that these different outcomes may be explained in relatively simple mathematical terms. This suggests that modelling may be used as a means to predict critical host and virus parameters. Therefore, combining mathematical modelling with precise, quantitative, in vivo analyses looks to be a promising approach...

  17. Host Galaxies of Gamma-Ray Bursts and their Cosmological Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Courty, S; Gudmundsson, E H

    2004-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of large scale structure formation to explore the cosmological properties of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) host galaxies. Among the different sub-populations found in the simulations, we identify the host galaxies as the most efficient star-forming objects, i.e. galaxies with high specific star formation rates. We find that the host candidates are low-mass, young galaxies with low to moderate star formation rate. These properties are consistent with those observed in GRB hosts, most of which are sub-luminous, blue galaxies. Assuming that host candidates are galaxies with high star formation rates would have given conclusions inconsistent with the observations. The specific star formation rate, given a galaxy mass, is shown to increase as the redshift increases. The low mass of the putative hosts makes them difficult to detect with present day telescopes and the probability density function of the specific star formation rate is predicted to change depending on whether or not these galaxie...

  18. The Monogenean Parasite Fauna of Cichlids: A Potential Tool for Host Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Pariselle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss geographical distribution and phylogeny of Dactylogyridea (Monogenea parasitizing Cichlidae to elucidate their hosts' history. Although mesoparasitic Monogenea (Enterogyrus spp. show typical vicariant distribution, ectoparasitic representatives from different continents are not considered sister taxa, hence their distribution cannot result from vicariance alone. Because of the close host-parasite relationship, this might indicate that present-day cichlid distribution may also reflect dispersal through coastal or brackish waters. Loss of ectoparasites during transoceanic migration, followed by lateral transfer from other fish families might explain extant host-parasite associations. Because of its mesoparasitic nature, hence not subject to salinity variations of the host's environment, Enterogyrus could have survived marine migrations, intolerable for ectoparasites. Host-switches and salinity transitions may be invoked to explain the pattern revealed by a preliminary morphological phylogeny of monogenean genera from Cichlidae and other selected Monogenea genera, rendering the parasite distribution explicable under both vicariance and dispersal. Testable hypotheses are put forward in this parasitological approach to cichlid biogeography. Along with more comprehensive in-depth morphological phylogeny, comparison with molecular data, clarifying dactylogyridean evolution on different continents and from various fish families, and providing temporal information on host-parasite history, are needed to discriminate between the possible scenarios.

  19. Meningococcal interactions with the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnelle, Etienne; Hill, Darryl J; Morand, Philippe; Griffiths, Natalie J; Bourdoulous, Sandrine; Murillo, Isabel; Nassif, Xavier; Virji, Mumtaz

    2009-06-24

    Neisseria meningitidis interacts with host tissues through hierarchical, concerted and co-ordinated actions of a number of adhesins; many of which undergo antigenic and phase variation, a strategy that helps immune evasion. Three major structures, pili, Opa and Opc predominantly influence bacterial adhesion to host cells. Pili and Opa proteins also determine host and tissue specificity while Opa and Opc facilitate efficient cellular invasion. Recent studies have also implied a role of certain adhesin-receptor pairs in determining increased host susceptibility to infection. This chapter examines our current knowledge of meningococcal adhesion and invasion mechanisms particularly related to human epithelial and endothelial cells which are of primary importance in the disease process.

  20. Sampling methods of Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    An exotic weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall was first found in south Florida in 1995. The adults have a broad host range that includes foliage of fruit trees, ornamentals and vegetables, but little is known about their basic biology, including larval host plants. Studies were co...

  1. Geçmişten Günümüze Edebiyat Ders Planlarında Ve Kitaplarında Yahya Kemal ve Şiirleri From The Past Till Present Day Yahya Kemal And His Poets In Literature Curriculums And Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik SÜTÇÜ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yahya Kemal Beyatlı is amongst the eminent poets of 20th centuryTurkish Literature. Yahya Kemal, next to his involvement with thepolitical, social and historic events of his age, had attracted attention asa prominent and noticeable character in Turkish Literature. By virtue ofall these attributions Yahya Kemal was noted as a personality whocreated the best samples of Turkish poetry with his works. In additionto a diversified set of themes he employed in his poems, he also tookstage by virtue of the specific language, form and style features and thisdistinguishing character has been acknowledged and appreciated by theliterary researchers and critics of almost all ages.The aim in the literature courses in our educational institutions isto improve aesthetical tastes in poetry as well as all other literary genresand teach literary knowledge. As of 1924 alongside with the rest ofcurriculums, reform attempts in literature curriculums have also beeninitiated in our country. One of the trends in literature teaching duringRepublican Period was the necessity to select literary texts from theworks of modern artists. Hence it would be possible to teach studentshow to enjoy their reading and compare with the living samples of thelanguage. Additionally students would learn, comprehend and adoptcertain genres and forms through literary texts. It has always been aright decision to include Yahya Kemal’s works and texts that bear allthese features within the course books in all ages.This paper analyzes starting from which date and period YahyaKemal’s particular works found place in course books, which works ofthe poet were used to teach what kind of feelings and thoughts, whichconcepts and topics through which methods. From this point of viewthe topic of this research is exploring to what extent and on accounts ofwhich educational purposes Yahya Kemal and his works have beenpresented from the past till present day in the literature course booksthat are

  2. Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J. Esser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.

  3. Host response to Clostridium difficile infection: Diagnostics and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usacheva, Elena A; Jin, Jian-P; Peterson, Lance R

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant healthcare concern worldwide, and C. difficile is recognised as the most frequent aetiological agent of infectious healthcare-associated diarrhoea in hospitalised adult patients. The clinical manifestation of CDI varies from self-limited diarrhoea to life-threatening colitis. Such a broad disease spectrum can be explained by the impact of host factors. Currently, a complex CDI aetiology is widely accepted, acknowledging the interaction between bacteria and the host. C. difficile strains producing clostridial toxins A and B are considered toxigenic and can cause disease; those not producing the toxins are non-pathogenic. A person colonised with a toxigenic strain will not necessarily develop CDI. It is imperative to recognise patients with active disease from those only colonised with this pathogen and to implement appropriate treatment. This can be achieved by diagnostics that rely on host factors specific to CDI. This review will focus on major aspects of CDI pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms, describing host factors in disease progression and assessment of the host response in order to facilitate the development of CDI-specific diagnostics.

  4. Avian host-selection by Culex pipiens in experimental trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Simpson

    Full Text Available Evidence from field studies suggests that Culex pipiens, the primary mosquito vector of West Nile virus (WNV in the northeastern and north central United States, feeds preferentially on American robins (Turdus migratorius. To determine the contribution of innate preferences to observed preference patterns in the field, we conducted host preference trials with a known number of adult female C. pipiens in outdoor cages comparing the relative attractiveness of American robins with two common sympatric bird species, European starling, Sternus vulgaris and house sparrow, Passer domesticus. Host seeking C. pipiens were three times more likely to enter robin-baited traps when with the alternate host was a European starling (n = 4 trials; OR = 3.06; CI [1.42-6.46] and almost twice more likely when the alternative was a house sparrow (n = 8 trials; OR = 1.80; CI = [1.22-2.90]. There was no difference in the probability of trap entry when two robins were offered (n = 8 trials. Logistic regression analysis determined that the age, sex and weight of the birds, the date of the trial, starting-time, temperature, humidity, wind-speed and age of the mosquitoes had no effect on the probability of a choosing a robin over an alternate bird. Findings indicate that preferential feeding by C. pipiens mosquitoes on certain avian hosts is likely to be inherent, and we discuss the implications innate host preferences may have on enzootic WNV transmission.

  5. Using parasitic trematode larvae to quantify an elusive vertebrate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, James E; Altman, Irit; Grosse, Andrew M; Huspeni, Todd C; Maerz, John C

    2011-02-01

    Digenean trematode parasites require multiple host species to complete their life cycles, and their abundance can often be strongly correlated with the abundance of their host species. Species richness and abundance of parasites in easily sampled host species may yield an accurate estimate of the species richness and abundance of other hosts in a parasite's life cycle that are difficult to survey directly. Accordingly, we investigated whether prevalence and mean abundance of trematodes could be used to estimate the abundance of one of their host species, diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin), which are difficult to sample and are designated as near threatened (by the International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN Red List]) along some U.S. coasts. As an adult the trematode Pleurogonius malaclemys is specific to terrapins. Its larval stages live first inside mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta) and are subsequently shed into the environment where they form external metacercarial cysts on hard surfaces such as snail opercula. The life cycle of P. malaclemys is completed when terrapins ingest these cysts. At 12 sites along the coast of Georgia (U.S.A.), we determined the prevalence of internal P. malaclemys larvae in mud snails (proportion of infected snails in a population) and the prevalence and mean abundance of external trematode cysts. We examined whether these data were correlated with terrapin abundance, which we estimated with mark-recapture methods. The abundance of external cysts and salinity explained ≥59% of the variability in terrapin abundance. We suggest that dependent linkages between the life stages of multihost parasites make them reliable predictors of host species' abundance, including hosts with abundances that are challenging to quantify directly.

  6. Both host-plant phylogeny and chemistry have shaped the African seed-beetle radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergoat, Gaël J; Delobel, Alex; Fédière, Gilles; Rü, Bruno Le; Silvain, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    For the last 40 years, many authors have attempted to characterize the main patterns of plant-insect evolutionary interactions and understand their causes. In the present work on African seed-beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), we have performed a 10-year field work to sample seeds of more than 300 species of potential host-plants (from the family Fabaceae), to obtain bruchids by rearing. This seed sampling in the field was followed by the monitoring of adult emergences which gave us the opportunity to identify host-plant use accurately. Then, by using molecular phylogenetics (on a combined data set of four genes), we have investigated the relationships between host-plant preferences and insect phylogeny. Our objectives were to investigate the level of taxonomic conservatism in host-plant fidelity and host-plant chemistry. Our results indicate that phylogenetically related insects are associated with phylogenetically related host-plants but the phylogeny of the latter cannot alone explain the observed patterns. Major host shifts from Papilionoideae to Mimosoideae subfamilies have happened twice independently suggesting that feeding specialization on a given host-plant group is not always a dead end in seed-beetles. If host-plant taxonomy and chemistry in legumes generally provide consistent data, it appears that the nature of the seed secondary compounds may be the major factor driving the diversification of a large clade specializing on the subfamily Mimosoideae in which host-plant taxonomy is not consistent with chemical similarity.

  7. Intrapopulational distribution of Meiogymnophallus minutus (Digenea, Gymnophallidae) infections in its first and second intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermer, Jan; Culloty, Sarah C; Kelly, Thomas C; O'Riordan, Ruth M

    2009-10-01

    Host size and age are generally assumed to play a pivotal role in digenean trematode infection patterns, accounting for much of the variation found within intermediate host populations. However, knowledge is based on a limited number of studied host-parasite systems. We investigated the shell length class distribution of Meiogymnophallus minutus infections within populations of the first intermediate host Scrobicularia plana and second intermediate host Cerastoderma edule. Infections occurred very early in the life of the two intermediate hosts. Both prevalence and intensity of infections increased with host shell length and displayed extremely high values amongst large individuals. Whilst metacercarial infection patterns in juvenile C. edule could be best explained by differences in host shell length, in adult cockles, the effect of host age on infection levels prevailed. The microsporidian hyperparasite Unikaryon legeri, occurring in the metacercarial stage of M. minutus, was particularly abundant in aged cockles, strongly influencing infection patterns of the gymnophallid. Our results are consistent with the intrapopulational distribution reported from other digenean trematode parasites. The relative influence of both host size and age and the underlying mechanisms as well as the impact of hyperparasitism on M. minutus infection patterns are discussed.

  8. A short, high-temperature treatment of host larvae to analyze Wolbachia-host interactions in the moth Ostrinia scapulalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takafumi N; Kayukawa, Takumi; Matsuo, Takashi; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2015-10-01

    Maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia cause various reproductive alterations in their hosts. Wolbachia induces male-specific death during embryonic and larval stages in the moth Ostrinia scapulalis. To investigate how the density of Wolbachia affects their performance in the host, we attempted to reduce its density using a short, high-temperature treatment of the host at the larval stage. Individuals cured of infection as well as sexual mosaics, which harbor Wolbachia, were obtained by this method in the next generation. The sex of uninfected offspring was exclusively male, similar to that of the offspring of larvae treated with antibiotics. A strong correlation was found between Wolbachia density in female moths and the sex ratio of their progeny. These results suggest that a short, high-temperature treatment at the larval stage reduced the density of Wolbachia in the adult stage, and, hence, inhibited interference with the host's development in the next generation. Since the direct effects of the heat treatment on Wolbachia were transient, this method may be useful for specifying the critical time for interference by Wolbachia in host development.

  9. The Smallest AGN Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J E; Ho, L C

    2005-01-01

    We describe our efforts to study dwarf galaxies with active nuclei, whose black holes, with masses < 10^6 M_sun, provide the best current observational constraints on the mass distribution of primordial seed black holes. Although these low-mass galaxies do not necessarily contain classical bulges, Barth, Greene, & Ho (2005) show that their stellar velocity dispersions and black hole masses obey the same relation as more massive systems. In order to characterize the properties of the dwarf hosts without the glare of the active nucleus, we have compiled a complementary sample of narrow-line active galaxies with low-mass hosts. The host galaxy properties, both their structures and stellar populations, are consistent with the general properties of low-mass, blue galaxies from Sloan. The black holes in these galaxies are probably radiating close to their Eddington limits, suggesting we may have found Type 2 analogues of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  10. Asteroseismology of Exoplanet Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Asteroseismology is among the most powerful observational tools to determine fundamental properties of stars. Space-based photometry has recently enabled the systematic detection of oscillations in exoplanet host stars, allowing a combination of asteroseismology with transit and radial-velocity measurements to characterize planetary systems. In this contribution I will review the key synergies between asteroseismology and exoplanet science such as the precise determination of radii and ages of exoplanet host stars, as well as applications of asteroseismology to measure spin-orbit inclinations in multiplanet systems and orbital eccentricities of small planets. Finally I will give a brief outlook on asteroseismic studies of exoplanet hosts with current and future space-based missions such as K2 and TESS.

  11. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  12. Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four host plant species under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Osborne, Lance S; Epsky, Nancy D

    2008-06-01

    Life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, on three ornamental plants [Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Acalypha wilkesiana (Muell.-Arg.), and Plumeria rubra L.] and one weed species (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) was studied under laboratory conditions. Mealybugs were able to develop, survive, and reproduce on all four hosts; however, there were differences in the life history parameters. Adult females that developed on acalypha and parthenium emerged approximately 1 d earlier than those that developed on hibiscus and plumeria. Adult males had a longer developmental time on plumeria than on the other hosts. Survival of first- and second-instar nymphs and cumulative adult survival were lowest on plumeria. Longevity was not affected by hosts for males and females and averaged 2.3 +/- 0.1 and 21.2 +/- 0.1 d, respectively. On plumeria, 58.9 +/- 1.7% of the adults were females, which was a higher female percentage than on the other hosts. No egg production occurred in virgin females. Prereproductive and reproductive periods of the females were not affected by hosts and averaged 6.3 +/- 0.1 and 11.2 +/- 0.1 d, respectively. Mean fecundity of 186.3 +/- 1.8 eggs on plumeria was lower than on the other three plant species. Life history parameters of P. marginatus on hibiscus, acalypha, plumeria, and parthenium show its ability to develop, survive, and reproduce on a wide variety of plant species.

  13. Genetic Factors and Host Traits Predict Spore Morphology for a Butterfly Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus C. de Roode

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus throughout the world are commonly infected by the specialist pathogen Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE. This protozoan is transmitted when larvae ingest infectious stages (spores scattered onto host plant leaves by infected adults. Parasites replicate internally during larval and pupal stages, and adult monarchs emerge covered with millions of dormant spores on the outsides of their bodies. Across multiple monarch populations, OE varies in prevalence and virulence. Here, we examined geographic and genetic variation in OE spore morphology using clonal parasite lineages derived from each of four host populations (eastern and western North America, South Florida and Hawaii. Spores were harvested from experimentally inoculated, captive-reared adult monarchs. Using light microscopy and digital image analysis, we measured the size, shape and color of 30 replicate spores per host. Analyses examined predictors of spore morphology, including parasite source population and clone, parasite load, and the following host traits: family line, sex, wing area, and wing color (orange and black pigmentation. Results showed significant differences in spore size and shape among parasite clones, suggesting genetic determinants of morphological variation. Spore size also increased with monarch wing size, and monarchs with larger and darker orange wings tended to have darker colored spores, consistent with the idea that parasite development depends on variation in host quality and resources. We found no evidence for effects of source population on variation in spore morphology. Collectively, these results provide support for heritable variation in spore morphology and a role for host traits in affecting parasite development.

  14. Visual mimicry of host nestlings by cuckoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, Naomi E.; Stevens, Martin; Maurer, Golo; Heinsohn, Robert; Hall, Michelle L.; Peters, Anne; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    Coevolution between antagonistic species has produced instances of exquisite mimicry. Among brood-parasitic cuckoos, host defences have driven the evolution of mimetic eggs, but the evolutionary arms race was believed to be constrained from progressing to the chick stage, with cuckoo nestlings generally looking unlike host young. However, recent studies on bronze-cuckoos have confounded theoretical expectations by demonstrating cuckoo nestling rejection by hosts. Coevolutionary theory predicts reciprocal selection for visual mimicry of host young by cuckoos, although this has not been demonstrated previously. Here we show that, in the eyes of hosts, nestlings of three bronze-cuckoo species are striking visual mimics of the young of their morphologically diverse hosts, providing the first evidence that coevolution can select for visual mimicry of hosts in cuckoo chicks. Bronze-cuckoos resemble their own hosts more closely than other host species, but the accuracy of mimicry varies according to the diversity of hosts they exploit. PMID:21227972

  15. Biosignatures of Pathogen and Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J P; Chromy, B A; Forde, C E; Garcia, E; Gardner, S N; Gu, P P; Kuczmarksi, T A; Melius, C F; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Milanovich, F P; Motin, V L; Ott, L L; Quong, A A; Quong, J N; Rocco, J M; Slezak, T R; Sokhansanj, B A; Vitalis, E A; Zemla, A T; McCready, P M

    2002-08-27

    In information theory, a signature is characterized by the information content as well as noise statistics of the communication channel. Biosignatures have analogous properties. A biosignature can be associated with a particular attribute of a pathogen or a host. However, the signature may be lost in backgrounds of similar or even identical signals from other sources. In this paper, we highlight statistical and signal processing challenges associated with identifying good biosignatures for pathogens in host and other environments. In some cases it may be possible to identify useful signatures of pathogens through indirect but amplified signals from the host. Discovery of these signatures requires new approaches to modeling and data interpretation. For environmental biosignal collections, it is possible to use signal processing techniques from other applications (e.g., synthetic aperture radar) to track the natural progression of microbes over large areas. We also present a computer-assisted approach to identify unique nucleic-acid based microbial signatures. Finally, an understanding of host-pathogen interactions will result in better detectors as well as opportunities in vaccines and therapeutics.

  16. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  17. Host Defence to Pulmonary Mycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Mody

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a basic understanding of the mechanisms of host defense to pathogenic fungi. This will help physicians understand why some patients are predisposed to fungal infections and update basic scientists on how microbial immunology applies to fungal disease.

  18. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioverti, M Veronica; Cawcutt, Kelly A; Abidi, Maheen; Sohail, M Rizwan; Walker, Randall C; Osmon, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    Invasive mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts, but it carries a high mortality rate. Primary gastrointestinal disease is the least frequent form of presentation. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical in the management; however, symptoms are typically non-specific in gastrointestinal disease, leading to delayed therapy. To describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts, we reviewed all cases of primary gastrointestinal mucormycosis in immunocompromised hosts reported in English literature as well as in our Institution from January 1st 1991 to December 31st 2013 for a total of 31 patients. About 52% of patients underwent solid organ transplant (SOT), while the rest had an underlying haematologic malignancy. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom, followed by gastrointestinal bleeding and fever. Gastric disease was more common in SOT, whereas those with haematologic malignancy presented with intestinal disease (P = 0.002). Although gastrointestinal mucormycosis remains an uncommon condition in immunocompromised hosts, it carries significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in cases with intestinal involvement. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance to institute early and appropriate therapy and improve outcomes.

  19. Host specificity in the host-seeking larva of the dipteran parasitoid Mallophora ruficauda and the influence of age on parasitism decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, M E; Castelo, M K

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the robber fly Mallophora ruficauda are ectoparasitoids of white grubs and adults are an important apiculture pest in Argentina. Females oviposit on tall grasses and the second instar larva actively searches and locates hosts. There are nine potential hosts in the distribution area of this parasitoid and Cyclocephala signaticollis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is the most parasitized in the field. However, M. ruficauda has a certain degree of behavioural flexibility towards different host species, and not being a strict specialist. The conditions under which the parasitoid orientates and accepts different hosts' species are unknown. We studied the host specificity of M. ruficauda towards three species of Cyclocephala genus and we determined whether this specificity depends on larval age. We also evaluated whether larva orientation towards Cyclocephala species changes with chemical cue concentration. We assessed host specificity measuring the orientation and acceptance behaviours towards kairomones extracts and live individuals of Cyclocephala species using M. ruficauda larvae of low and high life expectancy (i.e., young and aged second instar larvae). We observed that young larvae orientated only towards C. signaticollis chemical stimulus, whereas aged larvae orientated also towards C. modesta, and the same was observed with increasing stimuli's concentration. Both young and aged M. ruficauda larvae orientate towards live C. signaticollis and C. putrida species and rejected C. modesta. Also, we found that larvae accepted all Cyclocephala hosts. In conclusion, our results indicate that specificity in the laboratory, observed through host orientation and host acceptance behaviours, depends not only on the availability of host species, but also on the nature of the host's stimuli combined with parasitoid age.

  20. [Haemophilus influenzae purulent meningitis in adults: looking for a predisposing factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, Jalel; Hannachi, Neila

    2002-05-01

    We bring back an adult case of purulent meningitis to Haemophilus influenzae. We insist on the particular aspects of the host of this meningitis type at the adult. These aspects must be searched every time that Haemophilus influenzae is isolated in cerebrospinal fluid in adult's meningitis.

  1. Contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion in an introduced herbivorous beetle Ophraella communa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Y; Doi, H; Thomas, C E; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T

    2016-04-01

    Host range expansion of herbivorous insects is a key event in ecological speciation and insect pest management. However, the mechanistic processes are relatively unknown because it is difficult to observe the ongoing host range expansion in natural population. In this study, we focused on the ongoing host range expansion in introduced populations of the ragweed leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, to estimate the evolutionary process of host plant range expansion of a herbivorous insect. In the native range of North America, O. communa does not utilize Ambrosia trifida, as a host plant, but this plant is extensively utilized in the beetle's introduced range. Larval performance and adult preference experiments demonstrated that native O. communa beetles show better survival on host plant individuals from introduced plant populations than those from native plant populations and they also oviposit on the introduced plant, but not on the native plant. Introduced O. communa beetles showed significantly higher performance on and preference for both introduced and native A. trifida plants, when compared with native O. communa. These results indicate the contemporary evolution of host plant range expansion of introduced O. communa and suggest that the evolutionary change of both the host plant and the herbivorous insect involved in the host range expansion.

  2. Functional response, host stage preference and interference of two whitefly parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Yun; Yang, Nian-Wan; Duan, Min; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2016-02-01

    The functional responses of two parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich & Rose and Encarsia sophia Girault & Dodd, of whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Middle East-Asia Minor 1 were studied under laboratory conditions. In addition, the influence of host density and host stage on the competitive interactions between the two parasitoids, and biological control effect on whitefly were evaluated. In the functional response study, adult parasitoids were tested individually, with a conspecific or heterospecific competitor. Both Er. hayati and En. sophia exhibited a type II response to increasing host density, whether a conspecific or heterospecific competitor was present or not. Difference of searching rates and handling times between treatments suggested interference interactions existed between two parasitoid species. In the host stage preference study, two parasitoid species were jointly tested. Er. hayati had a competitive advantage over En. sophia when provided young host instars (first and second instar), whereas no advantage was found on old host instars (third and fourth instar). The biological control effect of Er. hayati and En. sophia in different introductions varied with host density. However, the effect of host instar on host mortality was not significant. These findings provide information for the practice of biological control and give better insight into how parasitoid species may coexist in diverse environments.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  4. Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Rousse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol.

  5. Differential Host Plant-Associated Genetic Variation Between Sympatric Mite Species of the Genus Oligonychus (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Valencia, Stephanie; Santillán-Galicia, Ma Teresa; Guzmán-Franco, Ariel W; Vega-Muñoz, Ricardo

    2017-01-12

    Adaptation to different host plants can lead to host-associated differentiation (HAD). The mites Oligonychus perseae and Oligonychus punicae have a broad range of host plants, but, to date, records of them coexisting sympatrically had only been reported on avocado. However, our field observations showed both species coexisting on host plants other than avocado. The lack of previous records of these mites on the host plants studied here suggests only recent divergence to new host plant species. Previous studies showed that O. punicae had a limited migration capacity compared with O. perseae, suggesting that O. punicae is more likely to develop a close host plant relationship leading to HAD. Adults of both species were collected from trees hosting both mite species. Three genera of host plants considered were Persea, Salix, and Alnus; two species within one genus were Alnus jorullensis and Alnus acuminata; and three varieties within one species were Persea americana var. Fuerte, var. Hass, and var. Criollo, a noncommercial variety. Using sequence data from a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, the phylogenetic relationships and genetic population structure of both mite species in relation to the host plant were determined. Oligonychus perseae populations showed a significant population structure in relation to host plant at the species and genus level, but there was no effect of variety. In contrast, host plant explained none of the genetic variation among O. punicae populations. The potential role of coexistence mechanisms in the contrasting genetic population structure of both mite species is discussed.

  6. Assessing host extinction risk following exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Stilianos; Lampo, Margarita; Doebeli, Michael

    2014-06-22

    Wildlife diseases are increasingly recognized as a major threat to biodiversity. Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Using a mathematical model and simulations, we study its effects on a generic riparian host population with a tadpole and adult life stage. An analytical expression for the basic reproduction quotient, Qo, of the pathogen is derived. By sampling the entire relevant parameter space, we perform a statistical assessment of the importance of all considered parameters in determining the risk of host extinction, upon exposure to Bd. We find that Qo not only gives a condition for the initial invasion of the fungus, but is in fact the best predictor for host extinction. We also show that the role of tadpoles, which in some species tolerate infections, is ambivalent. While tolerant tadpoles may provide a reservoir for the fungus, thus facilitating its persistence or even amplifying its outbreaks, they can also act as a rescue buffer for a stressed host population. Our results have important implications for amphibian conservation efforts.

  7. Influence of host iron status on Plasmodium falciparum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Clark

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency affects one quarter of the world’s population and causes significant morbidity, including detrimental effects on immune function and cognitive development. Accordingly, the World Health Organization recommends routine iron supplementation in children and adults in areas with high prevalence of iron deficiency. However, a large body of clinical and epidemiological evidence has accumulated which clearly demonstrates that host iron deficiency is protective against falciparum malaria and that host iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria. Although many effective antimalarial treatments and preventive measures are available, malaria remains a significant public health problem, in part because the mechanisms of malaria pathogenesis remain obscured by the complexities in the relationships between parasite virulence factors, host susceptibility traits, and the immune responses that modulate disease. Here we review (i the clinical and epidemiological data that describes the relationship between host iron status and malaria infection and (ii the progress being made to understand the biological basis for these clinical and epidemiological observations.

  8. The perfect host: a mouse host embryo facilitating more efficient germ line transmission of genetically modified embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Taft

    Full Text Available There is a continual need to improve efficiency in creating precise genetic modifications in mice using embryonic stem cells (ESCs. We describe a novel approach resulting in 100% germline transmission from competent injected ESCs. We developed an F1 mouse host embryo (Perfect Host, PH that selectively ablates its own germ cells via tissue-specific induction of diphtheria toxin. This approach allows competent microinjected ESCs to fully dominate the germline, eliminating competition for this critical niche in the developing and adult animal. This is in contrast to conventional methods, where competition from host germ cells results in offspring derived from host cells and ESCs, necessitating extensive breeding of chimeras and genotyping to identify germline. The germline transmission process is also complicated by variability in the actual number of ESCs that colonize the germline niche and the proportion that are germline competent. To validate the PH approach we used ESC lines derived from 129 F1, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR backgrounds as well as an iPS line. Resulting chimeric males produced 194 offspring, all paternally derived from the introduced stem cells, with no offspring being derived from the host genome. We further tested this approach using eleven genetically modified C57BL/6N ESC lines (International Knockout Mouse Consortium. ESC germline transmission was observed in 9/11 (82% lines using PH blastocysts, compared to 6/11 (55% when conventional host blastocysts were used. Furthermore, less than 35% (83/240 of mice born in the first litters from conventional chimeras were confirmed to be of ESC-origin. By comparison, 100% (137/137 of the first litter offspring of PH chimeras were confirmed as ESC-derived. Together, these data demonstrate that the PH approach increases the probability of germline transmission and speeds the generation of ESC derived animals from chimeras. Collectively, this approach reduces the time and costs inherent in the

  9. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  10. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  11. Histories of host shifts and cospeciation among free-living parasitoids of Rhagoletis flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlinck, G; Hulbert, D; Hood, G R; Smith, J J; Forbes, A A

    2016-09-01

    Host shifts by specialist insects can lead to reproductive isolation between insect populations that use different hosts, promoting diversification. When both a phytophagous insect and its ancestrally associated parasitoid shift to the same novel host plant, they may cospeciate. However, because adult parasitoids are free living, they can also colonize novel host insects and diversify independent of their ancestral host insect. Although shifts of parasitoids to new insect hosts have been documented in ecological time, the long-term importance of such shifts to parasitoid diversity has not been evaluated. We used a genus of flies with a history of speciation via host shifting (Rhagoletis [Diptera: Tephritidae]) and three associated hymenopteran parasitoid genera (Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes) to examine cophylogenetic relationships between parasitoids and their host insects. We inferred phylogenies of Rhagoletis, Diachasma, Coptera and Utetes and used distance-based cophylogenetic methods (ParaFit and PACo) to assess congruence between fly and parasitoid trees. We used an event-based method with a free-living parasitoid cost model to reconstruct cophylogenetic histories of each parasitoid genus and Rhagoletis. We found that the current species diversity and host-parasitoid associations between the Rhagoletis flies and parasitoids are the primary result of ancient cospeciation events. Parasitoid shifts to ancestrally unrelated hosts primarily occur near the branch tips, suggesting that host shifts contribute to recent parasitoid species diversity but that these lineages may not persist over longer time periods. Our analyses also stress the importance of biologically informed cost models when investigating the coevolutionary histories of hosts and free-living parasitoids.

  12. Hosting anions. The energetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtchen, Franz P

    2010-10-01

    Hosting anions addresses the widely spread molecular recognition event of negatively charged species by dedicated organic compounds in condensed phases at equilibrium. The experimentally accessible energetic features comprise the entire system including the solvent, any buffers, background electrolytes or other components introduced for e.g. analysis. The deconvolution of all these interaction types and their dependence on subtle structural variation is required to arrive at a structure-energy correlation that may serve as a guide in receptor construction. The focus on direct host-guest interactions (lock-and-key complementarity) that have dominated the binding concepts of artificial receptors in the past must be widened in order to account for entropic contributions which constitute very significant fractions of the total free energy of interaction. Including entropy necessarily addresses the ambiguity and fuzziness of the host-guest structural ensemble and requires the appreciation of the fact that most liquid phases possess distinct structures of their own. Apparently, it is the perturbation of the intrinsic solvent structure occurring upon association that rules ion binding in polar media where ions are soluble and abundant. Rather than specifying peculiar structural elements useful in anion binding this critical review attempts an illumination of the concepts and individual energetic contributions resulting in the final observation of specific anion recognition (95 references).

  13. Acceptance or refusal of convenience food in present-day prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhouche, An-Sofie

    2015-11-01

    Food in prison is an insufficiently researched topic. However, prisoners often highlight problems with and criticism of their prison meals. This article aims to further develop this topic by giving closer insight into the use and attitudes toward ready-made meals in the Tilburg prison. In this prison, prisoners receive ready-made meals. This is in contrast to Belgian prisons, from which they were transferred, where meals were made from scratch. This change in the food system led to commotion and complaints. To understand the situation, interviews with prisoners and staff were conducted and observations in the Tilburg prison were made. The results showed that a food system can have considerable influence on prison experiences. In addition, and contrary to what earlier reports have mentioned, the ready-made meals also have some advantages, especially for the organization of daily prison life. However, most prisoners had negative attitudes toward these meals.

  14. Digitization of the human body in the present-day economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on the historic development of human body digitization and on the actual state of commercially available technology. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than ten years. One of the main users of this technology was the entertainment industry. Every new movie excited with attractive visual effects, but only few people knew that the most thrilling cuts were realized by using virtual persons. The faces and bodies of actors were digitized and the "virtual twin" replaced the actor in the movie. Nowadays, the state of the human body digitization is so high that it is not possible any more to distinguish the real actor from the virtual one. Indeed, for the rush technical development has to be thanked the movie industry, which was one of the strong economic motors for this technology. Today, with the possibility of a massive cost reduction given by new technologies, methods for digitization of the human body are used also in other fields of application, such as ergonomics, medical applications, computer games, biometry and anthropometrics. With the time, this technology becomes interesting also for sport, fitness, fashion and beauty. A large expansion of human body digitization is expected in the near future. To date, different technologies are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. They can be divided into three distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their differences and characteristics and expresses clues for the selection of the adequate method. Practical examples of commercial exploitation of human body digitization are also presented and new interesting perspectives are introduced.

  15. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, B.C.; Didova, O.; Riva, R.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; King, M.A.; Van den Broeke, M.R.; Urban, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating a firn densification model to account for firn

  16. Organohalogen compounds in present day vegetable oils sourced from the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Covaci, A. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Organohalogen chemicals such as hexachlorohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, hydrophobic and thus accumulate in the food chain. The relevance of fish and dairy products as source for human contamination with these pollutants is widely recognized and as a result, routine monitoring programs of fish and dairy products are used to monitor exposure. Monitoring of vegetable oils for organohalogen contaminants is more on an ad hoc basis vegetable oils are generally far less contaminated than animal fats. Where monitoring is undertaken, samples originating from or entering the European and US market are generally analysed and data are available in the published literature. However, little data is available in the public domain for other major producers, particularly the Middle East. Olive oil is integral to Middle Eastern cooking and is widely consumed in relatively large quantities. Rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, nutritionally olive oil is considered to impart important health benefits as observed in southern Mediterranean diet studies. Here we report the levels of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PBDEs in eight olive oil and three vegetable oil samples from the Middle East obtained in 2003 and in three additional olive oil samples from the Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Greece and Egypt). The present study provides an extension of our previous study on organohalogen contaminant data in historic olive and ground nut oil from Palestine and gives a preliminary indication of dietary exposure to organohalogen contaminants from vegetable oils.

  17. Present-day shortening in Southern Haiti from GPS measurements and implications for seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symithe, Steeve; Calais, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The ~ 3 M inhabitant capital region of Haiti, severely affected by the devastating January 12, 2010, M7.0 earthquake, continues to expand at a fast rate. Accurate characterization of regional earthquake sources is key to inform urban development and construction practices through improved regional seismic hazard estimates. Here we use a recently updated Global Positioning System (GPS) data set to show that seismogenic strain accumulation in southern Haiti involves an overlooked component of shortening on a south-dipping reverse fault along the southern edge of the Cul-de-Sac basin, in addition to the well-known component of left-lateral strike-slip motion. This tectonic model implies that ground shaking may be twice that expected if the major fault was purely strike-slip, as assumed in the current seismic hazard map for the region.

  18. Characteristics of present-day active strain field of Chinese mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Liang-qian; LI Yan-xing; YANG Guo-hua; HU Xin-kang

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the GPS data obtained from repeated measurements carried out in 2004 and 2007, the horizontal principal strain of the Chinese mainland is calculated, which shows that the direction of principal compressive strain axis of each subplate is basically consistent with the P-axis of focal mechanism solution and the principal compressive stress axis acquired by geological method. It indicates that the crustal tectonic stress field is relatively stable in regions in a long time. The principal compressive stress axes of Qinghai-Tibet and Xinjiang subplates in the western part of Chinese mainland direct to NS and NNE-SSW, which are controlled by the force from the collision of the Eurasia Plate and India Plate. The principal compressive strain axes of Heilongjiang and North China subplates in the eastern part direct to ENE-WSW, which shows that they are subject to the force from the collision and underthrust of the Eurasia Plate to the North America and Pacific plates. At the same time, they are also affected by the lateral force from Qinghai-Tibet and Xinjiang subplates. The principal compressive strain axis of South China plate is WNW-ESE, which reflects that it is affected by the force from the collision of Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasia Plate and it is also subject to the lateral force from Qinghai-Tibet subplate. It is apparent from the comparison between the principal compressive strain axes in the periods of 2004-2007 and 2001-2004 that the acting directions of principal compressive stress of subplates in both periods are basically consistent. However, there is certain difference between their directional concentrations of principal compressive stress axes. The surface strain rates of different tectonic units in both periods indicate that the events predominating by compressive variation decrease, while the events predominating by tensile change increase.

  19. Research on the Dividing Method for Present-Day Regional Active Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoliang; Jiang Zaisen; Chen Bing; Wang Qi; Zhang Xi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new idea that combines Quasi-Accurate Detection of gross errors (QUAD) with discontinuous deformation positive analysis, is brought forward to divide the regional active blocks. The method can improve the demarcation of active blocks for areas lacking with observation data and offer a new train of through for the complete study of the regional deformation of active blocks. In addition, using the Sichuan-Yunnan area as example, the practice process of the method is introduced briefly.

  20. Economic viability of present-day biomass energy installations; Wirtschaftlichkeit von heutigen Biomasse-Energieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Sommerhalder, M.; Schelske, O. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Membrez, Y.; Ndoh, M.; Tacchini, C. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This illustrated, comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic viability of biomass energy installations. The installations examined included wood-fired installations, biogas installations and those using bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The system boundaries involved are defined and various factors that influence cost calculations are examined. The resulting heat and electricity prices for various energy sources and systems are presented and discussed. Examples of small and large-scale installations are presented. For wood-energy, combined heat and power system producing electricity at powers of 1 to 5 MWe are looked at and the various factors influencing their viability are discussed. Biogas installations of various sizes are discussed and the differing investment costs involved are commented on. Here, large industrial installations using communal green wastes are also examined and the influence of communal waste-collection charges on the price for the electricity generated is discussed, as is the influence of the market for the residual compost produced. The production and use of biogas in public wastewater treatment plants is also looked at, including the use of co-substrates. As far as biogenic liquid fuels such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol are concerned, the report takes a brief look at the situation concerning installations in Switzerland and reviews the production costs involved. Various conclusions are drawn for the various energy sources reviewed as well as for the prices for heat and electrical energy obtained.

  1. Impact of road traffic emissions on tropospheric ozone in Europe for present day and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Mariano; Kerkweg, Astrid; Grewe, Volker; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Road traffic is an important anthropogenic source of NOx, CO and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) which act as precursors for the formation of tropospheric ozone. The formation of ozone is highly non-linear. This means that the contribution of the road traffic sector cannot directly be derived from the amount of emitted species, because they are also determined by local emissions of other anthropogenic and natural sources. In addition, long range transport of precursors and ozone can play an important role in determining the local ozone budget. For a complete assessment of the impact of road traffic emissions it is therefore important to resolve both, local emissions and long range transport. This can be achieved by the use of the newly developed MECO(n) model system, which on-line couples the global chemistry-climate-model EMAC with the regional chemistry-climate-model COSMO-CLM/MESSy. Both models use the same chemical speciation. This allows a highly consistent model chain from the global to the local scale. To quantify the contribution of the road traffic emissions to tropospheric ozone we use an accounting system of the relevant reaction pathways of the different species from different sources (called tagging method). This tagging scheme is implemented consistently on all scales, allowing a direct comparison of the contributions. With this model configuration we investigate the impact of road traffic emissions to the tropospheric ozone budget in Europe. For the year 2008 we compare different emission scenarios and investigate the influence of both model and emission resolution. In addition, results of a mitigation scenario for the year 2030 are presented. They indicate that the contribution of the road traffic sector can be reduced by local reductions of emissions during summer. During winter the importance of long range transport increases. This can lead to increased contributions of the road traffic sector (e.g. by increased emissions in the US) even if local emissions are reduced.

  2. Isolated galaxies in hierarchical galaxy formation models - present-day properties and environmental histories

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Iovino, Angela; Cucciati, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have carried out a detailed, statistical analysis of isolated model galaxies, taking advantage of publicly available hierarchical galaxy formation models. To select isolated galaxies, we employ 2D methods widely used in the observational literature, as well as a more stringent 3D isolation criterion that uses the full 3D-real space information. In qualitative agreement with observational results, isolated model galaxies have larger fractions of late-type, star forming galaxies with respect to randomly selected samples of galaxies with the same mass distribution. We also find that the samples of isolated model galaxies typically contain a fraction of less than 15 per cent of satellite galaxies, that reside at the outskirts of their parent haloes where the galaxy number density is low. Projection effects cause a contamination of 2D samples of about 18 per cent, while we estimate a typical completeness of 65 per cent. Irrespectively of the isolation criteria, roughly 45 per cent of isolated gal...

  3. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  4. Scandinavian postglacial faults and their physical connection to present day seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, R.

    2015-12-01

    In Scandinavia large earthquakes up to M~8.2 occurred 9500 yBP due to rapid deglaciation leaving fault scarps with lengths up to 160km and vertical offsets of at least 10 m. Today a lion share of local earthquakes are located to the vicinity of the faults. I show here from Coulomb failure stress modeling a physical connection between clustering of recent earthquakes and high Coulomb failure stresses around the faults. This can be interpreted In such a fashion that the location of the current earthquakes resembles locations of aftershock sequences. The explanation is that when these faults where formed it was due to state of stress in the crust at time of deglaciation, different from today's conditions. The crust was heavily depressed at deglaciation about 250 m in the region and due of the receding icesheet the crust was subjected to high stresses resulting in fault motion. This fault motion occurred in order to minimize state of stress at deglaciation. However, this state of stress has since changed with the regional postglacial uplift and thus today these faults remain as perturbations in the crust with concentrations of high stresses. I elaborate on this mechanism. I also advocate that this correlation between high stressed fault areas and locations of earthquakes indicates that seismicity within stable continental regions like Scandinavia might be caused by previous crustal disturbances that show local perturbations of the stress field. Therefore if faults are favorably oriented in the present stress field they can be released by brittle earthquake faulting . Thus past transient tectonic events can explain part of the stable continental region's seismicity. This may be of large importance to assessment of seismic hazard within stable continental regions particularly for critical structures like e.g., nuclear waste deposits and hydroelectric dams.

  5. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Review Panel: Soroosh Sorooshian, Ph.D., Panel Chairperson, University of California, Irvine; Jan M. H. Hendrickx, Ph.D., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Binayak P. Mohanty, Ph.D., Texas A& M University; Scott W. Tyler, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno; Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh, Ph.D., University of Arizona -- ORISE Review Facilitators: Robert S. Turner, Ph.D., Technical Review Group Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Brian R. Herndon, Project Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Russ Manning, Technical Writer/Editor, Haselwood Enterprises, Inc.

    2008-08-30

    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is “to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site ...” (p. 1-1) The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: • A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (i) the net infiltration estimates, (ii) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (iii) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. • The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. • While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they oversimplify a complex landscape and associated hydrologic processes, especially since the model assumptions have not been adequately corroborated by field and laboratory observations at Yucca Mountain.

  6. Microbial Diversity Analysis of the Bacterial and Archaeal Population in Present Day Stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Maya C.

    2011-01-01

    Stromatolites are layered sedimentary structures resulting from microbial mat communities that remove carbon dioxide from their environment and biomineralize it as calcium carbonate. Although prevalent in the fossil record, stromatolites are rare in the modem world and are only found in a few locations including Highbome Cay in the Bahamas. The stromatolites found at this shallow marine site are analogs to ancient microbial mat ecosystems abundant in the Precambrian period on ancient Earth. To understand how stromatolites form and develop, it is important to identify what microorganisms are present in these mats, and how these microbes contribute to geological structure. These results will provide insight into the molecular and geochemical processes of microbial communities that prevailed on ancient Earth. Since stromatolites are formed by lithifying microbial mats that are able to mineralize calcium carbonate, understanding the biological mechanisms involved may lead to the development of carbon sequestration technologies that will be applicable in human spaceflight, as well as improve our understanding of global climate and its sustainability. The objective of my project was to analyze the archaeal and bacterial dIversity in stromatolites from Highborn Cay in the Bahamas. The first step in studying the molecular processes that the microorganisms carry out is to ascertain the microbial complexity within the mats, which includes identifying and estimating the numbers of different microbes that comprise these mats.

  7. Spatial-temporal variation of the land surface temperature field and present-day tectonic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to acquire information on tectonic activity in western China from land surface temperature (LST field data. On the basis of the established relationship between heat and strain, we analyzed the LST distribution in western China using the satellite data product MODIS/Terra. Our results show that: 1. There are departures from annual changes of LST in some areas, and that these changes are associated with the activity of some active tectonic zones. 2. When annual-change background values caused by climate factors are removed, the long-period component (LSTLOW of temperature residual (ΔT of the LST is able to serve as an indicator for tectonic activity. We have found that a major earthquake can produce different effects on the LST fields of surrounding areas. These effects are characterized by both rises and drops in temperature. For example, there was a noteworthy temperature decline associated with the Sumatran M9 earthquake of 2004 in the Bayan Har-Songpan block of central Tibetan Plateau. 3. On the other hand, the LST field of a single area may respond differently to major shocks occurring in different areas in the regions surrounding China. For instance, the Kunlun M 8.1 event made the LST on the Longmen Mountains fault zone increase, whereas the Zaisan Lake M 7.9 quake of 2003, and the Sumatran M 9 event of 2004, caused decreases in the same area’s LST. 4. The variations of land surface temperature (LST over time are different in different tectonic areas. These phenomena may provide clues for the study of tectonic deformation processes. On the basis of these phenomena, we use a combination of temperature data obtained at varied depths, regional seismicity and strain results obtained with GPS measurements, to test the information related to tectonic activity derived from variations of the LST field, and discuss its implications to the creation of models of regional tectonic deformation.

  8. EVOLUTION OF THE CIRCULAR FLOW THEORY WITHIN XX CENTURY AND ITS PRESENT-DAY PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Klyukin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article new retrospective of elaborating of the circular-flow theory from F. Quesnay (1758 up to P. Sraffa (1960 is proposed. This retrospective is based on organic integration Russian-Ukrainian pre-Revolutionary economic heritage, which has been realized in works written by M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky, V.K. Dmitriev, N.N. Shaposhnikoff, L. von Bortkiewicz, G. von Charasoff, E.E. Slutsky, A.D. Bilimoviĉ. Such an representation of the circular-flow theory interpreted as non-stop evolving thematic tradition (in spirit of post-positivist methodologist Gerald Holton makes it possi-ble to construct a new circular-flow scheme of economy.

  9. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Abraham

    Full Text Available The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius. Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s. We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.

  10. Present-day palynomorph deposits in an estuarine context: The case of the Loire Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganne, A.; Leroyer, C.; Penaud, A.; Mojtahid, M.

    2016-12-01

    Estuaries are dynamic systems that collect terrestrial, aerial, fluvial, and marine inputs, including organic microfossils, which, when fossilized and observed on palynological slides, are also referred to as palynomorphs (pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs including dinoflagellate cysts or dinocysts). To understand these organic microfossil deposit arrangements across the Loire estuary, palynomorph counts were undertaken in 31 surface sediments collected across longitudinal and perpendicular transects of the Loire active riverbed, from the upper inner estuary to the river mouth. Main results suggest a large homogeneity of the pollen content throughout the entire upstream-downstream transect, with a dominance of arboreal taxa (Pinus, Quercus, Alnus) and Poaceae. Also, perpendicular transects across the channel show a great similarity between the muddy surface layers and the underlying consolidated clay layers. This is probably due to: i) homogeneity of the landscape at a regional scale (large catchment area of the Loire River), and ii) complex hydrodynamic processes involving strong mixing of the palynological signal. Furthermore, despite scarce woodlands in the regional landscape, arboreal pollen (especially Pinus and Quercus) represents > 60% of the total pollen percentages. This could be explained by several factors: i) generally higher arboreal pollen production and dispersion as compared to herbaceous taxa, ii) distant inputs from marine areas downstream and/or forested regions far upstream, and iii) differential selection or inheritance from underlying sediments. Differentiation between the outer and inner estuarine environments was furthermore possible using a ratio of terrestrial versus marine palynological indicators. Among the dinocyst assemblages (marine realm), the euryhaline species Lingulodinium machaerophorum predominates; this taxon being very sensitive to strong water column stratification. Also, total dinocyst concentration increased upstream, which may result from the tidal forcing pushing salinity upriver beneath outflowing river water, and thus signing the estuarine turbidity maximum influence within the Loire River.

  11. Present-day 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin, Northern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrini, C.; Lacombe, O.; Roure, F.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D structural model of the Po Valley basin (Northern Italy) was built by integrating the dataset available from the public domain (DEM, wells, isobath-maps, cross-sections, outcrop-trends).The model shows the complex foredeep-foreland architecture across the basin, from the Moho level to the topog

  12. PRESENT-DAY AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyskiy Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made an overview of the status of production of cement concrete using nanotechnologies. The authors also provide their analysis of domestic and foreign researches into the application of nanotechnologies in the field of building materials. The authors have picked out positive examples of introduction of nano-scale particles into the concrete mix. The process needs continuous monitoring for the composition and the mixing time to be adjustable. The findings have been solely made by local developers of nano-materials and technologies. The authors propose their method of cement consumption reduction through the introduction of nanoparticles and simultaneous grinding of cement. The authors provide a new procedure of treatment of materials that contemplates enhanced mixing processes accompanied by simultaneous grinding of materials and their exposure to the electromagnetic treatment. The experiments completed by the team of authors have proven the efficiency of a combination of two nanotechnologies within one process, including the treatment of wet cement at the final grinding stage of processing to ensure specific cement properties for a specific surface area of 8,000 cm2/g, and the introduction of nano-scale particles into the process of manufacturing of cement compositions. The use of carbon nanotubes in the process of manufacturing of cement concrete can improve its physical and mechanical properties and reduce the cement consumption rate while maintaining the design strength of concrete.

  13. Composition and Characteristics of Particles in the Ocean: Evidence for Present Day Resuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    cruise ATLANTIS 11-94) and in the western North Atlantic along the continental rise (cruises DALLAS, KNORR-58, and OCEANUS-6) with the following...unpublished manuscript). Bishop, J.K.B., J.M. Edmond, D.R. Ketten, M.P. Bacon and W.B. Silker (1977). The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of...Johnson, D.A. and A.N. Shor (1977). Initial cruise report ATLANTIS 11-94, Leg I. W.H.O.I. Technical Report #77-70 (unpublished manuscript). Johnson

  14. Roman antecedents of the present-day use of river shores and margins in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez,Paula

    2014-01-01

    Sabemos que el Derecho romano no conoció, como hoy, la categoría general de la servidumbre ni tampoco, cuando menos en su configuración actual, las posteriormente llamadas “servidumbres legales”, pero sí, como acreditan las fuentes, diversas restricciones ex lege a la propiedad de los particulares sobre inmuebles, que, en cualquier caso, no se calificaron ni encuadraron entre las servitutes. Entre las denominadas por los romanistas “limitaciones de Derecho público” o en interés de la colectiv...

  15. [The medicosocial significance, epidemiology and prevention of enterobiasis at the present-day stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, A V

    1993-01-01

    Presents data on enterobiasis prevalence, medicosocial significance, and epidemiologic features in the former USSR and CIS. Analyzes the causes of ineffective control of this disease. Emphasizes the necessity of simultaneous solution of medical and nonmedical (social) problems. Distinguishes the priority trends in the disease prevention.

  16. [Organization of eukaryotic chromosomes: from Kol'tsov's studies up to present day].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, N B

    2013-01-01

    N. K. Kol'tsov ideas and views on the organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, including the notion of a giant hereditary molecule (genoneme) and its structural functional organization, are considered. Different approaches to chromosome studies are discussed, ranging from the examination of a chromosome as a stained cell organelle and the visualization of individual chromosomes in a living cell to the identification of topological domains of human and murine chromosomes using 3C and 5C technologies. The prospects of studies of chromosome organization using up-to-date methods of cytology, molecular biology, and bioinformatics are discussed.

  17. Present Day Regional Mass Loss of Greenland Observed with Satellite Gravimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, E.J.O.; Wouters, B.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained for Greenland’s mass balance observed with NASA’s GRACE mission. We estimate a Greenland ice sheet mass loss at −201 ± 19 Gt/year including a discernible acceleration of −8 ± 7 Gt/year2 between March 2003 and February 2010. The mass loss of glacier systems on t

  18. A search for a present-day candidate for the Comet P/Tunguska-1908

    CERN Document Server

    Drobyshevski, E M; Drobyshevski, M E

    2009-01-01

    The reason for the horizontal turn of the Tunguska-1908 bolide trajectory remains difficult to understand. It finds explanation, however, in the New Explosive Cosmogony of minor bodies as having been caused by an explosion of a part (M up to 10^12 g) of the comet nucleus whose ices contained products of its electrolysis, 2H2+O2. In detonation, this part was repelled from the more massive unexploded nucleus remnant, changed the direction of its own motion by ~10^o and imparted its kinetic energy, in expanding and slowing down, to the air in producing an effect of a high-altitude explosion. Because there are no traces of a fall of the more massive remnant, one comes to the conclusion that on passing through the Earth's atmosphere it again entered a heliocentric orbit (the hypothesis of V.Vernadskiy, 1932). A search for this comet, P/Tunguska-1908, among the 6077 known NEAs shows the 2005NB56 object to be the most appropriate candidate for a number of its parameters (a size is ~ 170 m, P = 2.106 y, e = 0.473 and...

  19. Modelling the nebular emission from primeval to present-day star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkin, Julia; Charlot, Stéphane; Bruzual, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    We present a new model of the nebular emission from star-forming galaxies in a wide range of chemical compositions, appropriate to interpret observations of galaxies at all cosmic epochs. The model relies on the combination of state-of-the-art stellar population synthesis and photoionization codes to describe the ensemble of H II regions and the diffuse gas ionized by young stars in a galaxy. A main feature of this model is the self-consistent yet versatile treatment of element abundances and depletion on to dust grains, which allows one to relate the observed nebular emission from a galaxy to both gas-phase and dust-phase metal enrichment. We show that this model can account for the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission-line properties of galaxies at different redshifts and find that ultraviolet emission lines are more sensitive than optical ones to parameters such as C/O abundance ratio, hydrogen gas density, dust-to-metal mass ratio and upper cut-off of the stellar initial mass function. We also find that, for gas-phase metallicities around solar to slightly subsolar, widely used formulae to constrain oxygen ionic fractions and the C/O ratio from ultraviolet and optical emission-line luminosities are reasonable faithful. However, the recipes break down at non-solar metallicities, making them inappropriate to study chemically young galaxies. In such cases, a fully self-consistent model of the kind presented in this paper is required to interpret the observed nebular emission.

  20. Campaigned GPS on Present-Day Crustal Deformation in Northernmost Longitudinal Valley Preliminary Results, Hualien Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Longitudinal Valley in Eastern Taiwan sits at the collision suture between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. Based on repeated GPS campaigned measurements from 25 stations six times in 2007 - 2009, we characterize the surface deformation in the northernmost Longitudinal Valley where the Coastal Range of the Philippine Sea plate turns northward diving under the Eurasian plate producing two major active faults: the Milun fault and the Longitudinal Valley fault. We reconstructed a GPS velocity field and conducted strain analyses and elastic block modeling. Our results suggest a rapid clockwise rotation of 33° Myr-1 and an eastward tectonic escape in the small Hualien City block (HUAL area of ~10 × 10 km, which is apparently detached from the regional rotating RYUK block defined by previous studies. We interpret it as being initiated locally by the northwest indentation of the Coastal Range, which pushed the HUAL block to move upward and eastward. According to our strain analyses, the HUAL block shows a significant internal elastic strain inside the Milun Tableland, the hanging wall of the Milun fault. No significant deformation was observed across the surface trace of the fault, indicating that the Milun fault is now probably locked in the near surface. The deformation in the footwall of the fault was accommodated by pure-shear strain with a major NNW-compression and a minor ENE-extension. The deformation in the hanging wall is characterized by simple-shear strain with ENE-extension in its northern part and little deformation in the southern part, separated by a little known NW-trending active fault zone (Dongmingyi fault, which needs further investigation.

  1. Ongoing glacial-isostatic adjustment and present-day motion of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The effect of glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) on the motion of tectonic plates is usually neglected. Employing a recently developed numerical approach, we examine the effect of glacial loading on the motion of the Earth’s main tectonic plates where we consider an elastic lithosphere of laterally variable strength and the plates losely connected by low viscous zones. Aim of the paper is to show the physical processes which controls the GIA induced horizontal motion and to assess the impact ...

  2. Present-day fluxes of coccolithophores and diatoms in the pelagic Ionian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinverno, E.; Maffioli, P.; Corselli, C.; de Lange, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic fluxes from two sediment traps in the Ionian sea (35°13'N, 21°30'E) at 500 and 2800. m water depth are discussed in relation with the main oceanographic and external forcing and compared with previous data from a nearby location. This study is part of a multi-year sediment trap deployment,

  3. Modelling of hybrid scenario: from present-day experiments towards ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaudon, X.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Artaud, J. F.; Belo, P.; Bizarro, João P. S.; Casper, T.; Citrin, J.; Fable, E.; Ferreira, J.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Giruzzi, G.; Hobirk, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Koechl, F.; Liu, F.; Lönnroth, J.; Moreau, D.; Parail, V.; Schneider, M.; Snyder, P. B.; the ASDEX-Upgrade Team; Contributors, JET-EFDA; the EU-ITM ITER Scenario Modelling Group

    2013-07-01

    The ‘hybrid’ scenario is an attractive operating scenario for ITER since it combines long plasma duration with the reliability of the reference H-mode regime. We review the recent European modelling effort carried out within the Integrated Scenario Modelling group which aims at (i) understanding the underlying physics of the hybrid regime in ASDEX-Upgrade and JET and (ii) extrapolating them towards ITER. JET and ASDEX-Upgrade hybrid scenarios performed under different experimental conditions have been simulated in an interpretative and predictive way in order to address the current profile dynamics and its link with core confinement, the relative importance of magnetic shear, s, and E × B flow shear on the core turbulence, pedestal stability and H-L transition. The correlation of the improved confinement with an increased s/q at outer radii observed in JET and ASDEX-Upgrade discharges is consistent with the predictions based on the GLF23 model applied in the simulations of the ion and electron kinetic profiles. Projections to ITER hybrid scenarios have been carried out focusing on optimization of the heating/current drive schemes to reach and ultimately control the desired plasma equilibrium using ITER actuators. Firstly, access condition to the hybrid-like q-profiles during the current ramp-up phase has been investigated. Secondly, from the interpreted role of the s/q ratio, ITER hybrid scenario flat-top performance has been optimized through tailoring the q-profile shape and pedestal conditions. EPED predictions of pedestal pressure and width have been used as constraints in the interpretative modelling while the core heat transport is predicted by GLF23. Finally, model-based approach for real-time control of advanced tokamak scenarios has been applied to ITER hybrid regime for simultaneous magnetic and kinetic profile control.

  4. [From Leonardo Da Vinci to present days; from the history of antiplague costume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, A A; Aminev, R M; Korneev, A G; Polyakov, V S; Artebyakin, S V

    2016-01-01

    As a prototype of the antiplague costume can be considered a special clothing, which physicians in medieval Europe wear for protection in plague nidus. Inventor of the first antiplague costume is considered to be a French doctor Charles de Lorme (1619). Much later, in 1878, a Russian professor Pashutin V V offered to use a costume, which looked like a hermetically sealed "bag" with a special breathing device aimed at protection of medical staff. Later, professor O.I. Dogel's respirator became well-known (1889). At the beginning of 20th century as part of the antiplague costume was used a charcoal filter mask, invented by Zelinsky N.D. Requirements to order the use of modern means of individual protection when working in nidus of especially dangerous infections identified sanitary-epidemiological rules, which reflect issues of laboratory workers working and protective clothing, respiratory protection, and view, especially operation, the procedure of putting on, removing and disinfecting antiplague costumes, pneumocostumes, pneumohelmets, isolation suits, gas-protection boxes, etc.

  5. Present-day plate motions: Retrieval from the TOPEX/Poseidon orbitography network (DORIS system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souriau, Annie; Cazenave, Anny; Biancale, R.; Balmino, G.; Dominh, K.; Mazzega, P.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Boucher, Claude; Willis, P.; Kasser, M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the proposal is to determine the present motion of the main tectonic plates from the Doppler data of the Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) orbitography system, which includes in its final configuration about 50 tracking stations with a world-wide distribution.

  6. A historical perspective on protein crystallization from 1840 to the present day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegé, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Protein crystallization has been known since 1840 and can prove to be straightforward but, in most cases, it constitutes a real bottleneck. This stimulated the birth of the biocrystallogenesis field with both 'practical' and 'basic' science aims. In the early years of biochemistry, crystallization was a tool for the preparation of biological substances. Today, biocrystallogenesis aims to provide efficient methods for crystal fabrication and a means to optimize crystal quality for X-ray crystallography. The historical development of crystallization methods for structural biology occurred first in conjunction with that of biochemical and genetic methods for macromolecule production, then with the development of structure determination methodologies and, recently, with routine access to synchrotron X-ray sources. Previously, the identification of conditions that sustain crystal growth occurred mostly empirically but, in recent decades, this has moved progressively towards more rationality as a result of a deeper understanding of the physical chemistry of protein crystal growth and the use of idea-driven screening and high-throughput procedures. Protein and nucleic acid engineering procedures to facilitate crystallization, as well as crystallization methods in gelled-media or by counter-diffusion, represent recent important achievements, although the underlying concepts are old. The new nanotechnologies have brought a significant improvement in the practice of protein crystallization. Today, the increasing number of crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank could mean that crystallization is no longer a bottleneck. This is not the case, however, because structural biology projects always become more challenging and thereby require adapted methods to enable the growth of the appropriate crystals, notably macromolecular assemblages.

  7. [Comparative study of genomes of present-day influenza A and B viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iukhnova, L G; Bannikov, A I; Grinbaum, E B

    1995-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility of RNA fragments was used to study epidemic influenza viruses A and B as compared with the reference strains and virological findings. Among those tested, there was a further drift involving both the genes coding glycosylated proteins and internal and non-structural proteins. The analysis of atypical isolates showed their reassortant nature.

  8. [Schizoaffective disorder: clinical symptoms and present-day approach to treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danileviciūte, Vita

    2002-01-01

    During 20th century serious mental disorders were divided into two groups according symptomatology and course of disorder. Individuals with dominating disturbance of perception, thinking and cognition were basically diagnosed having schizophrenic. Individuals with mood disturbance were basically diagnosed having affective disorders. However, there were patients who did not fit neatly into either category. In 1933 Jocob Kasanin introduced the term "schizoaffective psychosis". Scientific discussions involved the possibility that schizoaffective disorder was conceptualized most accurately as following: a type of schizophrenia, a type of affective disorder, a unique disorder that was separate from both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, an arbitrary categorization of clinical symptoms that marked a continuum between schizophrenia and affective illness, a heterogeneous collection of "interforms" between schizophrenia and affective disorders. However, diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder is included both in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. Schizoaffective disorder is listed in the category "schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders". The differential diagnosis includes basically either schizophrenia or affective disorder. The epidemiological status of schizoaffective disorder is somewhat uncertain compared with schizophrenia because of dilemmas related to diagnosis and classification of the disorder. Treatment of schizoaffective disorder comprises psychotropic medication, supportive psychotherapy, social care, rehabilitation. The most important groups of psychotropic medications are: antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Atypical antipsychotics are the first-line medication for schizoaffective disorder due to their pharmacological properties. In the case of schizoaffective disorders combination of atypical antipsychotics with antidepressants seems to be useful. Novel antidepressants have priority for the combination mentioned above. Peculiarities of mechanism of action of antidepressant are important for combinations. Mood stabilizers seem to be useful for treatment of certain type of schizoaffective disorder as well.

  9. Mercury's interior structure constrained by geodesy and present-day thermal state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim; Beuthe, Mikael; Deproost, Marie-Hélène

    2016-10-01

    Recent measurements of Mercury's spin state and gravitational field strongly constrain Mercury's core radius and core density, but provide little information on the size of its inner core. Both a fully molten liquid core and a core differentiated into a large solid inner core and a liquid outer part are consistent with the observations, although the observed tides seem to exclude an extremely large inner core. The observed global magnetic field could be generated even without a growing inner core, since remelting of iron snow inside the core might produce a sufficiently large buoyancy flux to drive magnetic field generation by compositional convection.Further constraints on Mercury's internal structure can be obtained by studying its thermal state. The inner core radius depends mainly on the thermal state and on the light elements present in the core. Secular cooling and subsequent formation of an inner core lead to the global contraction of the planet, estimated to be about 7 km.In this study we combine geodesy data (88 day libration amplitude, polar moment of inertia, and tidal Love number) with the recent estimate of the radial contraction of Mercury and thermal evolution calculations in order to constrain its interior structure and in particular its inner core. We consider bulk compositions that are in agreement with the reducing formation conditions suggested by remote sensing data of Mercury's surface.

  10. Geographical distribution of present-day Cape taxa and their phytogeographical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Flora, one of the six floral kingdoms recognized by phytogeographers, is remarkable for its species richness and high degree of endemism, but no overall statistics are as yet available. Several long-term projects have recently been started to enumerate all the species and to record their distribution patterns. The latter aspect has been completed for 1 936 species from the three most characteristic families, i.e. Restionaceae. Ericaceae and Proteaceae, the endemic families and some of the largest genera, i. e. Aspalathus and Muraltia. Computer analysis of the distribution patterns is being undertaken and the species concentrations and centres of endemism are being calculated. The concentration of species in the mountains of the south-western Cape is confirmed and the grid square 3418 BB is found to be the richest. For the groups dealt with, the degree of endemism was found to be as high as 98%. The phytogeographical centres so far outlined agree with those of Weimarck.

  11. Periodontal microbiota of Sardinian children: comparing 200-year-old samples to present-day ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Orrù

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The microrganisms of the human oral cavity include more than 700 species or phenotypes of bacteria. Some “diseases of civilization” are strictly correlated to changes in the microbiome following the food revolution that occurred after WWII. For that reason, a precise recognition of the microbiome profile before and after this period should be useful to determine the health-compatible model of microbiome. The aim of this study was to compare the microbiome profiles (number of total cells, and pathogen types of dental samples obtained from two distinct groups of children, a 200-year-old retrieved one and a present one.Methods: Two different groups of samples have been studied. The first group was a set of 50 recent subgingival plaque samples obtained from children of age 2-8 years, 14 males and 36 females. They were enrolled by the Department of Dental Disease Prevention (University of Cagliari, in Sardinia, Italy during standard dental care procedures. None reported periodontal disease and none had been under antibiotic therapy during the previous 6 months. The second group was an old retrieved group that included 24 teeth from 6 different 6- to 8-year-old crania fragments; they were obtained from a 200-year-old charnel-house located in Villaputzu, a city close to Cagliari. Representative periodontal bacteria have been identified by a previously published real-time PCR procedure (Sokransky et al., 1998 in which P. gingivalis and T. forsythia (red complex, A. actinomycetemcomitans (green complex and F. nucleatum (orange complex were detected. In addition, the title of each pathogen was expressed as a percentage of the total bacteria (biofilm in the sample.Results and discussion: The profile of periodontal microbiomes, between recent/ancient samples showed a significant difference relative to Sokransky’s red complex bacteria (p < 0.05. In all analyzed periodontal strains, the pathogenic bacteria P. gingivalis and T. forsythia showed the highest title in the recent group. Conclusions: Our hypothesis is that the transfer of “commensal-pathogen” as an absolute number on the oral biofilm might be linked to the distinct alimentary habits of the two populations. Some diet rich in reducing agents, such as processed meat-based foods, might be able to increase the average number of pathogen anaerobic bacteria in the oral microbiota. The outcome would be an increase of the oral systemic diseases reported with these pathogens. Our data suggest that the ancient Sardinian population was able to control the pathogen oral anaerobic biofilm by some diet rich in antioxidant compounds. Further investigations are required to focus on the genetic profile and the health status of this ancient population but it appears that molecular microbiology might be considered as the “time machine” in oral biology.

  12. Competing bounds on the present-day time variation of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, Thomas; Wetterich, Christof

    2008-01-01

    We compare the sensitivity of a recent bound on time variation of the fine structure constant from optical clocks with bounds on time varying fundamental constants from atomic clocks sensitive to the electron-to-proton mass ratio, from radioactive decay rates in meteorites, and from the Oklo natural reactor. Tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle also lead to comparable bounds on present variations of constants. The "winner in sensitivity" depends on what relations exist between the variations of different couplings in the standard model of particle physics, which may arise from the unification of gauge interactions. WEP tests are currently the most sensitive within unified scenarios. A detection of time variation in atomic clocks would favour dynamical dark energy and put strong constraints on the dynamics of a cosmological scalar field.

  13. Competing bounds on the present-day time variation of fundamental constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Thomas; Stern, Steffen; Wetterich, Christof

    2009-04-01

    We compare the sensitivity of a recent bound on time variation of the fine structure constant from optical clocks with bounds on time-varying fundamental constants from atomic clocks sensitive to the electron-to-proton mass ratio, from radioactive decay rates in meteorites, and from the Oklo natural reactor. Tests of the weak equivalence principle also lead to comparable bounds on present variations of constants. The “winner in sensitivity” depends on what relations exist between the variations of different couplings in the standard model of particle physics, which may arise from the unification of gauge interactions. Weak equivalence principle tests are currently the most sensitive within unified scenarios. A detection of time variation in atomic clocks would favor dynamical dark energy and put strong constraints on the dynamics of a cosmological scalar field.

  14. How can young massive clusters reach their present-day sizes?

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2015-01-01

    The classic question that how young massive star clusters attain their shapes and sizes, as we find them today, remains to be a challenge. Both observational and computational studies of star-forming massive molecular gas clouds infer that massive cluster formation is primarily triggered along the small-scale ($\\lesssim0.3$ pc) filamentary substructures within the clouds. The present study is intended to investigate the possible ways in which a filament-like-compact, massive star cluster (effective radius 0.1-0.3 pc) can expand $\\gtrsim10$ times, still remaining massive enough ($\\gtrsim10^4 M_\\odot$), to become a young massive star cluster, as we observe today. To that end, model massive clusters (of initially $10^4 M_\\odot-10^5 M_\\odot$) are evolved using Sverre Aarseth's state-of-the-art N-body code NBODY7. All the computed clusters expand with time, whose sizes (effective radii) are compared with those observed for young massive clusters, of age $\\lesssim100$ Myr, in the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies...

  15. Present Day Biology seen in the Looking Glass of Physics of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, P.

    Darwin's theory of variation and selection in its simplest form is directly applicable to RNA evolution in vitro as well as to virus evolution, and it allows for quantitative predictions. Understanding evolution at the molecular level is ultimately related to the central paradigm of structural biology: sequence⇒ structure ⇒ function. We elaborate on the state of the art in modeling and understanding evolution of RNA driven by reproduction and mutation. The focus will be laid on the landscape concept—originally introduced by Sewall Wright—and its application to problems in biology. The relation between genotypes and phenotypes is the result of two consecutive mappings from a space of genotypes called sequence space onto a space of phenotypes or structures, and fitness is the result of a mapping from phenotype space into non-negative real numbers. Realistic landscapes as derived from folding of RNA sequences into structures are characterized by two properties: (i) they are rugged in the sense that sequences lying nearby in sequence space may have very different fitness values and (ii) they are characterized by an appreciable degree of neutrality implying that a certain fraction of genotypes and/or phenotypes cannot be distinguished in the selection process. Evolutionary dynamics on realistic landscapes will be studied as a function of the mutation rate, and the role of neutrality in the selection process will be discussed.

  16. Geographical distribution of present day Poaceae as evidence for the origin of African floras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Clayton

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The major tribes and sub-families of grasses occupy worldwide latitudinal belts, which can be related to an evolutionary sequence of climatic adaptations. However, genera tend to be confined to individual continents, suggesting that grasses do not easily cross the oceans, and that the worldwide distribution of the family may have been achieved when the continents were closer together. Species distributions are likewise strongly influenced by the effect of climatic adaptation and continental isolation, but they show a number of aberrations. These are probably a legacy of climatic disturbance during the Pleistocene.

  17. Methodological Problems of the Present-Day Sociology of Education: A Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An all-Russian conference on "Education and Society" was held on 22 October 2009 at the Academy of Labor and Social Relations, in the course of which roundtables were conducted with leading representatives of Russian sociological science. The conference was timed to coincide with the twentieth anniversary of the founding of the Russian Society of…

  18. Present-day groundwater recharge estimation in parts of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, S. N.; Mukherjee, A.; Wada, Y.; Scanlon, B. R.; Taylor, R. G.; Rodell, M.; Malakar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Large part of global population has been dependent on groundwater as a source of fresh water. The demand would further increase with increasing population and stress associated with climate change. We tried to provide regional-scale groundwater recharge estimates in a large part of Indian Sub-Continent. A combination of ground-based, satellite-based and numerical model simulated recharge estimates were presented in the densely populated region. Three different methods: an intense network of observational wells (n>13,000 wells), a satellite (TRMM) and global land-surface model (CLM) outputs, and a global-scale hydrological model (PCR GLOBWB) were employed to calculate recharge estimates. Groundwater recharge values exhibit large spatial variations over the entire region on the basis of aquifer hydrogeology, precipitation and groundwater withdrawal patterns. Groundwater recharge estimates from all three estimation techniques were found to be higher (>300 mm/year) in fertile planes of Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra (IGB) river basins. A combination of favorable hydrogeologic conditions (porosity, permeability etc.), comparatively higher rates of precipitation, and return flow from rapidly withdrawn irrigation water might influence occurrence of high recharge rates. However, central and southern study area experiences lower recharge rates (recharge estimates show good matches in some of the areas. Recharge estimates indicate dynamic nature of groundwater recharge as a function of precipitation, land use pattern, and hydrogeologic parameters. On a first hand basis, the estimates will help policy makers to understand groundwater recharge process over the densely populated region and finally would facilitate to implement sustainable policy for securing water security.

  19. Modelling the nebular emission from primeval to present-day star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gutkin, Julia; Bruzual, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of the nebular emission from star-forming galaxies in a wide range of chemical compositions, appropriate to interpret observations of galaxies at all cosmic epochs. The model relies on the combination of state-of-the-art stellar population synthesis and photoionization codes to describe the ensemble of HII regions and the diffuse gas ionized by young stars in a galaxy. A main feature of this model is the self-consistent yet versatile treatment of element abundances and depletion onto dust grains, which allows one to relate the observed nebular emission from a galaxy to both gas-phase and dust-phase metal enrichment. We show that this model can account for the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission-line properties of galaxies at different redshifts and find that ultraviolet emission lines are more sensitive than optical ones to parameters such as C/O abundance ratio, hydrogen gas density, dust-to-metal mass ratio and upper cutoff of the stellar initial mass function. We also find th...

  20. [Comments on present-day spread and epidemiology of BSE and prion diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemer, W; Kaup, F-J

    2004-02-01

    Prion diseases of animals and man are neurological diseases with amyloidal deposition of the respective proteins. As to prion disease, the cellular prion protein is in its abnormal isoform(s) an essential component of prion protein aggregates found in affected tissue. In contrast to all neurodegenerative diseases like Morbus Alzheimer or Huntington's disease, prion diseases are transmissible. Therefore, prion diseases were designated Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The diseases have been well known for decades. Scrapie was first described around 1750, a BSE case was reported in the 1850-ties most likely a misdiagnosis, and in 1920/1930 the human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) had been described. Transmission of CJD i. e. Kuru had been suspected in the early 1950 s and was erroneously classified as slow virus disease. The CJD transmission posed a problem to humans when transplants from CJD cases were used for treatment. Fortunately, these iatrogenic transmissions remained limited. But with the advent of BSE and appearance of variant CJD cases in the UK and some places in Europe scientists suspected that transmission from cattle to man could have happened. From animal models we know of successful transmission via several routes. Species barriers do not completely prevent transmission. Rather, transmission barriers might exist controlling individual susceptibility against prions. Modes of transmission, susceptibility to transmission, identification of receptor molecules as well as molecular mechanisms of the transmission process are being investigated with great intensity. Current knowledge leads us to assume that inapparent stages of prion infection wrongly suggest a (non-existent) species barrier. This inapparent infection precedes overt disease, and, hence, most research focuses on the development of highly sensitive assay systems for detection of minute amounts of pathological prion protein in suspected cases. Inapparence also should warn us to underestimate BSE or human vCJD cases; at present, approx. 145 cases occurred in Europe and one probable case in Hong Kong (June 2003). Whether BSE had spread to other parts of the world by animal nutrition components or meat can neither be excluded nor confirmed at this time. New data on transmission and consequences of BSE for the human population are summarised in this review.

  1. A look at present-day biology Una mirada a la biología actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Gil Torres

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the objective and method of classic biology, the one that eliminates the object of study and converts it in an object of intervention (aspect that is taken by others as «natural resource» is questioned. Likewise, genetic determinism and the central dogma of molecular biology are raised again, since DNA by itself is a slightly-reactive crystal that only acquires a sences in relationship to other molecules that determine it, creating a codependent network. It is proposed that living beings are emergencies in networks of relationships and acknowledgements in specific contexts, outside of which nothing can exist. En el presente texto se cuestionan el objeto y el método de la biología clásica, aquélla que elimina el objeto de estudio para convertirlo en objeto de intervención (aspecto que es retomado por otros como «recurso natural. Así mismo, se replantean el determinismo genético y el Dogma Central de la biología molecular, dado que el material genético o ADN por sí mismo es un cristal poco reactivo y que sólo adquiere sentido en relaciones con otras moléculas que lo determinan, creando una red codependiente. Se propone que los seres vivos son emergencias de redes de relaciones y reconocimientos en contextos específicos, por fuera de los cuales nada puede existir.

  2. Horseshoes, angels and other UFOs: Rethinking faith in light of present-day superstitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The monotheistic religions see God as the author of human faith. Faith comes �from above� and as such is unnatural or supernatural. The faith of pagans, by contrast, is regarded as superstition and hence natural (Rm 1. One can make a case for the �natural� universal incidence of both religion and superstition and their fulfilment of similar needs. In addition both are characterised by the pattern-finding operation of the human brain. The (causal connections we make and the patterns we impose on reality have always helped people to comprehend and manipulate the world. Historical circumstances led to the development of �official� religions as institutions wielding political power, whereas superstition has remained a para-religious phenomenon to this day.But how should religion and superstition be viewed in a postmetaphysical, technoscientific environment? How can the supernatural aspects of religion and superstition be accommodated in such an environment? The role of affect and belief (placebo effect in religion and superstition is also scrutinised. Viewed differently, both religion and superstition are considered natural and are proposed as a form of immanent transcendence, in which the �supernatural� is not posited as a metaphysical model but is worked out �from below� in terms of the human constitution.

  3. How can young massive clusters reach their present-day sizes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Context. The classic question of how young massive star clusters attain the shapes and sizes, as we find them today, is still a difficult one. Both observational and computational studies of star-forming massive molecular gas clouds suggest that massive cluster formation is primarily triggered along the small-scale (≲0.3 pc) filamentary substructures within the clouds. Aims: The present study investigates the possible ways in which a filament-like, compact, massive star cluster (effective radius 0.1-0.3 pc) can expand more than 10 times, still remaining massive enough (≳ 104M⊙) to become the young massive star cluster that we observe today. Methods: To this end, model massive clusters (initially 104-105M⊙) are evolved using Sverre Aarseth's state-of-the-art N-body code NBODY7. Apart from the accurate calculation of two-body relaxation of the constituent stars, these evolutionary models take into account stellar-evolutionary mass loss and dynamical energy injection due to massive, tight primordial binaries and stellar-remnant black holes and neutron stars. These calculations also include a solar-neighbourhood-like external tidal field. All the computed clusters expand with time, and their sizes (effective radii) are compared with those observed for young massive clusters (≲ 100 Myr) in the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies. Results: In this study, it is found that beginning from the above compact sizes, a star cluster cannot expand on its own, i.e., due to two-body relaxation, stellar mass loss, and dynamical heating by primordial binaries and compact stars up to the observed sizes of young massive clusters; star clusters always remain much more compact than the observed ones. Conclusions: This calls for additional mechanisms that boost the expansion of a massive cluster after its assembly. Using further N-body calculations, it is shown that a substantial residual gas expulsion with ≈ 30% star formation efficiency can indeed swell the newborn embedded cluster adequately. The limitations of the present calculations and their consequences are discussed.

  4. Present-day crustal deformation in central Alborz (Iran) inferred from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernant, P.; Nilforoushan, F.; Bayer, R.; Sedighi, M.; Chery, J.; Tavakoli, F.; Masson, F.

    2003-04-01

    The Alborz range is an active mountain belt south of the Caspian sea. The main tectonic structures of Alborz are generally overthrusting range-parallel faults northward dipping in the south and southward dipping in the north. The regular occurrence of large historical earthquakes in this range suggests an important activity of the faults. To study the internal deformation (horizontal and vertical movements) of the Alborz range, we have installed a GPS network of 12 sites crossing the Alborz range 50 km east of Tehran. Three epochs of measurements have been recorded during the falls 2000, 2001 and 2002. A previous study using a network covering the whole country has suggested that the central Alborz is accommodating ~8 mm/yr of the ~21 mm/yr of the north-south convergence between Arabia and Eurasia. Our new data processed with GAMIT and GLOBK provide a velocity field consistent with the shortening rate in Alborz. The mean repeatability values obtained for the network baselines are about 1-1.5 mm for north and east Component for each surveys. The three epochs of measurements allow to closely define the errors associated to the sites, they are about 1.5-2 mm/yr. Most of the shortening seems to be accommodated by the southern and northern frontal parts of the range which may absorb ~4 and ~3 mm/yr respectively. Deformation in the central part remains poorly sampled due to a landslide affecting a point at about 200 mm/yr to the SE. However, the shortening of the inner part of the range appears to be modest (~1 mm/yr). Because left lateral displacements are known in central Alborz, we have tried to interpret our results in order to define the long term velocities of these faults. Assuming that most of the strike-slip motion occurs on the Mosha fault which is orientated N100°E, GPS results suggest an interseismic left lateral slip rate of about 4mm/yr between sites north and south of the fault. This is consistent with the geological slip rate proposed by Ritz et al. (this meeting) on the base of geomorphic analysis of the Mosha fault. Moreover, the displacements of the sites on each side of the fault suggest a locked fault during the two last years.

  5. Campaigned GPS on Present-Day Crustal Deformation in Northernmost Longitudinal Valley Preliminary Results, Hualien Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Longitudinal Valley in Eastern Taiwan sits at the collision suture between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. Based on repeated GPS campaigned measurements from 25 stations six times in 2007 - 2009, we characterize the surface deformation in the northernmost Longitudinal Valley where the Coastal Range of the Philippine Sea plate turns northward diving under the Eurasian plate producing two major active faults: the Milun fault and the Longitudinal Valley fault. We reconstructed a GPS velocity field and conducted strain analyses and elastic block modeling. Our results suggest a rapid clockwise rotation of 33°33° Myr-1 and an eastward tectonic escape in the small Hualien City block (HUAL area of ~10 ×× 10 km, which is apparently detached from the regional rotating RYUK block defined by previous studies. We interpret it as being initiated locally by the northwest indentation of the Coastal Range, which pushed the HUAL block to move upward and eastward. According to our strain analyses, the HUAL block shows a significant internal elastic strain inside the Milun Tableland, the hanging wall of the Milun fault. No significant deformation was observed across the surface trace of the fault, indicating that the Milun fault is now probably locked in the near surface. The deformation in the footwall of the fault was accommodated by pure-shear strain with a major NNW-compression and a minor ENE-extension. The deformation in the hanging wall is characterized by simple-shear strain with ENE-extension in its northern part and little deformation in the southern part, separated by a little known NW-trending active fault zone (Dongmingyi fault, which needs further investigation.

  6. FE modeling of present day tectonic stress along the San Andreas Fault zone

    OpenAIRE

    Koirala, Matrika Prasad; Hauashi, Daigoro; 林, 大五郎

    2009-01-01

    F E modeling under plane stress condition is used to analyze the state of stress in and around the San Andreas Fault (SAF) System taking whole area of California. In this study we mainly focus on the state of stress at the general seismogenic depth of 12 km, imposing elastic rheology. The purpose of the present study is to simulate the regional stress field, displacement vectors and failures. Stress perturbation due to major fault, its geometry and major branches are analyzed. Depthwise varia...

  7. Climatology and temporal evolution of the atmospheric semidiurnal tide in present-day reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Argandoña, J.; Ezcurra, A.; Sáenz, J.; Ibarra-Berastegi, G.; Errasti, I.

    2016-05-01

    The solar semidiurnal atmospheric tide (S2) was extracted from seven reanalysis data sets, including current data sets, such as CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications), ERA-Interim (ECMWF Reanalysis), and 20CR (Twentieth Century Reanalysis), and older frozen products, such as NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research), ERA-40 (ECMWF Reanalysis), and JRA-25 (Japanese 25 year Reanalysis). In this calculation, we emphasized the temporal variation of the tide. We also calculated the tidal error, which was sizable at high latitudes and over short averaging periods and large for 20CR at all latitudes. Because of the four standard daily samples, the interpolation scheme of van den Dool et al. (1997) was used when necessary. We found this method to be accurate for zonally averaged tides only. Comparing the climatology from the MERRA and CFSR S2 with a recent empirical tide model showed that MERRA better represented the geographical structure of the tide, especially its phase. We found a bias in the phase in all of the reanalysis data sets except for MERRA. The temporal evolution of the tide was inconsistent between the different data sets, although similar seasonal variations were observed. The seasonal cycle was also better depicted in MERRA. The S2 calculated from MERRA and satellite precipitation measurements from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) presented results that were inconsistent with the hypothesis in which rainfall latent heat release represents S2 forcing and functions as a source of S2 seasonal variability.

  8. Historical epidemiology of the second cholera pandemic: relevance to present day disease dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christina H; Tuite, Ashleigh R; Fisman, David N

    2013-01-01

    Despite nearly two centuries of study, the fundamental transmission dynamic properties of cholera remain incompletely characterized. We used historical time-series data on the spread of cholera in twelve European and North American cities during the second cholera pandemic, as reported in Amariah Brigham's 1832 A Treatise on Epidemic Cholera, to parameterize simple mathematical models of cholera transmission. Richards growth models were used to derive estimates of the basic reproductive number (R0) (median: 16.0, range: 1.9 to 550.9) and the proportion of unrecognized cases (mean: 96.3%, SD: 0.04%). Heterogeneity in model-generated R0 estimates was consistent with variability in cholera dynamics described by contemporary investigators and may represent differences in the nature of cholera spread. While subject to limitations associated with measurement and the absence of microbiological diagnosis, historical epidemic data are a potentially rich source for understanding pathogen dynamics in the absence of control measures, particularly when used in conjunction with simple and readily interpretable mathematical models.

  9. Historical epidemiology of the second cholera pandemic: relevance to present day disease dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina H Chan

    Full Text Available Despite nearly two centuries of study, the fundamental transmission dynamic properties of cholera remain incompletely characterized. We used historical time-series data on the spread of cholera in twelve European and North American cities during the second cholera pandemic, as reported in Amariah Brigham's 1832 A Treatise on Epidemic Cholera, to parameterize simple mathematical models of cholera transmission. Richards growth models were used to derive estimates of the basic reproductive number (R0 (median: 16.0, range: 1.9 to 550.9 and the proportion of unrecognized cases (mean: 96.3%, SD: 0.04%. Heterogeneity in model-generated R0 estimates was consistent with variability in cholera dynamics described by contemporary investigators and may represent differences in the nature of cholera spread. While subject to limitations associated with measurement and the absence of microbiological diagnosis, historical epidemic data are a potentially rich source for understanding pathogen dynamics in the absence of control measures, particularly when used in conjunction with simple and readily interpretable mathematical models.

  10. A summary of present-day gully formation and activity on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin; Byrne, Shane

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, gully activity has been carefully monitored on a range of slopes, including dune slopes [1-3] and crater walls [2-4]. Within the southern mid-latitudes, substantial changes in gully morphology have been observed. On dune slopes, observed activity includes major incision (forming a new channel or expanding an existing channel), changes in channel sinuosity, expansion of alcoves, and deposition of an extensive new apron. On rockier slopes, observed activity has cut new channel segments and small terraces, abandoned other channels, and deposited boulder-rich lobate features. Many of these morphologies have been treated as indicative of fluvial processes. However, long-term monitoring campaigns with High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) data [2-5] of almost 500 gully locations, have shown that the timing of this current activity is generally correlated with the presence of seasonal frost [1-5]. Moreover, the distribution of seasonal frost on slopes is similar to the orientation distribution of gullies [3,6]. Most seasonal frost is CO2, and this is likely the main cause of current activity. Recent modeling has shown that CO2 sublimation from within the regolith pores would be sufficient to create the types of geomorphology seen within martian gullies [7]. Water frost may be involved in some small-scale activity [5]. Liquid water is unlikely to be relevant, because the abundance of water frost is generally low [8] and melting is difficult. An additional current focus is on the north polar sand sea, where "gullies" (generally lacking a channel) have been observed to form on dune slopes over seasonal and annual timescales. There, we aim to differentiate between either a general aeolian [8] or seasonal frost driver [9,10] for the formation process. For these features, formation timing estimates are often less constrained because HiRISE images are not acquired during fall and winter, due to the polar hood and darkness. Thus, analysis of trends and variations in gully size, morphology, orientation, and location are additionally examined as indications of a seasonal (or other) control, as well as variations with latitude, dune type/size/orientation, or Mars year. This presentation will summarize the results of our monitoring campaigns, and will compare the data that are available about gullies of different morphologies and locations. Our aim is to identify possible similarities (and differences) in gully activity processes across Mars, and to estimate the rates of gully formation and modification processes (as has been done for gullies in the southern mid-latitudes [3]). Such estimates would aid interpretation of the likely ages of observed gullies, which have implications for whether records of past (and potential aqueous) gully formation processes are still observable. [1] Diniega et al. (2010) Geology, 38, 1047-1050. [2] Dundas et al. (2012) Icarus, 220, 124-143. [3] Dundas et al. (2015) Icarus, 251, 244-263. [4] Dundas et al. (2010) GRL, 37, L07202. [5] Vincendon (2015) JGR, 120, 1859-1879. [6] Harrison et al. (2015) Icarus, 252, 236-254. [7] Pilorget & Forget (2016) Nature Geosci. 9, 65-69. [8] Vincendon et al. (2010) JGR, 115, E10001. [9] Horgan & Bell (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L09201. [10] Hansen et al., (2011) Science 331, 575-578. [11] Hansen et al. (2015) Icarus 251, 264-267.

  11. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Mittnik, Alissa; Renaud, Gabriel; Mallick, Swapan; Kirsanow, Karola; Sudmant, Peter H.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Castellano, Sergi; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Economou, Christos; Bollongino, Ruth; Fu, Qiaomei; Bos, Kirsten I.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Li, Heng; de Filippo, Cesare; Prüfer, Kay; Sawyer, Susanna; Posth, Cosimo; Haak, Wolfgang; Hallgren, Fredrik; Fornander, Elin; Rohland, Nadin; Delsate, Dominique; Francken, Michael; Guinet, Jean-Michel; Wahl, Joachim; Ayodo, George; Babiker, Hamza A.; Bailliet, Graciela; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ben-Ami, Haim; Bene, Judit; Berrada, Fouad; Bravi, Claudio M.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Cali, Francesco; Churnosov, Mikhail; Cole, David E. C.; Corach, Daniel; Damba, Larissa; van Driem, George; Dryomov, Stanislav; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Romero, Irene Gallego; Gubina, Marina; Hammer, Michael; Henn, Brenna M.; Hervig, Tor; Hodoglugil, Ugur; Jha, Aashish R.; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Khusainova, Rita; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kittles, Rick; Kivisild, Toomas; Klitz, William; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kushniarevich, Alena; Laredj, Leila; Litvinov, Sergey; Loukidis, Theologos; Mahley, Robert W.; Melegh, Béla; Metspalu, Ene; Molina, Julio; Mountain, Joanna; Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti; Nesheva, Desislava; Nyambo, Thomas; Osipova, Ludmila; Parik, Jüri; Platonov, Fedor; Posukh, Olga; Romano, Valentino; Rothhammer, Francisco; Rudan, Igor; Ruizbakiev, Ruslan; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Sajantila, Antti; Salas, Antonio; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Tarekegn, Ayele; Toncheva, Draga; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Utevska, Olga; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Voevoda, Mikhail; Winkler, Cheryl; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zalloua, Pierre; Zemunik, Tatijana; Cooper, Alan; Capelli, Cristian; Thomas, Mark G.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Comas, David; Sukernik, Rem; Metspalu, Mait; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E.; Burger, Joachim; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Krause, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of a ~7,000 year old farmer from Germany and eight ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analyzed these and other ancient genomes1–4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations’ deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a “Basal Eurasian” population that split prior to the diversification of other non-African lineages. PMID:25230663

  12. Sedimentary Mounds on Mars: Tracing Present-day Formation Processes into the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Michalski, J.; Edwards, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution photography and spectroscopy of the martian surface (MOC, HiRISE) from orbit has revolutionized our view of Mars with one and revealed spectacular views of finely layered sedimentary materials throughout the globe [1]. Some of these sedimentary deposits are 'mound' shaped and lie inside of craters (Fig 1). Crater mound deposits are found throughout the equatorial region, as well as ice-rich deposits found in craters in the north and south polar region [2-4]. Despite their wide geographical extent and varying volatile content, the 'mound' deposits have a large number of geomorphic and structural similarities that suggest they formed via equivalent processes. Thus, modern depositional processes of ice and dust can serve as an invaluable analog for interpreting the genesis of ancient sedimentary mound deposits.

  13. Lepra: enfermedad milenaria y actual = Leprosy: an ancient and present-day disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardona Castro, Nora María

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El desconocimiento de la lepra es común en la población general al igual que entre los médicos y el personal de la salud. Se cree que esta enfermedad ya no existe; tal vez su imagen bíblica y milenaria refuerce la idea de su eliminación. Sin embargo, la lepra continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en varios países; entre los más afectados están India y Brasil. Después del inicio de la poliquimioterapia (PQT en la novena década del siglo XX la prevalencia de la lepra disminuyó considerablemente pero no ocurrió lo mismo con la incidencia, lo que se atribuye al poco impacto de dicho tratamiento sobre el control de la transmisión y a la existencia de un reservorio aún no identificado con exactitud. Los convivientes de los leprosos tienen alto riesgo de sufrir la enfermedad en cualquier momento de la vida, pero hasta ahora no se ha podido determinar cuáles convivientes infectados desarrollarán la enfermedad. En Colombia se informan de 400 a 550 casos de lepra cada año, lo cual sugiere que la transmisión del Mycobacterium leprae continúa a pesar de que el país está considerado en la fase de poseliminación.Este artículo presenta una revisión histórica de la lepra desde los primeros informes disponibles hasta los avances moleculares más recientes. Incluye cómo ha evolucionado la comprensión de la enfermedad, su caracterización clínica, las medidas de control y saneamiento, el tratamiento y la epidemiología.

  14. Body wave travel times and amplitudes for present-day seismic model of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevskiy, Sergey; Gudkova, Tamara

    At the moment Martian interior structure models are constrained by the satellite observational data (the mass, the moment of inertia factor, the Love number k _{2}) (Konopliv et al., 2011) and high pressure experimental data (Bertka and Fei, 1997). Seismological observations could provide unparalleled capability for studying Martian interiors. Future missions include seismic experiments on Mars (Lognonné et al., 2012). The main instrument for these seismic experiments is a broadband seismometer (Robert et al., 2012). When seismic measurements are not yet available, physically consistent interior models, characterized by properties of relevant minerals, make possible to study of the seismic response of the planet. \\To estimate travel times for direct P, S, core reflected PcP, ScS and core refracted PKP body waves as a function of epicentral distance and hypocentral depth, as well as their amplitudes at the surface for a given marsquake, software product was developed in MatLab, as it encompasses many plotting routines that plot resulting travel times and ray paths. The computational results have been compared with the program TTBox (Knapmeyer, 2004). The code computes seismic ray paths and travel times for a one-dimentional spherical interior model (density and seismic velocities are functions of a radius only). Calculations of travel times tables for direct P, S, core reflected PcP, ScS and core refracted PKP waves and their amplitudes are carried out for a trial seismic model of Mars M14_3 from (Zharkov et al., 2009): the core radius is 1800 km, the thickness of the crust is 50 km. Direct and core reflected P and S waves are recorded to a maximum epicentral distance equal to about 100(°) , and PKP arrivals can be detected for epicental distances larger than 150(°) . The shadow zone is getting wider in comparison with previous results (Knapmeyer, 2010), as the liquid core radius of the seismic model under consideration is larger. Based on the estimates of Martian seismicity (Knapmeyer et al., 2006) seismic moment was assumed to be 10 (13) - 10 (16) Nm. The problem if it is possible to reveal differences between the models with different water content in mantle minerals and the attenuating properties of the mantle by comparing the travel times of body waves and their amplitudes is considered. This work was supported by Grant No. 12-02-00378 from the Russian Fund for Fundamental Research.

  15. Some theoretical aspects of strategic planning under present-day business conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Протасова, Лариса Валеріївна

    2016-01-01

    The models of strategic planning process recommended by national and foreign scholars have been considered. The main stages of the process of strategic planning of enterprise’s activity and development have been determined.

  16. A new petrological and geophysical investigation of the present-day plumbing system of Mount Vesuvius

    OpenAIRE

    Pommier, Anne; Tarits, Pascal; Hautot, Sophie; Pichavant, Michel; Scaillet, Bruno; Gaillard, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    Article in Press; International audience; A model of the electrical resistivity of Mt. Vesuvius has been elaborated to investigate the present structure of the volcanic edifice. The model is based on electrical conductivity measurements in the laboratory, on geophysical information, in particular, magnetotelluric (MT) data, and on petrological and geochemical constraints. Both 1-D and 3-D simulations explored the effect of depth, volume and resistivity of either one or two reservoirs in the s...

  17. A new petrological and geophysical investigation of the present-day plumbing system of Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, A.; Tarits, P.; Hautot, S.; Pichavant, M.; Scaillet, B.; Gaillard, F.

    2010-07-01

    A model of the electrical resistivity of Mt. Vesuvius has been elaborated to investigate the present structure of the volcanic edifice. The model is based on electrical conductivity measurements in the laboratory, on geophysical information, in particular, magnetotelluric (MT) data, and on petrological and geochemical constraints. Both 1-D and 3-D simulations explored the effect of depth, volume and resistivity of either one or two reservoirs in the structure. For each configuration tested, modeled MT transfer functions were compared to field transfer functions from field magnetotelluric studies. The field electrical data are reproduced with a shallow and very conductive layer (˜0.5 km depth, 1.2 km thick, 5 ohm.m resistive) that most likely corresponds to a saline brine present beneath the volcano. Our results are also compatible with the presence of cooling magma batches at shallow depths ( ˜100 ohm.m. According to a petro-physical conductivity model, such a resistivity value is in agreement either with a low-temperature, crystal-rich magma chamber or with a small quantity of hotter magma interconnected in the resistive surrounding carbonates. However, the low quality of MT field data at long periods prevent from placing strong constraints on a potential deep magma reservoir. A comparison with seismic velocity values tends to support the second hypothesis. Our findings would be consistent with a deep structure (8-10 km depth) made of a tephriphonolitic magma at 1000°C, containing 3.5 wt%H2O, 30 vol.% crystals, and interconnected in carbonates in proportions ˜45% melt -55% carbonates.

  18. The Norwegian financial elite : elite configurations in present-day financialized capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Maren

    2013-01-01

    The recent accentuation of elites in public and scholarly debate originates in the growth of the financial sector in the economy since the late 1970s. Linking trends of financial expansion to increasing economic inequalities, the concept of financialization has taken center stage in global media, while only incipiently in sociology. By subdividing the economic upper class, this study presents the first sociological contribution to the structuring of the Norwegian financial elite. Based on pop...

  19. Technological changes in present-day conditions: reflections of an economist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All economists agree that technological changes constitute the main source of economic development. Nonetheless, many economists are convinced that such changes are important only in pushing up the rate of economic development, which in the long run would otherwise be lower and constant, with capital accumulation and labor force growth taking place gradually. To the contrary, the present work argues that in the long run, technical progress is not the main factor of economic development, but rather a necessary condition. The author examines technological change in economic theory and the history of economic development. Technological unemployment and Keynesian unemployment are then considered as well as the reduction of working hours. Finally, the author considers more recent technological and economic developments and their relation to manual and intellectual labour.

  20. Inception of cadaver dissection and its relevance in present day scenario of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Gayatri; Garg, Krishna

    2006-06-01

    The concept of dissection for acquiring knowledge about the structure of human body was started in 15th century and barber--surgeons used to demonstrate various structures at the professors command. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) was the first medical student to dissect the cadaver and also continued with it even as a professor. Slowly and steadily its importance was realised. Once autopsy was accepted as a ideal parameter to establish the causes of death, the importance of dissection got enhanced. Cadavers were obtained earlier from the grave robbings and mortuaries, which was followed by, an Anatomy Act of 1832, by which unclaimed bodies were provided to the anatomy department. For last two decades, many persons started donating their bodies to the department of anatomy. In India, mostly unclaimed bodies are handed over to anatomy department for teaching and research purpose. Cadavers teach students during 1st professional course, autopsy teaches again in IInd and IIIrd professional courses and even later on throughout the career. Dissection helps in developing a spatial and tactile appreciation for the fabric of the human body that cannot be achieved by prosection or computerised learning aids alone.

  1. Two new confirmed massive relic galaxies: red nuggets in the present-day Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Trujillo, Ignacio; Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Mezcua, Mar; Balcells, Marc; Domínguez, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    We confirm two new local massive relic galaxies, i.e. untouched survivors of the early universe massive population: Mrk 1216 and PGC 032873. Both show early and peaked formation events within very short timescales (formation histories remain virtually unchanged out to several effective radii, even when considering the steeper IMF values inferred out to ˜3 effective radii. Their morphologies, kinematics and density profiles are like those found in the z>2 massive population, setting them apart of the typical z˜0 massive early-type galaxies. We find that there seems to exist a degree of relic that is related on how far into the path to become one of these typical z˜0 massive galaxies the compact relic has undergone. This path is partly dictated by the environment the galaxy lives in. For galaxies in rich environments, such as the previously reported relic galaxy NGC 1277, the most extreme properties (e.g. sizes, short formation timescales, larger super-massive black holes) are expected, while lower density environments will have galaxies with delayed and/or extended star formations, slightly larger sizes and not that extreme black hole masses. The confirmation of 3 relic galaxies up to a distance of 106 Mpc implies a lower limit in the number density of these red nuggets in the local universe of 6× 10-7 Mpc3, which is within the theoretical expectations.

  2. Geodetic Constraints on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Present-Day Geophysical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Erkan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the largest and the highest area in the world with distinct and competing surface and subsurface processes. The entire Plateau has been undergoing crustal deformation and accompanying isostatic uplift as a result of the Cenozoic collision of the Indian and Eurasian continents. Regional secular surface mass changes include the melting of mountain glaciers and ice caps, and permafrost layer degradation due to global warming. There is also a plausible effect of glacial isostatic adjustment due to the removal of a possible Pleistocene ice-sheet. In this article, we present an assessment of the sizes and extents of these competing interior and exterior dynamical processes, and their possible detections using contemporary space geodetic techniques. These techniques include, in addition to GPS, satellite radar altimetry over land, and temporal gravity field measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission. These techniques are complementary: land satellite altimetry, similar to GPS, is sensitive only to surface uplift, whereas GRACE is sensitive to both surface uplift and mass changes inside the Earth. Each process may dominate the others in a particular region. Our analysis shows that GRACE data are more sensitive (than GPS or land altimetry to hydrologic and meteorology signals, some of which are larger than the combined effect of geodynamic processes and permafrost degradation.

  3. ABOUT THE TRADITION OF BILDUNGSROMAN AND ITS REFLECTIONS ON THE PRESENT DAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet ASUTAY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, “Bildungsroman” (the novel of formation, which is an essential novel tradition and the oldest novel type, will be emphasized; and its subject areas,connections with modern-day and the problems it deals will be mentioned by discussing the brief history of bildungsroman, of which masterpieces was given in 18th century Germany, especially, by J.W. v. Goethe, made a great contribution tothe world literature; and move German literature and German novel into the world literature. Recognition and reading of Bildungsroman in Turkish, for example Orhan Pamuk’s “Cevdet Bey ve Oğulları”, could take place by the first novel translations, of which French education and development novels. In this regard, examining bildungsroman from the point of etymon will enable us to be closely acquainted with a great novel tradition.

  4. Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajimat, Maria N B; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Hess, Barry D; Rood, Michael P; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2007-10-25

    A previous study suggested that the genomes of the arenaviruses native to North America are a product of genetic recombination between New World arenaviruses with significantly different phylogenetic histories. The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses. The results of this study suggest that the large-eared woodrat (Neotoma macrotis) is a principal host of Bear Canyon virus and that the present-day association of Bear Canyon virus with the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) in southern California represents a successful host-jumping event from the large-eared woodrat to the California mouse. Together, the results of analyses of viral gene sequence data in this study and our knowledge of the phylogeography of the rodents that serve as principal hosts of the New World arenaviruses suggest that genetic recombination between arenaviruses with significantly different phylogenetic histories did not play a role in the evolution of the North American arenaviruses.

  5. Host compatibility rather than vector-host-encounter rate determines the host range of avian Plasmodium parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Matthew C I; Hamer, Gabriel L; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2013-06-07

    Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector species structure parasite-host relationships by restricting access of certain parasites to a subset of available hosts. Specifically, we investigate how the feeding patterns of Culex mosquito vectors relate to distributions of avian malaria parasites among hosts in suburban Chicago, IL, USA. We show that Plasmodium lineages, defined by cytochrome b haplotypes, are heterogeneously distributed across avian hosts. However, the feeding patterns of the dominant vectors (Culex restuans and Culex pipiens) are similar across these hosts, and do not explain the distributions of Plasmodium parasites. Phylogenetic similarity of avian hosts predicts similarity in their Plasmodium parasites. This effect was driven primarily by the general association of Plasmodium parasites with particular host superfamilies. Our results suggest that a mosquito-imposed encounter rate does not limit the distribution of avian Plasmodium parasites across hosts. This implies that compatibility between parasites and their avian hosts structure Plasmodium host range.

  6. Comparing feeding and reproductive parameters of Amblyomma parvum tick populations (Acari: Ixodidae) from Brazil and Argentina on various host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Monize; Martins, Maria Marlene; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2013-10-18

    Amblyomma parvum is a Neotropical tick that is widely spread and a potential vector of pathogens, including Rickettsiae. Genetic differences are remarkable between A. parvum populations from Brazil and Argentina. In this work, feeding and reproduction parameters of A. parvum ticks from these two populations were compared on some key host species to evaluate possible differences in host suitability between them. On the whole parameters of these tick populations were similar when fed on the same host and varied similarly on different host species. Still, bovines were more suitable host for Argentinian larvae than for Brazilian cohorts. It was observed that guinea pigs were the best host A. parvum immatures from both origins, as depicted from higher recovery rate of larvae and heavier engorged nymph weights. Canids and bovids were host species most suitable to adults of both tick populations as shown by the highest number of larvae produced by adult females that engorged on these hosts. Taken together, results showed that in spite of the genetic divergence, A. parvum from Argentina and Brazil have similar biological performance on various host species.

  7. Glycogen metabolism in Schistosoma mansoni worms after their isolation from the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiolens, A.G.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1987-01-01

    Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms rapidly degrade their endogenous glycogen stores immediately after isolation from the host. In NCTC 109 or in a diphasic culture medium the glycogen levels slowly recovered again after the initial decrease. The rapid degradation of glycogen could be prevented, even in

  8. Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on its physiological state, the intensity of the bacterial attack and the efficacy of the defense system to neutralize toxins a...

  9. Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense syste

  10. Modified host cells with efflux pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous expression of an efflux pump capable of transporting an organic molecule out of the host cell wherein the organic molecule at a sufficiently high concentration reduces the growth rate of or is lethal to the host cell.

  11. Acute graft versus host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelsang Georgia B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. Activated donor T cells damage host epithelial cells after an inflammatory cascade that begins with the preparative regimen. About 35%–50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients will develop acute GVHD. The exact risk is dependent on the stem cell source, age of the patient, conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis used. Given the number of transplants performed, we can expect about 5500 patients/year to develop acute GVHD. Patients can have involvement of three organs: skin (rash/dermatitis, liver (hepatitis/jaundice, and gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain/diarrhea. One or more organs may be involved. GVHD is a clinical diagnosis that may be supported with appropriate biopsies. The reason to pursue a tissue biopsy is to help differentiate from other diagnoses which may mimic GVHD, such as viral infection (hepatitis, colitis or drug reaction (causing skin rash. Acute GVHD is staged and graded (grade 0-IV by the number and extent of organ involvement. Patients with grade III/IV acute GVHD tend to have a poor outcome. Generally the patient is treated by optimizing their immunosuppression and adding methylprednisolone. About 50% of patients will have a solid response to methylprednisolone. If patients progress after 3 days or are not improved after 7 days, they will get salvage (second-line immunosuppressive therapy for which there is currently no standard-of-care. Well-organized clinical trials are imperative to better define second-line therapies for this disease. Additional management issues are attention to wound infections in skin GVHD and fluid/nutrition management in gastrointestinal GVHD. About 50% of patients with acute GVHD will eventually have manifestations of chronic GVHD.

  12. The off-host survival and viability of a native and non-native fish louse (Argulus, Crustacea: Branchiura)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.D. WALKER; I.J. RUSSON; R. DUIJF; G. VAN DER VELDE; S.E. WENDELAAR BONGA

    2011-01-01

    Fish ectoparasites are introduced to water bodies or aquaculture systems along with their hosts.Argulid fish lice can survive off-host for a given time,and in spite of quarantine measures might also be introduced via the transfer of water.However,they must cope with varying abiotic conditions without access to food.We investigated the effect of temperature (5 to 28℃) on the off-host survival time of Argulusjaponicus,an invasive species which is apparently increasing its distribution,and compared this with the European A.foliaceus.A clear effect of temperature on the off-host survival time of all stages of both species was demonstrated.Larval and juvenile A.japonicus survived up to 9 days at 22℃ and in the case of adults up to 13 days at 15℃.By comparison,larval A.foliaceus survived up to 5 days at 15℃,adults up to 14 days at 9℃ and juveniles up to 7 days at 9℃ and 15℃.Thus,A.japonicus is more resistant to starvation at higher temperatures under controlled off-host conditions and A.foliaceus is more resistant to starvation at lower temperatures.Infectivity of A.japonicus decreased linearly with the time spent off-host after 2 days for larvae and 4 days for adults.Temperature only had a significant effect on the infectivity of both developmental stages after 24 hours off-host between 13-23℃ for larvae and 13-18℃ for adults.In conclusion both species can potentially survive off-host periods in water transports for up to 13-14 days as adults.Their survival is shorter as larvae.This study demonstrates that transportation of water has the potential to introduce Argulus species [Current Zoology 57 (6):828-835,2011 ].

  13. Seasonal prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis: relationship to age, sex, reproduction and abundance of an intermediate host (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, J H; Schwab, R G

    1992-01-01

    Livers from 4,501 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) collected from a weedy habitat in northeastern California during 48 consecutive monthly samplings were examined microscopically for Taenia taeniaeformis larva. Although there were pronounced seasonal fluctuations in host density, there were no significant annual or season-related differences in cestode intensities in adult deer mice. There were no significant differences in prevalences associated with sex of the host, nor were there significant changes in level of reproduction noted between infected and non-infected hosts. There were, however, significant differences in prevalences between young (1.2%) and adult (4.2%) hosts. Plausible mechanisms for this age-related difference in prevalence rates include (1) differential susceptibility due to the activity pattern of adult mice and/or (2) passive immunity in neonates as a result of colostrum- and/or transplacentally-transferred immunoglobulins and (3) capture of subadult animals before they had completed the period of highest susceptibility to T. taeniaeformis. Density of larvae per mouse liver was determined during a 21 mo consecutive period. The intensity of T. taeniaeformis larvae was not significantly different between the sexes of the adult mice. The larval stage showed an overdispersion pattern within the adult population. These results suggest that determinations of T. taeniaeformis abundances can be accurately made, at least in this P. maniculatus population, at any time of the year provided adjustment is made for the relative age structure of the host population.

  14. Chemical cues for host location by the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus is one of the most damaging pests of Castanea spp. Behavioral, chemical, and electrophysiological investigations were employed to examine the role of plant volatiles for host location by this thelytokuos cynipid. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays showed that adult wasps are significantly attracted by C. sativa twigs with at least 1-hr-old mechanical damage. Odors of undamaged host seedlings, intact twigs, and twigs with a fresh mechanical damage were not attractive. Wasps were repelled by plant materials of the non-host Prunus laurocerasus. Fourteen compounds, mainly general green leaf volatiles, were identified in the head-space of attractive host plant twigs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. All compounds elicited dose-dependent antennal responses in adult wasps. A synthetic blend comprising all identified compounds in the same ratio as in the attractive host source induced significant positive responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The study gives a basis for future identification of host plant attractants that could contribute to semiochemical-based monitoring and management practices of this pest.

  15. [Effects of host plants on the life table parameters of experimental populations of Aphis gossypii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Pang, Bao-Ping; Chang, Jing

    2013-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the life table parameters of Aphis gossypii reared on five host plant species at (25 +/- 1) degrees C in laboratory. There existed significant differences in the durations of various developmental stages, adult longevity, mean offspring number per day, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, and population doubling time for the A. gossypii populations reared on the host plants. For the aphids on Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate, they needed the longest time (5.84 days) to complete one generation, but for those on the other four plants, no significant differences were observed, with the time needed ranged from 5.24 to 5.45 days. The adult longevity was the longest (20.04 days) on Cucumis sativus, but had no significant differences on the other four host plants, being from 14.76 to 16.03 days. The populations' survival curves on all test host plants were of Deevey I, i. e., the death mainly occurred during late period. The survival rate on C. sativus was higher than those on the other four host plants. Based on the intrinsic rates of increase of A. gossypii, its host suitability was in the order of Cucumis melo var. saccharinus > Lagenaria siceraria var. turbinate > Cucurbita moschata var. melonaeformis > Cucumis sativus > Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa.

  16. Generic Model Host System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Chungming; /SLAC; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC; Qiang, Ji; /LBL, Berkeley; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-22

    There are many simulation codes for accelerator modelling; each one has some strength but not all. A platform which can host multiple modelling tools would be ideal for various purposes. The model platform along with infrastructure support can be used not only for online applications but also for offline purposes. Collaboration is formed for the effort of providing such a platform. In order to achieve such a platform, a set of common physics data structure has to be set. Application Programming Interface (API) for physics applications should also be defined within a model data provider. A preliminary platform design and prototype is discussed.

  17. Adaptation to a novel host by a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae): effect of source population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Frank J; Durham, Susan L

    2013-08-01

    Geographic populations of a widespread species can differ in their ability to adapt to a novel environment because they possess different amounts of the requisite genetic variation. We compared responses to the same novel host in ecologically and genetically divergent populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Populations from Africa and Asia had been derived from and maintained on different legume hosts. In preselection assays, both populations exhibited lower survival, slower development, and smaller size on a third host (adzuki bean), and the difference in performance between the ancestral and novel hosts was especially high for the African population. Replicate lines of each population were switched to adzuki bean or maintained on the ancestral host, and beetle performance was measured on both hosts after 12 generations. Survival on adzuki bean increased substantially in the adzuki-bean lines of the African population, but improved only slightly in the Asian lines. Similarly, only the African adzuki-bean lines exhibited significantly faster development on adzuki bean. Improved performance on adzuki bean did not simultaneously reduce performance on the ancestral host. Together with previous studies, these results confirm that populations of C. maculatus often possess sufficient standing genetic variation for rapid adaptation to a novel host, but the magnitude of the response may depend on the source population. Although international trade in grain legumes can expand beetle host ranges and produce unusual biotypes, the consistent absence of strong genetic trade-offs in larval performance or adult oviposition across hosts makes it unlikely that this insect would form distinct host races.

  18. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  19. Adult flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  20. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for flowering host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  1. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur for flowering host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  2. Preference of a Polyphagous Mirid Bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for Flowering Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A. G.; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3–28.9 times and 9.3–19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest. PMID:23874835

  3. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  4. Winds of Planet Hosting Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, B A; Brookshaw, L; Vidotto, A A; Carter, B D; Marsden, S C; Soutter, J; Waite, I A; Horner, J

    2015-01-01

    The field of exoplanetary science is one of the most rapidly growing areas of astrophysical research. As more planets are discovered around other stars, new techniques have been developed that have allowed astronomers to begin to characterise them. Two of the most important factors in understanding the evolution of these planets, and potentially determining whether they are habitable, are the behaviour of the winds of the host star and the way in which they interact with the planet. The purpose of this project is to reconstruct the magnetic fields of planet hosting stars from spectropolarimetric observations, and to use these magnetic field maps to inform simulations of the stellar winds in those systems using the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. The BATS-R-US code was originally written to investigate the behaviour of the Solar wind, and so has been altered to be used in the context of other stellar systems. These simulations will give information about the velocity, pressur...

  5. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite.

  6. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB. In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB- and M. bovis-infected young (TB+ and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+ or affecting multiple organs (TB++]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to

  7. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  8. Mating and host density affect host feeding and parasitism in two species of whitefly parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Sheng Zang; Tong-Xian Liu; Fan Zhang; Shu-Sen Shi; Fang-Hao Wan

    2011-01-01

    The parasitoids in the genera of Encarsia and Eretmocerus(Hymenoptera:Aphelinidae)are important biological control agents of whiteflies,and some of them not only parasitize hosts but also kill them with strong host-feeding capacity.Two whitefly parasitoid species,Encarsia sophia and Eretmocerus melanoscutus were examined to determine if mating and host density affected their host feeding and parasitism.The whitefly host,Bemisia tabaci,was presented to these two wasp species in densities of 10,20,30,40,50 and 60 third-instar nymphs per clip cage.Mated whitefly parasitoid females fed on more hosts than unmated females under a range of host densities(under all six host densities for En.sophia; under the densities of 40 nymphs or more for Er.melanoscutus).Meanwhile,mated females parasitized more whitefly nymphs than unmated females under all host densities for both species.With increase of host density,mated or unmated Er.melanoscutus females killed more hosts by host feeding and parasitism.Mated En.sophia females killed more hosts by host feeding with increase of host density,whereas unmated females did not parasitze whitefly nymphs at all.Our results suggest that only mated female parasitoids with host-feeding behavior should be released in crop systems to increase their bio-control efficiency.

  9. Restoration of an endangered plant, Hygrophila pogonocalyx, leads to an adaptive host shift of the chocolate pansy (Junonia iphita iphita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen-Hao; Liu, Tsui-Hua; Lin, Y Kirk; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of a plant species may cause novel encounters between the plant and local herbivores, and initiate evolutionary changes in host plant usage by herbivores. Until recently the endemic aquatic plant Hygrophila pogonocalyx was endangered and had a restricted distribution in Taiwan. Massive restoration efforts since 1997 have led to an expansion of the plant's distribution and a novel encounter between it and an Asian butterfly, the chocolate pansy, Junonia iphita (Nymphalidae). This butterfly appears to have colonized H. pogonocalyx, switching from its original host, Strobilanthes penstemonoides var. formosana. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the utilization of H. pogonocalyx as a host plant has initiated a differentiation between butterflies using the novel and the original hosts. To this purpose we collected butterflies from patches of the two host plants which grow sympatrically. We tested oviposition preference for the two hosts and larval performance on them. Female adults exhibited distinct oviposition preference toward the host plant their mothers preferred. Offspring showed greater survivorship and pupal weight when fed on the host plant their mothers preferred. Male adults displayed territorial behaviors on the host plant that their mothers had preferred. Finally, the survival rate of offspring produced from cross-mating between individuals with different host plant preference was lower than that of non-hybrids. Taken together, we suggest that genetic differentiation has occurred between individuals preferring H. pogonocalyx versus S. penstemonoides as host plants via host shifting. This process was likely induced by the mass restoration of the formerly rare and endangered plant species.

  10. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-02-02

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  11. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  12. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  13. Morphoproteomic-Guided Host-Directed Therapy for Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert E.; Hunter, Robert L.; Hwang, Shen-An

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to develop more effective therapy for tuberculosis (TB), research efforts are looking toward host-directed therapy, reprograming the body’s natural defenses to better control the infection. While significant progress is being made, the efforts are limited by lack of understanding of the pathology and pathogenesis of adult type TB disease. We have recently published evidence that the developing lesions in human lungs are focal endogenous lipid pneumonia that constitutes a region of local susceptibility in a person with strong systemic immunity. Since most such lesions regress spontaneously, the ability to study them directly with immunohistochemistry provides means to investigate why some progress to clinical disease while others asymptomatically regress. Furthermore, this should enable us to develop more effective host-directed therapies. Morphoproteomics has proven to be an effective means of characterizing protein expression that can be used to identify metabolic pathways, which can lead to more effective therapies. The purpose of this perspective will argue that using morphoproteomics on human TB lung tissue is a particularly promising method to direct selection of host-directed therapeutics. PMID:28210262

  14. Genetic variability of Eucoleus aerophilus from domestic and wild hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Otranto, Domenico; Latrofa, Maria S; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Perrucci, Stefania; Lalosevic, Dusan; Gherman, Călin M; Traversa, Donato

    2014-06-01

    Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) is a trichuroid nematode affecting domestic and wild carnivores and, sometimes, humans. This parasite has a worldwide distribution and may cause significant clinical disease in pet animals. The present paper investigates the sequence variation in partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of E. aerophilus isolates from pets and wild animals from different countries. Forty-four egg pools of E. aerophilus were collected from dogs, cats and foxes from Italy, while seventeen adult stages of E. aerophilus were obtained from red foxes and beech martens from Portugal, Romania, Serbia and UK. Fifteen different haplotypes were characterized and five were shared between pets in Italy and wildlife from Europe. The remaining haplotypes were either confined only in hosts or countries, or in a given host from a country. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all haplotypes clustered as a monophyletic group with a strong nodal support, indicating that all sequence types represented E. aerophilus. The results here presented have implications for a better understanding of the epidemiology, phylo-geography and clinical impact of E. aerophilus. In particular, the geographic distribution of E. aerophilus haplotypes in different host species and geographic regions, and their variation in terms of pathogenic impact and zoonotic role, warrant further investigations.

  15. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Thomson M; Allan, Sandra A; Hall, David G; Hentz, Matthew G; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  16. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson M. Paris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  17. Anonymous Web Browsing and Hosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KUMAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In today’s high tech environment every organization, individual computer users use internet for accessing web data. To maintain high confidentiality and security of the data secure web solutions are required. In this paper we described dedicated anonymous web browsing solutions which makes our browsing faster and secure. Web application which play important role for transferring our secret information including like email need more and more security concerns. This paper also describes that how we can choose safe web hosting solutions and what the main functions are which provides more security over server data. With the browser security network security is also important which can be implemented using cryptography solutions, VPN and by implementing firewalls on the network. Hackers always try to steal our identity and data, they track our activities using the network application software’s and do harmful activities. So in this paper we described that how we can monitor them from security purposes.

  18. Penetration of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus into host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, D; Castro e Melo, J; Chou, D

    1974-05-01

    Electron microscopy reveals that, in Bdellovibrio infection, after the formation of a passage pore in the host cell wall, the differentiated parasite penetration pole is associated with the host protoplast. This firm contact persists throughout the parasite penetration and after this process is completed. In penetrated hosts this contact is also apparent by phase microscopy. The association between the walls of the parasite and the host at the passage pore, on the other hand, is transient. Bdellovibrio do not penetrate hosts whose protoplast and cell walls are separated by plasmolysis, or in which the membrane-wall relationship is affected by low turgor pressure. It is concluded, therefore, that for penetration to occur it is essential that the host protoplast be within reach of the parasite, so that a firm contact can be established between them. A penetration mechanism is proposed that is effected by forces generated by fluxes of water and solutes due to structural changes in the infected host envelope. These forces cause a differential expansion of the host protoplast and cell wall and their separation from each other around the entry site, while the parasite remains firmly anchored to the host protoplast. Consequently, the parasite ends up enclosed in the expanded host periplasm. The actual entry, therefore, is a passive act of the parasite.

  19. MHC polymorphism under host-pathogen coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, José A M; Beltman, Joost B; De Boer, Rob J

    2004-02-01

    The genes encoding major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules are among the most polymorphic genes known for vertebrates. Since MHC molecules play an important role in the induction of immune responses, the evolution of MHC polymorphism is often explained in terms of increased protection of hosts against pathogens. Two selective pressures that are thought to be involved are (1) selection favoring MHC heterozygous hosts, and (2) selection for rare MHC alleles by host-pathogen coevolution. We have developed a computer simulation of coevolving hosts and pathogens to study the relative impact of these two mechanisms on the evolution of MHC polymorphism. We found that heterozygote advantage per se is insufficient to explain the high degree of polymorphism at the MHC, even in very large host populations. Host-pathogen coevolution, on the other hand, can easily account for realistic polymorphisms of more than 50 alleles per MHC locus. Since evolving pathogens mainly evade presentation by the most common MHC alleles in the host population, they provide a selective pressure for a large variety of rare MHC alleles. Provided that the host population is sufficiently large, a large set of MHC alleles can persist over many host generations under host-pathogen coevolution, despite the fact that allele frequencies continuously change.

  20. Relative performance of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) on grapes and other hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2005-05-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana is a major grapevine pest, but despite the abundance of vineyards it is a generalist and uses either grapes or alternative species. Given the abundance and predictability of grape, L. botrana could be expected to have evolved towards monophagy. In order to understand why this species remains polyphagous, we hypothesized that larvae reared on rare wild host plants should have higher fitness than those reared on the more abundant grape host. For this, we compared larval performance and several life history traits on three alternative host plants (Daphne gnidium, Olea europaea, Tanacetum vulgare) and three Vitaceae (Vitis vinifera), two cultivars and one wild species (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata), and two control groups raised on either a low or a high nutritive value medium. Alternative hosts are more suitable than Vitaceae for the reproductive performance of L. botrana: larval mortality and development time was reduced, while pupal weight, growth rate, female longevity, female fecundity, duration of laying and mating success were increased. High quality food ingested by larvae promotes higher adult body weight and enhances female reproductive output. This suggests that alternative hosts provide greater nutritional value for L. botrana than Vitaceae. The use of alternative host plants could thus be maintained in the host range because they offer L. botrana a better fitness than on the Vitaceae. This could typically represent an advantage for moths behaving in plant diversity grape landscapes.

  1. IgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly "maladaptive" immune response develop in evolution and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms.

  2. The chosen few: the low mass halos that host faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sawala, Till; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2014-01-01

    Since reionization prevents star formation in most halos below 3 x 10^9 solar masses, dwarf galaxies only populate a fraction of existing dark matter halos. We use hydrodynamic cosmological simulations of the Local Group to study the discriminating factors for galaxy formation in the early Universe and connect them to the present-day properties of galaxies and halos. A combination of selection effects related to reionization, and the subsequent evolution of halos in different environments, introduces strong biases between the population of halos that host dwarf galaxies, and the total halo population. Halos that host galaxies formed earlier and are more concentrated. In addition, halos more affected by tidal stripping are more likely to host a galaxy for a given mass or maximum circular velocity, vmax, today. Consequently, satellite halos are populated more frequently than field halos, and satellite halos of 10^8 - 10^9 solar masses or vmax of 12 - 20 km/s, similar to the Local Group dwarf spheroidals, have e...

  3. Neural Crest As the Source of Adult Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Chris; Spears, Kathleen; Maruniak, Joel A.; Kirk, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that adult stem cells can cross germ layer boundaries. For example, bone marrow-derived stem cells appear to differentiate into neurons and glial cells, as well as other types of cells. How can stem cells from bone marrow, pancreas, skin, or fat become neurons and glia; in other words, what molecular and cellular events direct mesodermal cells to a neural fate? Transdifferentiation, dediffereniation, and fusion of donor adult stem cells with fully differentiated host cells have been proposed to explain the plasticity of adult stem cells. Here we review the origin of select adult stem cell populations and propose a unifying hypothesis to explain adult stem cell plasticity. In addition, we outline specific experiments to test our hypothesis. We propose that peripheral, tissue-derived, or adult stem cells are all progeny of the neural crest. PMID:16646675

  4. Local host specialization, host-switching, and dispersal shape the regional distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Collins, Michael D; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Sari, Eloisa H R; Coffey, Elyse D; Dickerson, Rebecca C; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Henry, Donata R; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E; Hanson, Alison A; Roberts, Jackson R; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-09-08

    The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of small land birds in eastern North America to characterize a regional parasite community. Distributions of parasite populations generally reflected distributions of their hosts across the region. However, when the interdependence between hosts and parasites was controlled statistically, local host assemblages were related to regional climatic gradients, but parasite assemblages were not. Moreover, because parasite assemblage similarity does not decrease with distance when controlling for host assemblages and climate, parasites evidently disperse readily within the distributions of their hosts. The degree of specialization on hosts varied in some parasite lineages over short periods and small geographic distances independently of the diversity of available hosts and potentially competing parasite lineages. Nonrandom spatial turnover was apparent in parasite lineages infecting one host species that was well-sampled within a single year across its range, plausibly reflecting localized adaptations of hosts and parasites. Overall, populations of avian hosts generally determine the geographic distributions of haemosporidian parasites. However, parasites are not dispersal-limited within their host distributions, and they may switch hosts readily.

  5. Differences in host serotonin innervation of intrastriatal grafts are not determined by a glial scar or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Audrey; Quenneville, Nancy; Vallée, Annie; Pierret, Philippe; Doucet, Guy

    2002-09-01

    Serotoninergic (5-HT) neurons of adult recipients provide a much denser innervation of striatal than ventral mesencephalic grafts implanted into the neostriatum of the rat. Moreover, grafts from both brain regions are more innervated by host 5-HT axons after implantation in neonatal than adult hosts. To test the hypothesis that differences in glial scarring or expression of the growth inhibitory molecules, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG), be responsible for these differences in 5-HT innervation of neural grafts, we examined the 5-HT innervation, the astroglial reaction and the expression of CSPG in ventral mesencephalic grafts implanted into newborn (1-5 days old), juvenile (15 days old), or adult rats and in striatal grafts implanted in adult rats, using immunohistochemistry against 5-HT, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CSPG. Immunostaining for GFAP showed a stronger initial gliosis (1-10 days after grafting) in neonatal than adult recipients of mesencephalic grafts, but this gliosis subsided gradually at later time points. Nevertheless, a glial scar formed at the graft-host interface in both neonatal and adult recipients, 5-10 days after transplantation, although it decreased over a longer time course--up to 60 days--in adults. Immunostained astrocytes appeared first in the host brain tissue around the graft and then immunoreactive processes and perikarya gradually invaded the graft. Immunoreactivity for CSPG was similar in neonatal and adult hosts: it was strongly expressed inside the graft early after transplantation, and almost completely down-regulated at 60 days. The reaction of adult hosts to striatal and mesencephalic grafts was similar, although GFAP was more heterogeneously distributed and CSPG immunoreactivity remained in patches inside striatal grafts, even after 60 days. The 5-HT innervation of mesencephalic grafts was much denser after implantation in newborns than in adults. It was also stronger in striatal than in mesencephalic

  6. Salmonella - at home in the host cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti eMalik Kale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica has developed an array of sophisticated tools to manipulate the host cell and establish an intracellular niche, for successful propagation as a facultative intracellular pathogen. While Salmonella exerts diverse effects on its host cell, only the cell biology of the classic trigger-mediated invasion process and the subsequent development of the Salmonella-containing vacuole have been investigated extensively. These processes are dependent on cohorts of effector proteins translocated into host cells by two type III secretion systems (T3SS, although T3SS-independent mechanisms of entry may be important for invasion of certain host cell-types. Recent studies into the intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella have provided new insights into the mechanisms used by this pathogen to modulate its intracellular environment. Here we discuss current knowledge of Salmonella-host interactions including invasion and establishment of an intracellular niche within the host.

  7. Intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Tenerife, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Feliu, Carlos; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis, the main clinical manifestation of which is eosinophilic meningitis. Although this parasite has been found recently in its definitive rat host in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), showing a widespread distribution over the north-east part of the island, there are no available data regarding which snail and/or slug species are acting as intermediate hosts on this island. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the possible role of three mollusc species, Plutonia lamarckii, Cornu aspersum and Theba pisana, as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in Tenerife. Between 2011 and 2014, 233 molluscs were collected from five biotopes where rats had been found previously to harbor either adult worms or antibodies against A. cantonensis, and the identification was carried out on the basis of morphological features and a LAMP technique. The prevalence of A. cantonensis larvae in the mollusc samples, based on morphological identification, was 19.3%, whereas 59 out of the 98 individuals (60.2%) analyzed by LAMP were positive. Positive results were obtained for the three mollusc species analyzed and two of the positive samples, both obtained from P. lamarckii, were confirmed as positive by 18S rRNA and ITS1 PCR. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA PCR products showed 100% similarity with previously published A. cantonensis sequences. These results may be relevant from a public health point of view, since all the biotopes from which the samples were obtained were in inhabited areas or areas with human activity, but it is also important from the perspective of a possible transmission to other accidental hosts, such as dogs and horses, animals that are present in some of the areas analyzed.

  8. Schistosome albumin is of host, not parasite, origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Ricardo; Mathieson, William; Dillon, Gary P; Wilson, R Alan

    2007-09-01

    Recent work has implicated schistosome albumin as part of a mechanism for neutralizing the oxidative assault by host immune defenses and suggested that the gene had been acquired by horizontal transfer from the mammalian host. In the course of proteomic analyses of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm vomitus and eggs recovered from mice, we identified numerous peptides, largely derived from murine rather than parasite albumin. We therefore conjectured that the supposed S. mansoni albumin sequence deposited on GenBank might be the result of contamination rather than horizontal gene transfer. Based on phylogenetic analysis the most likely source was the Syrian (golden) hamster Mesocricetus auratus. Proteomic analysis of Syrian hamster albumin generated peptide identities to S. mansoni as the top hit, with a high ion score >1,500 and 63% coverage of the translated cDNA sequence. RT-PCR using specific primers permitted amplification of the M. auratus albumin transcript, which is identical to the deposited S. mansoni albumin sequence. PCR amplification of a fragment of the M. auratus albumin gene from genomic DNA suggests a homologous structure to the Mus musculus albumin gene. We were unable to find the S. mansoni albumin gene sequence by in silico searching on either version 3 of the S. mansoni genome assembly or the >3 million shotgun DNA reads. Finally, Southern blotting detected the albumin gene in M. auratus but not in S. mansoni genomic DNA, even when the latter was present in a 10-fold excess. Collectively, our data make the strongest case that the schistosome albumin protein described in previous reports is of host origin and all nucleotide-derived data are the result of contamination with host material. By analogy, we suggest that other reported examples of horizontal gene transfer to schistosomes might similarly be explained by complementary/genomic DNA contamination.

  9. Interference with the host haemostatic system by schistosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M Mebius

    Full Text Available Schistosomes, parasitic flatworms that cause the tropical disease schistosomiasis, are still a threat. They are responsible for 200 million infections worldwide and an estimated 280,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa alone. The adult parasites reside as pairs in the mesenteric or perivesicular veins of their human host, where they can survive for up to 30 years. The parasite is a potential activator of blood coagulation according to Virchow's triad, because it is expected to alter blood flow and endothelial function, leading to hypercoagulability. In contrast, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis patients are in a hypocoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic state, indicating that schistosomes interfere with the haemostatic system of their host. In this review, the interactions of schistosomes with primary haemostasis, secondary haemostasis, fibrinolysis, and the vascular tone will be discussed to provide insight into the reduction in coagulation observed in schistosomiasis patients. Interference with the haemostatic system by pathogens is a common mechanism and has been described for other parasitic worms, bacteria, and fungi as a mechanism to support survival and spread or enhance virulence. Insight into the mechanisms used by schistosomes to interfere with the haemostatic system will provide important insight into the maintenance of the parasitic life cycle within the host. This knowledge may reveal new potential anti-schistosome drug and vaccine targets. In addition, some of the survival mechanisms employed by schistosomes might be used by other pathogens, and therefore, these mechanisms that interfere with host haemostasis might be a broad target for drug development against blood-dwelling pathogens. Also, schistosome antithrombotic or thrombolytic molecules could form potential new drugs in the treatment of haemostatic disorders.

  10. Biology of Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on four host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, J H; Liu, Y H

    2000-12-01

    The biology of the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees C on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri Lush; sour orange, C aurantium L.; grapefruit, C. paradisi Macfadyen; and orange jessamine, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack] in the laboratory. The biological characteristics of each life stage are described. The average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d). The average nymphal developmental periods on these four host plants were essentially the same except the fifth stadium. Survival of immatures on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange was 75.4, 84.6, 78.3, and 68.6%, respectively. Female adults lived an average of 39.7, 39.7, 47.6, and 43.7 d on these respective host plants. The average number of eggs laid per female on grapefruit (858 eggs) was significantly more than those on other hosts (P < 0.05). The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) for D. citri on grapefruit was highest. Jackknife estimates of r(m) varied from 0.188 on grapefruit to 0.162 on orange jessamine and rough lemon. The mean population generation time on these hosts ranged from 31.6 to 34.1 d. The continuous flushes produced by orange jessamine could play an important role in maintaining high populations of this vector when the new flushes are not available in the commercial citrus groves.

  11. Adult Education and Lifelong Learning. The case of GSAE (General Secretary for Adult Education in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Kalogiannakis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The participation rates in adult education in Greece are low in comparison with other European countries. Within the framework of the present research an effort has been undertaken in order to evaluate the program of training instructors of adults through distance learning education hosted by the GSAE (General Secretary for Adult Education and the ICAE (Institute for the Continuing Adult Education in Greece. Among the most important outcomes of this research was considered to be the positive attitude of the participants concerning the program in general as well as the electronic educational material distributed. Furthermore, the hybrid educational process selected for use by the program was thought to be particularly flexible. As for the program’s negative aspects, the main problems noted were the distance certain trainees had to cover in order to participate physically during the scheduled meetings, as well as the technical issues arose within the e-learning environment.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Host Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Approximately 8 million people are thought to be affected worldwide. Several players in host lipid metabolism have been implicated in T. cruzi-host interactions in recent research, including macrophages, adipocytes, low density lipoprotein (LDL), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and high density lipoprotein (HDL). All of these factors are required to maintain host lipid homeostasis and are intricately connected via several me...

  13. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days) rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively) were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4-5) and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd-3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid emergence was

  14. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing S. Hu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B, [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4-5 and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd-3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid

  15. Host plant mediation of diapause induction in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-PING WANG; FENG GE; FANG-SEN XUE

    2006-01-01

    The cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of crucifers in China, undergoing an imaginal summer and winter diapause in the soil. The effects of host plants on diapause incidence were tested in the beetle. The ratio of adults entering diapause was significantly low when they fed on the mature leaves of Chinese cabbage Shanghaiqin (Brassica chinesis var communis) than those feeding on Chinese cabbage Suzhouqin (Brassica chinesis var communis), radish (Raphanus sativus var longipinnatus) and stem mustard (Brassicajuncea var tumida) at 25℃ combined with 13:11 (L: D) h. Fewer adults entered diapause on young leaves compared to physiologically aged and mature radish leaves at 25 ℃ combined with 13:11 (L: D) h. The effect of host plant species on diapause induction was also evident under continuously dark rearing conditions or at different photoperiods. These experimental results demonstrate that host plant mediation of diapause induction exists in the cabbage beetle. However, at temperatures ≤ 20℃ or photoperiods of 16:8 (L: D) h combined with 25 ℃, all individuals entered diapause regardless of the host plants, indicating that the effects of host plants on diapause induction could be expressed only within a limited range of temperatures and photoperiods.

  16. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with traits involved with reproductive isolation and revealed previously

  17. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Cunha, Carlos E.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-12-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate “hostless” SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  18. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that expatriates’ host country language ability is positively associated with their adjustment. But does the advantage of expatriates’ language ability depend on the difficulty of the host language? To examine this issue, data were collected from expatriates in two European...... countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language...... as opposed to the host country with an easy language....

  19. Expatriate contact with a local host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Gerritsen, Marinel

    2017-01-01

    Social capital is a crucial factor for expatriates to employ as they cope with the demands of an international assignment. This longitudinal study used a mixed method approach to examine the social support benefits of expatriate contact with a local host. Western expatriates in the Netherlands were...... a host. This study shows that HRD professionals may develop the social capital of expatriates by bringing them into contact with a local host, which can produce more social support from host nationals. Increased social capital may lead to a higher performance at both the individual and organisational...

  20. Expatriate contact with a local host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Gerritsen, Marinel

    2016-01-01

    Social capital is a crucial factor for expatriates to employ as they cope with the demands of an international assignment. This longitudinal study used a mixed method approach to examine the social support benefits of expatriate contact with a local host. Western expatriates in the Netherlands were...... a host. This study shows that HRD professionals may develop the social capital of expatriates by bringing them into contact with a local host, which can produce more social support from host nationals. Increased social capital may lead to a higher performance at both the individual and organisational...

  1. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E.; Costa, Luiz N. da; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  2. Host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castrezana

    Full Text Available The process of local adaptation creates diversity among allopatric populations, and may eventually lead to speciation. Plant-feeding insect populations that specialize on different host species provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the causes of ecological specialization and the subsequent consequences for diversity. In this study, we used geographically separated Drosophila mettleri populations that specialize on different host cacti to examine oviposition preference for and larval performance on an array of natural and non-natural hosts (eight total. We found evidence of local adaptation in performance on saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea for populations that are typically associated with this host, and to chemically divergent prickly pear species (Opuntia spp. in a genetically isolated population on Santa Catalina Island. Moreover, each population exhibited reduced performance on the alternative host. This finding is consistent with trade-offs associated with adaptation to these chemically divergent hosts, although we also discuss alternative explanations for this pattern. For oviposition preference, Santa Catalina Island flies were more likely to oviposit on some prickly pear species, but all populations readily laid eggs on saguaro. Experiments with non-natural hosts suggest that factors such as ecological opportunity may play a more important role than host plant chemistry in explaining the lack of natural associations with some hosts.

  3. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; et al.

    2016-04-20

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  4. Adult zebrafish model for pneumococcal pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralahti, Anni; Piippo, Hannaleena; Parikka, Mataleena; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Rämet, Mika; Rounioja, Samuli

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of community acquired pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis. Due to incomplete understanding of the host and bacterial factors contributing to these diseases optimal treatment and prevention methods are lacking. In the present study we examined whether the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be used to investigate the pathophysiology of pneumococcal diseases. Here we show that both intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections of the pneumococcal strain TIGR4 cause a fulminant, dose-dependent infection in adult zebrafish, while isogenic mutant bacteria lacking the polysaccharide capsule, autolysin, or pneumolysin are attenuated in the model. Infection through the intraperitoneal route is characterized by rapid expansion of pneumococci in the bloodstream, followed by penetration of the blood-brain barrier and progression to meningitis. Using Rag1 mutant zebrafish, which are devoid of somatic recombination and thus lack adaptive immune responses, we show that clearance of pneumococci in adult zebrafish depends mainly on innate immune responses. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the adult zebrafish can be used as a model for a pneumococcal infection, and that it can be used to study both host and bacterial factors involved in the pathogenesis. However, our results do not support the use of the zebrafish in studies on the role of adaptive immunity in pneumococcal disease or in the development of new pneumococcal vaccines.

  5. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald C; Rowley, Daniel L; Greenstone, Matthew H; Athanas, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laboratory comparisons suggest that L. juncta, the presumptive original host, best supports the development of the parasitoid larval L. grandis, based on 43.6% successful emergence of the adult carabid parasitoid, compared to 11.5% from the two other Leptinotarsa species. L. grandis adults accept eggs and larvae of all 3 Leptinotarsa species as adult food. Naive, newly-emerged adults show no preference when presented the 3 species of third-instar larvae, which they consume at a mean rate of 3.3 per day, a rate which does not differ significantly by sex, larval host, or weight at emergence. When presented with equal amounts by weight of the 3 species of Leptinotarsa eggs, such adults consume the equivalent of 23.0 L. decemlineata eggs per day, with consumption of L. juncta eggs 67% higher by weight than L. decemlineata consumption. Insight into the biotic and abiotic limitations on L. grandis should aid in determining its potential for suppression of Colorado potato beetle by biological control in diverse agroecosystems.

  6. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study.

  7. Is a vertebrate a better host for a parasite than an invertebrate host? Fecundity of Proctoeces cf lintoni (Digenea: Fellodistomidae), a parasite of fish and gastropods in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Marcelo Enrique; Alvarez, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    The fecundity, the relationship between fecundity and worm size, as well as abundance of the adult worm Proctoeces cf. lintoni (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) in four gastropod hosts (keyhole limpets of the genus Fissurella) and one vertebrate host, the clingfish Sicyases sanguineus from northern Chile, were compared. Worms obtained from Fissurella latimarginata were smaller than those from Fissurella maxima, Fissurella limbata, and S. sanguineus. The mean fecundity of parasites from Fissurella crassa was significantly lower than those from F. limbata, F. maxima and S. sanguineus. For all invertebrate hosts, there were significant, positive relationships between worm size and fecundity, and the slopes of the regression did not differ significantly for the invertebrate hosts. Parasites of the keyhole limpet F. limbata and the clingfish showed the highest intensity, prevalence, and mean fecundity, and these species must be considered to be the hosts in which P. cf lintoni shows the best fitness.

  8. Unexpected hosts: imaging parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Carnero, Pablo; Hernández Mateo, Paula; Martín-Garre, Susana; García Pérez, Ángela; Del Campo, Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    Radiologists seldom encounter parasitic diseases in their daily practice in most of Europe, although the incidence of these diseases is increasing due to migration and tourism from/to endemic areas. Moreover, some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain European regions, and immunocompromised individuals also pose a higher risk of developing these conditions. This article reviews and summarises the imaging findings of some of the most important and frequent human parasitic diseases, including information about the parasite's life cycle, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment. We include malaria, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, ascariasis, anisakiasis, dracunculiasis, and strongyloidiasis. The aim of this review is to help radiologists when dealing with these diseases or in cases where they are suspected. Teaching Points • Incidence of parasitic diseases is increasing due to migratory movements and travelling. • Some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain regions in Europe. • Parasitic diseases can have complex life cycles often involving different hosts. • Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential for patient management in parasitic diseases. • Radiologists should be able to recognise and suspect the most relevant parasitic diseases.

  9. Noncentrosymmetric Magnets Hosting Magnetic Skyrmions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Naoya; Seki, Shinichiro; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2017-03-17

    The concept of a skyrmion, which was first introduced by Tony Skyrme in the field of particle physics, has become widespread in condensed matter physics to describe various topological orders. Skyrmions in magnetic materials have recently received particular attention; they represent vortex-like spin structures with the character of nanometric particles and produce fascinating physical properties rooted in their topological nature. Here, a series of noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets hosting skyrmions is reviewed: B20 metals, Cu2 OSeO3 , Co-Zn-Mn alloys, and GaV4 S8 , where Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction plays a key role in the stabilization of skyrmion spin texture. Their topological spin arrangements and consequent emergent electromagnetic fields give rise to striking features in transport and magnetoelectric properties in metals and insulators, such as the topological Hall effect, efficient electric-drive of skyrmions, and multiferroic behavior. Such electric controllability and nanometric particle natures highlight magnetic skyrmions as a potential information carrier for high-density magnetic storage devices with excellent energy efficiency.

  10. Redescription of Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850 (Callodistomidae, Digenea with New Host Records and Data on Morphological Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kohn

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing,1850 Travassos, 1922 from the gall bladder of Astyanax bimaculatus, Caranx gibbosus, Galeocharax humeralis, Leporinus copelandii, Pimelodus fur, Pseudopimelodus roosevelti, Salminus brevidens, Salminus maxillosus and from the new hosts, Cynopotamus amazonum and Triurobrycon lundii is redescribed, demonstrating a large morphological variation, mainly in body and testes size and shape. New hosts harbouring immature specimens of P. obesa are presented: Brycon sp., Leporellus vittatus, Pachyurus squamipinnis, Pimelodus clarias, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Salminus hilarii. Scanning electron microscopy micrographies, original figures and measurements of adult and immature specimens from different Brazilian hosts and localities are presented

  11. Adult Neurogenesis in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Fernández-Hernández; Christa Rhiner; Eduardo Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been linked to several cognitive functions and neurological disorders. Description of adult neurogenesis in a model organism like Drosophila could facilitate the genetic study of normal and abnormal neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, formation of new neurons has not been detected in adult fly brains and hence has been thought to be absent in Drosophila. Here, we used an improved lineage-labeling method to show that, surprisingly, adult neurogenesis occurs in the m...

  12. The effect of host age and inoculation dose on infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Pia; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, Christian M. O.; Kristensen, Annemarie T.; Jensen, Asger L.; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2017-01-01

    Background Infections and clinical cases of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs are found increasingly across Europe, thus rendering knowledge on its infection biology more important. We used red foxes as a carnivore model to examine the effect of host age and infection dose on the establishment of adult A. vasorum in single experimental infections. Methods Fourteen juvenile and fourteen adult red foxes, free of metastrongyloid infections, were given a low (50) or high (200) dose of third-stage l...

  13. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Nian-Wan; Ji, Lu-Lu; Lövei, Gabor L;

    2012-01-01

    Destructive host-feeding is common in hymenopteran parasitoids. Such feeding may be restricted to host stages not preferred for oviposition. However, whether this is a fixed strategy or can vary according to resource levels or parasitoid needs is less clear. We tested the trade-off between host...... feeding and oviposition on two whitefly parasitoids under varying host densities. Females of two aphelinid parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati and Encarsia sophia were exposed to nine different densities of their whitefly host, Bemisia tabaci, in single-instar tests to identify their functional response....... Mixed-instar host choice tests were also conducted by exposing whiteflies at four densities to the parasitoids. We hypothesized that the parasitoid females can detect different host densities, and decide on oviposition vs. host-feeding accordingly. The results showed that both Er. hayati and En. sophia...

  14. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  15. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  16. Wolbachia-Host Interactions: Host Mating Patterns Affect Wolbachia Density Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Xiao Zhao; Xiang-Fei Zhang; Da-Song Chen; Yan-Kai Zhang; Xiao-Yue Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and cause an array of effects on host reproduction, fitness and mating behavior. Although our understanding of the Wolbachia-associated effects on hosts is rapidly expanding, our knowledge of the host factors that mediate Wolbachia dynamics is rudimentary. Here, we explore the interactions between Wolbachia and its host, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our results indicate th...

  17. Host-pathogen interactions during apoptosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyed E Hasnain; Rasheeda Begum; K V A Ramaiah; Sudhir Sahdev; E M Shajil; Tarvinder K Taneja; Manjari Mohan; M Athar; Nand K Sah; M Krishnaveni

    2003-04-01

    Host pathogen interaction results in a variety of responses, which include phagocytosis of the pathogen, release of cytokines, secretion of toxins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have shown that many pathogens exert control on the processes that regulate apoptosis in the host. The induction of apoptosis upon infection results from a complex interaction of parasite proteins with cellular host proteins. Abrogation of host cell apoptosis is often beneficial for the pathogen and results in a successful host invasion. However, in some cases, it has been shown that induction of apo