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  1. Specific allogeneic unresponsiveness in the adult host: present-day experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a long-term intensive effort to apply the induction of adult allogensic unresponsiveness to the transplantation problem, two techniques to control the variability in the persistence of immunologically competent postthymic cells iin the treated host and/or the inoculum of autologous marrow returned to the host after irradiation are described. The first consisted of exposing the peripheral blood of prospective recipients to a 5-week course of extra-corporeal irradiation (ECIB), the other of exposing the stored autologous marrow scheduled to repopulate a given recipient to methyl-prednisolone (MPd) and DNase prior to renifusion into the recipient. Serial analysis of bone marrow cell samples at various intervals before and after treatment was undertaken. The significance of the disappearance of a particular population of nonnuclear cells from the samples, and the association of such disappearance with increased success in the induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness is discussed

  2. Epidemiological Studies of the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease in Japan: A Pediatric Perspective in Present Day Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The origins of adult disease are considered to relate to fetal undernutrition, and this concept is termed “developmental origins of adult health and disease” (DOHaD). Here, we describe several epidemiological studies performed in Japan and discuss whether DOHaD is applicable to children in present day Japan. In a study of healthy children and young adults, it was found that systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and adiponectin were associated with birth weight. Hyperinsulinemia, high blo...

  3. History Making and Present Day Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2008-01-01

    Review of History Making and Present Day Politics: The meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa, by Hans Erik Stolten (ed.). Uppsala: The Nordic Africa Institute, 2007; pp. 376.......Review of History Making and Present Day Politics: The meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa, by Hans Erik Stolten (ed.). Uppsala: The Nordic Africa Institute, 2007; pp. 376....

  4. Accounting – from antiquity till present day

    OpenAIRE

    Anelia Galinova

    2011-01-01

    In the article there is discussed the development of accounting from its beginnings till present day and the separation of its individual areas. There is outlined the evolution of accounting registers and forms, the various theories and ideas of the leading national schools, the methods of calculating the cost price of production and services and the setting up of accounting as an important information and control system.

  5. The Italian present-day stress map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, Paola; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Pierdominici, Simona

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present a significant update of the Italian present-day stress data compilation not only to improve the knowledge on the tectonic setting of the region or to constrain future geodynamic models, but also to understand the mechanics of processes linked to faulting and earthquakes. In this paper, we have analysed, revised and collected new contemporary stress data from borehole breakouts and we have assembled earthquake and fault data. In total, 206 new quality-ranked entries complete the definition of the horizontal stress orientation and tectonic regime in some areas, and bring new information mainly in Sicily and along the Apenninic belt. Now the global Italian data set consists of 715 data points, including 499 of A-C quality, representing an increase of 37 per cent compared to the previous compilation. The alignment of horizontal stresses measured in some regions, closely matches the ˜N-S first-order stress field orientation of ongoing relative crustal motions between Eurasia and Africa plates. The Apenninic belt shows a diffuse extensional stress regime indicating a ˜NE-SW direction of extension, that we interpret as related to a second-order stress field. The horizontal stress rotations observed in peculiar areas reflect a complex interaction between first-order stress field and local effects revealing the importance of the tectonic structure orientations. In particular, in Sicily the new data delineate a more complete tectonic picture evidencing adjacent areas characterized by distinct stress regime: northern offshore of Sicily and in the Hyblean plateau the alignment of horizontal stresses is consistent with the crustal motions, whereas different directions have been observed along the belt and foredeep.

  6. Present-Day Key Roles In Nursing Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bergman

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Present-day nursing administration has many goals, roles and functions. Predominant among the roles are those of: programme planner, manager of material resources, manager of human resources, educator, clinician and researcher. These and other roles relate to clients, colleagues, the agency, the community and the profession. The roles are not discrete, but overlap and intertwine with each other and with the roles of other care providers.

  7. Disruption generated secondary runaway electrons in present day tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions in present day tokamaks (JET, JT-60U, TEXTOR) was made. It was shown that even for tokamaks with the plasma current I approx 100 kA the secondary generation may dominate the runaway production during disruptions. In the same time in tokamaks with I approx 1 MA the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions may be suppressed

  8. SPANISH 1992 (S92) corpus-based analysis of present-day Spanish for medical purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Chandler-Burns, R M

    1994-01-01

    S92 research was begun in 1987 to analyze word frequencies in present-day Spanish for making speech pathology evaluation tools. 500 2,000-word samples of children, adolescents and adults' language were input between 1988-1991, calculations done in 1992; statistical and Lewandowski analyses were carried out in 1993.

  9. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluocak, Ebru Şengül; Pysklywec, Russell; Göğüş, Oğuz H.

    2016-06-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift, and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of "dynamic topography". Two-dimensional thermo-mechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along a N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior, and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity, and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sub-lithospheric flow driven by the seismically-inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myrs. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  10. Satellite galaxies around present-day massive ellipticals

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Pablo; Mármol-Queraltó, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Using the spectroscopic and photometric catalogues of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7), we have explored the satellite distribution around $\\sim$1000 massive (M$_\\star$$\\gtrsim$2$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_\\odot$) visually classified elliptical galaxies down to a satellite mass ratio of 1:400 (i.e. 5$\\times$$10^{8}$$\\lesssim$M$_{sat}$$\\lesssim$2$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_\\odot$). Our host galaxies were selected to be representative of a mass complete sample. The satellites of these galaxies were searched within a projected radial distance of 100 kpc to their hosts. We have found that only 17-23% of the massive ellipticals has at least a satellite down to a mass ratio 1:10. This number increases to 40-52% if we explore satellites down to 1:100 and is $>$55-70% if we go further down to 1:400. The average projected radial distance of the satellites to their hosts is $\\sim$59 kpc (which can be decreased down to 49-51 kpc if we account for incompleteness effects). The number of satellites per galaxy host only increases ve...

  11. ADAPTION OF NONSTANDARD PIPING COMPONENTS INTO PRESENT DAY SEISMIC CODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. T. Clark; M. J. Russell; R. E. Spears; S. R. Jensen

    2009-07-01

    With spiraling energy demand and flat energy supply, there is a need to extend the life of older nuclear reactors. This sometimes requires that existing systems be evaluated to present day seismic codes. Older reactors built in the 1960s and early 1970s often used fabricated piping components that were code compliant during their initial construction time period, but are outside the standard parameters of present-day piping codes. There are several approaches available to the analyst in evaluating these non-standard components to modern codes. The simplest approach is to use the flexibility factors and stress indices for similar standard components with the assumption that the non-standard component’s flexibility factors and stress indices will be very similar. This approach can require significant engineering judgment. A more rational approach available in Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which is the subject of this paper, involves calculation of flexibility factors using finite element analysis of the non-standard component. Such analysis allows modeling of geometric and material nonlinearities. Flexibility factors based on these analyses are sensitive to the load magnitudes used in their calculation, load magnitudes that need to be consistent with those produced by the linear system analyses where the flexibility factors are applied. This can lead to iteration, since the magnitude of the loads produced by the linear system analysis depend on the magnitude of the flexibility factors. After the loading applied to the nonstandard component finite element model has been matched to loads produced by the associated linear system model, the component finite element model can then be used to evaluate the performance of the component under the loads with the nonlinear analysis provisions of the Code, should the load levels lead to calculated stresses in excess of Allowable stresses. This paper details the application of component-level finite

  12. Present-Day Tendencies in the Romanian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Zafiu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The “condition of the language” is a subject of fairly broad interest. In Romania, any discussion regarding some breaching of the norms, or the massive presence of Anglicisms or of vulgar terms, is likely to stir passions.Linguistic variation and change are natural phenomena, described objectively by linguists, but perceived, in most cases, negatively by ordinary speakers. Present-day tendencies in the Romanian language are, to a large extent, manifestations of more general tendencies, common for numerous languages. Today, three “global” factors have an impact on the linguistic evolution of Romanian: (a the influence of English; (b the influence of communication by electronic media; (c a narrowing of the gap between educated and popular language, between writing and speaking.In the dynamics of a living language, change is inevitable and, basically, inoffensive. Nevertheless, the concern of our contemporaries, is important: attitudes and assessments balance out and moderate evolutions that are too fast, preserving the natural dependence on cultural factors.

  13. New Horizons Constraints on Charon's Present Day Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, S A; Gladstone, G R; Steffl, A J; Cheng, A F; Young, L A; Weaver, H A; Olkin, C B; Ennico, K; Parker, J W; Parker, A H; Lauer, T R; Zangari, A; Summers, M

    2016-01-01

    We report on a variety of standard techniques used by New Horizons including a solar ultraviolet occultation, ultraviolet airglow observations, and high-phase look-back particulate search imaging to search for an atmosphere around Pluto's large moon Charon during its flyby in July 2015. Analyzing these datasets, no evidence for a present day atmosphere has been found for 14 potential atomic and molecular species, all of which are now constrained to have pressures below 0.3 nanobar, as we describe below, these are much more stringent upper limits than the previously available 15-110 nanobar constraints (e.g., Sicardy et al. 2006); for example, we find a 3$\\sigma$ upper limit for an N$_2$ atmosphere on Charon is 4.2 picobars and a 3$\\sigma$ upper limit for the brightness of any atmospheric haze on Charon of I/F=2.6x10$^{-5}$. A radio occultation search for an atmosphere around Charon was also conducted by New Horizons but will be published separately by other authors.

  14. Present-day climatic equivalents of European Cenozoic climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utescher, Torsten; Mosbrugger, Volker; Ivanov, Dimiter; Dilcher, David L.

    2009-07-01

    Recently, continental climate evolution in Central Europe over the last 45 Ma has been reconstructed from the palaeobotanical record using a Nearest Living Relative methodology (Coexistence Approach; CA). The reconstructed climate curves document in detail the transition from almost tropical conditions in the Mid-Eocene to a temperate climate at the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition. The observed climatic shifts are primarily expressed as non-proportional changes of the different variables taken into account. In the present study a published palaeoclimate data set for a total of 42 macrofloras complemented by new calculations is used as base to analyse the climatic space in which a fossil flora existed. To define these spaces CA intervals calculated for 3 temperature (mean annual temperature, cold and warm month mean) and 3 precipitation variables (mean annual precipitation, mean monthly precipitation of the driest and of the wettest month) are combined. Using a global gridded climatology (10' resolution), this climate space is then utilized to identify Recent climate analogues with respect to the variables regarded. For 18 macrofloras climatic analogue regions with respect to 6 variables are identified on the globe. For 16 macrofloras, analogues exist when three temperature parameters and mean annual precipitation are regarded. No Recent equivalents are found in 8 cases. This corroborates the assumption of the temporary existence of non-analogue climates in the Cenozoic. As shown by multivariate statistics the observed anomalies with respect to present-day conditions basically refer to high winter temperatures. Deploying a GIS, the Recent climate analogues can be presented as sets of grid cells for each flora that can be mapped on a globe. Once identified, these regions can be merged with adequate thematic layers to assess additional proxy data for the palaeofloras. To exemplify the procedure Koeppen climate type, numbers of days with ground frost, as well as

  15. The present-day number of tectonic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The number of tectonic plates on Earth described in the literature has expanded greatly since the start of the plate tectonic era, when only about a dozen plates were considered in global models of present-day plate motions. With new techniques of more accurate earthquake epicenter locations, modern ways of measuring ocean bathymetry using swath mapping, and the use of space based geodetic techniques, there has been a huge growth in the number of plates thought to exist. The study by Bird (2003) proposed 52 plates, many of which were delineated on the basis of earthquake locations. Because of the pattern of areas of these plates, he suggested that there should be more small plates than he could identify. In this paper, I gather together publications that have proposed a total of 107 new plates, giving 159 plates in all. The largest plate (Pacific) is about 20 % of the Earth's area or 104 Mm2, and the smallest of which (Plate number 5 from Hammond et al. 2011) is only 273 km2 in area. Sorting the plates by size allows us to investigate how size varies as a function of order. There are several changes of slope in the plots of plate number organized by size against plate size order which are discussed. The sizes of the largest seven plates is constrained by the area of the Earth. A middle set of 73 plates down to an area of 97,563 km2 (the Danakil plate at number 80, is the plate of median size) follows a fairly regular pattern of plate size as a function of plate number. For smaller plates, there is a break in the slope of the plate size/plate number plot and the next 32 plates follow a pattern of plate size proposed by the models of Koehn et al. (2008) down to an area of 11,638 km2 (West Mojave plate # 112). Smaller plates do not follow any regular pattern of area as a function of plate number, probably because we have not sampled enough of these very small plates to reveal any clear pattern.

  16. Adult Immigrants' Media Usage and Its Function in Host Language Training Opportunities: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Media promotes to what extent immigrants learn the host language and cultural values. Consequently, the overall aim of this paper is to identify predictors among adult immigrants in language training and its effect on host language training. The participants (n = 186)-- many of them refugees--were recruited purposefully for the study from one…

  17. Characterization of early host responses in adults with dengue disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While dengue-elicited early and transient host responses preceding defervescence could shape the disease outcome and reveal mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis, assessment of these responses are difficult as patients rarely seek healthcare during the first days of benign fever and thus data are lacking. Methods In this study, focusing on early recruitment, we performed whole-blood transcriptional profiling on denguevirus PCR positive patients sampled within 72 h of self-reported fever presentation (average 43 h, SD 18.6 h and compared the signatures with autologous samples drawn at defervescence and convalescence and to control patients with fever of other etiology. Results In the early dengue fever phase, a strong activation of the innate immune response related genes were seen that was absent at defervescence (4-7 days after fever debut, while at this second sampling genes related to biosynthesis and metabolism dominated. Transcripts relating to the adaptive immune response were over-expressed in the second sampling point with sustained activation at the third sampling. On an individual gene level, significant enrichment of transcripts early in dengue disease were chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1, CCL8 (MCP-2, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL3 (MIP-1α, antimicrobial peptide β-defensin 1 (DEFB1, desmosome/intermediate junction component plakoglobin (JUP and a microRNA which may negatively regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in dengue infected peripheral blood cells, mIR-147 (NMES1. Conclusions These data show that the early response in patients mimics those previously described in vitro, where early assessment of transcriptional responses has been easily obtained. Several of the early transcripts identified may be affected by or mediate the pathogenesis and deserve further assessment at this timepoint in correlation to severe disease.

  18. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO2 and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request

  19. Leaf consumption by Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidade adults on difFerent host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Crébio José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to the feeding behavior of pest insects provide information that will aid the development of control tactics. Leaf consumption by Diabrotica speciosa adults fed on bean, corn, potato and soybean was determined in the laboratory under free-choice (multiple or double-choice and no-choice (confinement conditions. In the multiple-choice tests leaf circles were randomly arranged in a circular pattern (arena inside Petri dishes. The degree of preference for the hosts was determined under double-choice conditions, where common bean was considered the standard host and the remaining plants (soybean, potato and corn as test hosts. In all trials, two Diabrotica speciosa couples were released and maintained within the dish for 24 hours; the leaf area consumed by the insects was determined after this feeding period. Food type (host influenced leaf area consumption by D. speciosa adults both in free-choice and in no-choice tests (P 0.05. As to the no-choice test, the consumption was higher for corn than for potato, probably to compensate the low nutritional quality of the first host.

  20. Early Hebrew education and its significance for present-day educational theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    S. Schoeman

    1997-01-01

    Early Hebrew education and its significance for present-day educational theory and practice The history of education in antiquity is not without relevance to present-day educational theory and practice. The focus in this article is on the early Hebrews and their education. A study of early Hebrew education may in itself not provide solutions to current educational problems, but it may be useful in offering new perspectives, encouragement and suggestions for a juture South African educational ...

  1. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day greenlandic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Crawford, Jacob E; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E; Grarup, Niels; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Linneberg, Allan René; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Hansen, Torben; Nielsen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed...

  2. Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipolexis oregmae Gahan was introduced into Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), on citrus. Prior to evaluating distribution, host range, and potential nontarget effects of L. oregmae in Florida, we evaluated the role of other potential host aphids and host plants on mummy production and location. Under laboratory conditions, this parasitoid produced the most progeny on the target pest, the brown citrus aphid on citrus. This parasitoid, unlike the majority of aphidiids, did not produce mummies on any of the host plants tested when reared in black citrus aphid T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on grapefruit, spirea aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch on grapefruit and pittosporum, cowpea aphid A. craccivora Koch on grapefruit and cowpeas, or melon aphid A. gossypii Glover on grapefruit and cucumber. Thus, sampling for L. oregmae mummies of these host aphids and host plants must involve holding foliage in the laboratory until mummies are produced. This parasitoid requires high relative humidity to produce adults because no adults emerged when mummies were held in gelatin capsules, but high rates of emergence were observed when mummies were held on 1.5% agar plates. In addition, we compared the color of 6 aphid hosts and the color of mummies produced by L. oregmae when reared in them to determine if color of mummies could be used to identify L. oregmae . Mummy color varied between aphid hosts and tested host plants, and is not a useful tool for identifying L. oregmae for nontarget effects. (author)

  3. Present-day kinematics of the Rivera plate and implications for tectonics in southwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, Charles; Stein, Seth

    1990-01-01

    A model for the present-day motion of the Rivera plate relative to the North America, Cocos, and Pacific plates is derived using new data from the Pacific-Rivera rise and Rivera transform fault, together with new estimates of Pacific-Rivera motions. The results are combined with the closure-consistent NUVEL-1 global plate motion model of DeMets et al. (1990) to examine present-day deformation in southwestern Mexico. The analysis addresses several questions raised in previous studies of the Rivera plate. Namely, do plate motion data from the northern East Pacific rise require a distinct Rivera plate? Do plate kinematic data require the subduction of the Rivera plate along the seismically quiescent Acapulco trench? If so, what does the predicted subduction rate imply about the earthquake recurrence interval in the Jalisco region of southwestern Mexico?

  4. The imprint of exoplanet formation history on observable present-day spectra of hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Mordasini, Christoph; Mollière, Paul; Henning, Thomas; Benneke, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The composition of a planet's atmosphere is determined by its formation, evolution, and present-day insolation. A planet's spectrum therefore may hold clues on its origins. We present a "chain" of models, linking the formation of a planet to its observable present-day spectrum. The chain links include (1) the planet's formation and migration, (2) its long-term thermodynamic evolution, (3) a variety of disk chemistry models, (4) a non-gray atmospheric model, and (5) a radiometric model to obtain simulated spectroscopic observations with JWST and ARIEL. In our standard chemistry model the inner disk is depleted in refractory carbon as in the Solar System and in white dwarfs polluted by extrasolar planetesimals. Our main findings are: (1) Envelope enrichment by planetesimal impacts during formation dominates the final planetary atmospheric composition of hot Jupiters. We investigate two, under this finding, prototypical formation pathways: a formation inside or outside the water iceline, called "dry" and "wet" p...

  5. Global hotspots in the present-day distribution of ancient animal and plant lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Şerban Procheş; Syd Ramdhani; Sandun J. Perera; Ali, Jason R.; Sanjay Gairola

    2015-01-01

    The current distribution of biotic lineages that emerged in the deep time has both theoretical and practical implications, in particular for understanding the processes that have forged present-day biodiversity and informing local and regional-scale conservation efforts. To date however, there has been no examination of such patterns globally across taxa and geological time. Here we map the diversity of selected extant seed plant and tetrapod vertebrate lineages that were already in existence...

  6. Accounting for Agricultural Land Use: Present-Day State and Potential Possibilities of Its Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Serhiy Ostapchuk

    2014-01-01

    The Article provides the analysis of present day accounting for agricultural land usage by agricultural enterprises of different types of ownership and highlights the potential possibilities of its improvement. It has been found that most private agricultural enterprises do not maintain off-balance sheet accounting of the lands leased which total over 95% in their land fund structure and accountants do not find it reasonable to include the lease rights on accounting balance sheet. According t...

  7. Analysis of the present-day deformation of the Rif Mountain (Morocco) : Morphotectonics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Poujol, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify and quantify the Rif (Morocco) present-day deformation, especially those related to active faults (location, geometry, kinematic), we perform a morphotectonic study. The studied area and faults are located in the Northern part (conjugate faults of Al-Hoceima Bay: Trougout, Boujibar and Rouadi), the Eastern part (Nekor fault) and the Southern part of the chain (Rif frontal thrust between Fes and Meknes cities).Morphotectonic tools (DEMs at different scales, satellite and a...

  8. Peculiarities of investigation of creative processes’ emotional constituents used by the present day experimental psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilova E.V.

    2013-01-01

    The article introduces there view of up-to-date research works concerning the study of the ways in which emotions affect the efficiency of solving creative tasks. The specificity of research approaches is discussed as depending on particular ways of registration of the subject’s emotional states. In general, it is possible to distinguish three groups of techniques used in present day psychology to diagnose the emotional states: self-reports, registration of behavioral reactions, estimations o...

  9. Present day design challenges exemplified by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present day design challenges faced by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant engineer result from two causes. The first cause is aspiration to achieve a design that will operate at conditions which are desirable for future LMFBRs in order for them to achieve low power costs and good breeding. The second cause is the licensing impact. Although licensing the CRBRP won't eliminate future licensing effort, many licensing questions will have been resolved and precedents set for the future LMFBR industry

  10. The Directions of Productivity Improvement of Fiscal Policy under Present-day Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Seymur Orujov

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the questions connected with the directions of productivityimprovement of fiscal policy under present-day conditions. It is shown that for the correct and timely solution ofthe problems standing before the policy of the budget expenses, it is required an exact and deep approach to theessence, purpose and implementation method of the financial policy and its consisting elements. It is obviouslythat study of practices of the other foreign countries w...

  11. Present-day Crustal Movement and Strain Rate in Guangxi Area from GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIAO Chaoming

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The 3D crustal movement velocities filed and strain parameters of Guangxi area are acquired in the coordinate frame of ITRF2005 with the multi-period GPS data from 1998 to 2010 analyzed by using GAMIT/GLOBK software, and the area deformation field and present-day construction mechanism are also discussed in this paper. From the GPS monitoring results, the crustal movement of Guangxi area coincides with south China movement in the South-East-East anticlockwise direction, the average vertical velocity value is 33.49 mm/a in ITRF2005 frame, the preponderant direction is N 109.3° E, the average horizon velocity value is +1.30 mm/a, and the trend becomes increasing from East to West of Guangxi province. The present-day strain status is extrusion in N 127.3°±4.8° E direction, the main maximum extrusion strain is -2.7±0.5×10-9/a with a tension effect in the N 37.3°±4.8° E direction, and the main maximum tension strain is 1.8±0.2×10-9/a. A more precise 3D present-day crustal velocity filed of Guangxi area is presented in this paper with the full analyzing of GPS data.

  12. Analysis of present day and future OH and methane lifetime in the ACCMIP simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voulgarakis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from simulations performed for the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP are analysed to examine how OH and methane lifetime may change from present-day to the future, under different climate and emissions scenarios. Present-day (2000 mean tropospheric chemical lifetime derived from the ACCMIP multi-model mean is 9.8 ± 1.6 yr, lower than a recent observationally-based estimate, but with a similar range to previous multi-model estimates. Future model projections are based on the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, and the results also exhibit a~large range. Decreases in global methane lifetime of 4.5 ± 9.1% are simulated for the scenario with lowest radiative forcing by 2100 (RCP 2.6, while increases of 8.5 ± 10.4% are simulated for the scenario with highest radiative forcing (RCP 8.5. In this scenario, the key driver of the evolution of OH and methane lifetime is methane itself, since its concentration more than doubles by 2100, and it consumes much of the OH that exists in the troposphere. Stratospheric ozone recovery, which drives tropospheric OH decreases through photolysis modifications, also plays a~partial role. In the other scenarios, where methane changes are less drastic, the interplay between various competing drivers leads to smaller and more diverse OH and methane lifetime responses, which are difficult to attribute. For all scenarios, regional OH changes are even more variable, with the most robust feature being the large decreases over the remote oceans in RCP 8.5. Through a~regression analysis, we suggest that differences in emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds and in the simulation of photolysis rates may be the main factors causing the differences in simulated present-day OH and methane lifetime. Diversity in predicted changes between present-day and future was found to be associated more strongly with differences in modelled climate changes

  13. A present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data of earthquake centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution, P-wave first motion focal mechanism solution and deep hole breakouts, a present-day tectonic stress map for eastern Asia region is compiled. The origi-nal stress data are smoothed for every 200 km ′ 200 km area by taking the average of all stress indicators within each sub-region. The stress map shows the spatial distribution of the orientation of principal stress axes and the stress regimes. An earthquake focal mechanism map for the eastern Asia is also given. The maps of orientation of principal stress axes show that, apart from the strong influence of the collision between the Indian Ocean plate and Eurasian plate, the present-day tectonic stress in eastern Asia is significantly affected by the back-arc extension of the subduction zones. The joint effect of the continental collision at the Himalaya arc and back-arc extension in the Burma arc region may be responsible for the remarkable rotation of the principal stress orientations in southeastern part of the Tibet plateau. The joint action of the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate at Taiwan Island and the back-arc extension of the Ryukyu arc affect the stress field in eastern part of China. There are no strong earthquakes in the present day in the vast back-arc region of the Java trench subduction zone. The back-arc extension there may create a condition favorable to the southward flow of the lithosphere material in southeastern Asia. In the inner part of the Tibet plateau region, roughly demarcated by the Kunlun mountain, the northern and northeastern part is a broad intracontinental compressive zone, while the southern and southwestern part is generally in a normal-faulting stress state.

  14. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaridis,I; Patterson, P; Mittnik,A; Renaud, G; S Mallick; Kirsanow, K.; Sudmant,PH; Schraiber,JG; Castellano, S; Lipson,M; Berger, B.; Economou, C.; Bollongino, R.; Fu, Q.; Bos,KI

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced genomes from a $\\sim$7,000 year old early farmer from Stuttgart in Germany, an $\\sim$8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from Luxembourg, and seven $\\sim$8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from southern Sweden. We analyzed these data together with other ancient genomes and 2,345 contemporary humans to show that the great majority of present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Eur...

  15. Present-day radiotherapy: analysis of the sate of the art and outlook in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzes the development of radiotherapy as exemplified by experience gained by P.A.Herzen Oncological Research Dulines the priority of radiotherapy for the nearest future. It is, firet and foremost, chemoradiotherapy making use of both, intravenous polychemotherapy and intra-and paratumoral injection of drugs: intraoperative exposure to electron beam of different energies using gaseous hypoxia; laser exposure together with combined radiotherapy for the treatment of tracheobronchial, esofophageal, rectal, and genital cancers. Validates and presents the results of nontraditional protocols of downs fractionation and radiomodifier use. Formulates the ideology of present-day radiotherapy. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Functional Analyses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites that Differ between Present-Day and Archaic Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Sven; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-01-01

    We analyze 25 previously identified transcription factor binding sites that carry DNA sequence changes that are present in all or nearly all present-day humans, yet occur in the ancestral state in Neandertals and Denisovans, the closest evolutionary relatives of humans. When the ancestral and derived forms of the transcription factor binding sites are tested using reporter constructs in 3 neuronal cell lines, the activity of 12 of the derived versions of transcription factor binding sites differ from the respective ancestral variants. This suggests that the majority of this class of evolutionary differences between modern humans and Neandertals may affect gene expression in at least some tissue or cell type. PMID:26454764

  17. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants.

  18. A non-tectonic origin for the present day stress field in the sedimentary Paris Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Francois; Magnenet, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The large scale stress patterns observed in intraplate area is generally considered to result from far-field boundary forces that drive plate tectonics. However, no present day deformation has been detected in the Paris Basin, yet significant deviatoric stresses are measured in limestone formations observed above soft argillite layers encountered in this region at depths close to 500m. Further, the pore pressure measured in the argillite is larger than that measured in the surrounding permeable zones. These observations suggest a presently active source of stress in this sedimentary system. We propose that this stress is not related to tectonics but to pressure solution effects activated by pore pressure transients. These transients develop in the natural fracture system that affects the limestone formations. They are linked to climatic variations and involve periods that range from thousands to hundreds of thousands years. This mechanism generates time-dependent shear stresses in soft formations and explains overpressures observed in the very low permeability argillite. This mechanism may be modeled by different visco-elastic behaviors for the various formations. It outlines the influence of time dependent material properties on the present day stress field. These results imply that the viscoelastic properties of sedimentary formations raise a strong difficulty for extrapolating measured surface deformations to basement rocks in domains of very slow tectonics.

  19. PRAGMATIC FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION CODE FAILURE IN PRESENT-DAY DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochtar Elena Ivanovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of communicative regulations within the discourse frames as viewed through the fact of existing interconnection between speech arrangement modes and speech functional destinations; it analyzes the basic maxims of the P. Grice's Cooperation principle, initially formulated from the speaker's viewpoint, and finds out its relevance for the listeners, thus providing identity of speech behavior principles as shared by both participants in the communication process. Comparing each of the cooperative maxims with the communicative parameters of the present-day discourse the author discovers in it frequent violations of the Cooperation principles suggested by P. Grice and concludes that this system of speech relation fails in cases of discourse realizing an effective function. The article observes that the traditional communicative code is being pressed out as the basic regulator of conversation and goes through some pragmatic changes resulting in communication code failure in present day discourse, some other means of securing the perlocutionary effect in affective discourse are introduced by the author, the politeness principle and the principle of style in particular. Considering the basic mechanisms of these aestheticethical principles in application to the discourse of advertising the author finds proofs to them being functionally adequate and communicatively effective.

  20. Mitogenomes from The 1000 Genome Project reveal new Near Eastern features in present-day Tuscans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Carballa

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses have recently been carried out on present-day Tuscans (Central Italy in order to investigate their presumable recent Near East ancestry in connection with the long-standing debate on the origins of the Etruscan civilization. We retrieved mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data from 110 Tuscans analyzed within the context of The 1000 Genome Project. For phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis we made use of a large worldwide database of entire mitogenomes (>26,000 and partial control region sequences (>180,000.Different analyses reveal the presence of typical Near East haplotypes in Tuscans representing isolated members of various mtDNA phylogenetic branches. As a whole, the Near East component in Tuscan mitogenomes can be estimated at about 8%; a proportion that is comparable to previous estimates but significantly lower than admixture estimates obtained from autosomal SNP data (21%. Phylogeographic and evolutionary inter-population comparisons indicate that the main signal of Near Eastern Tuscan mitogenomes comes from Iran.Mitogenomes of recent Near East origin in present-day Tuscans do not show local or regional variation. This points to a demographic scenario that is compatible with a recent arrival of Near Easterners to this region in Italy with no founder events or bottlenecks.

  1. Present-day strain rates and dynamics of the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Flesch, L. M.; Calais, E.

    2009-04-01

    The forces and physical processes at work during continental rifting remain to be fully understood and quantified. We investigate the balance of large-scale forces affecting present-day rifting in East Africa using a thin sheet approach to quantify strain rates and deviatoric stresses. We develop a strain rate model constrained by a combination of GPS-derived kinematic models and seismic moment tensors (CMT catalog) for our region of interest. We estimate a total deviatoric stress field by combining (1) stresses caused by gravitational potential energy (GPE) gradients within the crust and (2) a buoyancy signal present in the topography that we use to compute stresses. To estimate internal body forces, we assume crustal thicknesses and lateral density variations modeled in Crust 2.0 (G. Laske and G. Masters, http://mahi.ucsd.edu/Gabi/sediment.html, 2000). In our preferred model of deviatoric stresses, we estimate and remove the dynamic topography buoyancy signal by allowing the mantle lithosphere density to vary, compensating the lithosphere to a given reference depth. To test the reliability of our total deviatoric stress field, we compare tensor patterns of deviatoric stresses, with and without contributions from the mantle, to tensor patterns from kinematic deformation indicators. Our results to date suggest that horizontal buoyancy forces arising from variable crustal thicknesses and lateral density variations within the lithosphere contribute significantly to the diverging plate boundary forces of the EAR but do not account for the entire budget of force needed to produce present-day deformation.

  2. Present-day crustal deformation along the El Salvador Fault Zone from ZFESNet GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Alejandra; Martínez-Díaz, José Jesús; Benito, Belén; Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Díaz, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions obtained from new GPS data compiled along the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ). We calculated a GPS-derived horizontal velocity field representing the present-day crustal deformation rates in the ESFZ based on the analysis of 30 GPS campaign stations of the ZFESNet network, measured over a 4.5 year period from 2007 to 2012. The velocity field and subsequent strain rate analysis clearly indicate dextral strike-slip tectonics with extensional component throughout the ESFZ. Our results suggest that the boundary between the Salvadoran forearc and Caribbean blocks is a deformation zone which varies along the fault zone. We estimate that the movement between the two blocks is at least ~ 12 mm yr- 1. From west to east, this movement is variably distributed between faults or segments of the ESFZ. We propose a kinematic model with three main blocks; the Western, Central and Eastern blocks delimited by major faults. For the first time, we were able to provide a quantitative measure of the present-day horizontal geodetic slip rate of the main segments of ESFZ, ranging from ~ 2 mm yr- 1 in the east segment to ~ 8 mm yr- 1, in the west and central segments. This study contributes new kinematic and slip rate data that should be used to update and improve the seismic hazard assessments in northern Central America.

  3. Future droughts in Global Climate Models and adaptation strategies from regional present-day analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowsky, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts are among the most impacting phenomena of a changing climate, affecting agricultural productivity and human health. They can furthermore interact with and amplify other climatic extreme events such as heat waves. Our analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble of GCM simulations identifies several hot spots of aggravating droughts in coming decades, such as the Mediterranean, parts of the Southern US and North East Brazil, which also compare well with increasing stress from heat waves. However, as we show by a comparison of drought indices, the exact pattern can substantially depend on the index choice. In some regions of the developing world which are particularly vulnerable to droughts, e.g. Central Africa, this uncertainty is further increased by a high disagreement between the GCMs. In a second step, we perform an analogue search which, for a given target region, identifies regions which under present-day climate show drought conditions that are similar to the projected future drought conditions of the target region. For example, the future conditions in the Mediterranean are found to be analogue to the present-day conditions in parts of the US, Central Asia or Australia. Information from web resources on climate change adaptation and agricultural practices for the identified similar regions are then assessed in the context of the target region as potential guidelines for adaptation. Thus combining the temporal and spatial dimension helps to transfer local climate adaptation knowledge to other regions, where it is expected to become relevant in the future.

  4. Pacific variability under present-day and Middle Miocene boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Mario; Jungclaus, Johann H.

    2015-05-01

    We use the coupled climate model MPI-ESM to show that for higher CO2 levels the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) merge into a single mode of Pacific variability, regardless of present-day or Middle Miocene (~15 Ma) topographic boundary conditions. Hence, topographic differences—determining the landscape of past climates—play a smaller role for Pacific variability than previously thought. We attribute the single variability mode to resonance between these two oscillation patterns. In order to estimate the strength of the resonance we compute the spectral power of the ENSO and PDO time series and their coherence. We find that for both Middle Miocene and present-day topographic conditions, higher CO2 forcing leads to stronger resonance between ENSO and PDO. Our results show that (1) stronger CO2 forcing enhances Pacific variability resulting in stronger "atmospheric bridge" and that (2) past climates are likely to exhibit Pacific variability corresponding either to ENSO, PDO, or our proposed single mode.

  5. Present-day mass changes for the Greenland ice sheet and their interaction with bedrock adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olaizola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch in 2002 of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites, several estimates of the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS have been produced. To obtain ice mass changes estimates, data need to be corrected for the effect of deformation changes of the Earth's crust. This is usually done by independently modeling the Glaciological Isostatic Adjustment (GIA trend and then by removing it from the data. Recently, Wu et al. (2010 proposed a new method to simultaneously estimate GIA and the present-day ice mass change, reporting an ice mass loss of around half of the previously published estimates and a general bedrock subsidence concentrated in the central parts of Greenland. This subsidence appears to be counterintuitive since the ice sheet is loosing mass at present. It was suggested by the authors that this could be a new evidence for additional net past ice accumulation.

    In this study, a 3-D ice-sheet model with a surface mass balance forcing based on a mass balance gradient approach has been used to: (a analyze the bedrock response to changes in the ice load in order to evaluate whether bedrock subsidence and ice thinning can exist simultaneously; (b study the magnitude and the pattern of the bedrock movement; and (c evaluate if present-day bedrock subsidence could be the result of a net past mass accumulation.

    Under a sine forcing of the annual temperature, that mimics the temperature variations in the Holocene, mass changes yield a delay of the bedrock response of 200 years. Thinning of the ice as well as bedrock subsidence coexist during this period with an order of magnitude equal to the observations by Wu et al. (2010. Although, the resulting pattern of bedrock changes differs considerable: instead of the general bedrock subsidence reported before, we found areas of bedrock uplift as well as areas of bedrock subsidence. A simulation since the last glacial maximum (with the

  6. Teaching foreign languages in soviet and present-day Russia: A comparison of two systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores recent changes in standards, forms and practices of teaching foreign languages in the present-day Russia against the system that existed in the Soviet period. A combination of theoretical and empirical methods and research practices are used to demonstrate that the changes were for the best, although most of them were not results of well-balanced state policy meeting new education goals. The research suggests that the current boom in learning foreign languages in Russia is mostly due to the new political, ideological, social and economic climate in the country. The nature and extent of influence produced by external factors on the course content, goals, expected results, teaching methods and resources are further discussed.

  7. Glaciation of northern slopes of Turkestan and Alai Ranges and its present-day dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Usubaliev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Special features of development and existence of present-day glaciation of the Turkistan and Alay ridges are being examined in current climate change. It is found that the main climate elements – air temperature and atmospheric precipitations tend to rise in the highland zones of these ridges. Though, an air temperature rose more intensively than in Inner Tien-Shan, and glacier degradation rates are more intensive here. For 33–43 years, the glaciers of five river basins reduced in its area extent for more than 20%. An increase of a number of glaciers is characteristically under classification of more large ones. Small glaciers sited rather in low hypsometrical levels, are quite disappeared

  8. Host Factors and Biomarkers Associated with Poor Outcomes in Adults with Invasive Pneumococcal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Hanada

    Full Text Available Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD causes considerable morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify host factors and biomarkers associated with poor outcomes in adult patients with IPD in Japan, which has a rapidly-aging population.In a large-scale surveillance study of 506 Japanese adults with IPD, we investigated the role of host factors, disease severity, biomarkers based on clinical laboratory data, treatment regimens, and bacterial factors on 28-day mortality.Overall mortality was 24.1%, and the mortality rate increased from 10.0% in patients aged ˂50 years to 33.1% in patients aged ≥80 years. Disease severity also increased 28-day mortality, from 12.5% among patients with bacteraemia without sepsis to 35.0% in patients with severe sepsis and 56.9% with septic shock. The death rate within 48 hours after admission was high at 54.9%. Risk factors for mortality identified by multivariate analysis were as follows: white blood cell (WBC count <4000 cells/μL (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-12.8, p < .001; age ≥80 years (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 2.0-21.6, p = .002; serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.5-8.1, p < .001; underlying liver disease (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6-7.8, p = .002; mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.6, p < .001; and lactate dehydrogenase ≥300 IU/L (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0, p = .001. Pneumococcal serotype and drug resistance were not associated with poor outcomes.Host factors, disease severity, and biomarkers, especially WBC counts and serum creatinine, were more important determinants of mortality than bacterial factors.

  9. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Because of concern about the recently increasing levels of biological Hg in some areas of the Arctic, we examined the literature concerning the long-term changes of Hg in humans and selected Arctic marine mammals and birds of prey since pre-industrial times (i.e. before 1800 A.D.), to determine the anthropogenic contribution to present-day Hg concentrations and the historical timing of any changes. Methods: Mercury data from published articles were extracted on historical and pre-industrial concentrations as percentages of the recent maximum, as well as the man-made contribution was calculated and depicted in a uniform manner to provide an overview of the development over time. Results and discussion: Trends of [Hg] in hard tissues such as teeth, hair and feathers consistently showed that there had been an order-of-magnitude increase of [Hg] in Arctic marine foodweb-based animals that began in the mid- to late-19th Century and accelerated in the 20th Century. The median man-made contribution to present-day Hg concentrations was 92.4% ranging from 74.2 to 94.4%. Confidence in our data was increased by accompanying data in some studies on stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N), which allowed us to normalize where necessary for changes in animal trophic position and feeding location over time, and by careful attention to the possibility of sample chemical diagenesis (Hg contamination or loss) which can alter the Hg content of ancient hard tissues. Conclusions: Wildlife hard tissue matrices provide consistent information with respect to the steep onset of Hg exposure of Arctic wildlife beginning in the latter half of the 19th Century. Today the man-made contribution was found to be above 92%. Stable isotope analyses provide important information to normalize for possible changes in diet over time, and are highly relevant to include when interpreting temporal trends, baseline concentrations as well as man-made anthropogenic contribution of Hg.

  10. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Rune, E-mail: rdi@dmu.dk [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Aarhus University, Roskilde (Denmark); Outridge, Peter M. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Hobson, Keith A. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2009-12-01

    Background: Because of concern about the recently increasing levels of biological Hg in some areas of the Arctic, we examined the literature concerning the long-term changes of Hg in humans and selected Arctic marine mammals and birds of prey since pre-industrial times (i.e. before 1800 A.D.), to determine the anthropogenic contribution to present-day Hg concentrations and the historical timing of any changes. Methods: Mercury data from published articles were extracted on historical and pre-industrial concentrations as percentages of the recent maximum, as well as the man-made contribution was calculated and depicted in a uniform manner to provide an overview of the development over time. Results and discussion: Trends of [Hg] in hard tissues such as teeth, hair and feathers consistently showed that there had been an order-of-magnitude increase of [Hg] in Arctic marine foodweb-based animals that began in the mid- to late-19th Century and accelerated in the 20th Century. The median man-made contribution to present-day Hg concentrations was 92.4% ranging from 74.2 to 94.4%. Confidence in our data was increased by accompanying data in some studies on stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N), which allowed us to normalize where necessary for changes in animal trophic position and feeding location over time, and by careful attention to the possibility of sample chemical diagenesis (Hg contamination or loss) which can alter the Hg content of ancient hard tissues. Conclusions: Wildlife hard tissue matrices provide consistent information with respect to the steep onset of Hg exposure of Arctic wildlife beginning in the latter half of the 19th Century. Today the man-made contribution was found to be above 92%. Stable isotope analyses provide important information to normalize for possible changes in diet over time, and are highly relevant to include when interpreting temporal trends, baseline concentrations as well as man-made anthropogenic contribution of Hg.

  11. Present-day serpentinization in the Tablelands, Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland: a Mars Analogue Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szponar, N.; Morrill, P. L.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.; Bower, D. M.; Steele, A.

    2010-12-01

    Serpentinization - a reaction between water and ultramafic rock (derived from the mantle) - is suspected to be a source of hydrocarbons such as methane on Mars. Through the hydration of ultramafic rock, this reaction produces hydrogen (H2) gas and reducing conditions necessary for abiogenic hydrocarbon synthesis, while also producing conditions amendable for the production of methane through microbial chemoautotrophic pathways. Mars analogue sites of present-day serpentinization can be used to determine what geochemical measurements are required for determining the reactions responsible for the methane in the Martian atmosphere. On Earth few locations that are known to exhibit active serpentinization are easily accessible. One such location is found in the Tablelands at Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Peridotite rocks similar to those found on Mars dominate the Tablelands thus making the Tablelands an important analogue site for potential ecosystems on Mars. Present-day serpentinization is evidenced by fluid seeps characterized by highly alkaline (pH 11 to 12) and highly reducing (as low as -820 mV) conditions, travertine and the presence of dissolved methane. These fluids contain high concentrations of Ca2+ (~5.00x104ppb) compared to freshwater inputs (~ 1.00x103) and react at the surface with atmospheric CO2 producing travertine deposits (as CaCO3 precipitate). Dissolved H2 gas produced abiogenically through the serpentinization reaction also provides copious geofuels, which can be used for chemosynthesis. Preliminary data has shown that microbial life lives in the high pH springs of the Tablelands. Ongoing studies of targeted compounds including phospholipid fatty acids and ether-linked lipids are being used to determine the microbial community compositions and verify the occurrence of Bacteria and Archaea in these fluids. An important question is also the source of the serpentinized fluid seeps. Hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes of these

  12. Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Griesfeller, Jan; Kipling, Zak; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G.; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-05-01

    A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing.

  13. Global hotspots in the present-day distribution of ancient animal and plant lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procheş, Şerban; Ramdhani, Syd; Perera, Sandun J; Ali, Jason R; Gairola, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The current distribution of biotic lineages that emerged in the deep time has both theoretical and practical implications, in particular for understanding the processes that have forged present-day biodiversity and informing local and regional-scale conservation efforts. To date however, there has been no examination of such patterns globally across taxa and geological time. Here we map the diversity of selected extant seed plant and tetrapod vertebrate lineages that were already in existence either in the latest Triassic or latest Cretaceous. For Triassic-age lineages, we find concentrations in several regions - both tropical and temperate - parts of North America, Europe, East and South-east Asia, northern South America, and New Zealand. With Cretaceous-age lineages, high values are relatively uniformly distributed across the tropics, with peak the values along the Andes, in South-east Asia and Queensland, but also in the temperate Cape Mountains. These patterns result from a combination of factors, including land area, geographic isolation, climate stability and mass extinction survival ability. While the need to protect many of these lineages has been long recognised, a spatially-explicit approach is critical for understanding and maintaining the factors responsible for their persistence, and this will need to be taken forward across finer scales. PMID:26498226

  14. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides

  15. Improved Present Day Euler Vector for the Sierra Nevada Block Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psencik, K. O.; Dixon, T. H.; Schmalzle, G.; McQuarrie, N.; McCaffery, R.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new surface velocity field for California and Nevada (UM-CANVAS) and use it to solve for a new angular velocity for the rigid Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. We use all publicly available GPS data for this region, from both continuous (CGPS) and episodic campaign (EGPS) sites. All data were re-processed to create a consistent velocity field. Site velocities are referenced to both stable North America and the central Basin and Range. The Sierra Nevada block is a relatively long, narrow block, bounded on the west by the San Andreas Fault, on the east by a complex fault system comprising the Eastern California Shear Zone and the Walker Lane Belt, and on the south by the Garlock fault. The northern extent of the block is not well defined. The new data along with a strain accumulation algorithm may help to define this boundary. Published estimates for the motion of Sierra Nevada block include clockwise, counter-clockwise, and no rotation relative to stable North America; the new velocity data may also help to resolve this discrepancy. To better understand the motion of the Sierra Nevada block over time, we compare our model of present day motion to a geologic model of block motion over the last 2-3 Ma (McQuarrie and Wernicke, 2005). McQuarrie, N. and B. Wernicke, An Animated tectonic reconstruction of southwestern North America since 36 Ma. Geosphere, V.1; no.3; 147-172; 2005.

  16. The growth of galactic bulges through mergers in LCDM haloes revisited. I. Present-day properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zavala, Jesus; Firmani, Claudio; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We use the combined data-sets of the Millennium I and II N-body cosmological simulations to revisit the impact of mergers in the growth of bulges in central galaxies in the LCDM scenario. To do so, we seed galaxies within the growing CDM haloes at each epoch using empirical relations to assign stellar and gaseous masses, and an analytical treatment to estimate the transfer of stellar mass to the bulge after a galaxy merger. Our results show that this model roughly reproduces the observed correlation between the bulge-to-total (B/T) mass ratio and stellar mass in present-day central galaxies as well as their observed demographics, although low-mass B/T < 0.1 (bulgeless) galaxies might be scarce relative to the observed abundance. In our merger-driven scenario, bulges have a composite stellar population made of (i) stars acquired from infalling satellites, (ii) stars transferred from the primary disc due to the strong merger-induced perturbations, and (iii) newly formed stars in starbursts trigger...

  17. Relation between Art Education and Democracy from Antique Greece to the Present Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali OZTÜRK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is a set of activities that are done in order to ensure the development of knowledge, skills and abilities in human behaviours. Art emphasizes the connection between emotion and thought. Also it has an effective role in the process and development of learning. But art education is a specific process of aesthetic changes in individuals’ behaviours through their own experience. It is known that art and art education are based on very old times such as the humanity history and the reality of it’s been continuously argued from Platon up to date. Democracy which is the other concept of this research is a form of an administration whereas the art is a form of existence. While the artist exists by creating, the democracy tries to exist by will. When it’s looked from the art, certainly, the art does not have the power that brings the freedom and the truth on its own, however without art; this power cannot take a form, because the democracy cannot look at the human’s pains and beauties as sensitive as the art. Aim of this research is to discuss the relation of art education and democracy as a form of implementation and functionality from antique Greece to the present day. The method of the study is descriptive and references in literature are interpreted.

  18. The influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Krško

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia. The migration of entire ethnic groups – especially after the dissolution of the Roman Empire – led to contact between native and incoming people. Ethnic contact also affected languages of these ethnic groups, as mutual influencing and borrowing of vocabulary occurred. Incoming ethnic groups had to find their way around in the new surroundings as well as identify and distinguish important landmarks, mainly hills, mountains and streams. We can approach the issue of pre-Slavic hydronyms from two points of view: one, by analyzing the names preserved from the time period before the arrival of Slavs in the territory of Slovakia, and two, by analyzing the names whose origin some authors consider to be pre-Slavic. The oldest name of a river from the Slovak region comes from the time period before the arrival of the Slavs. It was recorded by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius in years 166–180 AD as Granoua. It is a record of the river Hron at which Roman legions fought against the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Several historians and linguists believe that besides the rivers Dunaj, Morava and Tisa, other names of big rivers date from before the arrival of Slavs in the central Europe. In the paper, we analyse the names Dunaj, Morava, Váh, Hron, Tisa, Nitra and Hornád.

  19. PRESENT-DAY CRUSTAL MOVEMENT OFNORTH-EASTERN QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangQingliang; WangWenping; CuiDuxin; ZhuGuizhi; LiangWeifeng

    2003-01-01

    GPS observations of CMONOC and other network reveal that, relative to Dingxin fiducial station in Alashan block, the crustal movements of north-eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau and its adjacent regions have the following characteristics: (i)The western part of Qilian block is shortening and moving mainly northeastward, the 8 mm/a motion of southern margin of Qaidam basin is almost completely absorbed by compressed subsidence of Qaidam basin and uplift of Qilian mountain; (ii) Eastern part of Qilian block manifests itself mainly as block-like rotation or extrusion along Haiyuan left-lateral fault,with an angular velocity of 0.135 /Ma; (iii) Due to the clockwise rotation of the eastern Qilian sub-block in the NW Liupanshan range, Ordos block shows a slight anticlockwise rotation; (iv) Haiyuan left-lateral fault and northern edge thrust fault of Qilian mountain jointly constitute the major northeastern boundary of Qinghai-Tibet plateau judging from the present-day crustal movement.

  20. PRESENT-DAY CRUSTAL MOVEMENT OF NORTH-EASTERN QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingliang; Wang Wenping; Cui Duxin; Zhu Guizhi; Liang Weifeng

    2003-01-01

    GPS observations of CMONOC and other network reveal that, relative to Dingxin fiducial station in Alashan block, the crustal movements of north-eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau and its adjacent regions have the following characteristics: (i)The western part of Qilian block isshortening and moving mainly northeastward, the 8 mm/a motion of southern margin of Qaidam basin is almost completely absorbed by compressed subsidence of Qaidam basin and uplift of Qillan mountain; (ii) Eastern part of Qilian block manifests itself mainly as block-like rotation or extrusion along Haiyuan left-lateral fault,with an angular velocity of 0. 135 /Ma; (iii) Due to the clockwise rotation of the eastern Qilian sub-block in the NW Liupanshan range, Ordos block shows a slight anticlockwise rotation; (iv) Haiyuan left-lateral fault and northern edge thrust fault of Qilian mountain jointly constitute the major northeastern boundary of Qinghai-Tibet plateau judging from the present-day crustal movement.

  1. Present-day deformation of northern Pakistan from Salt Ranges to Karakorum Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanne, F.; Awan, A.; Pêcher, A.; Kausar, A.; Mugnier, J. L.; Khan, I.; Khan, N. A.; Van Melle, J.

    2014-03-01

    Episodic GPS measurements are used to quantify the present-day velocity field in the northwestern Himalaya from the southern Pamir to the Himalayan foreland. We report large postseismic displacements following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and several mm/yr thrusting of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau over the foreland, westward thrusting of Nanga Parbat above the Kohistan Plateau, and ~12 mm/yr SSE velocities of the Karakorum Ranges and of the Deosai and Kohistan Plateaus relative to the Indian Plate. Numerical simulations allow to determine a first approximation of slip along active faults: (1) substantial creep of ~87 mm/yr between 2006 and 2012 along the flat northeast of the Balakot-Bagh Thrust affected by the 2005 earthquake; (2) ~5 mm/yr slip of the central segment of the Salt Ranges and Potwar Plateau, whereas their western boundaries are clearly inactive over the time span covered by our measurements; (3) 13 mm/yr ductile slip along the Main Himalayan Thrust modeled by a dislocation dipping 7° northward, locked at a depth of 15 km; and (4) ~20 mm/yr slip along the shear zone forming the western boundary of Nanga Parbat, between depths of 1.6 and 6.5 km. Residuals velocities suggest the existence of left-lateral strike slip along the Jhelum Fault.

  2. Present-day spreading motion of the mid-Atlantic ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Over a long period of time, the spreading rate of the mid-Atlantic ridge has been ascertained by the geological age of the magnetic stripe laid out oneither side of the mid-ocean ridge in conjunction with the annals of the magnetic reversal history. Is the mid-Atlantic ridge still spreading today? How fast is it moving or are there any changes? All these questions remain unsolved. Basedon the newest ITRF2000 velocity field published by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS), the contemporary global plate motion model ITRF2000VEL is constructed, independent of any plate model hypothesis. Solutions for relative Euler's vectors of plate pairs as North America-Eurasia, North America- Africa andSouth America-Africa are obtained, implying current spreading rates of the mid-Atlantic ridge. Comparing them with results from the NNR-NUVEL1A model displays the present-day motion characteristics of the mid-Atlantic ridge that the mid-ridge of the South Atlantic, whose spreading is slowing down, spreads faster than the North Atlantic, whose spreading is speeding up.

  3. Present-day sea level rise: a synthesis; Hausse actuelle du niveau de la mer: synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, A.; Llovel, W. [Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales (LEGOS), Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 31 - Toulouse (France); Lombard, A. [CNES, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2008-11-15

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes have improved considerably in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing data sets have become available. Here we report on the current knowledge of present-day sea level change. We briefly present observational results on sea level change from satellite altimetry since 1993 and tide gauges for the past century. We next discuss recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on time scales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion, land ice mass loss and land water storage change. For the 1993-2003 decade, the sum of climate-related contributions agree well (within the error bars) with the altimetry-based sea level, half of the observed rate of rise being due to ocean thermal expansion, land ice plus land waters explaining the other half. Since about 2003, thermal expansion increase has stopped, whereas the sea level continues to rise, although at a reduced rate compared to the previous decade (2.5 mm/yr versus 3.1 mm/yr). Recent increases in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets appear able to account alone for the rise in sea level reported over the last five years. (authors)

  4. From light to mass: accessing the initial and present-day Galactic globular cluster mass functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The initial and present-day mass functions (ICMF and PDMF, respectively) of the Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are constructed based on their observed luminosities, the stellar evolution and dynamical mass-loss processes, and the mass-to-light ratio (MLR). Under these conditions, a Schechter-like ICMF is evolved for approximately a Hubble time and converted into the luminosity function (LF), which requires finding the values of 5 free parameters: the mean GC age (\\tA), the dissolution timescale of a $10^5 \\ms$ cluster ($\\tau_5$), the exponential truncation mass (\\mc) and 2 MLR parametrising constants. This is achieved by minimising the residuals between the evolved and observed LFs, with the minimum residuals and realistic parameters obtained with MLRs that increase with luminosity (or mass). The optimum PMDFs indicate a total stellar mass of $\\sim4\\times10^7$ \\ms\\ still bound to GCs, representing $\\sim15%$ of the mass in clusters at the beginning of the gas-free evolution. The corresponding ICMFs resemble ...

  5. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  6. The history of time and frequency from antiquity to the present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Judah

    2016-04-01

    I will discuss the evolution of the definitions of time, time interval, and frequency from antiquity to the present day. The earliest definitions of these parameters were based on a time interval defined by widely observed apparent astronomical phenomena, so that techniques of time distribution were not necessary. With this definition, both time, as measured by clocks, and frequency, as realized by some device, were derived quantities. On the other hand, the fundamental parameter today is a frequency based on the properties of atoms, so that the situation is reversed and time and time interval are now derived quantities. I will discuss the evolution of this transition and its consequences. In addition, the international standards of both time and frequency are currently realized by combining the data from a large number of devices located at many different laboratories, and this combination depends on (and is often limited by) measurements of the times of clocks located at widely-separated laboratories. I will discuss how these measurements are performed and how the techniques have evolved over time.

  7. Pro-colonial or Postcolonial? Appropriation of Japanese Colonial Heritage in Present-day Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Amae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of World War II, the Kuomintang (KMT (Guomindang government has erased all traces of Japanese rule from public space, deeming them “poisonous” to the people in Taiwan. This frenzy, often termed “de-Japanization” or qu Ribenhua in Chinese, included the destruction and alteration of Japanese structures. Yet, with democratization in the 1990s, the Japanese past has been revisited, and many Japa-nese structures have been reconstructed and preserved. This paper examines the social phenomenon of preserving Japanese heritage in present-day Taiwan. It mainly investigates religious/ spiritual architecture, such as Shinto shrines and martial arts halls (Butokuden, war monuments and Japanese statues and busts. A close investigation of these monuments finds that many of them are not restored and preserved in their original form but in a deformed/ transformed one. This finding leads the paper to conclude that the phenomenon is a postcolonial endeavour, rather than being “pro-colonial”, and that the preservation of Japanese heritage contributes to the construction and consolidation of a Taiwan-centric historiography in which Taiwan is imagined as multicultural and hybrid.

  8. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Peter; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A di...

  9. Detection of Prominent Stellar Disks in the Progenitors of Present-day Massive Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davari, Roozbeh H; Mobasher, Bahram; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Massive galaxies at higher redshifts ($\\emph{z}$ $>$ 2) show different characteristics from their local counterparts: They are compact and most likely have a disk. In this study, we trace the evolution of local massive galaxies by performing a detailed morphological analysis, namely, fitting single S\\'{e}rsic profiles and performing bulge+disk decompositions. We analyze $\\sim$ 250 massive galaxies selected from all CANDELS fields (COSMOS, UDS, EGS, GOODS-South and GOODS-North). We confirm that both star-forming and quiescent galaxies increase their sizes significantly from $\\emph{z}$ $\\approx$ 2.5 to the present day. The global S\\'{e}rsic index of quiescent galaxies increases over time (from $n$ $\\approx$ 2.5 to $n$ $>$ 4), while that of star-forming galaxies remains roughly constant ($n$ $\\approx$ 2.5). By decomposing galaxy profiles into bulge+disk components, we find that massive galaxies at high redshift have prominent stellar disks, which are also evident from visual inspection of the images. By $z$ $\\ap...

  10. The Bottom-Light Present Day Mass Function of the Peculiar Globular Cluster NGC 6535

    CERN Document Server

    Halford, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical mass calculations have suggested that the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 6535 belongs to a population of clusters with high mass-to-light ratios, possibly due to a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. We use published Hubble Space Telescope data to measure the present day stellar mass function of this cluster within its half-light radius and instead find that it is bottom-light, exacerbating the discrepancy between the dynamical measurement and its known stellar content. The cluster's proximity to the Milky Way bulge and its relatively strong velocity anisotropy are both reasons to be suspicious of the dynamical mass measurement, but we find that neither straightforwardly explains the sense and magnitude of the discrepancy. Although there are alternative potential explanations for the high mass-to-light ratio, such as the presence of large numbers of stellar remnants or dark matter, we find this cluster to be sufficiently perplexing that we now exclude it from a discussion of possible variati...

  11. Present-day stress-field in the Cooper basin of Australia: implications for petroleum exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backé, G.; King, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Cooper Basin is located in centre part of the Australian continent, 5000km away from the nearest plate boundary. This Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic basin is the largest onshore sedimentary basin producing oil and gas in Australia - mostly by fraccing tight reservoirs. Thus, an extensive database is available for studying the in-situ stress field in the basin. Previous studies have shown a significant variability if the stress field across the basin. However, the development of the mostly tight prospects require a good understanding of the structure of the reservoirs, mechanical properties of the stratigraphy, fracture geometry and density, in-situ stress field and fracture stimulation strategies in order to maximise the production This study provides new in-situ stress data from borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures, along with a description of the fractures present along the well trajectory. The geometry of the natural fault and fracture network is interpreted from 3D seismic data, and compared to the well data. Finally, we performed a series of numeric simulation to test the fault and fracture stability in the present-day stress field. These data and our interpretation are used to evaluate the geomechanical properties of the Cooper Basin. This method is reproducible to other oil-bearing basins around the world, but is also applicable to the development of engineered geothermal reservoir or evaluation of carbon dioxide storage site.

  12. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 640 ka and present day

    OpenAIRE

    A. Francke; Wagner, B.; Just, J.; N. Leicher; Gromig, R.; H. Baumgarten; H. Vogel; J. H. Lacey; Sadori, L.; T. Wonik; Leng, M. J.; G. Zanchetta; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical ...

  13. Effects of Present-Day Ice Melting on the Geodetic Measurements in Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Larsen, C. F.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Fujimoto, H.; Sun, W.; Sugano, T.; Kaufman, A. M.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    It is known that the southeast Alaska (SE-AK) is undergoing a rapid land uplift, which is considered to be mainly due to the effect of melting of past ice, especially in the last two hundred years after the little ice age (LIA). The crustal deformation caused by the post-glacial rebound (PGR) has been clearly detected by GPS and tidal gauge measurements and modeled (Larsen et al., 2004 and 2005). On the other hand, it is considered also that the observed uplift rate is affected by the present-day ice melting (PDIM), which is considered to be the effect of recent global warming (Larsen et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2006). The displacement measurements provide us useful information to evaluate the ice-melting rate and to discuss the viscosity of the earth. However, usually, it is difficult to separate the uplift rate due to the long- term viscous response of the earth by only using displacement observations, because the two effects (i.e. the elastic and viscous deformations) are mixed in the observed data. Related to this problem, Wahr et al. (1995) demonstrated a method to separate the viscous contribution from the observed data by collocating position and gravity measurements. Considered this, since 2006, we, a joint team of Japanese and U.S. researchers are carrying out the absolute gravity (AG) measurements once a year adding to the temporal and continuous GPS observations in SE-AK. Combining the AG measurements and GPS measurements is useful because the attraction part of gravity measurement is sensitive to a mass change of the present-day ice melting, while the past-ices should have no effect to the attraction part of the observed gravity change. In this context of the discussion, precise numerical estimation of the PDIM effect is important (Sato et al., 2007). Based on the two kinds of DEM (Digital Elevation Model), i.e. one is from the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and other is that from air photo dating data which were obtained in the period of

  14. Time evolution of primordial magnetic fields and present day extragalactic magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of the present thesis is the time evolution of Primordial Magnetic Fields which have been generated in the Early Universe. Assuming this so-called Cosmological Scenario of magnetogenesis to be true, it is shown in the following that this would account for the present day Extragalactic Magnetic Fields. This is particularly important in light of recent gamma ray observations which are used to derive a lower limit for the corresponding magnetic field strength, even though also an alternative approach, claiming instead that these observations are due to interactions with the Intergalactic Medium, is possible and will be tested here with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to describe the aforementioned evolution of Primordial Magnetic Fields, a set of general Master Equations for the spectral magnetic, kinetic and helical components of the system are derived and then solved numerically for the Early Universe. This semianalytical method allows it to perform a full quantitative study for the time development of the power spectra, in particular by fully taking into account the backreaction of the turbulent medium onto the magnetic fields. Applying the formalism to non-helical Primordial Magnetic Fields created on some characteristic length measure, it is shown that on large scales L their spectrum 5 builds up a slope which behaves as B∝L-(5)/(2) and governs the evolution of the coherence (or integral) scale. In addition, the claim of equipartition between the magnetic and the kinetic energy is found to be true. Extending the analysis to helical magnetic fields, it is observed that the time evolution changes dramatically, hence confirming quantitatively that an Inverse Cascade, i.e. an efficient transport of energy from small to large scales, as predicted in previous works, indeed does take place.

  15. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Gunter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating reprocessed data sets over a longer period of time, and now include a firn densification model to account for firn compaction and surface processes. A range of different GRACE gravity models were evaluated, as well as a new ICESat surface height trend map computed using an overlapping footprint approach. When the GIA models created from the combination approach were compared to in-situ GPS ground station displacements, the vertical rates estimated showed consistently better agreement than existing GIA models. In addition, the new empirically derived GIA rates suggest the presence of strong uplift in the Amundsen Sea and Philippi/Denman sectors, as well as subsidence in large parts of East Antarctica. The total GIA mass change estimates for the entire Antarctic ice sheet ranged from 53 to 100 Gt yr−1, depending on the GRACE solution used, and with an estimated uncertainty of ±40 Gt yr−1. Over the time frame February 2003–October 2009, the corresponding ice mass change showed an average value of −100 ± 44 Gt yr−1 (EA: 5 ± 38, WA: −105 ± 22, consistent with other recent estimates in the literature, with the mass loss mostly concentrated in West Antarctica. The refined approach presented in this study shows the contribution that such data combinations can make towards improving estimates of present day GIA and ice mass change, particularly with respect to determining more reliable uncertainties.

  16. Generation of harmonic frequencies and their effects in present day ICRF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole TEXTOR-94 ICRF system circuit has been analyzed, partially modelled and studied at the fundamental operating frequency and, more important, at harmonic frequencies thereof. It has been found that without appropriate measures, present day systems and especially the TEXTOR ICRF system are prone to spurious generation of power at the second harmonic frequency. This leads either to erroneous activation of the reflected power safety protection or to highly increased (in some cases doubled) voltages in the transmission lines and antennas. As the voltage standing waves at the second harmonic displace the total voltage maxima in the transmission lines and antennas, this also explains why arcs are not always found at the expected voltage maxima for the fundamental frequency. The model is also able to give additional explanations why the ASDEX-Upgrade ICRF system has dramatically improved its power handling capabilities after the introduction of the '3dB coupler reflection compensation scheme'. The output of one of the TEXTOR transmitters has been fitted with a quarter wave length shorted stub which has no effect on the operation at the fundamental frequency but which effectively shorts out the second harmonic. It has to be noted that eg. the Tore Supra RDL antennas are fitted with such a stub in the feeding transmission line whose function is to enter cooling water into the transmission line system. Hence, this could be the explanation of the apparent higher than average power handling capabilities of the TS antenna system. Experimental results clearly indicate a much improved operational power handling capability on plasma and an increased voltage stand-off when conditioning this antenna pair on vacuum. Limits have yet to be explored but already remarkable is the fact that since the installation of the quarter wavelength stub the reflected power safety system has been activated only once and furthermore so in poorly matched conditions

  17. Generation of harmonic frequencies and their effects in present day ICRF systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durodié, F.; Vervier, M.

    1999-09-01

    The whole TEXTOR-94 ICRF system [1,2] circuit has been analyzed, partially modelled and studied at the fundamental operating frequency and, more important, at harmonic frequencies thereof. It has been found that without appropriate measures, present day systems and especially the TEXTOR ICRF system are prone to spurious generation of power at the second harmonic frequency. This leads either to erroneous activation of the reflected power safety protection or to highly increased (in some cases doubled) voltages in the transmission lines and antennas. As the voltage standing waves at the second harmonic displace the total voltage maxima in the transmission lines and antennas, this also explains why arcs are not always found at the expected voltage maxima for the fundamental frequency. The model is also able to give additional explanations why the ASDEX-Upgrade ICRF system has dramatically improved its power handling capabilities after the introduction of the ``3dB coupler reflection compensation scheme'' [3,4]. The output of one of the TEXTOR transmitters has been fitted with a quarter wave length shorted stub which has no effect on the operation at the fundamental frequency but which effectively shorts out the second harmonic. It has to be noted that eg. the Tore Supra RDL [5] antennas are fitted with such a stub in the feeding transmission line whose function is to enter cooling water into the transmission line system. Hence, this could be the explanation of the apparent higher than average power handling capabilities of the TS antenna system. Experimental results clearly indicate a much improved operational power handling capability on plasma and an increased voltage stand-off when conditioning this antenna pair on vacuum. Limits have yet to be explored but already remarkable is the fact that since the installation of the quarter wavelength stub the reflected power safety system has been activated only once and furthermore so in poorly matched conditions.

  18. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, B. C.; Didova, O.; Riva, R. E. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; King, M. A.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Urban, T.

    2014-04-01

    This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating a firn densification model to account for firn compaction and surface processes as well as reprocessed data sets over a slightly longer period of time. A range of different Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity models were evaluated and a new Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) surface height trend map computed using an overlapping footprint approach. When the GIA models created from the combination approach were compared to in situ GPS ground station displacements, the vertical rates estimated showed consistently better agreement than recent conventional GIA models. The new empirically derived GIA rates suggest the presence of strong uplift in the Amundsen Sea sector in West Antarctica (WA) and the Philippi/Denman sectors, as well as subsidence in large parts of East Antarctica (EA). The total GIA-related mass change estimates for the entire Antarctic ice sheet ranged from 53 to 103 Gt yr-1, depending on the GRACE solution used, with an estimated uncertainty of ±40 Gt yr-1. Over the time frame February 2003-October 2009, the corresponding ice mass change showed an average value of -100 ± 44 Gt yr-1 (EA: 5 ± 38, WA: -105 ± 22), consistent with other recent estimates in the literature, with regional mass loss mostly concentrated in WA. The refined approach presented in this study shows the contribution that such data combinations can make towards improving estimates of present-day GIA and ice mass change, particularly with respect to determining more reliable uncertainties.

  19. Diversity and biogeography of present-day magnetotactic bacteria in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Wang, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A number of microorganisms are able to biomineralize iron minerals. Among them, magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) mineralize intracellular membrane-enveloped magnetite and/or greigite, known as magnetosomes that help cells to swim along the Earth's magnetic field. In recent years, MTB have become an attractive model system for investigating the biogeomagnetism. The occurrence of MTB has been reported in aquatic environments from freshwater to marine ecosystems. And, fossil magnetosomes are found to be potential carriers of natural remanent magnetization and indicators of paleoenvironmental changes. However, their distribution across heterogeneous habitats remains unclear. Here we report the diversity and biogeography of MTB from more than 20 locations from freshwater to saline habitats in eastern China. Great morphological variability was observed in MTB communities through light and transmission electron microscope observation. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes has revealed that identified MTB belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and the phylum Nitrospirae. The overall composition of MTB communities was compared, and we found a restricted distribution of MTB communities across a large spatial scale with pronounced endemicity. Variation partitioning analyses indicated that the biogeography of MTB is relatively more influenced by environmental factors (e.g., salinity, sulfate, total iron, Eh, and temperature) than geographic distance. More interestingly, we found, for the first time, that the strength of the Earth's magnetic field appears to influence the biogeography of MTB, implying an impact of geophysical effects on these microorganisms. Our results infer that MTB community represents a biogeographic distribution across the studied heterogeneous environments. Knowledge of the present-day MTB biogeography may be applied towards the reconstruction of paleo-environments and assessment of contribution of bacterial

  20. Statistical dynamical downscaling of present day and future precipitation regimes in southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, David; Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim; Fink, Andreas; Massmeyer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Southeast Asia has been identified as one of the hot-spots of climate change. While the projected changes in annual precipitation are comparatively small, there is a clear tendency towards more rainfall in the dry season and an increase in extreme precipitation events. In this study, a statistical dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is applied to obtain higher resolution and more robust regional climate change projections for tropical Southeast Asia with focus on Vietnam. First, a recent climate (RC) simulation with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a spatial resolution of ~50 km driven by ERA-Interim (1979-2008) is performed for the tropical region of Southeast Asia. For the SDD, six weather types (WTs) are selected for Vietnam during the wet season (April - October) using a k-means cluster analysis of daily zonal wind component in 850 hPa and 200 hPa from the RC run. For each calculated weather type, simulated representatives are selected from the RC run and are then further dynamically downscaled to a resolution of 0.0625° (7 km). By using historical WT frequencies, the simulated representatives are recombined to a high resolution rainfall climatology for the recent climate. It is shown that the SDD is generally able to capture the present day climatology and that the employment of the higher resolved simulated representatives enhances the performance of the SDD. However, an overestimation of rainfall at higher altitudes is found. To obtain future climate projections, an ensemble of eight CMIP5 model members are selected to study precipitation changes. For these projections, WT frequencies of future scenarios under two representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are taken into account for the mid-term scenario (2046-2065) and the long-term scenario (2081-2100). The strongest precipitation changes are found for the RCP8.5 scenario. Most of the models indicate a generally increase in precipitation amount in the wet period over Southeast

  1. Modelling of Hybrid Scenario: from Present-day Experiments toward ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An attractive operating scenario for ITER has recently emerged that combines long plasma duration similar to the steady-state scenario, together with the reliability of the reference H-mode regime: the so-called 'hybrid' scenario. Worldwide a significant experimental effort has been devoted to explore the operating space in present day tokamaks. This paper is an overview of the recent European modelling effort carried out within the Integrated Scenario Modelling group which aims at 1. Understanding the underlying physics of the hybrid regime in ASDEX-Upgrade and JET. 2. Extrapolating them toward ITER. Six JET and two ASDEX-Upgrade hybrid scenarios performed under different experimental conditions have been simulated in an interpretative and predictive way in order to address the current profile dynamics and its link with core confinement, the relative importance of magnetic shear, s, and E x B flow shear on the core turbulence, pedestal stability and H-L transition. The correlation of the improved confinement with an increased s/q at outer radii observed in JET and ASDEX-Upgrade discharges is consistent with the predictions based on the GLF23 model applied in the simulations of the ion and electron kinetic profiles. Projections to ITER hybrid scenarios have been carried out focusing on optimization of the heating/current drive schemes to reach and ultimately control the desired q-profile with the ITER actuators and constraints. Firstly, access condition to the hybrid-like q-profiles during the current ramp-up phase has been investigated. Secondly, from the interpreted role of the s/q ratio, ITER hybrid scenario flat-top performance has been optimized through tailoring the q-profile shape and pedestal conditions. EPED predictions of pedestal pressure and width have been used as constraints in the interpretative modelling while the core heat transport is predicted by GLF23. Finally, model based approach for real-time control of advanced tokamak scenarios

  2. Present-day Stress Pattern of Turkey from Inversion of Updated Earthquake Focal Mechanism Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özacar, A.

    2011-12-01

    Active tectonic setting of Turkey is characterized by different stress regimes. In order to analyze present-day tectonic stresses throughout the country, all available earthquake focal mechanisms with updated locations reported by the International Seismological Center (ISC) and national catalogues are compiled between 34° - 43° latitudes and 25° - 46° longitudes. Focal mechanisms of earthquakes with multiple solutions are chosen based on their reliability and consistency with the local tectonic setting. The resultant database which includes 1391 events occurred during the period 1909 - 2010 with magnitudes ranging from 2.0 to 8.0 and depths reaching up to 165 km, constitutes the base information for better active fault characterization in seismic hazard analyses. Using this catalogue, the pressure-tension axes, maximum-minimum horizontal stress axes, and tectonic stress regime of each earthquake are determined following the World Stress Map (WSM) project guidelines and analyzed separately for crustal and intermediate depth earthquakes. During stress inversion, crustal events are grouped in 36 and intermediate depth events in 2 distinct regions on the basis of their geographical proximity, kinematic homogeneity and tectonic setting to minimize the amount of heterogeneity and map the variations in the stress field. In the following stage, results of independent stress inversions including orientations of the three principal compressive stresses (σ1 = maximum, σ2 = intermediate, and σ3 = minimum), ratio of stress magnitudes (σ2 - σ3 / σ1 - σ3), and dominant stress regimes, are analyzed along with seismicity recorded by national seismic networks and previously mapped active faults. Our results reveal widespread strike-slip faulting in the crust throughout Turkey including North Anatolian Fault Zone, North Aegean Trough, Pliny-Strabo Trenches, Paphos Transform Fault, Tuzgölü Fault, East Anatolian Fault Zone, and East Anatolian Plateau. The regions

  3. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  4. Simulations of Hydrological Cycle Changes Between the LGM and the Present Day over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; LI Weiliang; HE Jinhai; CHEN Longxun

    2010-01-01

    Based on the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project(ISCCP)data in 1983-2006,it is found that there is a high value center of high cloud amount over the Tibetan Plateau(TP),while there is a high value center of middle cloud amount over the Sichuan Basin extending to the coastal area of southeastern China along the same latitude,and a low one over the TP.The present day(PD)and Last Glacial Maximum(LGM)climates are simulated by using the NCAR Community Climate Model(CCM3)nested with a regional mesoscale model(MM5).Comparing the clouds simulated by MM5 with the ISCCP data,it is found that the main patterns of high and middle clouds over China can be reproduced by MM5,which implies that the climate characteristics of clouds might he dominated by relative humidity.Meanwhile,the vertical distributions of water vapor and temperature are also well simulated by MM5.Furthermore,the hydrological cycle changes between the LGM and PD simulations are examined.The results show that during the LGM,the tropospheric temperature decreases in summer with a high value reduction center in the upper and middle troposphere; in winter,a high value reduction center of temperature appears in the middle troposphere over southern China,while the temperature in the upper and middle troposphere increases over northern China.There obviously exists a positive correlation between the water vapor content and temperature change.The water vapor content mostly decreases with the maximum drop in the near-ground surface layer,but it increases in the upper and middle troposphere over northern China in winter.Changes of water vapor content gradually weaken with the altitude increasing,reaching the minimum in the upper troposphere.The relative humidity can either increase or decrease with the maximum change greater than 15%.It is not conservative on the regional scale,and its change is consistent with the changes of middle and low clouds.During the LGM,the high cloud reduces nationwide except over

  5. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  6. Liquid Water Lakes on Mars Under Present-Day Conditions: Sustainability and Effects on the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldspiel, Jules M.

    2015-11-01

    Decades of Mars exploration have produced ample evidence that aqueous environments once existed on the surface. Much evidence supports groundwater emergence as the source of liquid water on Mars [1-4]. However, cases have also been made for rainfall [5] and snow pack melts [6].Whatever the mechanism by which liquid water is emplaced on the surface of Mars, whether from groundwater seeps, atmospheric precipitation, or some combination of sources, this water would have collected in local topographic lows, and at least temporarily, would have created a local surface water system with dynamic thermal and hydrologic properties. Understanding the physical details of such aqueous systems is important for interpreting the past and present surface environments of Mars. It is also important for evaluating potential habitable zones on or near the surface.In conjunction with analysis of surface and core samples, valuable insight into likely past aqueous sites on Mars can be gained through modeling their formation and evolution. Toward that end, we built a 1D numerical model to follow the evolution of small bodies of liquid water on the surface of Mars. In the model, liquid water at different temperatures is supplied to the surface at different rates while the system is subjected to diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions. We recently simulated cases of cold (275 K) and warm (350 K) water collecting in a small depression on the floor of a mid southern latitude impact crater. When inflows create an initial pool > 3 m deep and infiltration can be neglected, we find that the interior of the pool can remain liquid over a full Mars year under the present cold and dry climate as an ice cover slowly thickens [7]. Here we present new results for the thermal and hydrologic evolution of surface water and the associated subsurface region for present-day conditions when infiltration of surface water into the subsurface is considered.[1] Pieri (1980) Science 210.[2] Carr

  7. A NUTRITION OVERVIEW THROUGH CENTURIES. THE PRESENT-DAY NEED OF NUTRITIONAL EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona ILAŞ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The type of alimentation and the food quality of individuals has undergone remarkable changes along with the progress of the human species. This study contains an historical overview regarding human nutrition from the primitive forms until the paradoxes of contemporary alimentation. Nutritional education aims to inform and to train a person about food choices, dosage and cooking, how to identify authentic food and to understand the value of nutrition. Children need a balanced diet in order to grow and to become healthy adults. The importance of nutritional education in school is discussed taking into account the need of creating healthy eating habits which should be followed through the whole life, but also the lack of physical activity to children.

  8. Potential autotrophic metabolisms in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, P. L.; Miles, S.; Kohl, L.; Kavanagh, H.; Ziegler, S. E.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as windows into the biogeochemistry of this subsurface exothermic environment rich in H2 and CH4 gases. Biogeochemical carbon transformations in these systems are of interest because serpentinization creates conditions that are amenable to abiotic and biotic reduction of carbon. However, little is known about the metabolic capabilities of the microorganisms that live in this environment. To determine the potential for autotrophic metabolisms, bicarbonate and CO substrate addition microcosm experiments were performed using water and sediment from an ultra-basic reducing spring in the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. CO was consistently observed to be utilized in the Live but not the Killed controlled replicates amended with 10% 13C labelled CO and non-labelled (natural C isotope abundance) CO. In the Live CO microcosms with natural C isotope abundance, the residual CO became enriched in 13C (~10 ‰) consistent with a decrease in the fraction of CO remaining. In the Killed CO controlled replicates with natural C isotope abundance the CO showed little 13C enrichment (~1.3 ‰). The data from the Live CO microcosms were well described by a Rayleigh isotopic distillation model, yielding an isotopic enrichment factor for microbial CO uptake of 15.7 ×0.5 ‰ n=2. These data suggest that there was microbial CO utilization in these experiments. The sediment and water from the 13C-labelled and non-labelled, Live and Killed microcosms were extracted for phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to determine changes in community composition between treatments as well as to determine the microbial uptake of CO. The difference in community composition between the Live and Killed microcosms was not readily resolvable based on PLFA distributions. Additionally, the microbial uptake of 13CO had minimal to no affect on the δ13C of the cellular biomarkers, with the

  9. Far-infrared and accretion luminosities of the present-day active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation (SF) and black hole accretion luminosities, using a sample of 492 type-2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z < 0.22, which are detected in the far-infrared (FIR) surveys with AKARI and Herschel. We adopt FIR luminosities at 90 and 100 um as SF luminosities, assuming the proposed linear proportionality of star formation rate with FIR luminosities. By estimating AGN luminosities from [OIII]5007 and [OI]6300 emission lines, we find a positive linear trend between FIR and AGN luminosities over a wide dynamical range. This result appears to be inconsistent with the recent reports that low-luminosity AGNs show essentially no correlation between FIR and X-ray luminosities, while the discrepancy is likely due to the Malmquist and sample selection biases. By analyzing the spectral energy distribution, we find that pure-AGN candidates, of which FIR radiation is thought to be AGN-dominated, show significantly low-SF activities. These AGNs hosted by low-SF galaxies are...

  10. Review: Hans Eric Stolten (ed.): History Making and Present Day Politics. The Meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa (2007) Buchbesprechung: Hans Eric Stolten (Hrsg.): History Making and Present Day Politics. The Meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa (2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Schäfer

    2009-01-01

    Review of the edited volume: Hans Eric Stolten (ed.): History Making and Present Day Politics. The Meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa, Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute 2007, ISBN 978-91-7106-581-0, 376 pages. Besprechung des Sammelbandes: Hans Eric Stolten (Hrsg.): History Making and Present Day Politics. The Meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa, Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute 2007, ISBN 978-91-7106-581-0, 376 Seiten.

  11. [Dental insurance systems in light of present-day prevention potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthaler, T; Zollinger, E

    1979-05-01

    The situation of public dental insurance systems of several countries in Western Europe was examined in the light of the fact that caries and periodontitis may be prevented. Available epidemiological data were discussed as to their relevance. In Switzerland, dental insurance systems are of minor importance. In voluntary insurance plans for adults, prevention is scarcely included. On the other hand, the communities provide subsidies for dental care of schoolchildren, and prevention is an integral part of this system. In the German Federal Republic, dental insurance costs have quadrupled during the period 1970-1977. Preventive measures are not subsidized, and in recent years, more than half of the insurance payments were used for prosthetic dentistry. The few dental statistics available show that dental treatment of children is unsatisfactory. In Sweden, preventive measures are refunded at 75%. Since the introduction of the public insurance system in 1974 prosthetic dental work has increased at the expense of conservative treatment. In France, the social security system pays for about three quarters of conservative and simple prosthetic work. Prevention has so far not been included. Despite liberal refunding of restorative work markedly higher prevalence of tooth loss was found in lower social levels as compared to higher levels. In Great Britain, the National Health Service was introduced in 1948. As in France, tooth loss is most frequent in lower social levels. The findings are discussed with respect to cost developments and oral health prospects in Switzerland. Attention is focused upon the observation that the insurance systems were conceived at a time when realistic preventive programs were unavailable and their success had not yet been demonstrated in large groups. PMID:293044

  12. Present-day formation and seasonal evolution of linear dune gullies on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquon, Kelly; Gargani, Julien; Massé, Marion; Conway, Susan J.

    2016-08-01

    adjacent dune) that encompass the active site. South- and SSW-facing dune slopes are those which preferentially host CO2 frost deposits, however, it is only those with angles of ∼20° just below the crest which possess linear dune gullies, suggesting a slope-limited formation process. These observations provide a wealth of temporal and morphometric data that can be used to undertake numerical modeling, to direct future image monitoring and guide laboratory experiments that can be used to better constrain the formation process of these features.

  13. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 640 ka and present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Just, J.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Baumgarten, H.; Vogel, H.; Lacey, J. H.; Sadori, L.; Wonik, T.; Leng, M. J.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.

    2015-09-01

    Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points), and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points) and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points), respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm) mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6 whereas

  14. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania between 640 ka and present day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Francke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP, a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points, and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points, respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6

  15. Elevation of dopamine level reduces host-seeking activity in the adult female mosquito Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumitsu Yuki; Irie Keiichi; Satho Tomomitsu; Aonuma Hitoshi; Dieng Hamady; Ahmad Abu; Nakashima Yukihiko; Mishima Kenichi; Kashige Nobuhiro; Miake Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquito-borne viruses are transmitted to human hosts via blood-feeding behavior of female mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes seek a host to take blood meals (host-seeking behavior). In order to prevent virus infections, it is important to understand how they modulate host-seeking behavior. Dopamine (DA) in the central nervous system acts as a neuromediator that regulates a variety of behaviors in insects. In female mosquitoes, host-seeking behavior increases when DA levels in ...

  16. Review: Hans Eric Stolten (ed.): History Making and Present Day Politics. The Meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa (2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Schäfer

    2009-01-01

    Review of the edited volume: Hans Eric Stolten (ed.): History Making and Present Day Politics. The Meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa, Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute 2007, ISBN 978-91-7106-581-0, 376 pages.

  17. Buchbesprechung: Hans Eric Stolten (Hrsg.): History making and present day politics. The meaning of collective memory in South Africa (2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Review of the edited volume: Hans Eric Stolten (ed.): History Making and Present Day Politics. The Meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa, Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute 2007, ISBN 978-91-7106-581-0, 376 p.

  18. Host plant pubescence: Effect on silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, fourth instar and pharate adult dimensions and ecdysteroid titer fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B. Gelman

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to generate physiologically synchronous groups of insects is vital to the performance of investigations designed to test insect responses to intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. During a given instar, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, increase in depth but not in length or width. A staging system to identify physiologically synchronous 4th instar and pharate adult silverleaf whiteflies based on increasing body depth and the development of the adult eye has been described previously. This study determined the effect of host plant identity on ecdysteroid fluctuations during the 4th instar and pharate adult stages, and on the depth, length and width dimensions of 4th instar/pharate adult whiteflies. When grown on the pubescent-leafed green bean, tomato and poinsettia plants, these stages were significantly shorter and narrower, but attained greater depth than when grown on the glabrous-leafed cotton, collard and sweet potato plants. Thus, leaf pubescence is associated with reduced length and width dimensions, but increased depth dimensions in 4th instars and pharate adults. For all host plants, nymphal ecdysteroid titers peaked just prior to the initiation of adult development. However, when reared on pubescent-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred in nymphs that had attained a depth of 0.2 to 0.25 mm (Stage 3 - 4. When reared on glabrous-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred earlier, in nymphs that had attained a depth of only 0.15-0.18 mm (Stage 2 Old - early 3. Therefore, based on ecdysteroid concentration, it appears that Stage-2, -3 and -4/5 nymphs reared on pubescent-leafed plants are physiologically equivalent to Stage-1, -2 Young and -2 Old/3, respectively, nymphs reared on glabrous-leafed plants. The host plant affected the width but not the height of the nymphal-adult premolt ecdysteroid peak. However, leaf pubescence was not the determining factor. Thus

  19. Risk factors for syngeneic graft-versus-host disease after adult hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kristina M; Holmberg, Leona A; Leisenring, Wendy; Fefer, Alexander; Guthrie, Katherine A; Tylee, Tracy S; McDonald, George B; Bensinger, William I; Nelson, J Lee

    2004-09-15

    Syngeneic graft-versus-host disease (sGVHD) has been described after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) but remains poorly defined. We retrospectively reviewed adult syngeneic HCTs at our center (1980-2002) for sGVHD to investigate incidence, morbidity, and risk factors with a primary focus on parity. Among 119 transplantations, there were 21 cases of biopsy-proven sGVHD. The cumulative incidence was 18%, with multiorgan involvement in 6 cases and 1 death. sGVHD was more frequent when the donor was parous (32%) than nulliparous (9%) or male (13%; P =.03) and when the recipient was parous (31%) than nulliparous (7%) or male (13%; P =.02). Other univariable risk factors included older age (P <.01), busulfan/melphalan/thiotepa conditioning (P <.01), interleukin-2 (P =.02), HLA-A26 (P =.03), and more recent transplantation year (P <.01). Overall, risk factors were similar to those described in GVHD. Although an independent effect of parity could not be completely separated from other factors, donor and recipient pregnancy history merits further investigation. PMID:15117763

  20. Iceland hotspot track in southeast Greenland causes huge present-day vertical viscoelastic motion of the bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael; van Dam, Tonie; Wahr, John; Bamber, Jonathan; Wouters, Bert; Helm, Veit; Willis, Michael; Csatho, Beata; Knudsen, Per; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Kjær, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    The process of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) represents the ongoing response of the solid Earth to past ice mass loss that occurred following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21 ka B.P.). The magnitude of the GIA uplift depends on the temporal history of the ice load and is highly sensitive to variations in upper mantle viscosity. Greenland GIA is thought to be well contained and due to relative high viscosity, influence of more recent changes e.g. since the Little Ice Age have minor present-day effect (uplift due to recent ice mass changes. We reconsider the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet since LGM and estimate a total ice mass loss equivalent to sea level rise of 4.9 m since LGM. Our observations suggest southeast and northwest Greenland, subject to present-day major ice loss, also contributed by significantly more mass loss on millennia scale than previously estimated.

  1. Ground deformation and gravity variations modelled from present-day ice thinning in the vicinity of glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Memin, A.; Rogister, Y.; J. Hinderer; Llubes, M.; Berthier, E.; Boy, J. -P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The solid Earth deforms because of post-glacial rebound due to the viscous relaxation following the last deglaciation but also because of present-day elastic deformation induced by ice thinning. In this paper, we compute elastic loading Green's function associated to the tilt of the ground in the vicinity of glaciers using a Love number formalism for a stratified non-rotating spherical Earth model. We compare this global approach with the plane approximation in terms of he...

  2. Filozofia i świat współczesny (Philosophy and the present-day world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Judycki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at showing what role philosophical education should fulfill in the present-day world. One of the main causes of cultural, scientific and technological development of the Western civilization can be seen in the close cooperation between philosophy, theology, science and humanities. Although modern science functions independently from philosophy, it is nevertheless possible that even today fundamental theoretical problems in science and speculative philosophical problems are closely connected and mutually influence each other.Characteristic for present-day world is the broad access to education and information, but new means of information which we possess today are also used as means of manipulation. Philosophical education can fulfill the role of a defense mechanism against manipulation because it leads to the development of critical attitude and to the very broad understanding of natural and social world. Only uncompromising desire for truth, broad understanding of natural and social world, the habit of critical thinking could in an important way influence the development of true tolerance and harmony in the social life in the present-day world.

  3. Simulating the Greenland ice sheet under present-day and palaeo constraints including a new discharge parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Calov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new sub-grid scale parameterization for the ice discharge into the ocean through outlet glaciers and inspect the role of different observational and palaeo constraints for the choice of an optimal set of model parameters. This parameterization was introduced into the polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS, which is coupled to the regional climate model of intermediate complexity REMBO. Using the coupled model, we performed large ensemble simulations over the last two glacial cycles. We exploit two major parameters: a melt parameter in the surface melt scheme of REMBO and an ice discharge parameter in our parameterization of ice discharge. Our constraints are the present-day Greenland ice sheet surface elevation, surface mass balance partition (ratio between ice discharge and total precipitation and the Eemian interglacial elevation drop relative to present-day in the vicinity of the NEEM ice core. We show that the ice discharge parameterization enables us to simulate both the correct ice-sheet shape and mass balance partition at the same time without explicitly resolving the Greenland outlet glaciers. For model verification, we compare simulated total and sectoral ice discharge with those from other findings, including observations. For the model versions, which are inside the range of observational and palaeo constraints, our simulated Greenland ice sheet contribution to Eemian sea level rise relative to present-day amounts to 1.4 m on average (in the range of 0.6 and 2.5 m.

  4. Evolution of the stress field in the southern Scotia Arc from the late Mesozoic to the present-day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, Adolfo; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Bohoyo, Fernando; Mink, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    The geological evolution of the Scotia Arc, which developed between Antarctica and South America, has facilitated the connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and, has important global implications. To improve the knowledge of the late Mesozoic evolution of the southern Scotia Arc, over 6000 brittle mesostructures were measured over the last 20 years at different outcrops from the northern Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands as well as the James Ross and South Orkney archipelagos. This dataset covers a length of more than 1000 km of the arc. Fault data were analysed using the Etchecopar, y-R, Right Dihedra, Stress Inversion and Search Grid Inversion Palaeostress Determination methods. A total of 275 stress tensors were obtained. The results showed that the maximum horizontal stress was in the ENE-WSW and the NW-SE orientations and that the horizontal extension tensors were oriented NE-SW and NW-SE. In addition, seismic activity and focal mechanism solutions were analysed using the Gephart method to establish the present-day stress field and characterise the active tectonics. The results obtained suggest that there is a regional NE-SW compression and a NW-SE extension regime at the present day. The Southern Scotia Arc has a complex geological history due to the different tectonic settings (transform, convergent and divergent) that have affected this sector during its geological evolution from the late Mesozoic until the present day. Six stress fields were obtained from the brittle mesostructure population analysis in the region. The NW-SE and N-S maximum horizontal stresses were related to a combination of Mesozoic oceanic subduction of the former Phoenix Plate under the Pacific margin of the Antarctic Plate, Mesozoic-Cenozoic subduction of the northern Weddell Sea and the Oligocene to the Middle Miocene dextral strike-slip movement between the Scotia and Antarctic plates along the South Scotia Ridge. The NE-SW compression was related to

  5. Past agricultural land use and present-day fire regimes can interact to determine the nature of seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhler, John D; Orrock, John L

    2016-06-01

    Historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes can have significant effects on contemporary ecosystems. Although past agricultural land use can lead to long-term changes in plant communities, it remains unclear whether these persistent land-use legacies alter plant-consumer interactions, such as seed predation, and whether contemporary disturbance (e.g., fire) alters the effects of historical agriculture on these interactions. We conducted a study at 27 sites distributed across 80,300 ha in post-agricultural and non-agricultural longleaf pine woodlands with different degrees of fire frequency to test the hypothesis that past and present-day disturbances that alter plant communities can subsequently alter seed predation. We quantified seed removal by arthropods and rodents for Tephrosia virginiana and Vernonia angustifolia, species of conservation interest. We found that the effects of land-use history and fire frequency on seed removal were contingent on granivore guild and microhabitat characteristics. Tephrosia virginiana removal was greater in low fire frequency sites, due to greater seed removal by rodents. Although overall removal of V. angustifolia did not differ among habitats, rodents removed more seeds than arthropods at post-agricultural sites and non-agricultural sites with low fire frequencies, but not at non-agricultural sites with high fire frequencies. Land-use history and fire frequency also affected the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and removal of V. angustifolia. Our results suggest that historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes may alter seed predation by shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators among habitats, with potential consequences for the establishment of rare plant species consumed by one or both predators. PMID:26905418

  6. Assessment of present day geomorphological dynamics to decipher landscape evolution around the Paleolithic sites of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerker, Michael; Schillaci, Calogero; Melis, Rita; Mussi, Margherita

    2014-05-01

    The area of Melka Kunture (central Ethiopia) is one of the most important clusters of Paleolithic sites in Eastern Africa. The archaeological record spans from c. 1.7 Ma onwards, with a number of stratified occurrences of Oldowan, Acheulean, Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age industries, together with faunal remains and human fossils. However, the archaeological sites are endangered by flooding and soil erosion. The main excavation area lies close to the convergence of the Awash river with the Atabella river, one of the main tributaries of the upper Awash catchment. In the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands, gully networks develop especially in the vicinity of the active and inactive river meanders. Various erosion processes are linked to specific driving factors such as the rainfall regime, the land use/cover changes and vertic soils with a specific hydrological behaviour. It was documented in the field and by previous research that the origin of most of the man made erosion channels is due to animal pathways and car tracks. However, paleolandscape features increase the general erosion risk. Former wetland areas and deposition zones are particularly affected by soil erosion processes. Hence, the spatial distribution and characteristics of present day geomorphic processes also reveal information on the paleolandscape. In order to assess landscape evolution and present day geomorphologic dynamics, we mapped the geomorphology describing in detail the present-day slope processes at a 10.000 scale. We performed a detailed terrain analysis based on high resolution DEMs such as SRTM-X with 25m resolution and ALOS/PRISM with 10m resolution to characterize the main erosion processes and surface runoff dynamics. The latter ones are simulated using a Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method. Landuse was delineated for a larger area using ASTER 25m multispectral data. Finally, using calibrated topographic indices and a simple hydrological model we were able to detect and

  7. Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Vizcaino, Miren; Fyke, Jeremy; van Kampenhout, Leo; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-02-01

    We present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) as simulated by the global, coupled ocean-atmosphere-land Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a horizontal resolution of ˜1° in the past, present and future (1850-2100). CESM correctly simulates present-day Antarctic sea ice extent, large-scale atmospheric circulation and near-surface climate, but fails to simulate the recent expansion of Antarctic sea ice. The present-day Antarctic ice sheet SMB equals 2280 ± 131 {Gt year^{-1}} , which concurs with existing independent estimates of AIS SMB. When forced by two CMIP5 climate change scenarios (high mitigation scenario RCP2.6 and high-emission scenario RCP8.5), CESM projects an increase of Antarctic ice sheet SMB of about 70 {Gt year^{-1}} per degree warming. This increase is driven by enhanced snowfall, which is partially counteracted by more surface melt and runoff along the ice sheet's edges. This intensifying hydrological cycle is predominantly driven by atmospheric warming, which increases (1) the moisture-carrying capacity of the atmosphere, (2) oceanic source region evaporation, and (3) summer AIS cloud liquid water content.

  8. Using repeated precise gps campaigns for research of present-day crustal movement and strain in the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The problem of crustal movement in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau isa hotstopic of the present-day international geodetic world. GPS observations in 1993, 1995 and 1997 are used to survey the three-dimensional displacement of GPS monitoring station in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and to calculate and analyze the present-day crustal movement and strain in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The result of repeated campaign shows that the crustal movement in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is still compressing in the north and south directions, extending in the west and east directions, and uplifting in the vertical direction. The relative convergence velocity of the Himalayan block is approximately (19.5 ± 1.7) mm/a, the strain velocity is about (5.5 ± 6.0) mm/a, and the uplifting velocity is some (7.6 ± 5.2) mm/a. The compression velocity of the Tibet block relative to Golmud in the north and south directions is (9.3 ± 4.6) mm/a, the strain velocity of the middle part in the west and east directions is (15.6 ± 6.3) mm/a, reflecting the plateau lateral extruding movement. The Himalayan block is mainly compressing strain, and the middle part of the Tibet block is mainly extending strain. The highest extending and the compressing strain are 0.131×106/a and-0.189×106/a, respectively.

  9. MOCCA-SURVEY Database I. Accreting White Dwarf Binary Systems in Globular Clusters I. Cataclysmic Variables -- present-day population

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, Diogo T; Askar, Abbas; Leigh, Nathan; Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, which is the first in a series of papers associated with cataclysmic variables and related objects, we introduce the CATUABA code, a numerical machinery written for analysis of the MOCCA simulations, and show some first results by investigating the present-day population of cataclysmic variables in globular clusters. Emphasis was given on their properties and the observational selection effects when observing and detecting them. In this work we analysed in this work six models, including three with Kroupa distributions of the initial binaries. We found that for models with Kroupa initial distributions, considering the standard value of the efficiency of the common envelope phase adopted in BSE, no single cataclysmic variable was formed only via binary stellar evolution, i. e., in order to form them, strong dynamical interactions have to take place. We show and explain why this is inconsistent with observational and theoretical results. Our results indicate that the population of cataclysmic var...

  10. Present-day oxidative subsidence of organic soils and mitigation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverel, Steven J.; Ingrum, Timothy; Leighton, David

    2016-05-01

    Subsidence of organic soils in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta threatens sustainability of the California (USA) water supply system and agriculture. Land-surface elevation data were collected to assess present-day subsidence rates and evaluate rice as a land use for subsidence mitigation. To depict Delta-wide present-day rates of subsidence, the previously developed SUBCALC model was refined and calibrated using recent data for CO2 emissions and land-surface elevation changes measured at extensometers. Land-surface elevation change data were evaluated relative to indirect estimates of subsidence and accretion using carbon and nitrogen flux data for rice cultivation. Extensometer and leveling data demonstrate seasonal variations in land-surface elevations associated with groundwater-level fluctuations and inelastic subsidence rates of 0.5-0.8 cm yr-1. Calibration of the SUBCALC model indicated accuracy of ±0.10 cm yr-1 where depth to groundwater, soil organic matter content and temperature are known. Regional estimates of subsidence range from 1.8 cm yr-1. The primary uncertainty is the distribution of soil organic matter content which results in spatial averaging in the mapping of subsidence rates. Analysis of leveling and extensometer data in rice fields resulted in an estimated accretion rate of 0.02-0.8 cm yr-1. These values generally agreed with indirect estimates based on carbon fluxes and nitrogen mineralization, thus preliminarily demonstrating that rice will stop or greatly reduce subsidence. Areas below elevations of -2 m are candidate areas for implementation of mitigation measures such as rice because there is active subsidence occurring at rates greater than 0.4 cm yr-1.

  11. Xenogeneic Transfer of Adult Quail (Coturnix coturnix) Spermatogonial Stem Cells to Embryonic Chicken (Gallus gallus) Hosts: A Model for Avian Conservation1

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mandi; McDonald, Nastassja; Durrant, Barbara; Jensen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As advanced reproductive technologies have become routine for domesticated species, they have begun to be applied in the field of endangered species conservation. For avian conservation, the most promising technology is the transfer of germ stem cells of exotic species to domestic hosts for the production of gametes. In this study, adult quail (model for exotic species) spermatogonial stem cells were xenogeneically transferred to stages 14–17 chicken host embryos. Fluorescent cellular dyes, q...

  12. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tropical cyclone-induced storm surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Mason, Matthew S.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of major storm surges in the last decade have dramatically emphasized the immense destructive capabilities of extreme water level events, particularly when driven by severe tropical cyclones. Given this risk, it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood and erosion management, engineering and for future land-use planning and to ensure the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. Australia has a long history of coastal flooding from tropical cyclones. Using a novel integration of two modeling techniques, this paper provides the first estimates of present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia, and the first estimates that combine the influence of astronomical tides, storm surges generated by both extra-tropical and tropical cyclones, and seasonal and inter-annual variations in mean sea level. Initially, an analysis of tide gauge records has been used to assess the characteristics of tropical cyclone-induced surges around Australia. However, given the dearth (temporal and spatial) of information around much of the coastline, and therefore the inability of these gauge records to adequately describe the regional climatology, an observationally based stochastic tropical cyclone model has been developed to synthetically extend the tropical cyclone record to 10,000 years. Wind and pressure fields derived for these synthetically generated events have then been used to drive a hydrodynamic model of the Australian continental shelf region with annual maximum water levels extracted to estimate exceedance probabilities around the coastline. To validate this methodology, selected historic storm surge events have been simulated and resultant storm surges compared with gauge records. Tropical cyclone induced exceedance probabilities have been combined with

  13. Dusty wind of W Hya. Multi-wavelength modelling of the present-day and recent mass-loss

    CERN Document Server

    Khouri, T; de Koter, A; Decin, L; Min, M; de Vries, B L; Lombaert, R; Cox, N L J

    2015-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars go through a period of intense mass-loss at the end of their lives in a phase known as the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). During the AGB a significant fraction of their initial mass is expelled in a stellar wind. This process controls the final stages of their evolution and contributes to the chemical evolution of galaxies. However, the wind-driving mechanism of AGB stars is not yet well understood, especially so for oxygen-rich sources. Characterizing both the present-day mass-loss and wind structure and the evolution of the mass-loss rate of such stars is paramount to advancing our understanding of this processes. We modelled the dust envelope of W Hya using an advanced radiative transfer code. The dust model was analysed in the light of a previously calculated gas-phase wind model and compared to measurements available in the literature, such as infrared spectra, infrared images, and optical scattered light fractions. We find that the dust spectrum of W Hya can partly be ex...

  14. A novel GIS-based tool for estimating present-day ocean reference depth using automatically processed gridded bathymetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurecka, Mirosława; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Migoń, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computing the present-day value of the reference depth (dr) which is an essential input information for assessment of past sea-level changes. The method applies a novel automatic geoprocessing tool developed using Python script and ArcGIS, and uses recent data about ocean floor depth, sediment thickness, and age of oceanic crust. The procedure is multi-step and involves creation of a bathymetric dataset corrected for sediment loading and isostasy, delineation of subduction zones, computation of perpendicular sea-floor profiles, and statistical analysis of these profiles versus crust age. The analysis of site-specific situations near the subduction zones all around the world shows a number of instances where the depth of the oceanic crust stabilizes at a certain level before reaching the subduction zone, and this occurs at depths much lower than proposed in previous approaches to the reference depth issue. An analysis of Jurassic and Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere shows that the most probable interval at which the reference depth occurs is 5300-5800 m. This interval is broadly consistent with dr estimates determined using the Global Depth-Heatflow model (GDH1), but is significantly lower than dr estimates calculated on a basis of the Parsons-Sclater Model (PSM).

  15. Present-Day Crustal Vertical Motion Around the Ordos Block Constrained by Precise Leveling and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin; Liu, Liwei; Zhou, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Precise leveling data observed in the period of 1970-2014 around the Ordos block were collected and processed to estimate present-day crustal vertical movement. Vertical rates of 6 GPS sites were employed as a priori constraints to define the reference frame. The velocity field shows that the interior of the Ordos block moves upward at a rate of 3 mm/a as a stable block. With respect to the central Ordos, the grabens and rifts around the Ordos block are undergoing subsidence, while the northeastern and southwestern Ordos uplift at the average rates of 2 and 1 mm/a, respectively. To the southeastern margin of the Ordos block, the Weihe and southern Shanxi grabens are subsiding at the rates of 4-6 mm/a. The subsidence of the Shanxi graben indicates that the graben is experiencing extensional movement on a long timescale. To the northwestern margin of the Ordos block, the Hetao and Yinchuan rifts are subsiding at the rates of 2-3 mm/a. A 2-D buried faulting model is used to infer the normal or reverse dip-slip rates. Our solution shows that most of the normal slip rates along the faults in the grabens and rifts are ~2 mm/a.

  16. Evaluation of Present-day Aerosols over China Simulated from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H.; Chang, W.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of aerosols over China lead to strong radiative forcing that is important for both regional and global climate. To understand the representation of aerosols in China in current global climate models, we evaluate extensively the simulated present-day aerosol concentrations and aerosol optical depth (AOD) over China from the 12 models that participated in Atmospheric Chemistry & Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), by using ground-based measurements and satellite remote sensing. Ground-based measurements of aerosol concentrations used in this work include those from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET) and the observed fine-mode aerosol concentrations collected from the literature. The ground-based measurements of AOD in China are taken from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), the sites with CIMEL sun photometer operated by Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and from Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET). We find that the ACCMIP models generally underestimate concentrations of all major aerosol species in China. On an annual mean basis, the multi-model mean concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon are underestimated by 63%, 73%, 54%, 53%, and 59%, respectively. The multi-model mean AOD values show low biases of 20-40% at studied sites in China. The ACCMIP models can reproduce seasonal variation of nitrate but cannot capture well the seasonal variations of other aerosol species. Our analyses indicate that current global models generally underestimate the role of aerosols in China in climate simulations.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCE IN THE USSR AS MEANS OF FORMING HUMANITARIAN SPACE FOR PRESENT-DAY RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golomazova Tamara Nikolaevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the current task of the social policy of Russia is solution of the housing problem. In Russia today there is a lack of housing, especially modern housing of good quality. In the article the experience of mass housing construction in the USSR is considered. The reasons of housing crisis in the USSR and the ways of its overcome, which were offered in the 60—80th of the 20th century are analyzed. The author pays special attention to the positive component of the experience of overcoming the housing crisis, but also its disadvantages are underlined. The author believes, that in future specialists we should form not only a knowledge of housing construction experience in the USSR, but the understanding of the importance of this experience and opportunity to use it in the contemporary Russian conditions. The author points out, what exactly can be used to solve the housing problem of present-day Russia basing on this experience.

  18. Evaluation of a present-day climate simulation with a new coupled atmosphere-ocean model GENMOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Alder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new, non-flux corrected AOGCM, GENMOM, that combines the GENESIS version 3 atmospheric GCM (Global ENvironmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems and MOM2 (Modular Ocean Model version 2. We evaluate GENMOM by comparison with reanalysis products (e.g., NCEP2 and eight models used in the IPCC AR4 assessment. The overall present-day climate simulated by GENMOM is on par with the models used in IPCC AR4. The model produces a global temperature bias of 0.6 °C. Atmospheric features such as the jet stream structure and major semi-permanent sea level pressure centers are well simulated as is the mean planetary-scale wind structure that is needed to produce the correct position of stormtracks. The gradients and spatial distributions of annual surface temperature compare well both to observations and to the IPCC AR4 models. A warm bias of ~2 °C is simulated by MOM between 200–1000 m in the ocean. Most ocean surface currents are reproduced except where they are not resolved well by the T31 resolution. The two main weaknesses in the simulations is the development of a split ITCZ and weaker-than-observed overturning circulation.

  19. Anti-HIV drug development: structural features and limitations of present day drugs and future challenges in the successful HIV/AIDS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Garima; Singh, Ramendra K

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), an immuno-compromized condition, a sequel to untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inviting several life-threatening diseases, has become one of the most fatal disorders in the recent past because of HIV strain variance due to mutations, passive latency and reservoirs helping in replenishing and reviving the HIV-1 proviral DNA. Scientific efforts have led to the discovery of several effective drugs against HIV and lowered the morbidity and mortality all over the world. However, despite availability of a good number of anti-HIV drugs, the problem, for the foreseeable reasons, stands out as the most chronic disease due to the less tolerability and low accessibility of drugs, life-long expensive treatment, and above all, the emergence of drug resistant viral strains. This review dwells upon HIV infection and its proliferation inside the host system, drug targets, different types of drugs, their structural features and mode of interaction with viral targets and drug regimens. It further focuses on topics of latest interest regarding drug development, fixed dose combinations (FDCs), the limitations of present day drugs with their structural features along with their pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics and the challenges in finding a permanent cure for HIV/AIDS. PMID:23092282

  20. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. - Highlights: ► We compared metal concentrations registered in contemporary and early 1900's lichens. ► In the past, As, Pb and Cd were enriched due to coal combustion. ► Nowadays, a new mixture of enriched contaminants (Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) was evidenced. ► REE originated from local bedrock and proved an increased dust deposition in the past. ► Lichens recorded both local and long-range atmospheric contamination. - Using lichens registration, past (As, Pb, Cd) and recent (Sb, Sn, Cu) atmospheric pollution from local and long-range transport, as well as dust deposition, was evidenced in SW France.

  1. Changing black carbon transport to the Arctic from present day to the end of 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Chaoyi; Flanner, Mark G.

    2016-05-01

    Here we explore how climate warming under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) impacts Arctic aerosol distributions via changes in atmospheric transport and removal processes. We modify the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model to track distributions and fluxes of 200 black carbon-like tracers emitted from different locations, and we conduct idealized experiments with and without active aerosol deposition. Changing wind patterns, studied in isolation, cause the Arctic burdens of tracers emitted from East Asia and West Europe during winter to increase about 20% by the end of the century while decreasing the Arctic burdens of North American emissions by about 30%. These changes are caused by an altered winter polar dome structure that results from Arctic amplification and inhomogeneous sea ice loss and surface warming, both of which are enhanced in the Chukchi Sea region. The resulting geostrophic wind favors Arctic transport of East Asian emissions while inhibiting poleward transport of North American emissions. When active deposition is also considered, however, Arctic burdens of emissions from northern midlatitudes show near-universal decline. This is a consequence of increased precipitation and wet removal, particularly within the Arctic, leading to decreased Arctic residence time. Simulations with present-day emissions of black carbon indicate a 13.6% reduction in the Arctic annual mean burden by the end of the 21st century, due to warming-induced transport and deposition changes, while simulations with changing climate and emissions under RCP8.5 show a 61.0% reduction.

  2. Historical and Present Day Mercury Contamination From Gold Mining in Three Feeding Guilds of Bats From the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Divoll, T.

    2014-12-01

    Miners in many countries use mercury as an amalgam to separate gold from river sediments. In the last twenty years the price of gold has risen and the number of small-scale, artisanal gold mining operations in the Amazon basin have also increased. The influx of mercury into natural river systems has detrimental consequences for the surrounding ecosystem and for organisms, particularly those at higher trophic levels. Toxic mercury levels have been shown to impair reproductive, neurological and behavioral functioning of organisms. I used bats (Chiroptera) as a mammalian model system to study mercury contamination and accumulation due to gold mining from field caught and museum collection specimens in Amazonian Perú and showed that: (1) Total mercury concentrations in Amazonian bat species have increased over time since the 1920's; (2) Bat species from sites with current active mining have higher concentrations of mercury than non-mining sites, with some species having levels exceeding those considered toxic for mammals; (3) Higher trophic levels of bats (piscivores and insectivores) bioaccumulate more mercury than bats of lower trophic levels (frugivores); (4) Bats located in present day uncontaminated sites have the same mercury levels as bats collected in the 1920's from the Amazon basin. The variety of bat feeding guilds allowed for a comparison of how mercury accumulation is affected by diet within one taxonomic order. The novel use of museum specimens allowed for a look back into the historical timeline of mercury contamination in the Amazon basin. Bats represent a new and exciting study system since, like humans, they are mammals and should therefore show similar neurochemical and behavioral responses to this toxic element.

  3. Historical land-use induced evapotranspiration changes estimated from present-day observations and reconstructed land-cover maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Boisier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent model intercomparison studies, within the framework of the LUCID project, have revealed large discrepancies in the evapotranspiration (ET changes simulated between the preindustrial period and the present in response to the historical change in land use. Distinct land-surface parameterizations are behind those discrepancies, but understanding those differences and attributing them to specific causes rely on evaluations using still very limited measurements. Model benchmarking studies with observed global-scale ET are required in order to reduce the current uncertainties in the impacts of land use in terrestrial water flows. Here we present a new estimate of historical land-use induced changes in ET based on three different state-of-the-art observation-based ET products. These products are used to derive regression models of ET as a function of land-cover partitioning, leaf area index and environmental variables. We then reconstruct past ET changes based on the set of land-cover maps of 1870 and 1992 used in LUCID. Our results show an average decrease in global terrestrial ET of 1260 ± 850 km3 yr−1 between the preindustrial period and the present-day. This estimate is of the same order but larger in magnitude than the model-mean change in ET simulated within LUCID, and substantially weaker in magnitude than other estimates based on observations. Although decreases in ET dominate in deforested regions, large summertime increases in ET are diagnosed over areas of large cropland expansion. The multiple ET reconstructions carried out here show a large spread that we attribute principally to the different land-cover maps adopted and to the crops' ET rates that are derived from the various products assessed. We therefore conclude that the current uncertainties of past ET changes could be reduced efficiently with improved historical land-cover reconstructions and better estimates of cropland ET.

  4. Present-day crustal deformation along the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System in Tierra del Fuego from repeated GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; Perdomo, R.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Del Cogliano, D.; Fritsche, M.; Richter, A.; Dietrich, R.

    2011-03-01

    The present-day deformation of the earth crust in the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego main island (southernmost South America) is here investigated based on repeated geodetic GPS observations. The island is traversed by the active transform boundary between the South American and Scotia tectonic plates, represented by the Magallanes-Fagnano fault system. Since 1993 a regional network comprising to date 29 GPS sites has been observed almost every year. The complete set of accumulated observations was processed using the Bernese GPS software and state-of-the-art processing strategies and models. The utilization of homogeneous GPS products resulting from a reprocessing of the global IGS network warrants a stable realization of a global reference frame. For each GPS site 3-D positions and linear velocities with error estimates were obtained. A strain analysis of the horizontal velocity components revealed the zones of major deformation activity. A 30-km-wide deformation belt centred on the main trace of the fault system was identified. This belt is bordered to the north (South America) and south (Scotia) by geodynamically stable zones, which move horizontally with a relative average velocity of 4.4 ± 0.6 (east) and -0.3 ± 0.4 (north) mm a-1. Within the deformation belt a maximum strain rate in the order of 0.25 μstrain per year has been detected. A pronounced change in the deformation style from transtension (east) to transpression (west) is observed. The area of predominating shortening of the crust coincides with a local rotation minimum and relative uplift. Throughout the period covered by the GPS observations the displacements and deformations occurred to be linear with time.

  5. The influence of land cover change in the Asian monsoon region on present-day and mid-Holocene climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dallmeyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the general circulation model ECHAM5/JSBACH, we investigate the biogeophysical effect of large-scale afforestation and deforestation in the Asian monsoon domain on present-day and mid-Holocene climate. We demonstrate that the applied land cover change does not only modify the local climate but also change the climate in North Africa and the Middle East via teleconnections. Deforestation in the Asian monsoon domain enhances the rainfall in North Africa. In parts of the Sahara summer precipitation is more than doubled. In contrast, afforestation strongly decreases summer rainfall in the Middle East and even leads to the cessation of the rainfall-activity in some parts of this region.

    Regarding the local climate, deforestation results in a reduction of precipitation and a cooler climate as grass mostly has a higher albedo than forests. However, in the core region of the Asian monsoon the decrease of evaporative cooling in the monsoon season overcompensates this signal and results in a net warming. Afforestation has mainly the opposite effect, although the pattern of change is less clear. It leads to more precipitation in most parts of the Asian monsoon domain and a warmer climate except for the southern regions where a stronger evaporation decreases near-surface temperatures in the monsoon season.

    When prescribing mid-Holocene insolation, the pattern of local precipitation change differs. Afforestation particularly increases monsoon rainfall in the region along the Yellow River which was the settlement area of major prehistoric cultures. In this region, the effect of land cover change on precipitation is half as large as the orbitally-induced precipitation change. Thus, our model results reveal that mid- to late-Holocene land cover change could strongly have contributed to the decreasing Asian monsoon precipitation during the Holocene known from reconstructions.

  6. Modeling of Present-Day Atmosphere and Ocean Non-Tidal De-Aliasing Errors for Future Gravity Mission Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann-Wolf, I.; Dobslaw, H.; Mayer-Gürr, T.

    2015-12-01

    A realistically perturbed synthetic de-aliasing model consistent with the updated Earth System Model of the European Space Agency (Dobslaw et al., 2015) is now available for the years 1995 -- 2006. The data-set contains realizations of (i) errors at large spatial scales assessed individually for periods between 10 -- 30, 3 -- 10, and 1 -- 3 days, the S1 atmospheric tide, and sub-diurnal periods; (ii) errors at small spatial scales typically not covered by global models of atmosphere and ocean variability; and (iii) errors due to physical processes not represented in currently available de-aliasing products. The error magnitudes for each of the different frequency bands are derived from a small ensemble of four atmospheric and oceanic models. In order to demonstrate the plausibility of the error magnitudes chosen, we perform a variance component estimation based on daily GRACE normal equations from the ITSG-Grace2014 global gravity field series recently published by the University of Graz. All 12 years of the error model are used to calculate empirical error variance-covariance matrices describing the systematic dependencies of the errors both in time and in space individually for five continental and four oceanic regions, and daily GRACE normal equations are subsequently employed to obtain pre-factors for each of those matrices. For the largest spatial scales up to d/o = 40 and periods longer than 24 h, errors prepared for the updated ESM are found to be largely consistent with noise of a similar stochastic character contained in present-day GRACE solutions. Differences and similarities identified for all of the nine regions considered will be discussed in detail during the presentation.Dobslaw, H., I. Bergmann-Wolf, R. Dill, E. Forootan, V. Klemann, J. Kusche, and I. Sasgen (2015), The updated ESA Earth System Model for future gravity mission simulation studies, J. Geod., doi:10.1007/s00190-014-0787-8.

  7. Growth changes in plaice, cod, haddock and saithe in the North Sea: a comparison of (post-)medieval and present-day growth rates based on otolith measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, Loes J.; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; van Neer, Wim; Millner, Richard S.; van Leeuwen, Piet I.; Ervynck, Anton; Ayers, Richard; Ongenae, Ellen

    2004-05-01

    Fishing effort has strongly increased in the North Sea since the mid-19th century, causing a substantial reduction in the population size of exploited fish stocks. As fisheries research has developed simultaneously with the industrialisation of the fisheries, our knowledge of population dynamics at low levels of exploitations is limited. Otoliths retrieved from archaeological excavations offer a unique opportunity to study growth rates in the past. This study compares historical and present-day growth rates for four commercially important demersal fish species. A total of 2532 modern otoliths (AD 1984-1999) and 1286 historical otoliths (AD 1200-1925) obtained from archaeological excavations in Belgium and Scotland were analysed. Comparison of the growth patterns between eras revealed a major increase in growth rate of haddock, whereas growth changes were not observed in saithe and only in the smaller size classes of plaice and cod. Comparison of our results with literature data indicates that the observed growth rate changes in plaice and cod occurred within the 20th century. Apparently the onset of industrialised fisheries has not greatly affected the growth of plaice, cod and saithe populations in the North Sea. This result contradicts the expectation of density-dependent limitation of growth during the era of pre-industrialised fishing, but is in agreement with the concentration hypothesis of Beverton (Neth. J. Sea Res. 34 (1995) 1) stating that species which concentrate spatially into nursery grounds during their early life-history may 'saturate' the carrying capacity of the juvenile habitat even though the adult part of the population is not limited by the adult habitat.

  8. Comparison of statistical and dynamical downscaling of extreme precipitations over France in present-day and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Sanchez Gomez, Emila; Somot, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    We present a comparison of two downscaling methods of extreme precipitations over France at a climatic time scale : a dynamical one performed with the Regional Climate Model ALADIN-Climate used at a resolution of 12 km, and a statistical one based on the weather regime approach and using the analog methodology to reconstruct daily fields of precipitations at a 8 km resolution. We focus on the most heavy precipitations of the area of interest, which occur in southeastern France in Autumn. Those involve small-scale processes than can be explicitly resolved only with 2-1 km resolution non-hydrostatic models. However, such models can not be used for climate simulations because of their computational cost is still too high. Yet these extreme events cause rather heavy damages, so that their possible evolution in the context of climate change is of great concern. Thus, there is strong need in assessing downscaling methods' ability to represent them. First, we downscale the low-resolution ERA40 re-analysis over the 1958-2000 time period with ALADIN-Climate, and from the year 1980 to the year 2000 with the statistical method. Then, we apply a quantile-quantile correction to the daily precipitations of the last twenty years of the ALADIN-Climate simulation. The correction rates are computed over the first part of the simulation (1958-1979) using a high-resolution gridded database : the SAFRAN analysis, which provides series of hourly fields for the 1958-2008 period over the french territory at a 8 km resolution. We assess the performances of each downscaling method in present-day climate by comparing the simulated precipitations to the SAFRAN database. The use of the ERA40 re-analysis allows to reproduce the real chronology in both downscalings, which enables to analyze the results not only from a statistical point of view but also through day-to-day diagnosis such as time correlations or spatial patterns of rain for given extreme events. Secondly, we apply these downscaling

  9. High natural erosion rates are the backdrop for present-day soil erosion in the agricultural Middle Hills of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A. J.; Arnold, M.; AumaItre, G.; Bourles, D. L.; Keddadouche, K.; Bickle, M.; Ojha, T.

    2015-07-01

    Although agriculturally accelerated soil erosion is implicated in the unsustainable environmental degradation of mountain environments, such as in the Himalaya, the effects of land use can be challenging to quantify in many mountain settings because of the high and variable natural background rates of erosion. In this study, we present new long-term denudation rates, derived from cosmogenic 10Be analysis of quartz in river sediment from the Likhu Khola, a small agricultural river basin in the Middle Hills of central Nepal. Calculated long-term denudation rates, which reflect background natural erosion processes over 1000+ years prior to agricultural intensification, are similar to present-day sediment yields and to soil loss rates from terraces that are well maintained. Similarity in short- and long-term catchment-wide erosion rates for the Likhu is consistent with data from elsewhere in the Nepal Middle Hills but contrasts with the very large increases in short-term erosion rates seen in agricultural catchments in other steep mountain settings. Our results suggest that the large sediment fluxes exported from the Likhu and other Middle Hills rivers in the Himalaya are derived in large part from natural processes, rather than from soil erosion as a result of agricultural activity. Catchment-scale erosional fluxes may be similar over short and long timescales if both are dominated by mass wasting sources such as gullies, landslides, and debris flows (e.g., as is evident in the landslide-dominated Khudi Khola of the Nepal High Himalaya, based on compiled data). As a consequence, simple comparison of catchment-scale fluxes will not necessarily pinpoint land use effects on soils where these are only a small part of the total erosion budget, unless rates of mass wasting are also considered. Estimates of the mass wasting contribution to erosion in the Likhu imply catchment-averaged soil production rates on the order of ~ 0.25-0.35 mm yr-1, though rates of mass wasting are

  10. Impact of urban emission on air-quality over central Europe: present day and future emissions perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Karlicky, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the impact of present-day and future urban emission from central European cities on the regional air-quality (AQ), based on a modeling couple of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 and the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the present (2001-2010) decade and two future decades (2026-2035 and 2046-2055) either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. As we are interested on the impact of emission changes only, the impact of different driving meteorological conditions in the future (due to climate change) are not considered. The emissions used is the TNO MEGAPOLI European emission database that includes country/sector based scenarios for years 2030 and 2050, which were used for the encompassing decades. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The model was also validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas further from, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. The future urban emission AQ fingerprint is, in general, slightly smaller than in

  11. Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the AeroCom present-day and pre-industrial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schulz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine different global models with detailed aerosol modules have independently produced instantaneous direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. The anthropogenic impact is derived from the difference of two model simulations with prescribed aerosol emissions, one for present-day and one for pre-industrial conditions. The difference in the solar energy budget at the top of the atmosphere (ToA yields a new harmonized estimate for the aerosol direct radiative forcing (RF under all-sky conditions. On a global annual basis RF is −0.22 Wm−2, ranging from +0.04 to −0.41 Wm−2, with a standard deviation of ±0.16 Wm−2. Anthropogenic nitrate and dust are not included in this estimate. No model shows a significant positive all-sky RF. The corresponding clear-sky RF is −0.68 Wm−2. The cloud-sky RF was derived based on all-sky and clear-sky RF and modelled cloud cover. It was significantly different from zero and ranged between −0.16 and +0.34 Wm−2. A sensitivity analysis shows that the total aerosol RF is influenced by considerable diversity in simulated residence times, mass extinction coefficients and most importantly forcing efficiencies (forcing per unit optical depth. The clear-sky forcing efficiency (forcing per unit optical depth has diversity comparable to that for the all-sky/ clear-sky forcing ratio. While the diversity in clear-sky forcing efficiency is impacted by factors such as aerosol absorption, size, and surface albedo, we can show that the all-sky/clear-sky forcing ratio is important because all-sky forcing estimates require proper representation of cloud fields and the correct relative altitude placement between absorbing aerosol and clouds. The analysis of the sulphate RF shows that long sulphate residence times are compensated by low mass extinction coefficients and vice versa. This is explained by more sulphate particle humidity growth and thus higher extinction in those models where short-lived sulphate

  12. Effects of the past- and present-day ice melting on observed uplift rates in Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Larsen, C. F.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Fujimoto, H.; Sun, W.; Sugano, T.; Kaufman, A. M.; Motyka, R. J.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    A joint Japanese-US observation project called ISEA (International geodetic project in South-Eastern Alaska) was initiated in 2005 to follow up the work of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) by adding new geodetic data sets (Miura et al., 2007). Based on 91 improved GPS velocities and the proposed ice loss models by Larsen et al. (2004, 2005, 2007) and by Tushingham and Peltier (1991), we estimated three effects: present-day ice melting (PDIM), post-little ice age (LIA) melting, and deglaciation following the last glacier maximum (LGM). We also have reevaluated the thickness of lithosphere and the viscosities of the mantle including that of asthenosphere in the region. The effects of LGM deglaciation were computed based on the ICE3G model (Tushingham and Peltier, 1991). Although the effect of LGM ice is small in SE-AK (i.e. 2 mm/yr at the maximum), we have confirmed that, by comparing with the misfits obtained by correcting for only two effects of PDIM and LIA, correcting for the LGM effect can improve the chi^2 of misfits by about 0.5 %. We estimated the effect of post-LIA ice melting based on the melting history proposed by Larsen et al. (2004, 2005). For the viscoelastic structure, we have tested two different kinds of mantle viscosity structure: a two-layer model similar to the model used by Larsen et al. (2005) and a 4-layer model. To search the best combination of the lithosphere thickness and the mantle viscosities, the combinations of the rheological parameters tested here were 161 in total number. To test the sensitivity of the estimated rheological parameters to the elastic PDIM effects, we have compared two PDIM models; one is EPSL2005 model (Larsen et al., 2005) and the other is JGR2007 model (Larsen et al., 2007). Statistical examinations of the misfits between observations and model predictions, which were based on the magnitudes of the minimum chi^2 and the mean of residuals fitting to a Gaussian function, indicate that the JGR2007 model gives

  13. Simulations of preindustrial, present-day, and 2100 conditions in the NASA GISS composition and climate model G-PUCCINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of atmospheric composition and climate has been developed at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS that includes composition seamlessly from the surface to the lower mesosphere. The model is able to capture many features of the observed magnitude, distribution, and seasonal cycle of trace species. The simulation is especially realistic in the troposphere. In the stratosphere, high latitude regions show substantial biases during period when transport governs the distribution as meridional mixing is too rapid in this model version. In other regions, including the extrapolar tropopause region that dominates radiative forcing (RF by ozone, stratospheric gases are generally well-simulated. The model's stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE agrees well with values inferred from observations for both the global mean flux and the ratio of Northern (NH to Southern Hemisphere (SH downward fluxes. Simulations of preindustrial (PI to present-day (PD changes show tropospheric ozone burden increases of 11% while the stratospheric burden decreases by 18%. The resulting tropopause RF values are −0.06 W/m2 from stratospheric ozone and 0.40 W/m2 from tropospheric ozone. Global mean mass-weighted OH decreases by 16% from the PI to the PD. STE of ozone also decreased substantially during this time, by 14%. Comparison of the PD with a simulation using 1979 pre-ozone hole conditions for the stratosphere shows a much larger downward flux of ozone into the troposphere in 1979, resulting in a substantially greater tropospheric ozone burden than that seen in the PD run. This implies that reduced STE due to stratospheric ozone depletion may have offset as much as 2/3 of the tropospheric ozone burden increase from PI to PD. However, the model overestimates the downward flux of ozone at high Southern latitudes, so this estimate is likely an upper limit. In the future, the tropospheric ozone burden increases by 101% in 2100 for the A2 scenario

  14. Simulations of preindustrial, present-day, and 2100 conditions in the NASA GISS composition and climate model G-PUCCINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A model of atmospheric composition and climate has been developed at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS that includes composition seamlessly from the surface to the lower mesosphere. The model is able to capture many features of the observed magnitude, distribution, and seasonal cycle of trace species. The simulation is especially realistic in the troposphere. In the stratosphere, high latitude regions show substantial biases during period when transport governs the distribution as meridional mixing is too rapid in this model version. In other regions, including the extrapolar tropopause region that dominates radiative forcing (RF by ozone, stratospheric gases are generally well-simulated. The model's stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE agrees well with values inferred from observations for both the global mean flux and the ratio of Northern to Southern Hemisphere downward fluxes.

    Simulations of preindustrial (PI to present-day (PD changes show tropospheric ozone burden increases of 11% while the stratospheric burden decreases by 18%. The resulting tropopause RF values are −0.06 W/m2 from stratospheric ozone and 0.40 W/m2 from tropospheric ozone. Global mean mass-weighted OH decreases by 16% from the PI to the PD. STE of ozone also decreased substantially during this time, by 14%. Comparison of the PD with a simulation using 1979 pre-ozone hole conditions for the stratosphere shows a much larger downward flux of ozone into the troposphere in 1979, resulting in a substantially greater tropospheric ozone burden than that seen in the PD run. This implies that reduced STE due to Antarctic ozone depletion may have offset as much as 2/3 of the tropospheric ozone burden increase from PI to PD. However, the model overestimates the downward flux of ozone at high Southern latitudes, so this estimate is likely an upper limit.

    In the future, the tropospheric ozone burden increases sharply

  15. The importance of satellite quenching for the build-up of the red sequence of present-day galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Frank C.; Aquino, Daniel; Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Pasquali, Anna; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Weinmann, Simone M.; Kang, Xi

    2008-06-01

    According to the current paradigm, galaxies initially form as disc galaxies at the centres of their own dark matter haloes. During their subsequent evolution, they may undergo a transformation to a red, early-type galaxy, thus giving rise to the build-up of the red sequence. Two important, outstanding questions are (i) which transformation mechanisms are most important and (ii) in what environment do they occur. In this paper, we study the impact of transformation mechanisms that operate only on satellite galaxies, such as strangulation, ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassment. Using a large galaxy group catalogue constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we compare the colours and concentrations of satellites galaxies to those of central galaxies of the same stellar mass, adopting the hypothesis that the latter are the progenitors of the former. On average, satellite galaxies are redder and more concentrated than central galaxies of the same stellar mass, indicating that satellite-specific transformation processes do indeed operate. Central-satellite pairs that are matched in both stellar mass and colour, however, show no average concentration difference, indicating that the transformation mechanisms operating on satellites affect colour more than morphology. We also find that the colour and concentration differences of matched central-satellite pairs are completely independent of the mass of the host halo (not to be confused with the subhalo) of the satellite galaxy, indicating that satellite-specific transformation mechanisms are equally efficient in host haloes of all masses. This strongly rules against mechanisms that are thought to operate only in very massive haloes, such as ram-pressure stripping or harassment. Instead, we argue that strangulation is the main transformation mechanism for satellite galaxies. Finally, we determine the relative importance of satellite quenching for the build-up of the red sequence. We find that roughly 70 per cent of

  16. The evolution of the Fundamental Plane of radio galaxies from z~0.5 to the present day

    CERN Document Server

    Herbert, Peter D; Willott, Chris J; McLure, Ross J; Mitchell, Ewan; Rawlings, Steve; Hill, Gary J; Dunlop, James S

    2010-01-01

    We present deep spectroscopic data for a 24-object subsample of our full 41-object z~0.5 radio galaxy sample in order to investigate the evolution of the Fundamental Plane of radio galaxies. We find that the low-luminosity, FRI-type, radio galaxies in our sample are consistent with the local Fundamental Plane of radio galaxies defined by Bettoni et al. when corrected for simple passive evolution of their stellar populations. However, we find that the higher luminosity, FRII-type radio galaxies are inconsistent with the local Fundamental Plane if only passive evolution is considered, and find evidence for a rotation in the Fundamental Plane at z~0.5 when compared with the local relation. We show that neither passive evolution, nor a mass-dependent evolution in the mass-to-light ratio, nor an evolution in the size of the host galaxies can, by themselves, plausibly explain the observed tilt. However, we suggest that some combination of all three effects, with size evolution as the dominant factor, may be suffici...

  17. Invasion by Neisseria meningitidis varies widely between clones and among nasopharyngeal mucosae derived from adult human hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert; Goodwin, Linda; Stevanin, Tania M; Silcocks, Paul B; Parker, Andrew; Maiden, Martin C J; Read, Robert C

    2002-05-01

    Colonization of the human nasopharynx is a feature of some species of Neisseria, and is a prerequisite of invasive meningococcal disease. The likelihood of colonization by Neisseria meningitidis varies widely between humans, and very few develop invasive disease. Explants of nasal mucosa derived from adult patients with non-allergic nasal obstruction were infected experimentally with Neisseria spp. At intervals over 18 h incubation, washed explants were homogenized, and viable bacteria were counted. To estimate bacterial invasion of mucosa, explants were exposed to 0.25% sodium taurocholate for 30 s prior to homogenization. N. meningitidis was recovered from the mucosa and the organism invaded and replicated within the tissue, in contrast to N. lactamica and N. animalis (n=9, Pcoefficient of variation of recovered viable counts was 1335% after 4 h and 77% after 18 h incubation. It is concluded that the distinctive colonization and disease potential of Neisseria spp. may be partly a consequence of their ability to invade and survive within human nasopharyngeal mucosa, but that this is influenced greatly by genetic or environmental factors operating on the host mucosa. This is consistent with the unpredictable epidemiology of meningococcal disease. PMID:11988521

  18. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. X. Age-specific dynamics of adult epicuticular hydrocarbon expression in response to different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cassia C

    2014-06-01

    Analysis of sexual selection and sexual isolation in Drosophila mojavensis and its relatives has revealed a pervasive role of rearing substrates on adult courtship behavior when flies were reared on fermenting cactus in preadult stages. Here, we assessed expression of contact pheromones comprised of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from eclosion to 28 days of age in adults from two populations reared on fermenting tissues of two host cacti over the entire life cycle. Flies were never exposed to laboratory food and showed significant reductions in average CHC amounts consistent with CHCs of wild-caught flies. Overall, total hydrocarbon amounts increased from eclosion to 14-18 days, well past age at sexual maturity, and then declined in older flies. Most flies did not survive past 4 weeks. Baja California and mainland populations showed significantly different age-specific CHC profiles where Baja adults showed far less age-specific changes in CHC expression. Adults from populations reared on the host cactus typically used in nature expressed more CHCs than on the alternate host. MANCOVA with age as the covariate for the first six CHC principal components showed extensive differences in CHC composition due to age, population, cactus, sex, and age × population, age × sex, and age × cactus interactions. Thus, understanding variation in CHC composition as adult D. mojavensis age requires information about population and host plant differences, with potential influences on patterns of mate choice, sexual selection, and sexual isolation, and ultimately how these pheromones are expressed in natural populations. Studies of drosophilid aging in the wild are badly needed. PMID:25360246

  19. Tree-derived stimuli affecting host-selection response of larva and adult peach twig borers, Anarsia Lineatella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney, Mark Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Volatiles from ripening peach fruit reportedly mediate host-finding by adult peach twig borers, Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, moths were repelled by in-situ ripe peach fruits, and by a blend of 22 synthetic volatiles associated with ripe peach fruits. In laboratory experiments, females preferred hairy and creviced surfaces over glabrous surfaces as oviposition sites. Volatiles from almond and peach shoots induced oviposition, as did volatiles from immature, green mat...

  20. Localization of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic) adults in different organs of Mastomys coucha and its influence on microfilaraemia and host antibody response

    OpenAIRE

    K Athisaya Mary; SL Hoti; Paily KP

    2006-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi is a spectral disease and produces wide range of immune responses and varying levels ofmicrofilaraemia in infected individuals. The relationship between the immune response of host and the developmental stage of the parasite as well as the microfilariae (mf) density and specific location of the adult worms is yet to be understood. As an experimental model, B. malayi adapted in the experimental animal Masto...

  1. Abortion in Present day Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the abortion rate in Vietnam has been likely rising. In rural area, this rate is a bit higher than in urban one. Young age groups’ abortion rate is relatively high and ofter higher than older age groups. The main reason is due to their limited awareness of contraceptive methods. Low education level also affects the abortion. The abortion of people at low education level is relatively high, but people with elementary school graduation has the lowest rate of abortion. The Northwest had the highest abortion rate, the lowest rate belonged to the South Central Coast. The abortion rate depends on each couple’s number of alive children. The highest abortion rate is of couples with 1 or 2 alive children. The majority of couples only have one time of abortion for 12 months before research timepoint.

  2. Localization of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic adults in different organs of Mastomys coucha and its influence on microfilaraemia and host antibody response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Athisaya Mary

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis caused by nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi is a spectral disease and produces wide range of immune responses and varying levels ofmicrofilaraemia in infected individuals. The relationship between the immune response of host and the developmental stage of the parasite as well as the microfilariae (mf density and specific location of the adult worms is yet to be understood. As an experimental model, B. malayi adapted in the experimental animal Mastomys coucha has been used widely for various studies in filariasis. The present study was to assess microfilaraemia as well as the humoral immune response of M. coucha during various stages of B. malayi development and their localization in different organs. The result showed that the density of mf in the circulating blood of the experimental animal depended upon the number of female worms as well as the location and co-existence of male and female worms. The mf density in the blood increased with the increase in the number of females. The clearance of inoculated infective stage (L3 or single sex infection or segregation of male and female to different organs of infected host resulted in amicrofilaraemic condition. With respect to antibody response, those animals cleared L3 after inoculation and those with adult worm as well as mf showed low antibody levels. But those with developmental fourth stage and/or adult worms without mf showed significantly higher antibody levels.

  3. Effects of citrus and avocado irrigation and nitrogen-form soil amendment on host selection by adult Homalodisca vitripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant water status is thought to influence dispersal and movement of Homalodisca vitripennis Germar, especially where plants are grown under high evaporative demand. The leafhopper transmits the bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa Wells et. al, to economically important susceptible plants. ...

  4. Potential Effects of Host Height and Phenology on Adult Susceptibility to Foliar Attack in Tropical Dry Forest Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Bráulio A. Santos; Mauricio Quesada; Fernando Rosas; Julieta Benítez-Malvido

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the sources of variation in plant susceptibility to herbivore and pathogen attack is critical to understand ecological processes determining species abundance and diversity in tropical forests. We assessed the potential effect of tiller height and phenology on standing levels of herbivore and pathogen damage on adults of the woody perennial grass Lasiacis ruscifolia in the tropical dry forest of Chamela, Mexico. Analyses revealed that adult susceptibility to pathogens was greater ...

  5. Preindustrial to present-day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed time-slice simulations from 17 global models, participating in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, to explore changes in present-day (2000 hydroxyl radical (OH concentration and methane (CH4 lifetime relative to preindustrial times (1850 and to 1980. A comparison of modeled and observation-derived methane and methyl chloroform lifetimes suggests that the present-day global multi-model mean OH concentration is overestimated by 5 to 10% but is within the range of uncertainties. The models consistently simulate higher OH concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere (NH compared with the Southern Hemisphere (SH for the present-day (2000; inter-hemispheric ratios of 1.13 to 1.42, in contrast to observation-based approaches which generally indicate higher OH in the SH although uncertainties are large. Evaluation of simulated carbon monoxide (CO concentrations, the primary sink for OH, against ground-based and satellite observations suggests low biases in the NH that may contribute to the high north–south OH asymmetry in the models. The models vary widely in their regional distribution of present-day OH concentrations (up to 34%. Despite large regional changes, the multi-model global mean (mass-weighted OH concentration changes little over the past 150 yr, due to concurrent increases in factors that enhance OH (humidity, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions, and UV radiation due to decreases in stratospheric ozone, compensated by increases in OH sinks (methane abundance, carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic carbon (NMVOC emissions. The large inter-model diversity in the sign and magnitude of preindustrial to present-day OH changes (ranging from a decrease of 12.7% to an increase of 14.6% indicate that uncertainty remains in our understanding of the long-term trends in OH and methane lifetime. We show that this diversity is largely explained by the different ratio of the

  6. Preindustrial to Present-Day Changes in Tropospheric Hydroxyl Radical and Methane Lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, V.; Voulgarakis, A.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, M.; Prather, M. J.; Young, P. J.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Collins, W. J.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Doherty, R.; Eyring, V.; Faluvegi, G.; Folberth, G. A.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Nagashima, T.; vanNoije, T. P. C.; Plummer, D. A.; Righi, M.; Rumbold, S. T.; Skeie, R.; Shindell, D. T.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have analysed time-slice simulations from 17 global models, participating in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), to explore changes in present-day (2000) hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration and methane (CH4) lifetime relative to preindustrial times (1850) and to 1980. A comparison of modeled and observation-derived methane and methyl chloroform lifetimes suggests that the present-day global multi-model mean OH concentration is overestimated by 5 to 10% but is within the range of uncertainties. The models consistently simulate higher OH concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) compared with the Southern Hemisphere (SH) for the present-day (2000; inter-hemispheric ratios of 1.13 to 1.42), in contrast to observation-based approaches which generally indicate higher OH in the SH although uncertainties are large. Evaluation of simulated carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, the primary sink for OH, against ground-based and satellite observations suggests low biases in the NH that may contribute to the high north–south OH asymmetry in the models. The models vary widely in their regional distribution of present-day OH concentrations (up to 34%). Despite large regional changes, the multi-model global mean (mass-weighted) OH concentration changes little over the past 150 yr, due to concurrent increases in factors that enhance OH (humidity, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, and UV radiation due to decreases in stratospheric ozone), compensated by increases in OH sinks (methane abundance, carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic carbon (NMVOC) emissions). The large inter-model diversity in the sign and magnitude of preindustrial to present-day OH changes (ranging from a decrease of 12.7% to an increase of 14.6%) indicate that uncertainty remains in our understanding of the long-term trends in OH and methane lifetime. We show that this diversity is largely explained by the different ratio of the

  7. Purification of a chymotrypsin-like enzyme present on adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from infected mice and its characterization as a host carboxylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igetei, Joseph E; Liddell, Susan; El-Faham, Marwa; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified material was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and its derived peptides found to belong to mouse carboxylesterase 1C. Its ability to hydrolyse α- or β-naphthyl acetates, which are general esterase substrates, has been confirmed. A similar carboxylesterase was purified and characterized from rat blood. Additional evidence to support identification of the enzyme as a carboxylesterase has been provided. Possible roles of the enzyme in the mouse host-parasite relationship could be to ease the passage of worms through the host's blood vessels and/or in immune evasion. PMID:26924446

  8. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Hosking

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11-12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST. As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin. Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test.

  9. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Christopher G; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P; Ilag, Leodevico L; Meeusen, Els N T; Veer, Michael J de

    2015-12-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11-12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  10. Estimating heat stress from climate-based indicators: present-day biases and future spreads in the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Ducharne, A.; Sultan, B.; Braconnot, P.; Vautard, R.

    2015-08-01

    The increased exposure of human populations to heat stress is one of the likely consequences of global warming, and it has detrimental effects on health and labor capacity. Here, we consider the evolution of heat stress under climate change using 21 general circulation models (GCMs). Three heat stress indicators, based on both temperature and humidity conditions, are used to investigate present-day model biases and spreads in future climate projections. Present day estimates of heat stress indicators from observational data shows that humid tropical areas tend to experience more frequent heat stress than other regions do, with a total frequency of heat stress 250-300 d yr-1. The most severe heat stress is found in the Sahel and south India. Present-day GCM simulations tend to underestimate heat stress over the tropics due to dry and cold model biases. The model based estimates are in better agreement with observation in mid to high latitudes, but this is due to compensating errors in humidity and temperature. The severity of heat stress is projected to increase by the end of the century under climate change scenario RCP8.5, reaching unprecedented levels in some regions compared with observations. An analysis of the different factors contributing to the total spread of projected heat stress shows that spread is primarily driven by the choice of GCMs rather than the choice of indicators, even when the simulated indicators are bias-corrected. This supports the utility of the multi-model ensemble approach to assess the impacts of climate change on heat stress.

  11. Preindustrial to present day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed results from 17 global models, participating in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, to explore trends in hydroxyl radical concentration (OH and methane (CH4 lifetime since preindustrial times (1850 and gain a better understanding of their key drivers. For the present day (2000, the models tend to simulate higher OH abundances in the Northern Hemisphere versus Southern Hemisphere. Evaluation of simulated carbon monoxide concentrations, the primary sink for OH, against observations suggests low biases in the Northern Hemisphere that may contribute to the high north-south OH asymmetry in the models. A comparison of modelled and observed methyl chloroform lifetime suggests that the present day global multi-model mean OH concentration is slightly overestimated. Despite large regional changes, the modelled global mean OH concentration is roughly constant over the past 150 yr, due to concurrent increases in OH sources (humidity, tropospheric ozone, and NOx emissions, together with decreases in stratospheric ozone and increase in tropospheric temperature, compensated by increases in OH sinks (methane abundance, carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic carbon (NMVOC emissions. The large intermodel diversity in the sign and magnitude of OH and methane lifetime changes over this period reflects differences in the relative importance of chemical and physical drivers of OH within each model. For the 1980 to 2000 period, we find that climate warming and a slight increase in mean OH leads to a 4.3 ± 1.9% decrease in the methane lifetime. Analysing sensitivity simulations performed by 10 models, we find that preindustrial to present day climate change decreased the methane lifetime by about 4 months, representing a negative feedback on the climate system. Further, using a subset of the models, we find that global mean OH increased by 46.4 ± 12.2% in response to

  12. ADULT DRAGONFLY COMMUNITIES IN TROPICAL RIVERS OF THE NORTHERN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: SPECIES COMPOSITION, BIOTOPE AND HOST PLANT PREFERRENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wahizatul Afzan A; Che Salmah M R

    2005-01-01

    Adult dragonfly communities were dominated by Libellulidae as 29 species were successfully collected from this family in marginal areas of Saleh, Setul and Serdang rivers. Zygopterans Coenagrionidae, Platycnemididae, Calopterygidae were common while Gomphidae and Chlorocyphidae were rather rare. Libellulids Neurothemis fluctuans, Trithemis aurora, Crocothemis servilia, T. festiva and Orthetrum chrysis were widely distributed in shaded, muddy areas. Among the zygopterans, Pseudagrion pruinosumwas the most dominant species. Agriocnemis femina, Ictinogomphus rapax, Cratilla lineata, Lathrecista asiatica, Neurothemis tullia, Tholymis tillarga and Copera ciliata were strictly found at Saleh River implicating their preference for smaller, slow moving and polluted river with floating microphytes and few other surrounding plant species. Neurobasis chinensis and Vestalis gracilis were only found in open, undisturbed, fast flowing waters of Setul and Serdang rivers. Generally the adults perched on marginal vegetation as well as those on the river bank areas.

  13. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  14. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Adamczyk, John J; Higdon, Matthew L; Clark, Thomas L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    In much of the Corn Belt and parts of Europe, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most important insect pest of maize. The need for additional basic knowledge of this pest has been highlighted while developing resistance management plans for insecticidal genetically modified crops. This study evaluated the possibility of tracking feeding habits of western corn rootworm larvae using stable carbon isotope signatures. Plants accumulate different ratios of (13)C:(12)C isotopes, usually expressed as δ(13)C, according to whether they use the C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathway. Herbivore biomass is expected to reflect the δ(13)C of the food they eat. For the current experiment, western corn rootworm larvae were grown on different species of plants exhibiting different δ(13)C values. The δ(13)C values were then measured in elytra of emerged beetles. When beetles were unfed, biomass reflected larval feeding. When beetles were fed for 31 d postemergence, δ(13)C values of elytra almost exclusively reflected adult feeding. These results suggest the use of caution in the interpretation of δ(13)C data aiming to document larval diet history when adult feeding history is unknown. The technique was also used to evaluate western corn rootworm larval choice between alternate hosts and maize with and without genetically modified (Bt) traits aimed at their control. Propensity for feeding on alternate hosts versus maize was biased toward feeding on maize regardless whether the maize had Bt or not, suggesting western corn rootworm larvae were not repelled by Bt. These data will be helpful for regulators in interpreting western corn rootworm feeding data on Bt maize. PMID:24874160

  15. Evaluating CMIP5 ocean biogeochemistry and Southern Ocean carbon uptake using atmospheric potential oxygen: Present-day performance and future projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevison, C. D.; Manizza, M.; Keeling, R. F.; Stephens, B. B.; Bent, J. D.; Dunne, J.; Ilyina, T.; Long, M.; Resplandy, L.; Tjiputra, J.; Yukimoto, S.

    2016-03-01

    Observed seasonal cycles in atmospheric potential oxygen (APO ~ O2 + 1.1 CO2) were used to evaluate eight ocean biogeochemistry models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Model APO seasonal cycles were computed from the CMIP5 air-sea O2 and CO2 fluxes and compared to observations at three Southern Hemisphere monitoring sites. Four of the models captured either the observed APO seasonal amplitude or phasing relatively well, while the other four did not. Many models had an unrealistic seasonal phasing or amplitude of the CO2 flux, which in turn influenced APO. By 2100 under RCP8.5, the models projected little change in the O2 component of APO but large changes in the seasonality of the CO2 component associated with ocean acidification. The models with poorer performance on present-day APO tended to project larger net carbon uptake in the Southern Ocean, both today and in 2100.

  16. Past geologic, climatic and geo-morphologic forcing influence on present-day hydrodynamics, a key to understanding future evolution: example of the Paris Basin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the influence of future climatic and morphologic changes on the hydrogeology of sedimentary basins, to support hydrodynamic modelling for a nuclear waste disposal safety assessment, requires: - an extensive data set capable of reproducing hydrodynamic parameter heterogeneity; - identification and quantification of the mechanisms likely to affect the hydrodynamics; and - appropriate initial hydrodynamic conditions. To this end, the well known Paris basin can be considered a 'textbook case' as many scientists from different fields have studied it over the past decades. A large amount of diverse data is therefore available. The reconstruction of past forcing, such as changes in geology, climate and morphology, and its contribution to present-day hydrodynamics, is a scientific challenge. One crucial question is: How far back in time must we go to build a coherent hydrodynamic model? We propose and discuss some options in this presentation. Present-day Paris basin hydrodynamics are influenced by past climatic and morphologic forcing. The system is not in a steady-state regime, even if conditions occurring before any aquifer exploitation are considered. Initial conditions for modelling the future evolution of the basin under any new forcing cannot be taken as steady-state, as is usually done. We have shown so far that: - 248 My of geological processes have to be taken into account to reproduce an accurate geometry and hydrodynamic parameter heterogeneity at the basin scale, - the 5 My duration allows us to disregard older transient phenomena which may had occurred, and a - shorter period of 1 My can now be used to better describe processes such as permafrost, which seems to have the largest influence. Accurate representation and understanding of permafrost could also be used in prospective hydrodynamic modelling under future glacial conditions. (authors)

  17. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Melba, E-mail: mnavarro@ibecbarcelona.eu [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom); Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona, 08028 (Spain); Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A. [UKCTE, The Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GA (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  18. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  19. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  20. Hazard responses in the pre-industrial era: vulnerability and resilience of traditional societies to volcanic disasters and the implications for present-day disaster planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Heather

    2014-05-01

    A major research frontier in the study of natural hazard research involves unravelling the ways in which societies have reacted historically to disasters, and how such responses influence current policies of disaster reduction. For societies it is common to classify responses to natural hazards into: pre-industrial (folk); industrial; and post-industrial (comprehensive) responses. Pre-industrial societies are characterised by: a pre-dominantly rural location; an agricultural economic focus; artisan handicrafts rather than industrial production, parochialism, with people rarely travelling outside their local area and being little affected by external events and a feudal or semi-feudal social structure. In the past, hazard assessment focused on the physical processes that produced extreme and potentially damaging occurrences, however from the middle of the twenty-first century research into natural hazards has been cast within a framework defined by the polarities (or opposites) of vulnerability and resilience, subject to a blend of unique environmental, social, economic and cultural forces in hazardous areas, that either increase or decrease the impact of extreme events on a given society. In the past decade research of this type has been facilitated by a 'revolution' of source materials across a range of languages and in a variety of electronic formats (e.g. official archives; major contemporary and near-contemporary publications - often available as reprints; national and international newspapers of record; newsreel-films; and, photographs) and in the introduction of more reliable translation software (e.g. Systrans) that provides far more scope to the researcher in the study of natural hazards than was the case even a few years ago. Knowledge of hazard responses in the pre-industrial era is, not only important in its own right because it reveals indigenous strategies of coping, but also informs present-day disaster planners about how people have reacted to past

  1. Report on the present day situation and technical perspectives of renewable energies; Rapport sur l'etat actuel et les perspectives techniques des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C.; Le Deaut, J.Y.

    2001-11-01

    This work, carried out by the parliamentary office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices on request of the French National Assembly and Senate, takes stock of the present day situation and technical perspectives of development of renewable energy sources and of research needs of the French industry in this domain: 1 - renewable energies: key-technologies for the energy supply of developing countries and for a rational consumption in transportation systems and accommodations of developed countries (energies technically different from fossil or nuclear energies; fundamental energy sources for a developing world; different national goals in Europe depending on the available natural resources and on the political realities; a minor interest in France for the domestic power generation but a major interest for transports, residential and tertiary sectors and export); 2 - priority choices given to the French renewable energy resources: renewable electricity (photovoltaic, wind, biomass), thermal technologies (solar, geothermal, biomass); 3 - future policy: sustain of renewable electricity production with the revival of research, industry and technical cooperation. (J.S.)

  2. Changes in the United Kingdom's natural relations in terms of society's metabolism and land-use from 1850 to the present day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schandl, Heinz; Schulz, Niels [Department of Social Ecology, Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies of Austrian Universities, Schottenfeldgasse 29/5, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we present our understanding of how society and nature have interacted in the course of history in terms of society's metabolic interchange with the biophysical environment. Presenting a theoretical model, we begin by focusing on the interface between society and nature (society's natural relations) as conceptualized by the idea of metabolism, which draws upon Marxist theory complemented by a systems approach. The concept of metabolism portrays society as a system, which has to establish and maintain a permanent throughput of energy and matter to produce and maintain society's material components. The amount of resource flow is operationalized by using material and energy flow accounting methods. Empirically, these methods are applied to the UK's economy in a time-series approach from 1850 to the present day. We discuss different aggregates of inputs such as domestic material extraction, foreign trade of materials, energy input and, additionally, give an account of land-use change. Obviously, these changing natural relations are linked to socio-economic activities. Hence, we make a first attempt to discuss different periods of socio-economic development by drawing from a regulation approach and try to link them to physical indicators such as direct material and energy input and domestic material consumption (DMC). Thereby, we hope to contribute to a historical understanding of socio-economically driven environmental change within the framework of ecological economics.

  3. ‘... conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’: The exposition of the Heidelberg Catechism in the light of present-day criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius W.C. (Natie van Wyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is a contribution to the 450 year celebrations of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC. Sunday 14, Questions and Answers 35 and 36 receive attention. It deals with the two statements of the creed ‘… conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’. The exposition of the HC is compared to the catechisms of Zacharias Ursinus and John Calvin in order to capture something about the historicity of the text. The exposition of the creed is an on-going process. Karl Barth, Eberhard Busch and Jan Milič Lochman are good examples of Reformed theologians who remain faithful to the intention of the HC, but who explain these statements with present-day criticism in mind. The exposition of Peter Berger is valuable because this sceptic argues that the opinion of modern, liberal Protestantism is of no value. The article concludes that the ‘virgin birth’ as such has no great value. It is only one aspect of the Christian gospel. It also does not proof the divinity of Christ. The divinity of Christ is presupposed.

  4. Sulfur Dioxide and the Production of Sulfuric Acid on Present-Day and Early Mars: Implications for the Lack of Detected Carbonates on the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Summers, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    In the early history of Mars, volcanic activity associated with the formation of the Tharsis ridge produced a very large amount of atmospheric SO2--on the order of a bar of atmospheric SO2. In the present-day atmosphere of Mars, the lifetime of SO2 is relatively short with a lifetime of less than a day. The short lifetime of SO2 in the present Mars atmosphere makes the production of significant levels of H2SO4 very difficult since the SO2 may be destroyed by various chemical and photochemical processes before the SO2 can be converted to H2SO4. However, photochemical calculations performed and described here, indicate that enhanced atmospheric levels of CO2 in the early atmosphere of Mars resulted in a significantly enhanced atmospheric lifetime for SO2 up to several years. With a significantly enhanced atmospheric lifetime, SO2 could readily form large amounts of H2SO4, which precipitated out of the atmosphere in the form of droplets. The precipitated H2SO4 then reacted with potential surface carbonates, destroying the carbonates and resulting in the abundant and widespread distribution of sulfates on the surface of Mars as detected by recent Mars missions.

  5. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from ACCMIP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996–2000. We evaluated the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements.

    Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5–3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period. We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Jungfraujoch and Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2–3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean.

    For the ice core evaluation, models tend to capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes well at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice-core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct

  6. Human reponses to historical eruptions of Etna (Sicily) from 1600 to present and their implications for present-day disaster planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, H.; Chester, D. K.; Duncan, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Mount Etna in northeastern Sicily (Italy) rises to over 3000 m, covers an area of ca.1750 km2 and is the most active volcano in Europe. Observations of Etna by literate observers stretch back to the classical era and one of the earliest references to an eruption of Etna was by Pindar in his Pythian Odes, to the event of ca. 474-479 B.C. The history of its activity has been reconstructed by scholars up to the present day and records of eruptions are reasonably complete from the early fifteenth century, reliable from 1669, and document the threats and destruction to human settlements and livelihoods. Effusive and explosive activity has occurred continually throughout the historical period and eruptions of Mount Etna have presented numerous eruption styles, from persistent central crater activity, to periodic flank eruptions. From 1600 to 1669 the activity of Etna was characterised by a high volumetric output of lava with a mean eruption rate of 1.19 m3s-1, this was followed by a pause from flank eruptions and the re-establishment of significant activity from the middle of the eighteenth century. After 1750 the output of lava by flank eruptions was lower than in the previous century, with the mean eruption rate falling to 0.18 m3s-1. This paper summarises: the characteristics of the eruptions that occurred between the period of 1600 to present; the particularities of the societal responses over time and the role of the authorities; and, the important lessons this history holds for the management of present-day civil defence planning in the region. People responded to the eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; as members of a community and, as citizens of the State. The State, however, was a minor player in responding to these eruptions until the early nineteenth century as the State then became more involved in each successive eruption as the responses moved to a more industrial nature rather than pre-industrial. Today emergencies are

  7. Paleo-oil-Water Contact and Present-Day Gas-Water Contact:Implication for Evolution History of Puguang Gas Field,Sichuan Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Pingping; Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Wang Cunwu; Zhang Xuefeng

    2008-01-01

    The Puguang (普光) gas field is the largest gas field found in marine carbonate in China.The Puguang gas field experienced complicated evolution history from paleo-oil pool to gas pool.The purpose of this article is to reveal the evolution history of Puguang gas field through systematic study on the relationship between paleo-oil-water contact (POWC) and present-day gas-water contact (PGWC).POWC was recognized by observing the change of relative content of residual solid bitumen in the cores,and PGWC was observed using log and drilling stem test data.Two types of relationship between POWC and PGWC were observed in the Puguang gas field:POWC is above PGWC,and POWC is below PGWC.The former is normal as oil cracking may cause gas-water contact to move downward.The latter can be interpreted by lateral gas re-migration and re-accumulation caused by changes in structural configuration.The relationship between POWC and PGWC suggests that during oil charge,the southwestern and northwestern parts of the Puguang gas field were structurally lower than the northeastern and southeastern parts.Thrusting from Xuefengshan (雪峰山) since Yanshanian movement and from Dabashan (大巴山) since Himalayan movement resulted in the relative uplift of the southwestern and northwestern parts of the Puguang structure,which significantly changed the structural configuration.Based on the paleo-structure discussed in this article,the most probable migration directions of paleo-oil were from the northwest to the southeast and from the southwest to the northeast.Consequently,the evolution history of the Puguang gas field can be divided into three stages,namely,oil charging (200-170 Ma),cracking oil to gas (155-120 Ma),and gas pool adjustment (1200-0Ma).

  8. Interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming on coral reef associated epilithic algal communities under past, present-day and future ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, N.; Cantin, N. E.; Strahl, J.; Kaniewska, P.; Bay, L.; Wild, C.; Uthicke, S.

    2016-06-01

    Epilithic algal communities play critical ecological roles on coral reefs, but their response to individual and interactive effects of ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) is still largely unknown. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and calcification of early epilithic algal community assemblages exposed for 6 months to four temperature profiles (-1.1, ±0.0, +0.9, +1.6 °C) that were crossed with four carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) levels (360, 440, 650, 940 µatm), under flow-through conditions and natural light regimes. Additionally, we compared the cover of heavily calcified crustose coralline algae (CCA) and lightly calcified red algae of the genus Peyssonnelia among treatments. Increase in cover of epilithic communities showed optima under moderately elevated temperatures and present pCO2, while cover strongly decreased under high temperatures and high-pCO2 conditions, particularly due to decreasing cover of CCA. Similarly, community calcification rates were strongly decreased at high pCO2 under both measured temperatures. While final cover of CCA decreased under high temperature and pCO2 (additive negative effects), cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased at high compared to annual average and moderately elevated temperatures. Thus, cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased in treatment combinations with less CCA, which was supported by a significant negative correlation between organism groups. The different susceptibility to stressors most likely derived from a different calcification intensity and/or mineral. Notably, growth of the epilithic communities and final cover of CCA were strongly decreased under reduced-pCO2 conditions compared to the present. Thus, CCA may have acclimatized from past to present-day pCO2 conditions, and changes in carbonate chemistry, regardless in which direction, negatively affect them. However, if epilithic organisms cannot further acclimatize to OW and OA, the interacting effects of both factors may change

  9. Prognostic Factors on the Graft-versus-Host Disease-Free and Relapse-Free Survival after Adult Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chung Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure of hematologic disorders by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is often associated with major complications resulting in poor outcome, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, relapse, and death. A novel composite endpoint of GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS in which events include grades 3-4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD requiring systemic therapy, relapse, or death is censored to completely characterize the survival without mortality or ongoing morbidity. In this regard, studies attempting to identify the prognostic factors of GRFS are quite scarce. Thus, we reviewed 377 adult patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT between 2003 and 2013. The 1- and 2-year GRFS were 40.8% and 36.5%, respectively, significantly worse than overall survival and disease-free survival (log-rank p 2 (p 2 (p<0.001, being male (p=0.028, and hematologic malignancy (p=0.010 were significant for poor outcome. The events between 1-year GRFS and 2-year GRFS predominantly increased in relapsed patients. With prognostic factors of GRFS, we could evaluate the probability of real recovery following HSCT without ongoing morbidity.

  10. Impact of graft-versus-host disease on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult T-cell leukemia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Junya; Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Utsunomiya, Atae; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Eto, Tetsuya; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Kawano, Fumio; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Masuda, Masato; Nagafuji, Koji; Hara, Masamichi; Takanashi, Minoko; Kai, Shunro; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Kawase, Takakazu; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Kato, Shunichi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Morishima, Yasuo; Okamura, Jun; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Uchiyama, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an effective treatment for adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), raising the question about the role of graft-versus-leukemia effect against ATL. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the effects of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on overall survival, disease-associated mortality, and treatment-related mortality among 294 ATL patients who received allogeneic HCT and survived at least 30 days posttransplant with sustained engraftment. Multivariate analyses treating the occurrence of GVHD as a time-varying covariate demonstrated that the development of grade 1-2 acute GVHD was significantly associated with higher overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] for death, 0.65; P = .018) compared with the absence of acute GVHD. Occurrence of either grade 1-2 or grade 3-4 acute GVHD was associated with lower disease-associated mortality compared with the absence of acute GVHD, whereas grade 3-4 acute GVHD was associated with a higher risk for treatment-related mortality (HR, 3.50; P < .001). The development of extensive chronic GVHD was associated with higher treatment-related mortality (HR, 2.75; P = .006) compared with the absence of chronic GVHD. Collectively, these results indicate that the development of mild-to-moderate acute GVHD confers a lower risk of disease progression and a beneficial influence on survival of allografted patients with ATL. PMID:22234682

  11. Grainsize Patterns and Bed Evolution of the Rhone River (France): A Present-day Snapshot Following a Century and a Half of Human Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, T.; Parrot, E.; Piegay, H.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 150 years the Rhône River has been heavily altered by human infrastructures. The first wave (1860 - 1930) of modifications consisted of dikes and groynes designed to narrow the channel and promote incision in order to facilitate navigation. A second period (1948 - 1986) involved the construction of a series of canals and dams for hydroelectricity production. These works bypass multiple reaches of the original channel and drastically reduce the discharge and sediment load reaching them. A comprehensive study underway is aimed at describing the present-day morphology of the Rhone along its 512 km length from its source at Lake Geneva to its sink at the Mediterranean Sea and quantifying the role of management works in the evolution to its current state. Grainsize distributions and armour ratios were determined using a combination of Wolman counts on bars and in shallow channels and dredge samples collected from a boat in navigable reaches. Long profiles were constructed from historical bathymetric maps and bathymetric data collected between 1950 - 2010. Differential long profiles highlighting changes in bed elevation due to sediment storage and erosion were analyzed for three different periods: post-channelization, post-dam construction, and a recent period of major floods. Results show a complex discontinuous pattern in grainsize associated with hydraulic discontinuities imposed by dams. The D50 for bypass reaches is 45 mm compared to a D50 of 34 mm in the non-bypass reaches. The lower D50 as well as a finer tailed distribution in non-bypass reaches reflects fining associated with storage upstream of dams. Armour ratios are on average around 2 but are notably higher for reaches in the middle section of the Rhone. The average incision rate was 1.8 cm/yr for the period of post-channelization and 1.2 cm/yr following dam construction, suggesting the post-dam Rhone was already partially armoured due to incision associated with channelization preceding dam

  12. Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

    2012-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each

  13. Late Miocene to present-day exhumation and uplift of the Internal Zone of the Rif chain: Insights from low temperature thermochronometry and basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagny, A.; Ph. Münch; Cornée, J.-J.; Corsini, M.; Azdimousa, A.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.; Drinia, H.; Bonno, M.; Arnaud, N.; Monié, P.; Quillévéré, F.; Ben Moussa, A.

    2014-07-01

    Located on the margin of the west Alboran basin, the Gibraltar Arc (Betic-Rif mountain belt) displays post-Pliocene vertical movements evidenced by uplifted marine sedimentary basins and marine terraces. Quantification of vertical movements is an important clue to understand the origin of present-day relief generation in the Betic-Rif mountain chain together with the causes of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. In this paper, we present the results of a pluridisciplinary study combining an analysis of low temperature thermochronology and Pliocene basins evolution to constrain the exhumation history and surface uplift of internals units of the Rif belt (Northern Morocco). The mean (U-Th)/He apatite ages obtained from 11 samples are comprised between 14.1 and 17.8 Ma and display a wide dispersion, which could be explained by a great variability of apatite chemistries in the analyzed samples. No correlations between altitude and age have been found along altitudinal profile suggesting a rapid exhumation during this period. Thermal modeling using our (U-Th)/He apatite ages and geochronological data previously obtained in the same area (40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar data on biotite, zircon and apatite fission track) allow us to propose a cooling history. The rocks suffered a rapid cooling at 60-100 °C/Ma between 22.5 and 19 Ma, then cooled to temperatures around 40 °C between 19 and 18 Ma. They were re-heated at around 110 °C between 18 and 15 Ma then rapidly cooled and exhumed to reach the surface temperature at around 13 Ma. The re-heating could be related to a renewal in thrusting and burying of the inner zones. Between 15 and 13 Ma the cooling resumed at a rate of 50 °C/Ma indicating an exhumation rate of 0.8 mm/y considering an average 40 °C/km geothermal gradient. This exhumation may be linked to the extension in the Alboran Sea. Otherwise biostratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of Pliocene basins of the internal Rif provided informations on the more recent events

  14. Evaluation Of Present-Day Climate-Induced Desertification In El-Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert Of Egypt, Based On Integration Of MEDALUS Method, GIS And RS Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Hossam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited to fourth percent or less of the country’s total land area, Egypt’s agricultural landscape is threatened by the repercussions of climate change, desertification, soil depletion, and looming water scarcity. Outside of the Nile river valley and scattered fertile pockets in the desert oases, the vast majority of land is desert: rocky, parched and unable to support conventional farming. According to Egyptian National Action Program 2005 (ENAP, Egypt covers an area of about one million km2 ~ 100 million hectares, out of which about of 76.5 thousands km2 ~ 7.6% of the total area are inhabited, and the remaining (92.4% area is desert. Desertification is a very complex process governed by several variables which influence each other. It is thus not possible to conclude for the general picture from a single factor alone. This process has a high rate in arid and hyper-arid countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this research was to evaluation the present-day climate-induced desertification in El-Dakhla Oasis, so in this study, the newest method for evaluating and mapping of desertification was used. The mathematic method was carried out by European Commission (EC, (MEditerranean Desertification And Land Use at the MEDALUS project and booked as ESAs in 1999 integrated with remote sensing and GIS. All indices of the model were revised before using, and regarding to the region condition these indices were defined as key indices which were: Temperature, precipitation, wind, albedo, ground water and soil benchmark, and each benchmark has some sub-layers getting from their geometric mean. Based on the MEDALUS model, each sub-benchmark was quantified according to its quality and given a weighting of between 1.0 and 2.0. All benchmarks should be reinvestigated and adjusted to local conditions. Ultimately, desertification severity was classified in four level including low, moderate, Severe and high Severe. ArcGIS 10 was used to analysis and

  15. Submarine gravitative mass movements in the ``Corinth Gulf'' graben in Greece. A natural laboratory for the enhancement of present day knowledge on mass movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, G.; Stefatos, A.; Christodoulou, D.; Ferentinos, G.

    2003-04-01

    caused by the deformation of the underlying sediments. This can be attributed to the partial loss of sediment strength due to either the remoulding or excess pore fluid pressure caused by the cyclic loading induced by the earthquake. Historical observations give evidence that: (i) coastal mass movements like those described above have also occurred in the past, (ii) mass movements have been triggered by earthquakes or heavy rain and (iii) the frequency occurrence of mass movements all over the Corinth Gulf graben may be once in every two or three years. These mass movements have caused destruction to the coastal infrastructure and also to offshore submarine cables. The review of the state of the art on the existing knowledge suggests, that in the past three decades, there have been great scientific and engineering advances in the recognition of mass movements on the seafloor and of the basic geological processes involved. There is however, a lack of scientific knowledge related to the prediction of the reactivation of existing mass movements and to the identification of slopes prone to failure. This knowledge could be acquired by the continuous monitoring of the changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the sediments. The study of the continuous changes in the sediment properties is hindered mainly by the high cost of monitoring in the unfriendly ocean environment. Taking the aforementioned into consideration, and bearing in mind that the Gulf of Corinth is a semi-enclosed embayment characterized by calm sea conditions, the Gulf would therefore, be an ideal natural laboratory for the further advancement of present day knowledge on mass movement processes and slope stability prediction.

  16. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, D. T.; Bernsten, T.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L. W.; McConnell, J. R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S. T.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations, and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000. We evaluate the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5-3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period.We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to adequately capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct temporal trend at the Tibetan Plateau ice cores

  17. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations, and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996–2000. We evaluate the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5–3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period. We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2–3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to adequately capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct temporal trend at the Tibetan

  18. Effects of juvenile host density and food availability on adult immune response, parasite resistance and virulence in a Daphnia-parasite system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine N Schoebel

    Full Text Available Host density can increase infection rates and reduce host fitness as increasing population density enhances the risk of becoming infected either through increased encounter rate or because host condition may decline. Conceivably, potential hosts could take high host density as a cue to up-regulate their defence systems. However, as host density usually covaries with food availability, it is difficult to examine the importance of host density in isolation. Thus, we performed two full-factorial experiments that varied juvenile densities of Daphnia magna (a freshwater crustacean and food availability independently. We also included a simulated high-density treatment, where juvenile experimental animals were kept in filtered media that previously maintained Daphnia at high-density. Upon reaching adulthood, we exposed the Daphnia to their sterilizing bacterial parasite, Pasteuria ramosa, and examined how the juvenile treatments influenced the likelihood and severity of infection (Experiment I and host immune investment (Experiment II. Neither juvenile density nor food treatments affected the likelihood of infection; however, well-fed hosts that were well-fed as juveniles produced more offspring prior to sterilization than their less well-fed counterparts. By contrast, parasite growth was independent of host juvenile resources or host density. Parasite-exposed hosts had a greater number of circulating haemocytes than controls (i.e., there was a cellular immune response, but the magnitude of immune response was not mediated by food availability or host density. These results suggest that density dependent effects on disease arise primarily through correlated changes in food availability: low food could limit parasitism and potentially curtail epidemics by reducing both the host's and parasite's reproduction as both depend on the same food.

  19. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    transmission to their bird definitive host by predation. In experimental infections, we found an intensity-dependent establishment success, with a decrease in the success rate of cercariae developing into infective metacercariae with an increasing dose of cercariae applied to each amphipod. In natural......Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer a...... reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size and...

  20. Cosmology: from Pomeranchuk to the present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2014-02-01

    A review of half a century of cosmology is presented for an intended audience of elementary particle physicists. The review is based on a half-hour seminar talk (at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, ITEP) and is therefore brief and superficial. The introductory historical section is mostly devoted to the fundamental work done in, but not always known outside, Russia (USSR). Foundational works and astronomical observations instrumental in shaping the field are discussed, as are inflation, baryosynthesis, dark matter and dark energy, vacuum energy, large-scale gravity modifications, and microwave background angular fluctuations. The presentation is admittedly not entirely objective but rather is given from the Russian (ITEP) perspective and is influenced by the author's personal views and biases.

  1. Present day problems concerning the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of the regional energy supply industry touching directly the energy supply utilities (e.g. territorial reform, power prices) are discussed. In a survey on the overall energy situation in the FRG as seen by energy supply utilities, the following conclusions are drawn: 1) The electricity supply industry is in the favourite position to make the required structural changes by utilizing primary energy for generating electric power. It offers - via electric energy - an effective opportunity for substituting oil. 2) The electricity supply industry alone will be in a position to use nuclear energy during the next few decades. A decision in favour of nuclear energy must not be at disposal to make oneself momentarily politically popular. This indispensable decision results exclusively from our responsibility for the future of our national economy and thus our society. (orig./HP)

  2. Radiotherapy in skin cancer - present day aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin carcinomas (SC) are the leading ones in the structure of oncological morbidity in both genders in Bulgaria, as well as in white populations in the world. Regardless of their high frequency, their treatment is successful and mortality due to SC has been reduced by 20 - 30% during the last decades. In Bulgaria SC in 2003 comprise 9.3% of all oncological diseases in men and women. According to their frequency they occupy the second phase after lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The treatment of SC is realized applying various therapeutic approaches, distinguished as basic (radical) and alternative ones. The first include surgical treatment and radiotherapy (RT) (definitive or adjuvant) and the alternative ones - curettage and electro-coagulation, cryotherapy, local chemotherapy and immunotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, etc. When defining the therapeutic approach, the method affording the best chances of curing with acceptable cosmetic results should be selected. The present review is aimed at considering the contemporary aspects in RT of SC, including used radiotherapy methods and techniques, volumes, doses, fractionation, and achieved therapeutic effects. The indications for implementing definitive and adjuvant RT are given in detail. The applied radiotherapy methods - external beam RT and brachytherapy, are also discussed. The used planned radiotherapy volumes, doses, fractionation schemes, attained therapeutic effects and possible radiation reactions are considered as well. The curability of SC is high, exceeding 90% after adequate treatment. Regardless of the fact that RT has partially ceded its leading role in SC treatment, it still remains to be one of the basic and successful therapeutic approaches

  3. Renewable energies and present day energy economics

    OpenAIRE

    Virgiliu NICULA

    2012-01-01

    Once all available energy resources of Romania are inventoried, the scientific and business communities must support each other in attaining their common goals to raise the living condition for both themselves, and for the indigenous population, by making the catchment, production and supply of all energy types, needed for a wealthy and facile life, more efficient

  4. [Present day Marxist sociology and psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, S

    1979-01-01

    The main common theme in psychoanalysis and Marxist sociology is the understanding that it is not consciousness that determines being, but being (spiritual, social) that determines consciousness. The different variations of Marxist movements today are in fact distant from Marx's theory of sociology. They have become representatives of utopian socialism, using anarchistic methods to achieve that aim. This development can only be understood as a social neurosis, with the narcistic frustation of the intellectual class as its cause, and grandiose claims, intolerance, dogmatic thinking and destructive behaviour as its symptoms. The only justified criticism of psychoanalysis from the pseudo-Marxist side is based on the imperfection and error in the analytical doctrine of superego. This should be replaced by the idea of conscious, subjective, emotional morality which clearly explains the aggression contained in social structures. PMID:498762

  5. Present Day Recession Effects on Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Bujor Anca Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Specific characteristic for recession situation are: instability, anxiety, unpredictable attitude and behavior accentuation of knowledge, cognitive filters and erroneous interpretation of social, economic or existential realities. In this paper, for knowing this recession from the perspective of human resources, I started from determining some objectives such as: Knowledge of present recession peculiarities, of its area and depth, learning recession effects, its impact upon human resources, i...

  6. Present-day dangeres-cyberstalking

    OpenAIRE

    Babicka-Wirkus, Anna; Wirkus, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    Próba analizy zagrożeń społecznych w polskich warunkach, jeszcze kilkanaście lat temu nie uwzględniała zjawiska stalkingu, a już na pewno nie postrzegano Internetu, jako nowego źródła współczesnego niebezpieczeństwa, jakim jest cyberstalking. Internet, traktowany przez olbrzymie rzesze użytkowników jako podstawowa forma funkcjonowania społecznego, jest dzisiaj globalną cywilizacją. Potęga Internetu nie uwzględnia jednak ważnych aspektów szeroko pojmowanej moralności i zasad współżycia na kanw...

  7. Cities, Counties and Universities Look for Ways to Prevent Underage Drinking--Social Host Laws Make Adults Responsible for Alcohol Served on Their Property to Those Under 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Glynn R.

    2008-01-01

    Municipalities and colleges are adding Social Host ordinances to their list of tactics to prevent underage drinking. The ordinances, which focus on the locations where underage drinking takes place, hold property owners responsible for making sure those under 21 don't consume alcohol in their home, apartment or any venue they own. MADD (Mothers…

  8. The Role of Within-Host Competition for Coexistence in Multiparasitoid-Host Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Ellen; Pérez-Vila, Saleta; Etienne, Rampal S

    2016-01-01

    Multiparasitism (females of multiple species parasitizing the same host) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in parasitoids, yet the role of within-host competition has been mostly ignored in multiparasitoid-host models. Here we study the effect of varying the degree of competition at different life stages: competition over oviposition sites (between-adult competition) and larval competition over resources within the host (within-host competition). We adapt a Nicholson-Bailey model to allow for varying levels of between-adult competition (varying the overlap in species distributions) and within-host competition (varying the number of offspring that can successfully emerge from a host). Surprisingly, while stronger between-adult competition reduces coexistence, stronger within-host competition promotes it. Asymmetric between-adult competition (a fecundity difference between the two species) reduces coexistence when compared to symmetric competition; this can be counteracted by asymmetric within-host competition (within-host competitive advantage of the lower-fecundity species), but only when within-host competition is strong and the correlation between the parasitoids' distributions is intermediate. We discuss our results in the context of the interaction between two parasitoid species, Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti, which have strongly correlated distributions and high levels of multiparasitism in the field. We conclude that either low or asymmetric within-host competition is unlikely to explain their coexistence. PMID:27277402

  9. Multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of invasive fungal infections in adult patients. Prophylaxis, empirical, preemptive or targeted therapy, which is the best in the different hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Zaragoza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Zaragoza1, Javier Pemán2, Miguel Salavert3, Ángel Viudes2, Amparo Solé4, Isidro Jarque5, Emilio Monte6, Eva Romá6, Emilia Cantón71Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain; 2Servicio de Microbiología; 3Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas; 4Unidad de Trasplante Pulmonar; 5Servicio de Hematología; 6Servicio de Farmacia; 7Unidad de Microbiología Experimental, Centro de Investigación, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia, SpainAbstract: The high morbidity, mortality, and health care costs associated with invasive fungal infections, especially in the critical care setting and immunocompromised host, have made it an excellent target for prophylactic, empiric, and preemptive therapy interventions principally based on early identification of risk factors. Early diagnosis and treatment are associated with a better prognosis. In the last years there have been important developments in antifungal pharmacotherapy. An approach to the new diagnosis tools in the clinical mycology laboratory and an analysis of the use new antifungal agents and its application in different clinical situations has been made. Furthermore, an attempt of developing a state of the art in each clinical scenario (critically ill, hematological, and solid organ transplant patients has been performed, trying to choose the best strategy for each clinical situation (prophylaxis, pre-emptive, empirical, or targeted therapy. The high mortality rates in these settings make mandatory the application of early de-escalation therapy in critically ill patients with fungal infection. In addition, the possibility of antifungal combination therapy might be considered in solid organ transplant and hematological patients.Keywords: invasive fungal infections, prophylaxis, empirical therapy, preemptive treatment, targeted therapy

  10. Seafloor morphology of the Eurasia-Nubia (Africa) plate boundary between the Tore-Madeira Rise and the Straits of Gibraltar: a case of coexistent Mesozoic through Present day features of tectonic, oceanographic and sedimentary origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrinha, Pedro; Duarte, João.; Valadares, Vasco; Batista, Luis; Zitellini, Nevio; Grácia, Eulalia; Lourenço, Nuno; Rosas, Filipe; Roque, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The joint use of more than 10.000 km multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 180.000km2 of multibeam swath bathymetry and backscatter allowed for a new vision of the seafloor tectonic and geomorphic processes of the area that encompasses the present day plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia, between the Gibraltar Straits and the Tore-Madeira Rise, in the southern sector of the North Atlantic Ocean. The interpretation of this data allowed for the detailed description of the seafloor morphology (i.e. a morphologic map) and the classification of the morphologic features in what respects the genetic process and age. It can be seen that in the same region coexist morphologic features that result from tectonic processes associated with the Triassic-Cretaceous break-up of Pangea, the Paleogene-Miocene compressive phase, the Miocene through Present subduction under the Gibraltar Arc (Gutscher et al., 2002), the Pliocene-Quaternary wrench tectonics and possible coeval plate boundary (Zitellini et al., 2009), the Present day mud volcanism and propagation of the compressive deformation along the West Continental Margin of Portugal (Terrinha et al., 2009). Interpretation of the seismic profiles together with the bathymetry allows the understanding of endogenous and exogenous processes that creates reliefs associated with active structures (related to the Miocene through Present compressive stress field). Other reliefs generated in Mesozoic times by analogous processes can be as well preserved as these active ones. In what concerns exogenous processes, the analysis of the two datasets (reflection seismics and bathymetry) allowed for the description of morphologic features associated with oceanic currents that interact with the seafloor forming these important features. As is the case of the well known active contourites but also less known features, like giant scours at 4 km water depth that have recently been described, suggesting the interaction of deep currents and

  11. δ18O water isotope in the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.0 – Part 3: A paleoperspective based on present-day data-model comparison for oxygen stable isotopes in carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Caley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen stable isotopes (18O are among the most usual tools in paleoclimatology/paleoceanography. Simulation of oxygen stable isotopes allows testing how the past variability of these isotopes in water can be interpreted. By modelling the proxy directly in the model, the results can also be directly compared with the data. Water isotopes have been implemented in the global three-dimensional model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM allowing fully coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations. In this study, we present the validation of the model results for present day climate against global database for oxygen stable isotopes in carbonates. The limitation of the model together with the processes operating in the natural environment reveal the complexity of use the continental calcite 18O signal of speleothems for a data-model comparison exercise. On the contrary, the reconstructed surface ocean calcite δ18O signal in iLOVECLIM does show a very good agreement with late Holocene database (foraminifers at the global and regional scales. Our results indicate that temperature and the isotopic composition of the seawater are the main control on the fossil δ18O signal recorded in foraminifer shells and that depth habitat and seasonality play a role but have secondary importance. We argue that a data-model comparison for surface ocean calcite δ18O in past climate, such as the last glacial maximum (≈21 000 yr, could constitute an interesting tool for mapping the potential shifts of the frontal systems and circulation changes throughout time. Similarly, the potential changes in intermediate oceanic circulation systems in the past could be documented by a data (benthic foraminifers-model comparison exercise whereas future investigations are necessary in order to quantitatively compare the results with data for the deep ocean.

  12. δ18O water isotope in the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.0 – Part 3: A palaeo-perspective based on present-day data–model comparison for oxygen stable isotopes in carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Caley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O are among the most useful tools in palaeoclimatology/palaeoceanography. Simulation of oxygen stable isotopes allows testing how the past variability of these isotopes in water can be interpreted. By modelling the proxy directly in the model, the results can also be directly compared with the data. Water isotopes have been implemented in the global three-dimensional model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM, allowing fully coupled atmosphere–ocean simulations. In this study, we present the validation of the model results for present-day climate against the global database for oxygen stable isotopes in carbonates. The limitation of the model together with the processes operating in the natural environment reveal the complexity of use the continental calcite-δ18O signal of speleothems for a global quantitative data–model comparison exercise. On the contrary, the reconstructed surface ocean calcite-δ18O signal in iLOVECLIM does show a very good agreement with the late Holocene database (foraminifers at the global and regional scales. Our results indicate that temperature and the isotopic composition of the seawater are the main control on the fossil-δ18O signal recorded in foraminifer shells when all species are grouped together. Depth habitat, seasonality and other ecological effects play a more significant role when individual species are considered. We argue that a data–model comparison for surface ocean calcite δ18O in past climates, such as the Last Glacial Maximum (≈ 21 000 yr, could constitute an interesting tool for mapping the potential shifts of the frontal systems and circulation changes throughout time. Similarly, the potential changes in intermediate oceanic circulation systems in the past could be documented by a data (benthic foraminifers-model comparison exercise whereas future investigations are necessary in order to quantitatively compare the results with data for the deep ocean.

  13. Comparison of a global-climate model to a cloud-system resolving model for the long-term response of thin stratocumulus clouds to preindustrial and present-day aerosol conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of a case of thin, warm marine-boundary-layer (MBL clouds to preindustrial (PI and present-day (PD conditions is simulated by a cloud-system resolving model (CSRM. Here, both the aerosol conditions and environmental conditions match those of a general circulation model (GCM. The environmental conditions are characterized by the initial condition and the large-scale forcings of humidity and temperature, as well as the surface fluxes. The response of the CSRM is compared to that simulated by the GCM.

    The percentage increase of liquid-water path (LWP due to a change from the PI to PD conditions is ~3 times larger in the CSRM than that in the GCM due to the formation of cumulus clouds. The formation of cumulus clouds is controlled by a larger increase in the surface latent-heat (LH flux in the PD environment than in the PI environment rather than by the change in aerosols. However, the aerosol increase from the PI to PD level determines the LWP response in the stratocumulus clouds, while the impacts of changes in environmental conditions are negligible for stratocumulus clouds. The conversion of cloud liquid to rain through autoconversion and accretion plays a negligible role in the CSRM in the response to aerosols, whereas it plays a role that is as important as condensation in the GCM. Also, it is notable that the explicit simulation of microphysics in the CSRM leads to a smaller LWP in the CSRM than that in the GCM using heavily parameterized microphysics for stratocumulus clouds. The smaller LWP in the CSRM is closer to an observed LWP than the LWP in the GCM for stratocumulus clouds.

    Supplementary simulations show that increasing aerosols increase the sensitivity of the cloud responses to the PI and PD environmental conditions. They also show that aerosol effects on clouds depend on the cloud type. The LWP of warm cumulus clouds is more sensitive to aerosols than that of stratocumulus clouds.

  14. Assessing the volcanic hazard for Rome: 40Ar/39Ar and In-SAR constraints on the most recent eruptive activity and present-day uplift at Colli Albani Volcanic District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, F.; Gaeta, M.; Giaccio, B.; Jicha, B. R.; Palladino, D. M.; Polcari, M.; Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Florindo, F.; Stramondo, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar data which allow us to refine the recurrence time for the most recent eruptive activity occurred at Colli Albani Volcanic District (CAVD) and constrain its geographic area. Time elapsed since the last eruption (36 kyr) overruns the recurrence time (31 kyr) in the last 100 kyr. New interferometric synthetic aperture radar data, covering the years 1993-2010, reveal ongoing inflation with maximum uplift rates (>2 mm/yr) in the area hosting the most recent (observed uplift might be caused by magma injection within the youngest plumbing system. Finally, we frame the present deformation within the structural pattern of the area of Rome, characterized by 50 m of regional uplift since 200 ka and by geologic evidence for a recent (<2000 years) switch of the local stress-field, highlighting that the precursors of a new phase of volcanic activity are likely occurring at the CAVD.

  15. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as

  16. Cellular host responses to gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Najbauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive type of malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Molecular and genetic analysis has advanced our understanding of glioma biology, however mapping the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment is crucial for understanding the pathology of this dreaded brain cancer. In this study we identified major cell populations attracted by glioma using orthotopic rodent models of human glioma xenografts. Marker-specific, anatomical and morphological analyses revealed a robust influx of host cells into the main tumor bed and tumor satellites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human glioma cell lines and glioma spheroid orthotopic implants were used in rodents. In both models, the xenografts recruited large numbers of host nestin-expressing cells, which formed a 'network' with glioma. The host nestin-expressing cells appeared to originate in the subventricular zone ipsilateral to the tumor, and were clearly distinguishable from pericytes that expressed smooth muscle actin. These distinct cell populations established close physical contact in a 'pair-wise' manner and migrated together to the deeper layers of tumor satellites and gave rise to tumor vasculature. The GBM biopsy xenografts displayed two different phenotypes: (a low-generation tumors (first in vivo passage in rats were highly invasive and non-angiogenic, and host nestin-positive cells that infiltrated into these tumors displayed astrocytic or elongated bipolar morphology; (b high-generation xenografts (fifth passage had pronounced cellularity, were angiogenic with 'glomerulus-like' microvascular proliferations that contained host nestin-positive cells. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and its receptor CXCR4 were highly expressed in and around glioma xenografts, suggesting their role in glioma progression and invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a robust migration of nestin-expressing host cells to glioma, which

  17. Trusted Hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP)

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Amir

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to study the possibilities to establish trusted hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP) and implement certificate handling in HIP packets. The time complexity and performance while using certificates in HIP packets was also measured. The research project was carried out at Arcada University of Applied Sciences in collaboration with Helsinki University. The project aimed to implement standard x.509 certification of the public key used as HI (Host Identity) to deri...

  18. Undiscovered Bat Hosts of Filoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John Paul; Alexander, Laura W.; Bowden, Sarah E.; Hayman, David T. S.; Drake, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola and other filoviruses pose significant public health and conservation threats by causing high mortality in primates, including humans. Preventing future outbreaks of ebolavirus depends on identifying wildlife reservoirs, but extraordinarily high biodiversity of potential hosts in temporally dynamic environments of equatorial Africa contributes to sporadic, unpredictable outbreaks that have hampered efforts to identify wild reservoirs for nearly 40 years. Using a machine learning algorithm, generalized boosted regression, we characterize potential filovirus-positive bat species with estimated 87% accuracy. Our model produces two specific outputs with immediate utility for guiding filovirus surveillance in the wild. First, we report a profile of intrinsic traits that discriminates hosts from non-hosts, providing a biological caricature of a filovirus-positive bat species. This profile emphasizes traits describing adult and neonate body sizes and rates of reproductive fitness, as well as species’ geographic range overlap with regions of high mammalian diversity. Second, we identify several bat species ranked most likely to be filovirus-positive on the basis of intrinsic trait similarity with known filovirus-positive bats. New bat species predicted to be positive for filoviruses are widely distributed outside of equatorial Africa, with a majority of species overlapping in Southeast Asia. Taken together, these results spotlight several potential host species and geographical regions as high-probability targets for future filovirus surveillance. PMID:27414412

  19. Changes in host orientation behavior of female mosquitoes treated with a sublethal pyrethroid exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult mosquito control consists of barrier treatments and areal spraying often using pyrethroids, however not all host seeking insects contacting insecticides are killed. Sublethal exposure to neurotoxic compounds can negatively affect sensory organs reducing their efficiency for locating hosts. Fe...

  20. Covariance of phenotypically plastic traits induces an adaptive shift in host selection behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Lee M; Roitberg, Bernard D.; Gillespie, David R

    2006-01-01

    Flexibility in adult body size allows generalist parasitoids to use many host species at a cost of producing a range of adult sizes. Consequently, host selection behaviour must also maintain a level of flexibility as adult size is related to capture efficiency. In the present study, we investigated covariance of two plastic traits—size at pupation and host size selection behaviour—using Aphidius ervi reared on either Acyrthosiphon pisum or Aulacorthum solani, generating females of disparate s...

  1. Placing Advocacy at the Heart of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Adult educators know that adults and families change their lives through adult education. Adult education also positively impacts a host of social and economic issues. Yet this fact is largely unknown or misunderstood by the general public. Resources have become increasingly scarce, while at the same time adult educators are asked to do more with…

  2. Phylogeny of Myzostomida (Annelida) and their relationships with echinoderm hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, Mindi M; Rouse, Greg W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Myzostomids are marine annelids, nearly all of which live symbiotically on or inside echinoderms, chiefly crinoids, and to a lesser extent asteroids and ophiuroids. These symbionts possess a variety of adult body plans and lifestyles. Most described species live freely on the exterior of their hosts as adults (though starting life on the host inside cysts), while other taxa permanently reside in galls, cysts, or within the host’s mouth, digestive system, coelom, or gonads. Myzostom...

  3. Tick-Host Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogstraal, H.; Aeschlimann, André

    2010-01-01

    A review the various patterns of tick-host relationships are discussed in detail in order to answer the following questions : 1. How, when and where did host specificity of each parasite group evolve ? 2. How strict is specificity in each case ? 3. Why and under what circumstances does specificity break down ? The authors present several definitions which characterize the various degrees of parasitic specificity existing today between ticks and their hosts. Tick-host relationships are ...

  4. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author)

  5. Present day progress of the ELFE DESY project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report makes a statement of the feasibility of the ELFE DESY project. The aim of the project is to use a part of the TESLA linear collider in association with the HERA ring transformed into a smoothing ring. The continuous beam extracted from the ring should have a 30 μA intensity which corresponds to 1035 to 1038 cm-2.s-1 luminosities with a 27.5 GeV energy. The conclusions of the report are: the project is technically achievable; its physical interest is not contested; the simulations performed show that the extraction of physical signals is possible; and the elaboration of the project of huge acceptance detector requires an additional R and D program. (J.S.)

  6. Characteristic features of migrants' integration in present-day Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    BOBROVA, Anastacia; SHAKHOTSKA, Liudmila

    2013-01-01

    The integration of migrants is becoming an increasingly important question in Belarus. As socio-economic cooperation between Belarus and other countries is developing the list of participants in the integration process of migrants is growing. For several decades, the traditional participants were citizens from neighboring countries: Russia, Ukraine and Poland. At the present there is also, though, rapid growth in migration flows from other areas, particularly from the south: Turkmenistan, Leb...

  7. QCD relics in the present-day Universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility is suggested for the formation in the Universe of domains occupied by coherent-like states of strongly correlated quark-antiquark pairs. Only domains of the radius larger than 5 fm had a chance to survive over the entire history of the Universe, while the requirement of stability against the gravitational collapse restricts the maximum domain's radius to 14 km. Within the Generalised Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, an exponential suppression with the domain's volume is found for the overlap between the macroscopic ground-state wavefunction of the quark-antiquark pairs and the QCD vacuum. This finding supports, at the microscopic level, the above arguments in favour of the stability of the domains.

  8. Economic viability of present-day biomass energy installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated, comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic viability of biomass energy installations. The installations examined included wood-fired installations, biogas installations and those using bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The system boundaries involved are defined and various factors that influence cost calculations are examined. The resulting heat and electricity prices for various energy sources and systems are presented and discussed. Examples of small and large-scale installations are presented. For wood-energy, combined heat and power system producing electricity at powers of 1 to 5 MWe are looked at and the various factors influencing their viability are discussed. Biogas installations of various sizes are discussed and the differing investment costs involved are commented on. Here, large industrial installations using communal green wastes are also examined and the influence of communal waste-collection charges on the price for the electricity generated is discussed, as is the influence of the market for the residual compost produced. The production and use of biogas in public wastewater treatment plants is also looked at, including the use of co-substrates. As far as biogenic liquid fuels such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol are concerned, the report takes a brief look at the situation concerning installations in Switzerland and reviews the production costs involved. Various conclusions are drawn for the various energy sources reviewed as well as for the prices for heat and electrical energy obtained

  9. Role of interstitial therapy in present day radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of interstitial therapy in the treatment of malignant tumors is discussed. With interstitial therapy, the tumor is accurately localized under general anesthesia, irradiation is limited to the tumor-bearing volume of tissues with minimal irradiation of normal structures, and treatment time is shorter than with external beam therapy. Disadvantages include its rather limited clinical application, more complicated dosimetry, the higher level of technical skill required in the surgical procedure, and radiation exposure of operator and personnel. Interstitial therapy is indicated for relatively small well differentiated primary tumors and in cases where the primary and lymph node metastases are in close proximity. A combination of interstitial and external beam therapy is recommended for advanced tumors and in cases of unsatisfactory implants. Seven illustrative cases are presented. It is recommended that improved afterloading techniques and surgical and nonsurgical procedures (e.g., suspension laryngoscope) be developed so that this type of therapy can be extended to all cases requiring high doses and a small volume of radiation

  10. Teaching with Social Media: Disrupting Present Day Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabon Bartow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Because social technologies present illuminating educational, ethical, economic, and structural challenges to existing constructions of public education, they catalyze a fundamental examination of what public education should look like and be like in a democracy. Given their performances in other arenas, mobile and electronic technologies have the…

  11. Present-day aeolian activity in Herschel Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Marco; Silvestro, Simone; Vaz, David A.; Michaels, Timothy; Bourke, Mary C.; Komatsu, Goro; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2016-02-01

    In this report, we show evidence for ripple and dune migration in Herschel Crater on Mars. We estimate an average dune migration of 0.8 m and a minimum ripple migration of 1.1 m in a time span of 3.7 Earth-years. These dunes and ripples are mainly shaped by prevailing winds coming from the north, however we also report the presence of secondary winds which elongate the barchans' horns. Such a complex wind scenario is likely caused by the influence of winds blowing off the western crater rim as suggested by the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS), an atmospheric mesoscale model. A multi-directional wind regime at the local scale is also supported by the observed bimodal distribution of the ripple trends. For the first time, a survey integrating the assessment of dune and ripple migration is presented, showing how dune topography can influence the migration patterns of ripples and how underlying topography appears to control the rates of dune migration.

  12. NANOMATERIALS AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRESENT-DAY CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in the field of nanotechnologies have converted the concrete into a high-tech material; its structure may be "tailored" to specific functional criteria, including strength, durability, and reduced environmental impacts. This feature will help keep the concrete as the main structural material in the foreseeable future. Nanotechnologies are still on the way from the pool of basic sciences to industrial enterprises. Today full-scale practical application of nanotechnologies in the construction industry is extremely limited for the reason of high costs of their implementation. However, the strongest potential of nanotechnologies is concentrated in the improvement of the properties of conventional materials and processes. Recent progress of nanotechnologies prompts us that many of the problems that are now considered as fantastic will be successfully resolved in the coming decade. Portland cement is one of the most widely used materials; it has a huge though underexplored potential. A better understanding and precise identification of the engineering properties of the complex structure of cement materials in the nanoscale science will give way to a new generation of concrete.

  13. Present-day imaging of patients with renal colic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Palma, L.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.; Stacul, F. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade alternatives to urography have been proposed for the study of patients with renal colic. In 1992 it was suggested to replace urography with KUB and ultrasonography. In 1993 the combination of KUB and ultrasonography followed by urography in unresolved cases was proposed and, in 1995, it was suggested to replace urography with unenhanced helical CT (UHCT). This article illustrates the contribution of UHCT to the study of patients with renal colic and analyses advantages and shortcomings of the technique compared with other diagnostic approaches. Diagnostics of the patient with renal colic is based on the detection of direct and indirect signs which allow identification of not only the calculus, with a sensitivity of 94-100% and accuracy of 93-98% according different authors, but also other signs that can serve to guide patient management and evaluate long-term prognosis. Unenhanced helical CT has the capability to detect extraurinary abnormalities which present with flank pain and mimic renal colic. The examination technique affects the quality of the images and therefore diagnostic accuracy as well as the dose to the patient. With regard to setting parameters, the choice of thickness and table feed should be guided by numerous factors. Multiplanar reconstruction is indicated in the study of the entire ureter course to identify the exact site of the calcification for the urologist to perform an evaluation similar to that obtained by urography. Many authors consider UHCT to be a valuable tool for suggesting the best therapeutic approach. Among these there are also urologists. The evaluation is based on the stone detection, its size and level in the urinary tract. Cost analysis shows that the cost of UHCT is equal to or inferior to the cost of urography. With regard to the dose, different data are reported in the literature. A high pitch (more than 1.5) and a thin collimation (3-mm thickness) are good compromise between quality and dose which can be compared to the dose of normal urography. What is to be done if helical CT is not available? If helical CT is not available, plain film plus ultrasonography should be considered. (orig.)

  14. The petroleum challenge. Present day questions about oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will the 21. century be the petroleum challenge century? The petroleum problem is no longer the affair of experts and journalists, it challenges also governments and consumers in pressing terms. If there is today a petroleum problem, there is no oil or gas shortage for the moment. The cumulated oil and gas reserves would allow to face the demand of the century, with the condition that investments in exploration, field development, production, and back-end of oil and gas industries will be done in time. This book, written by specialists of energy economics and geopolitics shows up some of the key questions of our energy future. In particular, it invites us to never forget the basic heavy trends of the hydrocarbons sector in order to never be trapped by superficial extrapolations of short term phenomena. Content: heavy trend of oil prices at the 2020 prospects, natural gas take over?; oil and gas geopolitics: enough of hydrocarbons for the 21. century; Russia and Caspian sea oil and gas weight; China: a new strategic actor of the energy scene; influence of 'futures' market, of speculation, and of stocks on hydrocarbon prices; which future for LNG?; natural gas in the USA: towards a new foreign dependence. (J.S.)

  15. Tooth polishing: Relevance in present day periodontal practice

    OpenAIRE

    Madan Charu; Bains Rhythm; Bains Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Time has seen the emergence of more efficient and effective devices like jet abrasives. However, the role of rubber cups with prophy angles cannot be overlooked as they are still being widely used and provide an economical alternative. Owing to several shortcomings associated with the air polishing device using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ), trends are shifting towards the usage of low abrasive powders. Recent demonstration of Glycine Powder Air Polishing (GPAP) in removing subgingival biofil...

  16. Tooth polishing: Relevance in present day periodontal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Charu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Time has seen the emergence of more efficient and effective devices like jet abrasives. However, the role of rubber cups with prophy angles cannot be overlooked as they are still being widely used and provide an economical alternative. Owing to several shortcomings associated with the air polishing device using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 , trends are shifting towards the usage of low abrasive powders. Recent demonstration of Glycine Powder Air Polishing (GPAP in removing subgingival biofilm results in less gingival erosion than hand instrumentation or NaHCO 3 air-polishing. Despite the emergence of latest advances in polishing, data suggesting selective polishing of teeth is compelling.

  17. Counterfeiters from the Middle Ages to the present day

    OpenAIRE

    Caporossi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In this present article, the term “counterfeiter” (faux-monnayeur) is key; here, it refers to all individuals who “abuse” currency: those who produce counterfeit money, distribute it, trim it, or traffic it, such as the prince contrefacteur. In fact, any time that the possession of jus monetae is considered unlawful, or that its use is stigmatized as illegal and/or against societal interests, counterfeiting is at hand. Counterfeit money, by merit of the very term, cannot be reduced to the mer...

  18. Present-day uplift of the western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocquet, J.-M.; Sue, C.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tran, T.; Lenôtre, N.; Vernant, P.; Cushing, M.; Jouanne, F.; Masson, F.; Baize, S.; Chéry, J.; van der Beek, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    Collisional mountain belts grow as a consequence of continental plate convergence and eventually disappear under the combined effects of gravitational collapse and erosion. Using a decade of GPS data, we show that the western Alps are currently characterized by zero horizontal velocity boundary conditions, offering the opportunity to investigate orogen evolution at the time of cessation of plate convergence. We find no significant horizontal motion within the belt, but GPS and levelling measurements independently show a regional pattern of uplift reaching ~2.5 mm/yr in the northwestern Alps. Unless a low viscosity crustal root under the northwestern Alps locally enhances the vertical response to surface unloading, the summed effects of isostatic responses to erosion and glaciation explain at most 60% of the observed uplift rates. Rock-uplift rates corrected from transient glacial isostatic adjustment contributions likely exceed erosion rates in the northwestern Alps. In the absence of active convergence, the observed surface uplift must result from deep-seated processes.

  19. [Fire worship on Soratte: form prehistory to present days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Fire has always been involved in human thoughts, believes and actions. For many psychological reasons fire has been considered as living power: red as the human blood, warm as the human body, clearly shines in the night. Fire worship is very common, especially in regions where terrestrial fire is believed to be the image of the heavenly fire. Fire worship has represented the base for symbolic systems involved in the cultural-anthropological evolution of populations settled close to mount Soratte. Fire cults in this region have originated in independent and long-time separated contexts, according to available knowledge. Hirpi Sorani, ancient inhabitants of mount Soratte territory, celebrated Sorano Apollo by a famous fire walking ceremony, with a likely cathartic and apotropaic meaning, as reported by ancient Roman writers. The victory of Christianity over paganism caused the decline of these religious practices. The beginning of the XIX century witnessed the establishment ofa new kind of devotion to the Virgin Mary at the mount Soratte. Today, this religious piety-linked identity has weakened due to changes in lifestyles,from an agricultural to one based on outside home employment, and has been largely shifted on cultural and anthropological bases. In conclusion, fire worship at mount Soratte has evolved because of external influences and local inhabitants have reacted by asserting their own identity. PMID:25807785

  20. Rhetorical Aspects of Discourses in Present-day Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    being important for communication in modern society. Like speakers in public life, e.g. politicians, who had always acknowledged the role of rhetoric, all sorts of communicators, mediators and scholars became interested in rhetoric as a practical tool for building up texts meant for the public sphere...... as well as an analytical tool for the critique of public argumentation. This led to the development of new theories from New Rhetoric over Rhetorical Criticism to theories of genre and discourse, reflecting the view that rhetoric must be understood and used against the social and cultural framework...... in which it is embedded. The contributions of this book reflect this multi-faceted approach to rhetoric, discourse and genre through their focus upon and analysis of different institutionalised discourses. Thus, within the three sections of political, journalistic and organisational discourse, the articles...

  1. The Present Day Problems of Infections Diseases with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thearticlereviewsthemajorup-to-dateproblemsconcerning certain aspect of infections diseases treatment in children. Droplet infections, acute gastrointestinal infections, neuroinfections, viral herpes infections and viral hepatitis in children are fully characterized and described in detail. In addition, we give an outline of the ways and attitudes enabling to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes.

  2. Understanding Chinese Luxury Fashion Goods Consumption in Present Day China

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The global luxury goods market has grown considerably in the past few decades and continues to do so. However, research literature on the topic, especially on Eastern cultures, is still limited. This study sets out to understand luxury goods consumption in Chinese culture. Ten Chinese students were interviewed to gauge an understanding of how perceptions of ‘luxury’ and what motivates them to purchase it.

  3. Human Capital and Its Development in Present-Day Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nureev, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the broad sense of the word human capital is a specific form of capital that is embodied in people themselves. It consists of the individual's reserve of health, knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivations that enable him to increase his labor productivity and give him an income in the form of wages, salaries, and other income. The structure…

  4. Purism and antipurism in present-day Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As in other Balkan languages, Serbo-Croatian vocabulary is of mixed origin Ever since its earliest days, some of the commonest words were borrowed from Greek, Latin, Italian, Turkish, Hungarian, and in more recent times from Russian, Czech and German. For this reason most loanwords are received without resistance in Serbia. The same openness is shared by practically all Serbian linguists, while purist attitudes are only to be found among laymen. A less relaxed policy might prove to be advisable towards the Anglicisms of today, since global English is more universally present and more penetrating than any foreign language in the past. In Croatia, on the other hand, purism was adopted as an official policy, first as a response to the threats of Germanization (within the Austro-Hungarian empire and later to the presumed Serbian domination (in Yugoslavia. As a consequence, the mechanisms of word formation are better developed in Croatian, but at the same time many artificial coinages and recycled archaisms have been launched, leading to what is known as the 'Croatian Newspeak'. While Croatian linguists are constantly on the guard against Serbianisms, in Serbia many Croatian words have been adopted almost without resistance, especially when they are shorter, more practical or more precise than their Serbian equivalents.

  5. Present day sea level changes: observation and causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas sea level has changed little over the last 2000 years, it has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/year during the 20. century. This unexpected sea level rise has been attributed to the anthropogenic global warming, recorded over several decades. Sea level variations have been measured globally and precisely for about 12 years due to satellite altimeter missions Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1. These observations indicate a global mean sea level rise of about 3 mm/year since 1993, a value significantly larger than observed during previous decades. Recent observations have allowed us to quantify the various climatic factors contributing to observed sea level change: thermal expansion of sea water due to ocean warming, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, and changes in the land water reservoirs. A water budget based on these new observations allows us to partly explain the observed sea level rise. In particular, we show that the thermal expansion explains only 25% of the secular sea level rise as recorded by tide-gauges over the last 50 years, while it contributes about 50% of sea level rise observed over the last decade. Meanwhile, recent studies show that glacier and ice sheet melting could contribute the equivalent of 1 mm/year in sea level rise over the last decade. In addition, the high regional variability of sea level trends revealed by satellite altimetry is mainly due to thermal expansion. There is also an important decadal spatio-temporal variability in the ocean thermal expansion over the last 50 years, which seems to be controlled by natural climate fluctuations. We question for the first time the link between the decadal fluctuations in the ocean thermal expansion and in the land reservoirs, and indeed their climatic contribution to sea level change. Finally a preliminary analysis of GRACE spatial gravimetric observations over the oceans allows us to estimate the seasonal variations in mean sea level due to ocean water mass balance variations. (author)

  6. Moral Questions and Dilemmas: Early Times to Present Day Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Small

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to look at developments which have occurred in ethical behaviour in a nation’s armed forces. The paper begins with the Greeks and their concept of arête ‘manly virtue’, and concludes with reference to courses in ethics conducted in various military academies. In Australia, the Department of Defence and the RAN have played a role in developing codes of conduct for all ranks, from senior officer to junior recruit. The paper suggests that developing an understanding of ethics in a military/naval context should be addressed at four levels. Criteria should be identified for identifying relevant ethical behaviour; agreement should be reached about what constitutes ethical behaviour; programs should be developed at recruit and officer cadet level; and finally, curricula in military/naval ethics should be an integral part of the program in military training establishments.

  7. Feeding Experience of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Affects Their Performance on Different Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, M. Mostafizur Rahman; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B is extremely polyphagous with >600 species of host plants. We hypothesized that previous experience of the whitefly on a given host plant affects their host selection and performance on the plants without previous experience. We investigated the host selection for feeding and oviposition of adults and development and survival of immatures of three host-plant-experienced populations of B. tabaci, namely Bemisia-eggplant, Bemisia-tomato and Bem...

  8. The Earth's Frame Dragging via Laser Ranged Satellites: a Response to 'Some considerations on the present-day results for the detection of frame-dragging after the final outcome of GP-B' by L. Iorio [arXiv:1105.4145

    CERN Document Server

    Ries, J C; Pavlis, E C; Paolozzi, A; Koenig, R; Matzner, R A; Neumayer, G Sindoniand H

    2013-01-01

    In this note, we reply to the preceding paper by Iorio: "Some considerations on the present-day results for the detection of frame-dragging after the final outcome of GP-B, Europhysics Letters", we address criticisms regarding the Lense-Thirring frame-dragging experiment results obtained from the laser ranging to the two LAGEOS satellites.

  9. Web hosting for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Host your own website or blog with this unique guide If you'd like to make the leap from a hosted environment to a self-hosted service, this book is for you. You may be making the move from casual blogging to professional blogging. Or, you might already be self-hosting, but want a good guide to show you how to get more out of your plan. In simple, easy-to-understand language, this helpful book breaks down all the functions of web hosting for self-hosted users, from setting up new e-mail accounts to backing up and securing your site, analyzing server logs, choosing a platform to ins

  10. Should I stay or should I go? Causes and dynamics of host desertion by a parasitic crab living on echinoids

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruyn, C.; David, B; Motreuil, S; Caulier, G.; Jossart, Q.; Rigaud, T.; De Ridder, C.

    2016-01-01

    In some long-living symbiotic species, movements between hosts are not limited to offspring since adult parasites can move from one individual host to another one. Host-switching may be driven by different parameters such as (1) mating strategies of symbionts, (2) foraging for resources or (3) avoiding overcrowded or diseased/dead host. Symbiotic marine crustaceans are suitable models to understand what underlies host-switching behavior. In this study, we investigated host desertion by the pa...

  11. Adult beetles compensate for poor larval food conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorben; Müller, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Life history traits of herbivores are highly influenced by the quality of their hosts, i.e., the composition of primary and secondary plant metabolites. In holometabolous insects, larvae and adults may face different host plants, which differ in quality. It has been hypothesised that adult fitness is either highest when larval and adult environmental conditions match (environmental matching) or it may be mainly determined by optimal larval conditions (silver spoon effect). Alternatively, the adult stage may be most decisive for the actual fitness, independent of larval food exposure, due to adult compensation ability. To determine the influence of constant versus changing larval and adult host plant experiences on growth performance, fitness and feeding preferences, we carried out a match-mismatch experiment using the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Larvae and adults were either constantly reared on watercress (natural host) or cabbage (crop plant) or were switched after metamorphosis to the other host. Growth, reproductive traits and feeding preferences were determined repeatedly over lifetime and host plant quality traits analysed. Differences in the host quality led to differences in the development time and female reproduction. Egg numbers were significantly influenced by the host plant species experienced by the adults. Thus, adults were able to compensate for poor larval conditions. Likewise, the current host experience was most decisive for feeding preferences; in adult beetles a feeding preference was shaped regardless of the larval host plant. Larvae or adults reared on the more nutritious host, cabbage, showed a higher preference for this host. Hence, beetles most likely develop a preference when gaining a direct positive feedback in terms of an improved performance, whereby the current experience matters the most. Highly nutritious crop plants may be, in consequence, all the more exploited by potential pests that may show a high plasticity in

  12. Host switching in a generalist parasitoid: contrasting transient and transgenerational costs associated with novel and original host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas S; Bilton, Adam R; Mak, Lorraine; Sait, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoids face challenges by switching between host species that influence survival and fitness, determine their role in structuring communities, influence species invasions, and affect their importance as biocontrol agents. In the generalist parasitoid, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), we investigated the costs in encapsulation, survival, and body size on juveniles when adult parasitoids switched from their original host, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidotera, Pyralidae) to a novel host, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), over multiple generations. Switching had an initial survival cost for juvenile parasitoids in the novel host, but increased survival occurred within two generations. Conversely, mortality in the original host increased. Body size, a proxy for fecundity, also increased with the number of generations in the novel host species, reflecting adaptation or maternal effects due to the larger size of the novel host, and therefore greater resources available to the developing parasitoid. Switching to a novel host appears to have initial costs for a parasitoid, even when the novel host may be better quality, but the costs rapidly diminish. We predict that the net cost of switching to a novel host for parasitoids will be complex and will depend on the initial reduction in fitness from parasitizing a novel host versus local adaptations against parasitoids in the original host. PMID:25691971

  13. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  14. Host age modulates parasite infectivity, virulence and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, Rony; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2015-07-01

    Host age is one of the most striking differences among hosts within most populations, but there is very little data on how age-dependent effects impact ecological and evolutionary dynamics of both the host and the parasite. Here, we examined the influence of host age (juveniles, young and old adults) at parasite exposure on host susceptibility, fecundity and survival as well as parasite transmission, using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Younger D. magna were more susceptible to infection than older ones, regardless of host or parasite clone. Also, younger-infected D. magna became castrated faster than older hosts, but host and parasite clone effects contributed to this trait as well. Furthermore, the early-infected D. magna produced considerably more parasite transmission stages than late-infected ones, while host age at exposure did not affect virulence as it is defined in models (host mortality). When virulence is defined more broadly as the negative effects of infection on host fitness, by integrating the parasitic effects on host fecundity and mortality, then host age at exposure seems to slide along a negative relationship between host and parasite fitness. Thus, the virulence-transmission trade-off differs strongly among age classes, which in turn affects predictions of optimal virulence. Age-dependent effects on host susceptibility, virulence and parasite transmission could pose an important challenge for experimental and theoretical studies of infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology. Our results present a call for a more explicit stage-structured theory for disease, which will incorporate age-dependent epidemiological parameters. PMID:25661269

  15. Larval size in acanthocephalan parasites: Influence of intraspecific competition and effects on intermediate host behavioural changes

    OpenAIRE

    Dianne Lucile; Bollache Loïc; Lagrue Clément; Franceschi Nathalie; Rigaud Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Parasites often face a trade-off between exploitation of host resources and transmission probabilities to the next host. In helminths, larval growth, a major component of adult parasite fitness, is linked to exploitation of intermediate host resources and is influenced by the presence of co-infecting conspecifics. In manipulative parasites, larval growth strategy could also interact with their ability to alter intermediate host phenotype and influence parasite transmission...

  16. Host Responses to Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, C; Fleming, D; Bishop, D; Rumbaugh, K P

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. As bacterial cells transition from planktonic to biofilm-associated they produce small molecules, which can increase inflammation, induce cell death, and even cause necrosis. To survive, invading bacteria must overcome the epithelial barrier, host microbiome, complement, and a variety of leukocytes. If bacteria can evade these initial cell populations they have an increased chance at surviving and causing ongoing disease in the host. Planktonic cells are readily cleared, but biofilms reduce the effectiveness of both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, in the presence of these cells, biofilm formation is actively enhanced, and components of host immune cells are assimilated into the EPS matrix. While pathogenic biofilms contribute to states of chronic inflammation, probiotic Lactobacillus biofilms cause a negligible immune response and, in states of inflammation, exhibit robust antiinflammatory properties. These probiotic biofilms colonize and protect the gut and vagina, and have been implicated in improved healing of damaged skin. Overall, biofilms stimulate a unique immune response that we are only beginning to understand. PMID:27571696

  17. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, F A; Hall, A R; Buckling, A; Scanlan, P D

    2015-05-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite host range on host resistance evolution is less well understood. In this study, we tested the impact of parasite host range on host resistance evolution. To do so, we used the host bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and a diverse suite of coevolved viral parasites (lytic bacteriophage Φ2) with variable host ranges (defined here as the number of host genotypes that can be infected) as our experimental model organisms. Our results show that resistance evolution to coevolved phages occurred at a much lower rate than to ancestral phage (approximately 50% vs. 100%), but the host range of coevolved phages did not influence the likelihood of resistance evolution. We also show that the host range of both single parasites and populations of parasites does not affect the breadth of the resulting resistance range in a naïve host but that hosts that evolve resistance to single parasites are more likely to resist other (genetically) more closely related parasites as a correlated response. These findings have important implications for our understanding of resistance evolution in natural populations of bacteria and viruses and other host-parasite combinations with similar underlying infection genetics, as well as the development of phage therapy. PMID:25851735

  18. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  19. Variation in a Host-Parasitoid Interaction across Independent Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nouhuys, Saskya; Niemikapee, Suvi; Hanski, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    Antagonistic relationships between parasitoids and their insect hosts involve multiple traits and are shaped by their ecological and evolutionary context. The parasitoid wasp Cotesia melitaearum and its host butterfly Melitaea cinxia occur in several locations around the Baltic sea, with differences in landscape structure, population sizes and the histories of the populations. We compared the virulence of the parasitoid and the susceptibility of the host from five populations in a reciprocal transplant-style experiment using the progeny of five independent host and parasitoid individuals from each population. The host populations showed significant differences in the rate of encapsulation and parasitoid development rate. The parasitoid populations differed in brood size, development rate, pupal size and adult longevity. Some trait differences depended on specific host-parasitoid combinations, but neither species performed systematically better or worse in experiments involving local versus non-local populations of the other species. Furthermore, individuals from host populations with the most recent common ancestry did not perform alike, and there was no negative effect due to a history of inbreeding in the parasitoid. The complex pattern of variation in the traits related to the vulnerability of the host and the ability of the parasitoid to exploit the host may reflect multiple functions of the traits that would hinder simple local adaptation. PMID:26466737

  20. Discursive turns from 'Bildung' to managerialism: Memory-work of the Finnish adult education generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Filander

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the struggles over ethos in academic adult education tradition that grows from the frameworks of student generations in Finnish adult education. It brings together elements of present-day analysis and historically sensitizing memory data on generations of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. My interest here lies in how the rhetoric of lifelong learning and education has revised the basic assumptions of adult education. The data suggest that the dominant narrative of adult education is increasingly the discourse of marketization. Finnish present-day student generations seem to have lost their intrinsic connections with the Scandinavian traditions of popular enlightenment and the values of equality and basic logics enabling 'second chances' for all adult citizens within the Nordic welfare state. One of the results of the analysis was the following question: Should we reinvent adult education again from the standpoint of sustainable development of 'ordinary people'?

  1. High Metallicity LGRB Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, J F; Levesque, E M; Kewley, L J; Tanvir, N R; Levan, A J; Patel, S K; Misra, K; Huang, K -H; Reichart, D E; Nysewander, M; Schady, P

    2015-01-01

    We present our imaging and spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of two dark long bursts with anomalously high metallicities, LGRB 051022 and LGRB 020819B, which in conjunction with another LGRB event with an optical afterglow comprise the three LGRBs with high metallicity host galaxies in the Graham & Fruchter (2013) sample. In Graham & Fruchter (2013), we showed that LGRBs exhibit a strong and apparently intrinsic preference for low metallicity environments (12+log(O/H) < 8.4 in the KK04 scale) in spite of these three cases with abundances of about solar and above. These exceptions however are consistent with the general star-forming galaxy population of comparable brightness & redshift. This is surprising: even among a preselected sample of high metallicity LGRBs, were the metal aversion to remain in effect for these objects, we would expect their metallicity to still be lower than the typical metallicity for the galaxies at that luminosity and redshift. Therefore we deduce that it...

  2. Hosting a Katrina Evacuee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, David

    2008-03-01

    No individual or institution anticipated the impact on the academic research community of hurricane Katrina. When Tulane physicist Wayne Reed asked me to host his research group just a day or two after the disaster, with no authorization or understanding of the commitment, I agreed immediately and then pondered implications. Fortunately, colleagues helped in making the commitment real, only the bureaucracy of my public university posing small hindrances. Industry was remarkably generous in providing Reed with significant ``loaner'' equipment, and amazingly, a suite of custom Reed experiments was running within weeks. At the end, the most productive collaborations for Reed seemed not to have been with my group, with its similar research, but to other groups at my institution, particularly the synthetic chemists, who gained access to methods previously unique to Tulane while offering samples previously unique to UMass. Quickly designed projects exploiting this match turned out remarkably productive. Although begun with trepidation, hosting of Reed had huge positive benefits to me and UMass, and I believe, also to Reed and Tulane. Some key lessons for the future: (i) industry has capacity and willingness to help academic research during disruption (ii) commitment of a host institution must be immediate, without a wait for formal approvals or arrangement of special funding -- delay leads only to discouragement, (iii) continuing academic progress of displaced students must come first, and (iv) intellectual synergy rather than overlap should be the basis for seeking a host. Lastly, NSF or other funding agency should consider a program directly addressing the research needs of unexpectedly disrupted academic scientists, and most particularly, graduate students who face greatly extended studies.

  3. IPv6 host fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Nerakis, Eleftherios

    2006-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis explores ways of using probe packets to identify the type and version of OS that is run by a remote IPv6 host. Such a probing technique can be effective because developers of different OSes often interpret the guidance provided by the RFCs slightly differently, and consequently their network protocol stack implementation may generate responses bearing unique markers to certain probing packets. The key challenge is to find suit...

  4. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  5. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Villarroel; Kortine Annina Kleinheinz; Vanessa Isabell Jurtz; Henrike Zschach; Ole Lund; Morten Nielsen; Mette Voldby Larsen

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPh...

  6. The Influence of Host and Bacterial Genotype on the Development of Disseminated Disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maxine Caws; Guy Thwaites; Sarah Dunstan; Hawn, Thomas R.; Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan; Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong; Kasia Stepniewska; Mai Nguyet Thu Huyen; Nguyen Duc Bang; Tran Huu Loc; Sebastien Gagneux; Dick van Soolingen; Kristin Kremer; Marianne van der Sande; Peter Small

    2008-01-01

    The factors that govern the development of tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that some strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are more capable of causing disseminated disease than others and may be associated with polymorphisms in host genes responsible for the innate immune response to infection. We compared the host and bacterial genotype in 187 Vietnamese adults with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 237 Vietnamese adults with uncomplicated p...

  7. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Julia; Kleinheinz, Kortine Annina; Jurtz, Vanessa Isabell; Zschach, Henrike; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k) is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2]. PMID:27153081

  8. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  9. Effects of host plant on life-history traits in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinosci, Cassandra; Magalhães, Sara; Macke, Emilie; Navajas, Maria; Carbonell, David; Devaux, Céline; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Studying antagonistic coevolution between host plants and herbivores is particularly relevant for polyphagous species that can experience a great diversity of host plants with a large range of defenses. Here, we performed experimental evolution with the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae to detect how mites can exploit host plants. We thus compared on a same host the performance of replicated populations from an ancestral one reared for hundreds of generations on cucumber plants that were shifted to either tomato or cucumber plants. We controlled for maternal effects by rearing females from all replicated populations on either tomato or cucumber leaves, crossing this factor with the host plant in a factorial design. About 24 generations after the host shift and for all individual mites, we measured the following fitness components on tomato leaf fragments: survival at all stages, acceptance of the host plant by juvenile and adult mites, longevity, and female fecundity. The host plant on which mite populations had evolved did not affect the performance of the mites, but only affected their sex ratio. Females that lived on tomato plants for circa 24 generations produced a higher proportion of daughters than did females that lived on cucumber plants. In contrast, maternal effects influenced juvenile survival, acceptance of the host plant by adult mites and female fecundity. Independently of the host plant species on which their population had evolved, females reared on the tomato maternal environment produced offspring that survived better on tomato as juveniles, but accepted less this host plant as adults and had a lower fecundity than did females reared on the cucumber maternal environment. We also found that temporal blocks affected mite dispersal and both female longevity and fecundity. Taken together, our results show that the host plant species can affect critical parameters of population dynamics, and most importantly that maternal and environmental

  10. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  11. Volatile fragrances associated with flowers mediate the host plant alternation of a polyphagous mirid bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important insect pest of cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and exhibits a particularly broad host range. Adult A. lucorum greatly prefers host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatiall...

  12. Effects of Intraspecific Competition and Host-Parasitoid Developmental Timing on Foraging Behaviour of a Parasitoid Wasp

    OpenAIRE

    Couchoux, Christelle; van Nouhuys, Saskya

    2013-01-01

    In a context where hosts are distributed in patches and susceptible to parasitism for a limited time, female parasitoids foraging for hosts might experience intraspecific competition. We investigated the effects of host and parasitoid developmental stage and intraspecific competition among foraging females on host-searching behaviour in the parasitoid wasp Hyposoter horticola. We found that H. horticola females have a pre-reproductive adult stage during which their eggs are not mature yet and...

  13. Adult medulloblastoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pobereskin, L; Treip, C

    1986-01-01

    Twelve cases of adult onset medulloblastoma are presented. Clinical features, treatment and outcome are discussed. It was found that the survival rates for adults are no better than for children. There were no clinical or histological features that distinguished these tumours from those occurring in childhood, except for a higher incidence of hemisphere lesions.

  14. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host. PMID:26314055

  15. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  16. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  17. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher as...... a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming...

  18. Differential temporal changes of primary and secondary bacterial symbionts and whitefly host fitness following antibiotic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Na; Zhang, Fan-Di; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Where multiple symbionts coexist in the same host, the selective elimination of a specific symbiont may enable the roles of a given symbiont to be investigated. We treated the Mediterranean species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex by oral delivery of the antibiotic rifampicin, and then examined the temporal changes of its primary symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and secondary symbiont "Ca. Hamiltonella defensa" as well as host fitness for three generations. In adults treated with rifampicin (F0), the secondary symbiont was rapidly reduced, approaching complete disappearance as adults aged. In contrast, the primary symbiont was little affected until later in the adult life. In the offspring of these adults (F1), both symbionts were significantly reduced and barely detectable when the hosts reached the adult stage. The F1 adults laid few eggs (F2), all of which failed to hatch. Mating experiments illustrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were exerted via female hosts but not males. This study provides the first evidence of differential temporal reductions of primary and secondary symbionts in whiteflies following an antibiotic treatment. Studies that disrupt functions of bacterial symbionts must consider their temporal changes. PMID:26510682

  19. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Dara G; Martini, Xavier; Patt, Joseph M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a) whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b) the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate Rutaceae in the area

  20. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Stockton

    Full Text Available Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate

  1. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  2. [Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower

  3. Larval size in acanthocephalan parasites: Influence of intraspecific competition and effects on intermediate host behavioural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Lucile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites often face a trade-off between exploitation of host resources and transmission probabilities to the next host. In helminths, larval growth, a major component of adult parasite fitness, is linked to exploitation of intermediate host resources and is influenced by the presence of co-infecting conspecifics. In manipulative parasites, larval growth strategy could also interact with their ability to alter intermediate host phenotype and influence parasite transmission. Methods We used experimental infections of Gammarus pulex by Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala, to investigate larval size effects on host behavioural manipulation among different parasite sibships and various degrees of intra-host competition. Results Intra-host competition reduced mean P. laevis cystacanth size, but the largest cystacanth within a host always reached the same size. Therefore, all co-infecting parasites did not equally suffer from intraspecific competition. Under no intra-host competition (1 parasite per host, larval size was positively correlated with host phototaxis. At higher infection intensities, this relationship disappeared, possibly because of strong competition for host resources, and thus larval growth, and limited manipulative abilities of co-infecting larval acanthocephalans. Conclusions Our study indicates that behavioural manipulation is a condition-dependant phenomenon that needs the integration of parasite-related variables to be fully understood.

  4. Physiological vs. ecological host range

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mantra in biological control using microbial agents is safety. Host specific organisms are safe to use as biological control agents. Although host specific organisms are known for many targets, candidate agents must be tested to clearly understand and confirm this as a property of the organism...

  5. A Conceptual Framework of Internet Contributions to Young Adult Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Dy, Angela Carmina Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops the basis of a conceptual framework of the effects of the Internet and World Wide Web on entrepreneurship in the present day. As academic literature suggests Web experience and familiarity with search tools can contribute significantly to usage for beneficial purposes, and journalists credit the Internet for rising numbers of young Internet entrepreneurs due to the various types of access it enables, young adult Internet users are the focus of the paper. In July 2010, a ...

  6. Host state incentives and compensation:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing several options for selecting a host state, the Commission elected to proceed with anoption that builds upon developing grass-roots acceptance and support. To foster such support the Commission has adopted an incentives and compensation package. The purpose of the package is that the incentives and compensations offered are designed to encourage an objective and unbiased review of accepting the responsibilities of a host state or community, and the package helps to guarantee that a facility will become a state/community asset and not impose economic, environmenta, or social hardships for the host community. This report, which describes the Commission's host state incentive and compensation package, the monetary benefit to the host community and state will be substantial. Community benefits will exceed $40 million over 20 years and benefits to the state will be approximately $24 million over the 20-year expected life of the facility. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Competing Discourses in the Ongoing Identity Construction of Adult Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Based on interviews with eight adult immigrants to Montreal, this article explores how discourses from their cultures of origin interact with discourses in the host culture to influence the process of identity construction during their acculturation to the host society. Drawing on sociocultural theory and psychological concepts of identity…

  8. Sampling methods of Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    An exotic weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall was first found in south Florida in 1995. The adults have a broad host range that includes foliage of fruit trees, ornamentals and vegetables, but little is known about their basic biology, including larval host plants. Studies were co...

  9. Development of a solitary koinobiont hyperparasitoid in different instars of its primary and secondary hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Fei, Minghui; Lammers, Mark; Kos, Martine; Zhu, Feng; Heinen, Robin; Poelman, Erik H; Gols, Rieta

    2016-07-01

    Parasitoid wasps are excellent organisms for studying the allocation of host resources to different fitness functions such as adult body mass and development time. Koinobiont parasitoids attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobiont parasitoids attack non-growing host stages or paralyzed hosts. Many adult female koinobionts attack a broad range of host stages and are therefore faced with a different set of dynamic challenges compared with idiobionts, where host resources are largely static. Thus far studies on solitary koinobionts have been almost exclusively based on primary parasitoids, yet it is known that many of these are in turn attacked by both koinobiont and idiobiont hyperparasitoids. Here we compare parasitism and development of a primary koinobiont hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus gemellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in larvae of the gregarious primary koinobiont parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) developing in the secondary herbivore host, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). As far as we know this is the first study to examine development of a solitary primary hyperparasitoid in different stages of its secondary herbivore host. Pieris brassicae caterpillars were parasitized as L1 by C. glomerata and then these parasitized caterpillars were presented in separate cohorts to M. gemellus as L3, L4 or L5 instar P. brassicae. Different instars of the secondary hosts were used as proxies for different developmental stages of the primary host, C. glomerata. Larvae of C. glomerata in L5 P. brassicae were significantly longer than those in L3 and L4 caterpillars. Irrespective of secondary host instar, every parasitoid cluster was hyperparasitized by M. gemellus but all only produced male progeny. Male development time decreased with host stage attacked, whereas adult male body mass did not, which shows that M. gemellus is able to optimally exploit older host larvae in terms of adult size despite their

  10. HOST PLANT PREFERENCES OF BEMISIA TABACI GENNADIUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYing; HUANGJian; MARui-yan; HANJu-cai

    2003-01-01

    The preferences of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius for five host plants:poinsettia, tomato, cabbage,sweet potato and flowering Chinese cabbage, was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer and a desiccator in the labo-ratory. The results show that B. tabaci adults were attracted by the odors of the five plants. The order of prefer-ence was poinsettia > flowering Chinese cabbage > sweet potato > cabbage > tomato. Preference was extremely sig-nificant between poinsettia and the other four plants, and between flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and toma-to. There was no significant difference in preference for flowering Chinese cabbage and sweet potato, sweet pota-to, cabbage and tomato or between cabbage and tomato.

  11. Assessing host extinction risk following exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    OpenAIRE

    Louca, Stilianos; Lampo, Margarita; Doebeli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife diseases are increasingly recognized as a major threat to biodiversity. Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Using a mathematical model and simulations, we study its effects on a generic riparian host population with a tadpole and adult life stage. An analytical expression for the basic reproduction quotient, Qo, of the pathogen is derived. By sampling the entire relevant parameter space, we perform...

  12. Why a Focus on Adult Women Is Critical to the Higher Education System and Our Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Present-day adult women students will not be the only ones to gain from a college degree. Generations for decades to come will benefit. In fact, the Shriver Report indicates that "parental education attainment is now more important than family income in predicting a child's future opportunity." According to U.S. Census figures, 76…

  13. Treehoppers (Homoptera, Membracidae in southeastern Brazil: use of host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito C. Lopes

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the use of host plants by treehoppers in plants in cerrado (savanna vegetation at Moji-Guaçu (São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil was made. Fifty-two species of treehoppers were recorded in association with 40 host plant species from October 1980 to February 1982. The families Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae and Nyctaginaceae were the most commonly used for oviposition. Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae had the highest number of associated treehopper species (10 species. The abundance of treehopper individuals was related to the hot and rainy season (from October to February, while during the cold and dry season (from March to September there was a decrease in the number of these Homoptera. After the occurrence of a frost, few adults and nymphs were observed on the host plants for one to two months.

  14. Switched after Birth: Performance of the Viburnum Leaf Beetle [Pyrrhalta viburni (Paykull] after Transfer to a Suboptimal Host Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaylord A. Desurmont

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Host plant switching is common among phytophagous insects. Once optimal food sources have been depleted, immature insects may resort to use of suboptimal hosts in order to complete their development. Such host switching may have dramatic consequences for insect fitness. Here we investigate the effects of host switching in larvae of the viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive landscape pest in North America. Specifically, we examine how transfer of 3rd instar larvae from the optimal host Viburnum dentatum to three suboptimal hosts (V. lentago, V. carlesii, and V sieboldii affects larval development and survivorship to the adult stage. Larval survivorship, pupal weight, and adult weight were overall lower for P. viburni larvae that switched hosts, independently of the suboptimal host tested. This decrease in performance corresponds to a decreased feeding rate on suboptimal hosts. Subsequent choice tests showed that 3rd instar larvae become less choosy as they approach pupation, and discriminate less between optimal and suboptimal hosts past a certain weight threshold. In conclusion, P. viburni larvae are able to complete their development on suboptimal hosts, but host switching negatively impacts several fitness correlates. Mixed ornamental gardens containing both optimal and suboptimal Viburnum species may provide to outbreaking P. viburni populations opportunities to survive the depletion of their preferred food sources.

  15. Guest-host interactions between dichroic dyes and anisotropic hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guest-host interaction between dichroic dyes and anistropic hosts has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. Two different TCNQ adducts; 2-{4-[(2,6-dimethylmorpholin-4-yl)(4-metylpiperidin-1-yl) methylene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene} malononitrile (MORPIP) and 2-{4-[cyclohex-1-yltetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H-ylidene] cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidine} malononitrile (AMINO) have been examined dispersed in a range of nematic liquid crystal mixtures. The result is a substantial impact on the absorption and luminescence when compared to the situation in isotropic solvents. The excited state decay exhibits a complex behaviour showing a multi-exponential decay of the time-resolved luminescence. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the chromophores, also shows strong host dependence. For AMINO, we observe a trend which is indicative of a viscosity dependence. The observations are discussed in view of different solvent-solute interactions between guest and host

  16. Towards host-to-host meeting scheduling negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Megasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different scheme of meeting scheduling negotiation among a large number of personnel in a heterogeneous community. This scheme, named Host-to-Host Negotiation, attempts to produce a stable schedule under uncertain personnel preferences. By collecting information from hosts’ inter organizational meeting, this study intends to guarantee personnel availability. As a consequence, personnel’s and meeting’s profile in this scheme are stored in a centralized manner. This study considers personnel preferences by adapting the Clarke Tax Mechanism, which is categorized as a non manipulated mechanism design. Finally, this paper introduces negotiation strategies based on the conflict handling mode. A host-to-host scheme can give notification if any conflict exist and lead to negotiation process with acceptable disclosed information. Nevertheless, a complete negotiation process will be more elaborated in the future works.

  17. Host Galaxies of Gamma-Ray Bursts and their Cosmological Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Courty, S; Gudmundsson, E H

    2004-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of large scale structure formation to explore the cosmological properties of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) host galaxies. Among the different sub-populations found in the simulations, we identify the host galaxies as the most efficient star-forming objects, i.e. galaxies with high specific star formation rates. We find that the host candidates are low-mass, young galaxies with low to moderate star formation rate. These properties are consistent with those observed in GRB hosts, most of which are sub-luminous, blue galaxies. Assuming that host candidates are galaxies with high star formation rates would have given conclusions inconsistent with the observations. The specific star formation rate, given a galaxy mass, is shown to increase as the redshift increases. The low mass of the putative hosts makes them difficult to detect with present day telescopes and the probability density function of the specific star formation rate is predicted to change depending on whether or not these galaxie...

  18. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  19. Giardia lamblia infections in adult mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, L G; Conrad, J T; Nash, T E

    1994-01-01

    An adult mouse-Giardia lamblia model was developed and used to study host-parasite interactions, including antigenic variation. The H7/1 clone of isolate GS infected mice consistently and produced infections in 14 mouse strains tested. Infection patterns were mouse strain and Giardia isolate dependent. Antigenic variation occurred in immunocompetent mice but not in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency.

  20. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes Christian

    2011-01-01

    negatively related to leaf-miner prevalence, with larger egg and mine densities in small populations. Percentage of eggs hatching and developing into mines, and percentage of adult flies emerging from mines also differed among host populations, but were not related to population size or host cover. Feeding...... host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different...... stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size was...

  1. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  2. Research Strategies to Reduce Tick Densities and the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission through Host-Targeted Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    While white-tailed deer are not reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, they are the keystone host animal on which adult female blacklegged ticks engorge on blood that is essential to production of tick eggs and completion of the life cycle. This session explores current re...

  3. The evolution of acceptance and tolerance in hosts of avian brood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2016-08-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of their hosts, which rear the parasite's progeny. The costs of parasitism have selected for the evolution of defence strategies in many host species. Most research has focused on resistance strategies, where hosts minimize the number of successful parasitism events using defences such as mobbing of adult brood parasites or rejection of parasite eggs. However, many hosts do not exhibit resistance. Here we explore why some hosts accept parasite eggs in their nests and how this is related to the virulence of the parasite. We also explore the extent to which acceptance of parasites can be explained by the evolution of tolerance; a strategy in which the host accepts the parasite but adjusts its life history or other traits to minimize the costs of parasitism. We review examples of tolerance in hosts of brood parasites (such as modifications to clutch size and multi-broodedness), and utilize the literature on host-pathogen interactions and plant herbivory to analyse the prevalence of each type of defence (tolerance or resistance) and their evolution. We conclude that (i) the interactions between brood parasites and their hosts provide a highly tractable system for studying the evolution of tolerance, (ii) studies of host defences against brood parasites should investigate both resistance and tolerance, and (iii) tolerance and resistance can lead to contrasting evolutionary scenarios. PMID:25765722

  4. [Adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  5. Geçmişten Günümüze Edebiyat Ders Planlarında Ve Kitaplarında Yahya Kemal ve Şiirleri From The Past Till Present Day Yahya Kemal And His Poets In Literature Curriculums And Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik SÜTÇÜ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yahya Kemal Beyatlı is amongst the eminent poets of 20th centuryTurkish Literature. Yahya Kemal, next to his involvement with thepolitical, social and historic events of his age, had attracted attention asa prominent and noticeable character in Turkish Literature. By virtue ofall these attributions Yahya Kemal was noted as a personality whocreated the best samples of Turkish poetry with his works. In additionto a diversified set of themes he employed in his poems, he also tookstage by virtue of the specific language, form and style features and thisdistinguishing character has been acknowledged and appreciated by theliterary researchers and critics of almost all ages.The aim in the literature courses in our educational institutions isto improve aesthetical tastes in poetry as well as all other literary genresand teach literary knowledge. As of 1924 alongside with the rest ofcurriculums, reform attempts in literature curriculums have also beeninitiated in our country. One of the trends in literature teaching duringRepublican Period was the necessity to select literary texts from theworks of modern artists. Hence it would be possible to teach studentshow to enjoy their reading and compare with the living samples of thelanguage. Additionally students would learn, comprehend and adoptcertain genres and forms through literary texts. It has always been aright decision to include Yahya Kemal’s works and texts that bear allthese features within the course books in all ages.This paper analyzes starting from which date and period YahyaKemal’s particular works found place in course books, which works ofthe poet were used to teach what kind of feelings and thoughts, whichconcepts and topics through which methods. From this point of viewthe topic of this research is exploring to what extent and on accounts ofwhich educational purposes Yahya Kemal and his works have beenpresented from the past till present day in the literature course booksthat are

  6. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  7. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  8. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  10. Adult Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...

  11. Adult Leukemias

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Lyall K.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past several years, advances have been made in the classification, diagnosis and therapy of the adult leukemias. The overall prognosis and quality of life have improved greatly, especially for patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemias. Some of the advances are described in this article. The importance of the clinical, laboratory and diagnostic tests for acute, chronic granulocytic and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are stressed. The therapy and prognosis for patients with the vari...

  12. Body size and shape evolution in host races of the tick Ixodes uriae

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, M.; Beati, L.; Elguero, Eric; Boulinier, T.; McCoy, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    The tick Ixodes uriae is a common ectoparasite of seabirds, and is widely distributed across the circumpolar regions of both hemispheres. Previous work demonstrated the existence of genetically distinct host races of this ectoparasite, occurring across its current range. The objective of the present study was to examine whether these host races have evolved measurable morphological differences. We measured a set of morphological variables on 255 non-engorged ticks (nymphs and adults) collecte...

  13. Host receptors for bacteriophage adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi Silva, Juliano; Storms, Zachary; Sauvageau, Dominic

    2016-02-01

    The adsorption of bacteriophages (phages) onto host cells is, in all but a few rare cases, a sine qua non condition for the onset of the infection process. Understanding the mechanisms involved and the factors affecting it is, thus, crucial for the investigation of host-phage interactions. This review provides a survey of the phage host receptors involved in recognition and adsorption and their interactions during attachment. Comprehension of the whole infection process, starting with the adsorption step, can enable and accelerate our understanding of phage ecology and the development of phage-based technologies. To assist in this effort, we have established an open-access resource--the Phage Receptor Database (PhReD)--to serve as a repository for information on known and newly identified phage receptors. PMID:26755501

  14. Asteroseismology of Exoplanet Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Asteroseismology is among the most powerful observational tools to determine fundamental properties of stars. Space-based photometry has recently enabled the systematic detection of oscillations in exoplanet host stars, allowing a combination of asteroseismology with transit and radial-velocity measurements to characterize planetary systems. In this contribution I will review the key synergies between asteroseismology and exoplanet science such as the precise determination of radii and ages of exoplanet host stars, as well as applications of asteroseismology to measure spin-orbit inclinations in multiplanet systems and orbital eccentricities of small planets. Finally I will give a brief outlook on asteroseismic studies of exoplanet hosts with current and future space-based missions such as K2 and TESS.

  15. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  16. MOLECULAR GAS IN z ∼ 6 QUASAR HOST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report our new observations of redshifted carbon monoxide emission from six z ∼ 6 quasars, using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. CO (6-5) or (5-4) line emission was detected in all six sources. Together with two other previous CO detections, these observations provide unique constraints on the molecular gas emission properties in these quasar systems close to the end of the cosmic re-ionization. Complementary results are also presented for low-J CO lines observed at the Green Bank Telescope and the Very Large Array, and dust continuum from five of these sources with the SHARC-II bolometer camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We then present a study of the molecular gas properties in our combined sample of eight CO-detected quasars at z ∼ 6. The detections of high-order CO line emission in these objects indicates the presence of highly excited molecular gas, with estimated masses on the order of 1010 Msun within the quasar host galaxies. No significant difference is found in the gas mass and CO line width distributions between our z ∼ 6 quasars and samples of CO-detected 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 5 quasars and submillimeter galaxies. Most of the CO-detected quasars at z ∼ 6 follow the far-infrared-CO luminosity relationship defined by actively star-forming galaxies at low and high redshifts. This suggests that ongoing star formation in their hosts contributes significantly to the dust heating at FIR wavelengths. The result is consistent with the picture of galaxy formation co-eval with supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion in the earliest quasar-host systems. We investigate the black hole-bulge relationships of our quasar sample, using the CO dynamics as a tracer for the dynamical mass of the quasar host. The median estimated black hole-bulge mass ratio is about 15 times higher than the present-day value of ∼0.0014. This places important constraints on the formation and evolution of the most massive SMBH-spheroidal host systems at the

  17. Quantifying dilution and amplification in a community of hosts for tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Keesing, Felicia; Holt, Robert D; Barfield, Michael; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2016-03-01

    Recent controversy over whether biodiversity reduces disease risk (dilution effect) has focused on the ecology of Lyme disease, a tick-borne zoonosis. A criticism of the dilution effect is that increasing host species richness might amplify disease risk, assuming that total host abundance, and therefore feeding opportunities for ticks, increase with species richness. In contrast, a dilution effect is expected when poor quality hosts for ticks and pathogens (dilution hosts) divert tick blood meals away from competent hosts. Even if host densities are additive, the relationship between host density and tick encounters can be nonlinear if the number of ticks that encounter a host is a saturating function of host density, which occurs if ticks aggregate on the remaining hosts rather than failing to find a host before death. Both dilution and amplification are theoretical possibilities, and assessing which is more prevalent required detailed analyses of empirical systems. We used field data to explore the degree of tick redistribution onto fewer individuals with variation in intraspecific host density and novel data-driven models for tick dynamics to determine how changes in vertebrate community composition influence the density of nymphs infected with the Lyme bacterium. To be conservative, we allowed total host density to increase additively with species richness. Our long-term field studies found that larval and nymphal ticks redistribute onto fewer individuals as host densities decline, that a large proportion of nymphs and adults find hosts, and that mice and chipmunks feed a large proportion of nymphs. White-footed mice, eastern chipmunks, short-tailed shrews, and masked shrews were important amplification hosts that greatly increased the density of infected nymphs. Gray squirrels and Virginia opossums were important dilution hosts. Removing these two species increased the maximum number of larvae attached to amplification hosts by 57%. Raccoons and birds were

  18. New insights into the impact of Lactobacillus population on host-bacteria metabolic interplay

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Stspetova, Jelena; Sepp, Epp; Songisepp, Epp; Claus, Sandrine P.; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2015-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the association between intestinal Lactobacillus sp. composition and their metabolic activity with the host metabolism in adult and elderly individuals. Faecal and plasma metabolites were measured and correlated to the Lactobacillus species distribution in healthy Estonian cohorts of adult (n = 16; 65 y). Total cholesterol, LDL, C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin were statistically higher in elderly, while platelets, white blood ce...

  19. Adult hepatoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Javier A. Cienfuegos; Tania Labiano; Nicolás Pedano; Gabriel N. Zozaya; Pablo Martí-Cruchaga; Ángel Panizo; Fernando Rotellar

    2013-01-01

    Adult hepatoblastoma (AHB) is a very rare tumor, having been described 45 cases up to June 2012. In contrast to HB in infancy (IHB), it has poor prognosis. We present the case of a 37-year-old asymptomatic woman who consulted for a large -12 cm diameter- mass involving segments 5 and 6 of the liver, and alfa-fetoprotein of 1,556,30 UI/mL. A bisegmentectomy was carried out. The microscopic study confirmed the AHB diagnosis, revealing the presence of epithelial cells forming clusters, trabecula...

  20. Do host country education and language training help recent immigrants exit poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Lisa

    2013-05-01

    Despite growing interest in host country-specific skills, quantitative assessments of the economic benefit of host country education and training for immigrants are limited. This study addresses this gap by evaluating the impacts of host country formal education and language training on the exit from family poverty among recently arrived immigrant adults. The bivariate probit model and propensity weighting approach are used to analyze data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada. Results suggest that while English/French language training is beneficial for low income recent immigrants in general, host country education benefits only highly educated recent arrivals. This study underscores the importance of considering immigrants' selectivity into host country education and training, as simple regression analysis can improperly estimate their true benefits. PMID:23521991

  1. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  2. AVTC Hosts TechnoCamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    The Area Vo-Tech Center (AVTC) in Russellville, Arkansas, recently hosted its first TechnoCamp to encourage enrollment based on the aptitude and interest level of the students enrolling in the various programs. The center currently offers student enrollment in auto technology, computer engineering, cosmetology, construction technology, drafting…

  3. Functional response, host stage preference and interference of two whitefly parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Yun; Yang, Nian-Wan; Duan, Min; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2016-02-01

    The functional responses of two parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich & Rose and Encarsia sophia Girault & Dodd, of whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Middle East-Asia Minor 1 were studied under laboratory conditions. In addition, the influence of host density and host stage on the competitive interactions between the two parasitoids, and biological control effect on whitefly were evaluated. In the functional response study, adult parasitoids were tested individually, with a conspecific or heterospecific competitor. Both Er. hayati and En. sophia exhibited a type II response to increasing host density, whether a conspecific or heterospecific competitor was present or not. Difference of searching rates and handling times between treatments suggested interference interactions existed between two parasitoid species. In the host stage preference study, two parasitoid species were jointly tested. Er. hayati had a competitive advantage over En. sophia when provided young host instars (first and second instar), whereas no advantage was found on old host instars (third and fourth instar). The biological control effect of Er. hayati and En. sophia in different introductions varied with host density. However, the effect of host instar on host mortality was not significant. These findings provide information for the practice of biological control and give better insight into how parasitoid species may coexist in diverse environments. PMID:25393924

  4. The perfect host: a mouse host embryo facilitating more efficient germ line transmission of genetically modified embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Taft

    Full Text Available There is a continual need to improve efficiency in creating precise genetic modifications in mice using embryonic stem cells (ESCs. We describe a novel approach resulting in 100% germline transmission from competent injected ESCs. We developed an F1 mouse host embryo (Perfect Host, PH that selectively ablates its own germ cells via tissue-specific induction of diphtheria toxin. This approach allows competent microinjected ESCs to fully dominate the germline, eliminating competition for this critical niche in the developing and adult animal. This is in contrast to conventional methods, where competition from host germ cells results in offspring derived from host cells and ESCs, necessitating extensive breeding of chimeras and genotyping to identify germline. The germline transmission process is also complicated by variability in the actual number of ESCs that colonize the germline niche and the proportion that are germline competent. To validate the PH approach we used ESC lines derived from 129 F1, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR backgrounds as well as an iPS line. Resulting chimeric males produced 194 offspring, all paternally derived from the introduced stem cells, with no offspring being derived from the host genome. We further tested this approach using eleven genetically modified C57BL/6N ESC lines (International Knockout Mouse Consortium. ESC germline transmission was observed in 9/11 (82% lines using PH blastocysts, compared to 6/11 (55% when conventional host blastocysts were used. Furthermore, less than 35% (83/240 of mice born in the first litters from conventional chimeras were confirmed to be of ESC-origin. By comparison, 100% (137/137 of the first litter offspring of PH chimeras were confirmed as ESC-derived. Together, these data demonstrate that the PH approach increases the probability of germline transmission and speeds the generation of ESC derived animals from chimeras. Collectively, this approach reduces the time and costs inherent in the

  5. Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Rousse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol.

  6. The host plants of the Telamonini treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) and the first diagnoses of nymphs for 14 species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the treehopper tribe Telamonini has focused on their classification and Nearctic distribution but little has been published on their biology, including detailed information on their host plants as well as data on their nymphal stage. Any studies including host plant data have emphasized adult records (often unreliable due to their movements), largely ignoring the nymphs, which are the predominant feeding stage. This work provides the first comprehensive summary of Telamonini host plants, it documents the first positive identification of the nymphs for several telamonine species (and the genus Helonica), and it provides the first morphological diagnoses for 14 species, thus filling in major gaps in the life history of many species. Host plant records were determined based on accounts in the literature (adults and nymphs), from rearings of nymphs on host plants to the adult stage, and from label data on museum specimens. The Telamonini are known from 22 families, 41 genera, and 80 species of mostly woody, deciduous trees (of which, six species are new host plant records). Nearly half of all telamonines have been collected from more than one plant genus and only 12 species are known from a single host plant species. Telamonine nymphs were reared to the adult stage on 15 plant species. Of 68 telamonine species, 45 have been found on oak (Quercus), and white oak (Q. alba) is the most common telamonine host plant. Telamona monticola has the most recorded host plants with 29. The work includes 23 color illustrations showing both live and preserved nymphs, representing 15 species, all illustrated for the first time (eight are positively identified for the first time). Differences in nymphal morphology among species within Archasia, Glossonotus, Heliria, and Telamona suggest current generic definitions need revision. This study highlights the need for an increased emphasis on nymphal collections when determining treehopper host plants and inferring

  7. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 159-166

  8. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  9. New hosts and localities for helminths of carnivores in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, María Soledad; Kinsella, John Mike; Moreno, Pablo Gastón; Ferreyra, Hebe Del Valle; Pereira, Javier; Pía, Mónica; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2015-01-01

    A total of 111 samples (43 faeces and 79 gastrointestinal tracts) of 14 wild carnivore species from 12 Argentine provinces were analyzed. Helminth eggs were identified in 73% of the faecal samples and adult worms were recovered from 81% of the gastrointestinal tracts. We found 19 helminth species. Among the most frequent findings were parasites of domestic carnivores, namely Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala. In addition, new hosts are reported for 6 nematode species and 5 helminth species are recorded for the first time in Argentina: Aonchotheca putorii, Molineus brachiurus, Cyathospirura chevreuxi, Physaloptera praeputialis and Oncicola martini. PMID:26701468

  10. AGN and their host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K.; Hirschmann, M.; Remus, R.-S.; Teklu, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    Large scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations are an important tool to study the co-evolution between black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. However, in order to model the accretion onto BHs and AGN feedback we need sub-grid models which contain several free parameters. The choice of these parameters has a significant impact on the properties of the BHs and their host galaxies. Therefore, we improve the accretion model and the AGN feedback model based on both theory and observations to eliminate most free parameters. In that way, the slope of the observed relation between BH mass and stellar mass is reproduced self-consistently. We performed a few extremely large simulation runs as part of the Magneticum Pathfinder simulation set, combining a high resolution with very large cosmological volumes, enabling us to study for example dual AGN, the role of galaxy mergers and AGN clustering properties.

  11. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  12. Exoplanets and their Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J.

    2016-06-01

    Among the most fundamental astrophysical discoveries are clearly the detections of many thousands of ``extrasolar'' planets orbiting their hosts. The majority of these new planetary systems have properties dramatically different from those in our solar system. The large distances to extrasolar planets imply that they can only be observed together with their hosts. Modern observations have shown that stars and planets are not merely accidental celestial neighbors bound by the force of gravity, rather they influence each other in a variety of ways. This also and specifically applies to the X-ray properties of exoplanet systems which I will review in my talk and give some ideas for future work in this area.

  13. Clinical Features of Infection in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Dean C

    2016-08-01

    The impact of infectious diseases on older adults is far greater than on younger adults because of significantly higher morbidity and mortality caused by infection. The reasons for this greater impact include factors such as lower physiologic reserve due to age and chronic disease, age-related changes in host defenses, loss of mobility, higher risk for polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions, and being on drugs that increase the risk for infection (e.g., anticholinergic and other sedating medications increase the risk for pneumonia). PMID:27394015

  14. Effect of host plant chemistry on genetic differentiation and reduction of gene flow among Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations exploiting sympatric, synchronic hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroño, Luis; Paulin, Laura; Alberti, Andrea C; Hilal, Mirna; Ovruski, Sergio; Vilardi, Juan C; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Herbivore host specialization includes changes in behavior, driven by locally induced adaptations to specific plants. These adaptations often result in sexual isolation that can be gauged through detection of reduced gene flow between host associated populations. Hypothetically, reduced gene flow can be mediated both by differential response to specific plant kairomones and by the influence of larval diet on some adult traits such as pheromone composition. These hypotheses could serve as a model to explain rapid radiation of phytophagous tephritid fruit flies, a group that includes several complexes of cryptic species. The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is a complex of at least seven cryptic species among which pheromone mediated sexual isolation resulted in rapid differentiation. Cryptic species also exhibit differences in host affiliation. In search of a model explaining rapid radiation in this group, we studied host plant chemical composition and genetic structure of three host associated sympatric populations of A. fraterculus. Chemical composition among host plant fruit varied widely both for nutrient and potentially toxic secondary metabolite content. Adaptation to plant chemistry appears to have produced population differentiation. We found host mediated differentiation to be stronger between populations exploiting sympatric synchronic hosts differing in chemical composition, than between populations that exploit hosts that fruit in succession. Gene flow among such host associated populations was extremely low. We propose as a working hypothesis for future research, that for those differences to persist over time, isolating mechanisms such as male produced sex pheromones and female preferences resulting from adaptation to different larval diets should evolve. PMID:23905743

  15. Seasonal activity and host associations of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    1999-11-01

    Based on tick collections recovered from wild vertebrates and by dragging, the seasonal occurrence of adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, extended from October through May in southeastern Missouri. Adult activity was bimodal with the higher peak occurring in November followed by a lower peak in February. The activity of immature I. scapularis had the general pattern of that found in the Northeast where Lyme disease is hyperendemic, with larval activity (July) peaking after that of nymphs (May and June). Vertebrates varied in their importance as hosts of I. scapularis. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginanus (Zimmerman), and coyotes, Canis latrans Say, were the primary hosts of adult I. scapularis. Broad-headed skinks, Eumeces laticeps (Schneider), and eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille), were the primary hosts of nymphal I. scapularis. The broad-headed skink, 5-lined skink, Eumeces fasciatus (L.), and Carolina wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham), were the primary hosts of larval I. scapularis. Homeotherms were important hosts of immature I. scapularis, accounting for 30% of nymphs and 39% of larvae collected. The eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), may play an important role in the epidemiology of Lyme disease in Missouri. Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner were made from ticks recovered from rabbits, making the cottontail rabbit a key species for further study of the epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Missouri. PMID:10593072

  16. Host-to-host variation of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sayak; Weimer, Kristin E.; Seok, Sang-Cheol; Ray, Will C.; Jayaprakash, C.; Vieland, Veronica J; Swords, W. Edward; Das, Jayajit

    2014-01-01

    Host-to-host variability with respect to interactions between microorganisms and multicellular hosts are commonly observed in infection and in homeostasis. However, the majority of mechanistic models used to analyze host-microorganism relationships, as well as most of the ecological theories proposed to explain coevolution of hosts and microbes, are based on averages across a host population. By assuming that observed variations are random and independent, these models overlook the role of di...

  17. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Nian-Wan; Ji, Lu-Lu; Lövei, Gabor L;

    2012-01-01

    Destructive host-feeding is common in hymenopteran parasitoids. Such feeding may be restricted to host stages not preferred for oviposition. However, whether this is a fixed strategy or can vary according to resource levels or parasitoid needs is less clear. We tested the trade-off between host....... The balance between reserving optimal hosts for oviposition or using them for host-feeding depended on parasitoid life history and the availability of host resources....

  18. Host compatibility rather than vector–host-encounter rate determines the host range of avian Plasmodium parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Matthew C. I.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Robert E. Ricklefs

    2013-01-01

    Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector species structure parasite–host relationships by restricting access of certain parasites to a subset of available hosts. Specifically, we inv...

  19. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  20. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... wireless devices Head injuries Smoking Hormone therapy SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ...

  1. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  2. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy. PMID:27585907

  3. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur for flowering host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  4. Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on its physiological state, the intensity of the bacterial attack and the efficacy of the defense system to neutralize toxins a...

  5. Modified host cells with efflux pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous expression of an efflux pump capable of transporting an organic molecule out of the host cell wherein the organic molecule at a sufficiently high concentration reduces the growth rate of or is lethal to the host cell.

  6. Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourreau, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense syste

  7. NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO SOLVE THE PRESENT-DAY CHALLENGES OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zaletova Nina Anatol'evna; Voronov Jurij Viktorovich

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that the current standards of the quality of discharged waste waters are the drivers of new technologies of their treatment. Now traditional biological treatment is considered a universal method. However, compliance with the most recent standards requires that efficient removal of phosphorus in the course of biological processes must rise from 20 - 40 % to 98 - 99 %, efficiency of treatment of ammonium must go up to 98 - 99 %, while the share of nitrate and nitrite compounds...

  8. Horseshoes, angels and other UFOs: Rethinking faith in light of present-day superstitions

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2011-01-01

    The monotheistic religions see God as the author of human faith. Faith comes �from above� and as such is unnatural or supernatural. The faith of pagans, by contrast, is regarded as superstition and hence natural (Rm 1). One can make a case for the �natural� universal incidence of both religion and superstition and their fulfilment of similar needs. In addition both are characterised by the pattern-finding operation of the human brain. The (causal) connections we make and the patterns we impos...

  9. How can young massive clusters reach their present-day sizes?

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2015-01-01

    The classic question that how young massive star clusters attain their shapes and sizes, as we find them today, remains to be a challenge. Both observational and computational studies of star-forming massive molecular gas clouds infer that massive cluster formation is primarily triggered along the small-scale ($\\lesssim0.3$ pc) filamentary substructures within the clouds. The present study is intended to investigate the possible ways in which a filament-like-compact, massive star cluster (effective radius 0.1-0.3 pc) can expand $\\gtrsim10$ times, still remaining massive enough ($\\gtrsim10^4 M_\\odot$), to become a young massive star cluster, as we observe today. To that end, model massive clusters (of initially $10^4 M_\\odot-10^5 M_\\odot$) are evolved using Sverre Aarseth's state-of-the-art N-body code NBODY7. All the computed clusters expand with time, whose sizes (effective radii) are compared with those observed for young massive clusters, of age $\\lesssim100$ Myr, in the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies...

  10. Present day challenges in understanding the geomagnetic hazard to national power grids

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, A. W. P.; Gaunt, C.T.; P. Cilliers; Wild, J. A.; Opperman, B.; McKinnell, L.-A.; Kotze, P.; Ngwira, C.M.; Lotz, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    Solar activity gives rise to changes in the near- Earth space environment, often referred to as space weather, that can adversely affect technologies on and above the surface of the Earth. For example, the impact of a coronal mass ejection on the Earth’s protective magnetosphere can lead to a geomagnetic storm, boosting existing magnetospheric currents. These current systems cause large magnetic variations that induce electric fields in the solid Earth. These fields, in turn, gene...

  11. Data on present-day precipitation changes in the extratropical part of the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    100-year time series of spatially averaged annual precipitation and precipitation for the warm period of the year (May-September) for 12 regions of the USSR, Europe and North America are analyzed. It is shown that for land within 30-70 degree N the precipitation trend was about 6%/100 year, the increase in precipitation amount being a maximum in the Eastern Hemisphere north of 55 degree N

  12. On the Present-day Veneration of Sacred Trees in the Holy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amots Dafni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the current pervasiveness of the phenomenon ofsacred trees in the Holy Land, with special reference to the official attitudes of local religious leaders and the attitudes of Muslims in comparison with the Druze as well as in monotheism vs. polytheism. Field data regarding the reasons for the sanctification of trees and the common beliefs and rituals related to them are described, comparing the form which the phenomenon takes among different ethnic groups. In addition, I discuss the temporal and spatial changesin the magnitude of tree worship in Northern Israel, its syncretic aspects, and its future.

  13. Sedimentary Mounds on Mars: Tracing Present-day Formation Processes into the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Michalski, J.; Edwards, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution photography and spectroscopy of the martian surface (MOC, HiRISE) from orbit has revolutionized our view of Mars with one and revealed spectacular views of finely layered sedimentary materials throughout the globe [1]. Some of these sedimentary deposits are 'mound' shaped and lie inside of craters (Fig 1). Crater mound deposits are found throughout the equatorial region, as well as ice-rich deposits found in craters in the north and south polar region [2-4]. Despite their wide geographical extent and varying volatile content, the 'mound' deposits have a large number of geomorphic and structural similarities that suggest they formed via equivalent processes. Thus, modern depositional processes of ice and dust can serve as an invaluable analog for interpreting the genesis of ancient sedimentary mound deposits.

  14. Can Satellite Geodesy Disentangle Holocene Rebound and Present-Day Glacier Balance Signatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvins, E.; James, T.; Yoder, C.

    1995-01-01

    The secular drift of the precession of the ascending node of the LAGOES -1 satellite is apparently linked to the Earth s paleoclimate through the slow viscous response of the mantle to ice sheet/ocean mass transfer during the last great continental deglaciation . The secular node acceleration is particularly sensitive to the longest wavelengths of the paleo -surface loading that have been memorized by the mantle glacio -isostatic flow. Tide gauge records for the last 130 years show a post-glacial rebound-corrected sea-level rise of 2.4 n 0.9 mm yr-1.

  15. The Evolution of the Financial Stability Mandate: From Its Origins to the Present Day

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni Toniolo; White, Eugene N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the origins and growth of the Financial Stability Mandate (FSM) to examine why bank supervisors, inside and outside of central banks succeeded or failed to meet their FSM. Three issues inform this study: (1) what drives changes in the FSM, (2) whether supervision should be conducted within the central bank or in independent agencies and (3) whether supervision should be rules- or discretion/principles-based. As histories of bank supervision are few, we focus on the history of s...

  16. Possible way to check up superbanana transport effects in present-day stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important, as yet unanswered question in stellarator research is the following: how dangerous is the superbanana transport to the plasma confinement? Comparison of experimental data with theoretical transport coefficients indicates that the superbanana transport does occur in experiments. But it is believed that the experimental plasma loss rates (W-VIIA) are considerably lower than those predicted by neoclassical theory. The existing inconsistencies make it necessary to search for additional ways to find out whether the superbanana transport is feasible. One of possible ways is connected with the fact that the neoclassical superbanana transport coefficients depend essentially on the harmonic composition of the magnetic field

  17. Present day status of uranium and thorium survey in the French Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to underline the main facts concerning: 1) those deposits on which depends or will depend the production of uranium during the next 5 or 10 years; 2) the future of that production as it appears from a detailed study of areas or deposits; 3) the new observations made in the course of prospecting and which may be of practical importance on the scientific and eventually on the industrial level. A description is given of the present general aspect of uranium prospecting in France and its overseas territories

  18. Dwarf galaxy populations in present-day galaxy clusters: I. Abundances and red fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Weinmann, Simone M; Guo, Qi; Meyer, Hagen T; Janz, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    We compare the galaxy population in the Virgo, Fornax, Coma and Perseus cluster to a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model, focusing on the regime of dwarf galaxies with luminosities from approximately 10^8 L_sun to 10^9 L_sun. We find that the number density profiles of dwarfs in observed clusters are reproduced reasonably well, and that the red fractions of model clusters provide a good match to Coma and Perseus. On the other hand, the red fraction among dwarf galaxies in Virgo is clearly lower than in model clusters. We argue that this is mainly caused by the treatment of environmental effects in the model. This explanation is supported by our finding that the colours of central ("field") dwarf galaxies are reproduced well, in contrast to previous claims. Finally, we report on several differences in the properties of galaxies in observed and simulated clusters that may indicate an underestimate of tidal disruption in the model: The dwarf-to-giant ratio is too high in the model; there is an unexplained flatt...

  19. Present-day groundwater recharge estimation in parts of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, S. N.; Mukherjee, A.; Wada, Y.; Scanlon, B. R.; Taylor, R. G.; Rodell, M.; Malakar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Large part of global population has been dependent on groundwater as a source of fresh water. The demand would further increase with increasing population and stress associated with climate change. We tried to provide regional-scale groundwater recharge estimates in a large part of Indian Sub-Continent. A combination of ground-based, satellite-based and numerical model simulated recharge estimates were presented in the densely populated region. Three different methods: an intense network of observational wells (n>13,000 wells), a satellite (TRMM) and global land-surface model (CLM) outputs, and a global-scale hydrological model (PCR GLOBWB) were employed to calculate recharge estimates. Groundwater recharge values exhibit large spatial variations over the entire region on the basis of aquifer hydrogeology, precipitation and groundwater withdrawal patterns. Groundwater recharge estimates from all three estimation techniques were found to be higher (>300 mm/year) in fertile planes of Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra (IGB) river basins. A combination of favorable hydrogeologic conditions (porosity, permeability etc.), comparatively higher rates of precipitation, and return flow from rapidly withdrawn irrigation water might influence occurrence of high recharge rates. However, central and southern study area experiences lower recharge rates (<200 mm/year), might be associated with unfavorable hydrogeologic conditions associated with cratonic provinces. Statistical analysis of inter-comparison between the three different recharge estimates show good matches in some of the areas. Recharge estimates indicate dynamic nature of groundwater recharge as a function of precipitation, land use pattern, and hydrogeologic parameters. On a first hand basis, the estimates will help policy makers to understand groundwater recharge process over the densely populated region and finally would facilitate to implement sustainable policy for securing water security.

  20. Research on the Dividing Method for Present-Day Regional Active Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoliang; Jiang Zaisen; Chen Bing; Wang Qi; Zhang Xi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new idea that combines Quasi-Accurate Detection of gross errors (QUAD) with discontinuous deformation positive analysis, is brought forward to divide the regional active blocks. The method can improve the demarcation of active blocks for areas lacking with observation data and offer a new train of through for the complete study of the regional deformation of active blocks. In addition, using the Sichuan-Yunnan area as example, the practice process of the method is introduced briefly.

  1. Present Day Regional Mass Loss of Greenland Observed with Satellite Gravimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, E.J.O.; Wouters, B.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained for Greenland’s mass balance observed with NASA’s GRACE mission. We estimate a Greenland ice sheet mass loss at −201 ± 19 Gt/year including a discernible acceleration of −8 ± 7 Gt/year2 between March 2003 and February 2010. The mass loss of glacier systems on t

  2. Present-Day Influence of English on Swedish as Found in Swedish Job Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ben E.

    1990-01-01

    A brief analysis of job advertisements in Swedish newspapers notes the increasing trend toward the use of English rather than Swedish words for certain terms, attributing such use to the wish to show an international labor perspective. (five references) (CB)

  3. Present Day Biology seen in the Looking Glass of Physics of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, P.

    Darwin's theory of variation and selection in its simplest form is directly applicable to RNA evolution in vitro as well as to virus evolution, and it allows for quantitative predictions. Understanding evolution at the molecular level is ultimately related to the central paradigm of structural biology: sequence⇒ structure ⇒ function. We elaborate on the state of the art in modeling and understanding evolution of RNA driven by reproduction and mutation. The focus will be laid on the landscape concept—originally introduced by Sewall Wright—and its application to problems in biology. The relation between genotypes and phenotypes is the result of two consecutive mappings from a space of genotypes called sequence space onto a space of phenotypes or structures, and fitness is the result of a mapping from phenotype space into non-negative real numbers. Realistic landscapes as derived from folding of RNA sequences into structures are characterized by two properties: (i) they are rugged in the sense that sequences lying nearby in sequence space may have very different fitness values and (ii) they are characterized by an appreciable degree of neutrality implying that a certain fraction of genotypes and/or phenotypes cannot be distinguished in the selection process. Evolutionary dynamics on realistic landscapes will be studied as a function of the mutation rate, and the role of neutrality in the selection process will be discussed.

  4. Modelling of hybrid scenario: from present-day experiments towards ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ‘hybrid’ scenario is an attractive operating scenario for ITER since it combines long plasma duration with the reliability of the reference H-mode regime. We review the recent European modelling effort carried out within the Integrated Scenario Modelling group which aims at (i) understanding the underlying physics of the hybrid regime in ASDEX-Upgrade and JET and (ii) extrapolating them towards ITER. JET and ASDEX-Upgrade hybrid scenarios performed under different experimental conditions have been simulated in an interpretative and predictive way in order to address the current profile dynamics and its link with core confinement, the relative importance of magnetic shear, s, and E × B flow shear on the core turbulence, pedestal stability and H–L transition. The correlation of the improved confinement with an increased s/q at outer radii observed in JET and ASDEX-Upgrade discharges is consistent with the predictions based on the GLF23 model applied in the simulations of the ion and electron kinetic profiles. Projections to ITER hybrid scenarios have been carried out focusing on optimization of the heating/current drive schemes to reach and ultimately control the desired plasma equilibrium using ITER actuators. Firstly, access condition to the hybrid-like q-profiles during the current ramp–up phase has been investigated. Secondly, from the interpreted role of the s/q ratio, ITER hybrid scenario flat-top performance has been optimized through tailoring the q-profile shape and pedestal conditions. EPED predictions of pedestal pressure and width have been used as constraints in the interpretative modelling while the core heat transport is predicted by GLF23. Finally, model-based approach for real-time control of advanced tokamak scenarios has been applied to ITER hybrid regime for simultaneous magnetic and kinetic profile control. (paper)

  5. Lepra: enfermedad milenaria y actual = Leprosy: an ancient and present-day disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardona Castro, Nora María

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El desconocimiento de la lepra es común en la población general al igual que entre los médicos y el personal de la salud. Se cree que esta enfermedad ya no existe; tal vez su imagen bíblica y milenaria refuerce la idea de su eliminación. Sin embargo, la lepra continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en varios países; entre los más afectados están India y Brasil. Después del inicio de la poliquimioterapia (PQT en la novena década del siglo XX la prevalencia de la lepra disminuyó considerablemente pero no ocurrió lo mismo con la incidencia, lo que se atribuye al poco impacto de dicho tratamiento sobre el control de la transmisión y a la existencia de un reservorio aún no identificado con exactitud. Los convivientes de los leprosos tienen alto riesgo de sufrir la enfermedad en cualquier momento de la vida, pero hasta ahora no se ha podido determinar cuáles convivientes infectados desarrollarán la enfermedad. En Colombia se informan de 400 a 550 casos de lepra cada año, lo cual sugiere que la transmisión del Mycobacterium leprae continúa a pesar de que el país está considerado en la fase de poseliminación.Este artículo presenta una revisión histórica de la lepra desde los primeros informes disponibles hasta los avances moleculares más recientes. Incluye cómo ha evolucionado la comprensión de la enfermedad, su caracterización clínica, las medidas de control y saneamiento, el tratamiento y la epidemiología.

  6. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Abraham

    Full Text Available The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius. Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s. We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.

  7. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  8. Present-day dilemmas and challenges of the South African tertiary system

    OpenAIRE

    Mouton, N.; Louw, G.P.; G. L. Strydom

    2013-01-01

    The Education White Paper 3 on Higher Education aimed to transform the higher education system. Change within tertiary education included adjusting the size and shape of institutions, the meaning of autonomy and accountability, the nature of higher education, the character of student demographic distribution, management and governance, roles of student politics, models of delivery, the notion of higher education in terms of the relationship between free trade and public good, p...

  9. Digitization of the human body in the present-day economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on the historic development of human body digitization and on the actual state of commercially available technology. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than ten years. One of the main users of this technology was the entertainment industry. Every new movie excited with attractive visual effects, but only few people knew that the most thrilling cuts were realized by using virtual persons. The faces and bodies of actors were digitized and the "virtual twin" replaced the actor in the movie. Nowadays, the state of the human body digitization is so high that it is not possible any more to distinguish the real actor from the virtual one. Indeed, for the rush technical development has to be thanked the movie industry, which was one of the strong economic motors for this technology. Today, with the possibility of a massive cost reduction given by new technologies, methods for digitization of the human body are used also in other fields of application, such as ergonomics, medical applications, computer games, biometry and anthropometrics. With the time, this technology becomes interesting also for sport, fitness, fashion and beauty. A large expansion of human body digitization is expected in the near future. To date, different technologies are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. They can be divided into three distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their differences and characteristics and expresses clues for the selection of the adequate method. Practical examples of commercial exploitation of human body digitization are also presented and new interesting perspectives are introduced.

  10. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Review Panel: Soroosh Sorooshian, Ph.D., Panel Chairperson, University of California, Irvine; Jan M. H. Hendrickx, Ph.D., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Binayak P. Mohanty, Ph.D., Texas A& M University; Scott W. Tyler, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno; Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh, Ph.D., University of Arizona -- ORISE Review Facilitators: Robert S. Turner, Ph.D., Technical Review Group Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Brian R. Herndon, Project Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Russ Manning, Technical Writer/Editor, Haselwood Enterprises, Inc.

    2008-08-30

    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is “to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site ...” (p. 1-1) The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: • A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (i) the net infiltration estimates, (ii) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (iii) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. • The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. • While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they oversimplify a complex landscape and associated hydrologic processes, especially since the model assumptions have not been adequately corroborated by field and laboratory observations at Yucca Mountain.

  11. A diagnostic study of the global coverage by contrails. Pt. 1. Present day climate. Revised version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Gierens, K.; Ponater, M.; Schumann, U.

    1998-03-01

    The global distribution of the contrail formation potential and the contrail cloud coverage are estimated using meteorological analysis data for temperature and humidity (ECMWF re-analyses) and a data base on aircraft fuel consumption. Regions with humidity between ice and liquid saturation and with temperature low enough to let aircraft trigger contrail formation are identified as regions in which persistent contrails may be formed. The frequency with which a region is conditioned for such persistent contrail formation measures the contrail formation potential. The mean contrail cloud coverage is computed by multiplying this frequency with a suitable function of fuel consumption (linear or non-linear). The product is normalized such that the contrail coverage equals the observed value of 0.5% in a domain between 30 W to 30 E, 35 N to 75 N. The results show a large potential for contrail formation in the upper troposphere, in particular in the tropics but also at mid-latitudes. At northern mid-latitudes about 20% of the upper tropospheric air is conditioned to form persistent contrails. Part of this region may be covered by otherwise forming cirrus clouds. When multiplied with fuel consumption of 1992 aviation, large cover by persistent contrail clouds is computed over Europe, the North Atlantic, the continental USA, and south-east Asia. The computed contrail coverage reaches 2% over the USA, and is larger in winter than in summer. The global mean contrail coverage is about 0.11% for linear fuel dependence and the given normalization. The result is only weakly sensitive to the propulsion efficiency of aircraft, but strongly sensitive to aircraft flight altitude. (orig.)

  12. Horseshoes, angels and other UFOs: Rethinking faith in light of present-day superstitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The monotheistic religions see God as the author of human faith. Faith comes �from above� and as such is unnatural or supernatural. The faith of pagans, by contrast, is regarded as superstition and hence natural (Rm 1. One can make a case for the �natural� universal incidence of both religion and superstition and their fulfilment of similar needs. In addition both are characterised by the pattern-finding operation of the human brain. The (causal connections we make and the patterns we impose on reality have always helped people to comprehend and manipulate the world. Historical circumstances led to the development of �official� religions as institutions wielding political power, whereas superstition has remained a para-religious phenomenon to this day.But how should religion and superstition be viewed in a postmetaphysical, technoscientific environment? How can the supernatural aspects of religion and superstition be accommodated in such an environment? The role of affect and belief (placebo effect in religion and superstition is also scrutinised. Viewed differently, both religion and superstition are considered natural and are proposed as a form of immanent transcendence, in which the �supernatural� is not posited as a metaphysical model but is worked out �from below� in terms of the human constitution.

  13. Conceptualization of sustainable boreal forests development in present-day economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhideleva, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    In research of boreal forests conservation and sustainable development mechanism in the climate changes conditions the main aspect is a study of various natural forces and the society, interests of different segments of population, conditions and productivity of forest ecosystems, threats removal dealing with growing of new forest making tree species and spruce stands drying and their interference. To achieve and protect sustainable development of boreal forests there is a need to arrange mon...

  14. Economic viability of present-day biomass energy installations; Wirtschaftlichkeit von heutigen Biomasse-Energieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Sommerhalder, M.; Schelske, O. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Membrez, Y.; Ndoh, M.; Tacchini, C. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This illustrated, comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic viability of biomass energy installations. The installations examined included wood-fired installations, biogas installations and those using bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The system boundaries involved are defined and various factors that influence cost calculations are examined. The resulting heat and electricity prices for various energy sources and systems are presented and discussed. Examples of small and large-scale installations are presented. For wood-energy, combined heat and power system producing electricity at powers of 1 to 5 MWe are looked at and the various factors influencing their viability are discussed. Biogas installations of various sizes are discussed and the differing investment costs involved are commented on. Here, large industrial installations using communal green wastes are also examined and the influence of communal waste-collection charges on the price for the electricity generated is discussed, as is the influence of the market for the residual compost produced. The production and use of biogas in public wastewater treatment plants is also looked at, including the use of co-substrates. As far as biogenic liquid fuels such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol are concerned, the report takes a brief look at the situation concerning installations in Switzerland and reviews the production costs involved. Various conclusions are drawn for the various energy sources reviewed as well as for the prices for heat and electrical energy obtained.

  15. A look at present-day biology Una mirada a la biología actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Gil Torres

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the objective and method of classic biology, the one that eliminates the object of study and converts it in an object of intervention (aspect that is taken by others as «natural resource» is questioned. Likewise, genetic determinism and the central dogma of molecular biology are raised again, since DNA by itself is a slightly-reactive crystal that only acquires a sences in relationship to other molecules that determine it, creating a codependent network. It is proposed that living beings are emergencies in networks of relationships and acknowledgements in specific contexts, outside of which nothing can exist. En el presente texto se cuestionan el objeto y el método de la biología clásica, aquélla que elimina el objeto de estudio para convertirlo en objeto de intervención (aspecto que es retomado por otros como «recurso natural. Así mismo, se replantean el determinismo genético y el Dogma Central de la biología molecular, dado que el material genético o ADN por sí mismo es un cristal poco reactivo y que sólo adquiere sentido en relaciones con otras moléculas que lo determinan, creando una red codependiente. Se propone que los seres vivos son emergencias de redes de relaciones y reconocimientos en contextos específicos, por fuera de los cuales nada puede existir.

  16. Multiple prismatic calcium phosphate layers in the jaws of present-day sharks (Chondrichthyes; Selachii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingerkus, G; Séret, B; Guilbert, E

    1991-01-15

    Jaws of large individuals, over 2 m in total length, of the shark species Carcharodon carcharias (great white shark) and Isurus oxyrinchus (mako shark) of the family Lamnidae, and Galeocerdo cuvieri (tiger shark) and Carcharhinus leucas (bull shark) of the family Carcharhinidae were found to have multiple, up to five, layers of prismatic calcium phosphate surrounding the cartilages. Smaller individuals of these species and other known species of living chondrichthyans have only one layer of prismatic calcium phosphate surrounding the cartilages, as also do most species of fossil chondrichthyans. Two exceptions are the fossil shark genera Xenacanthus and Tamiobatis. Where it is found in living forms, this multiple layered calcification does not appear to be phylogenetic, as it appears to be lacking in other lamnid and carcharhinid genera and species. Rather it appears to be functional, only appearing in larger individuals and species of these two groups, and hence may be necessary to strengthen the jaw cartilages of such individuals for biting. PMID:1999241

  17. Multimodel ensemble simulations of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, D.S.; Dentener, F.J.; Schultz, M.G.; Ellingsen, K.; Noije, van T.P.C.; Wild, O.; Zeng, G.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.S.; Bell, N.; Bergmann, D.J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W.J.; Derwent, R.G.; Doherty, R.M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.J.; Fiore, A.M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.A.; Horowitz, L.W.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Krol, M.C.; Lamarque, J.F.; Lawrence, M.G.; Montanaro, V.; Muller, J.F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M.J.; Pyle, J.A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Sanderson, M.G.; Savage, N.H.; Shindell, D.T.; Strahan, S.E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.

    2006-01-01

    Global tropospheric ozone distributions, budgets, and radiative forcings from an ensemble of 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models have been intercompared and synthesized as part of a wider study into both the air quality and climate roles of ozone. Results from three 2030 emissions scena

  18. Multimodel ensemble simulations of of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, D.S.; Dentener, F.J.; van Noije, T.P.C.; Eskes, H.J.; Krol, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Global tropospheric ozone distributions, budgets, and radiative forcings from an ensemble of 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models have been intercompared and synthesized as part of a wider study into both the air quality and climate roles of ozone. Results from three 2030 emissions scena

  19. A Mechanism for the Present-Day Creation of a New Class of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Andrew P.; Comins, Neil F.

    2011-01-01

    In this first paper of a series on the formation and abundance of substellar mass dwarf black holes (DBHs), we present a heuristic for deducing the stability of non-rotating matter embedded in a medium against collapse and the formation of a black hole. We demonstrate the heuristic's accuracy for a family of spherical mass distributions whose stability is known through other means. We also present the applications of this heuristic that could be applied to data sets of various types of simula...

  20. Modeling Greenland ice sheet present-day and near-future runoff contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peano, Daniele; Colleoni, Florence; Masina, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The last IPCC report [AR5, IPCC] has shown an increasing contribution from Greenland melting to global sea-level over the last decade, increasing from 0.09 mm/year (period 1992-2001) to 0.59 mm/year (period 2002-2011). Given its strategic location, i.e. close to the main North Atlantic ocean convection sites, it is therefore of importance to better assess ice sheet melting and its impact on regional ocean processes. So far, runoff estimate from ice sheet has been poorly constrained (e.g. [Hanna et al., 2005], [Hanna et al., 2008]) and most of the time the few estimates comes from regional atmospheric models or general circulation models (e.g. [Edwards et al., 2013], [Fettweis et al., 2013]). Here, we present the results from the implementation of a routing scheme into the thermo-mechanical ice sheet-ice shelves model GRISLI [Ritz et al, 2001], applied to the Greenland ice sheet mass evolution over the 20th and 21st centuries. The routing scheme is based on the "multiple flow direction" developed by [Quinn et al., 1991]. We further improved this scheme by considering topographic depressions as possible "lakes" to be filled by meltwater. In this way, when a depression is filled, only the extra water is routed towards the Greenland coasts. This allow us to obtain an estimate of the total amount of freshwater reaching the ocean at each time step of the model integration, as well as a time-varying spatial distribution of the runoff along the coasts of Greenland. This routing scheme is applied in routing both surface and basal meltwater. Surface meltwater is computed by means of a PDD method [Fausto et al., 2007] on which only a fraction is considered for routing while the basal melting rate is part of the heat balance at the ice-bed interface. Runoff is simulated on a 5km x 5km horizontal grid and validation is performed over the 20th century using mean annual total precipitation and air temperature at 2 meters from Era-Interim reanalysis [Dee et al., 2011]. Near future projections are then computed using the climate forcing from CMCC 21st century CMIP5 simulations (RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5). Since the results could be dependent on the ice dynamics and on the surface mass balance method, the runoff scheme is also implemented in the land-based model SICOPOLIS [Greve, 1995] and results are compared to those obtained with GRISLI.

  1. Process Chain in Automotive Industry - Present Day Demands versus Long Term Open CAD/CAM Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dankwort, C. Werner

    1997-01-01

    The automotive industry was a pioneer in using CAD/CAM technology. Now the car manufacturers development process is almost completely done with this technology. Substantial initiative for the standardisation of CAD/CAM technics comes from the automotive industry, as e.g. for neutral CAD data interfaces. The R&D departments of German car manufacturers have founded a working group ii with the aim to develop a common long term CAD/CAM strategy. One important result is the concept of a future CAx...

  2. From 1960 to the present day: the reorganization of the world energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, F. (Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie, 38 - Grenoble (FR)); Ramain, P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 38 - Grenoble (FR))

    During the period since the early sixties, the evolution of the world energy system has been influenced, above all, by the 1973 and 1979 oil shocks and by the slowdown in the world economy. It is now over 15 years since the first oil price rise took place - long enough for it to be possible to take a fresh look at the changes in the world energy system which have taken place since. In attempting to get beyond the crisis as it was perceived at the time can we now bring up to date the real meaning of events since the early sixties. Or, to put it another way, did the crisis not provide us with signals which we were unable to discern at the time. And if so, what were these signals and have they all been understood. In the present article we hope to show that the evolution of the world energy system since 1960 has been characterized by the beginnings of a reorganization (far from complete) of access to energy resources.

  3. Parametric Modeling of Urban Landscape: Decoding the Brasilia of Lucio Costa from Modernism to Present Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Moura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the case study of the Pilot-Plan of Brasilia, important example of modernist urban design protected as human heritage. Discusses a methodological process to promote visualization of maximum envelops of urban volumes, organized in a set of rules and scripts which structures urban parameters in a logic of volume constructions. Applies City Engine - ESRI facilities to construct and visualize the urban rules. It has the goal to promote characterization, analysis, proposals and simulation of urban parameters in order to support decision making in land use transformation. The research deals with the difficulties of management urban pressure of transformation and the maintenance of urban cultural heritage. The methodology defends the change from authorial urban design to the decoding of collective values and goals. The 3D modeling and dynamic visualization promotes the composition of the whole, which means to work in a relative mode, and not in an absolute sense. Although it had been developed for a particular case study, the protected historical area of Brasilia, it presents methodological processes of how to structure rules of three-dimensional modeling to simulate the maximum constructive authorized by planning legislation (maximum envelopes, so that it can be reapplied in any other situation of definition of parameters in urban master plans and in laws for land use and occupation.

  4. Direct measurement of present-day tectonic movement and associated radon flux in Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Vaupotič, J.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 21-34. ISSN 1090-6924 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA MŠk MEB091005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fault displacements * radon flux * Postojna Cave Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2010 www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_72.htm

  5. Moral Progress: A Present-day Perspective on the Leading Enlightenment Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Elżanowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most Enlightenment thinkers believed that the World’s order (as ultimately based on divine laws is good and thus every gain of knowledge will have good consequences. Scientific process was assumed to entail moral progress. In fact some moral progress did occur in the Western civilization and science contributed to it, but it is widely incommensurate with the progress of science. The Enlightenment’s concept of a concerted scientific and moral progress proved largely wrong for several reasons. (1 Public morality and science evolve largely independently and may either enhance or inhibit each other. (2 There are no objective values to be read in the World’s order and simply followed. Instead, our real, subjective values and the moral systems they fuel have all been generated and shaped by evolution rather than designed to be universally good, and thus ought to be managed rather than simply followed. (3 Our evolved morality is flawed, deficient, prone to doctrinal manipulation and refractory to progress. (4 The majority of people show metaethical incompetence in failing to take a reasoned critical stand toward the principles and assumptions of received morals. This makes moral progress largely dependent on those who reach metaethical competence by transcending the conventional stages of moral development.

  6. The Outrageous Discourse of Psychoanalysis for Present-Day Academic Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Barbetta

    2015-01-01

    In the following essay I’m going to take a radical position concerning the tendency to eliminate psychoanalysis from the European Academic field and the failure of psychoanalysts and relational therapists to defend psychoanalysis from such aggression. My question is why in Italy—just to make a local example, which I am involved in—different kinds of psychoanalytical traditions are not able to defend themselves from this attack while in France, for another example, all the different branches o...

  7. The Russian ecological exception: systems and actors from 1917 to the present day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes and analyzes the environmental policies developed in Russia during the 20. century. The tragic accident of Tchernobyl has shown the urgency of developing an ecological policy. Despite its internal socio-economical problems, Russia tries to reconsider his relationship with the natural environment. (J.S.)

  8. Acceptance or refusal of convenience food in present-day prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhouche, An-Sofie

    2015-11-01

    Food in prison is an insufficiently researched topic. However, prisoners often highlight problems with and criticism of their prison meals. This article aims to further develop this topic by giving closer insight into the use and attitudes toward ready-made meals in the Tilburg prison. In this prison, prisoners receive ready-made meals. This is in contrast to Belgian prisons, from which they were transferred, where meals were made from scratch. This change in the food system led to commotion and complaints. To understand the situation, interviews with prisoners and staff were conducted and observations in the Tilburg prison were made. The results showed that a food system can have considerable influence on prison experiences. In addition, and contrary to what earlier reports have mentioned, the ready-made meals also have some advantages, especially for the organization of daily prison life. However, most prisoners had negative attitudes toward these meals. PMID:25891041

  9. On the interpretation of quantum theory - from Copenhagen to the present day

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Claus

    2002-01-01

    A central feature in the Copenhagen interpretation is the use of classical concepts from the outset. Modern developments show, however, that the emergence of classical properties can be understood within the framework of quantum theory itself, through the process of decoherence. This fact becomes most crucial for the interpretability of quantum cosmology - the application of quantum theory to the Universe as a whole. I briefly review these developments and emphasize the importance of an unbia...

  10. [From Leonardo Da Vinci to present days; from the history of antiplague costume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, A A; Aminev, R M; Korneev, A G; Polyakov, V S; Artebyakin, S V

    2016-01-01

    As a prototype of the antiplague costume can be considered a special clothing, which physicians in medieval Europe wear for protection in plague nidus. Inventor of the first antiplague costume is considered to be a French doctor Charles de Lorme (1619). Much later, in 1878, a Russian professor Pashutin V V offered to use a costume, which looked like a hermetically sealed "bag" with a special breathing device aimed at protection of medical staff. Later, professor O.I. Dogel's respirator became well-known (1889). At the beginning of 20th century as part of the antiplague costume was used a charcoal filter mask, invented by Zelinsky N.D. Requirements to order the use of modern means of individual protection when working in nidus of especially dangerous infections identified sanitary-epidemiological rules, which reflect issues of laboratory workers working and protective clothing, respiratory protection, and view, especially operation, the procedure of putting on, removing and disinfecting antiplague costumes, pneumocostumes, pneumohelmets, isolation suits, gas-protection boxes, etc. PMID:27120957

  11. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Mittnik, Alissa; Renaud, Gabriel; Mallick, Swapan; Kirsanow, Karola; Sudmant, Peter H.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Castellano, Sergi; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Economou, Christos; Bollongino, Ruth; Fu, Qiaomei; Bos, Kirsten I.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Li, Heng; de Filippo, Cesare; Prüfer, Kay; Sawyer, Susanna; Posth, Cosimo; Haak, Wolfgang; Hallgren, Fredrik; Fornander, Elin; Rohland, Nadin; Delsate, Dominique; Francken, Michael; Guinet, Jean-Michel; Wahl, Joachim; Ayodo, George; Babiker, Hamza A.; Bailliet, Graciela; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ben-Ami, Haim; Bene, Judit; Berrada, Fouad; Bravi, Claudio M.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Cali, Francesco; Churnosov, Mikhail; Cole, David E. C.; Corach, Daniel; Damba, Larissa; van Driem, George; Dryomov, Stanislav; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Romero, Irene Gallego; Gubina, Marina; Hammer, Michael; Henn, Brenna M.; Hervig, Tor; Hodoglugil, Ugur; Jha, Aashish R.; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Khusainova, Rita; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kittles, Rick; Kivisild, Toomas; Klitz, William; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kushniarevich, Alena; Laredj, Leila; Litvinov, Sergey; Loukidis, Theologos; Mahley, Robert W.; Melegh, Béla; Metspalu, Ene; Molina, Julio; Mountain, Joanna; Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti; Nesheva, Desislava; Nyambo, Thomas; Osipova, Ludmila; Parik, Jüri; Platonov, Fedor; Posukh, Olga; Romano, Valentino; Rothhammer, Francisco; Rudan, Igor; Ruizbakiev, Ruslan; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Sajantila, Antti; Salas, Antonio; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Tarekegn, Ayele; Toncheva, Draga; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Utevska, Olga; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Voevoda, Mikhail; Winkler, Cheryl; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zalloua, Pierre; Zemunik, Tatijana; Cooper, Alan; Capelli, Cristian; Thomas, Mark G.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Comas, David; Sukernik, Rem; Metspalu, Mait; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E.; Burger, Joachim; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Krause, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of a ~7,000 year old farmer from Germany and eight ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analyzed these and other ancient genomes1–4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations’ deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a “Basal Eurasian” population that split prior to the diversification of other non-African lineages. PMID:25230663

  12. Scandinavian postglacial faults and their physical connection to present day seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, R.

    2015-12-01

    In Scandinavia large earthquakes up to M~8.2 occurred 9500 yBP due to rapid deglaciation leaving fault scarps with lengths up to 160km and vertical offsets of at least 10 m. Today a lion share of local earthquakes are located to the vicinity of the faults. I show here from Coulomb failure stress modeling a physical connection between clustering of recent earthquakes and high Coulomb failure stresses around the faults. This can be interpreted In such a fashion that the location of the current earthquakes resembles locations of aftershock sequences. The explanation is that when these faults where formed it was due to state of stress in the crust at time of deglaciation, different from today's conditions. The crust was heavily depressed at deglaciation about 250 m in the region and due of the receding icesheet the crust was subjected to high stresses resulting in fault motion. This fault motion occurred in order to minimize state of stress at deglaciation. However, this state of stress has since changed with the regional postglacial uplift and thus today these faults remain as perturbations in the crust with concentrations of high stresses. I elaborate on this mechanism. I also advocate that this correlation between high stressed fault areas and locations of earthquakes indicates that seismicity within stable continental regions like Scandinavia might be caused by previous crustal disturbances that show local perturbations of the stress field. Therefore if faults are favorably oriented in the present stress field they can be released by brittle earthquake faulting . Thus past transient tectonic events can explain part of the stable continental region's seismicity. This may be of large importance to assessment of seismic hazard within stable continental regions particularly for critical structures like e.g., nuclear waste deposits and hydroelectric dams.

  13. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  14. The Norwegian financial elite : elite configurations in present-day financialized capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The recent accentuation of elites in public and scholarly debate originates in the growth of the financial sector in the economy since the late 1970s. Linking trends of financial expansion to increasing economic inequalities, the concept of financialization has taken center stage in global media, while only incipiently in sociology. By subdividing the economic upper class, this study presents the first sociological contribution to the structuring of the Norwegian financial elite. Based on pop...

  15. Geographical distribution of present day Poaceae as evidence for the origin of African floras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Clayton

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The major tribes and sub-families of grasses occupy worldwide latitudinal belts, which can be related to an evolutionary sequence of climatic adaptations. However, genera tend to be confined to individual continents, suggesting that grasses do not easily cross the oceans, and that the worldwide distribution of the family may have been achieved when the continents were closer together. Species distributions are likewise strongly influenced by the effect of climatic adaptation and continental isolation, but they show a number of aberrations. These are probably a legacy of climatic disturbance during the Pleistocene.

  16. Climatology and temporal evolution of the atmospheric semidiurnal tide in present-day reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Argandoña, J.; Ezcurra, A.; Sáenz, J.; Ibarra-Berastegi, G.; Errasti, I.

    2016-05-01

    The solar semidiurnal atmospheric tide (S2) was extracted from seven reanalysis data sets, including current data sets, such as CFSR (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications), ERA-Interim (ECMWF Reanalysis), and 20CR (Twentieth Century Reanalysis), and older frozen products, such as NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research), ERA-40 (ECMWF Reanalysis), and JRA-25 (Japanese 25 year Reanalysis). In this calculation, we emphasized the temporal variation of the tide. We also calculated the tidal error, which was sizable at high latitudes and over short averaging periods and large for 20CR at all latitudes. Because of the four standard daily samples, the interpolation scheme of van den Dool et al. (1997) was used when necessary. We found this method to be accurate for zonally averaged tides only. Comparing the climatology from the MERRA and CFSR S2 with a recent empirical tide model showed that MERRA better represented the geographical structure of the tide, especially its phase. We found a bias in the phase in all of the reanalysis data sets except for MERRA. The temporal evolution of the tide was inconsistent between the different data sets, although similar seasonal variations were observed. The seasonal cycle was also better depicted in MERRA. The S2 calculated from MERRA and satellite precipitation measurements from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) presented results that were inconsistent with the hypothesis in which rainfall latent heat release represents S2 forcing and functions as a source of S2 seasonal variability.

  17. A STUDY ON WOMEN'S RIGHTS IN ISLAM AND SITUATION OF MUSLIM WOMEN IN PRESENT DAY SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Yousuf; S. Sivarajan

    2014-01-01

    Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. All human beings are entitled to enjoy certain rights without any distinction of caste, creed, religion, sex etc. But the reality is different; every human being is a victim of one or the other types of human right violation. In the modern world women's rights and gender discrimination have became b...

  18. Present-day concepts in radiodiagnosis of acute pneumonias in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray study of 300 children with pneumonias of various etiology has shown that Pneumococcus is the most frequent cause of pneumonia whereas Hemophilus and Mycoplasma pneumonia are observed less frequently. The most common types are segmental (41%), lobular (30%), focal-confluent (20%) and focal (9%). Pleuritis complicated a course of pneumonia in more than half of the patients. Pulmonary destructive changes were most frequent in pneumococcal pneumonia (20%), less frequent in Hemophilus pneumonia and undetectable in Mycoplasma pneumonia

  19. EVOLUTION OF THE CIRCULAR FLOW THEORY WITHIN XX CENTURY AND ITS PRESENT-DAY PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    P. Klyukin

    2013-01-01

    In this article new retrospective of elaborating of the circular-flow theory from F. Quesnay (1758) up to P. Sraffa (1960) is proposed. This retrospective is based on organic integration Russian-Ukrainian pre-Revolutionary economic heritage, which has been realized in works written by M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky, V.K. Dmitriev, N.N. Shaposhnikoff, L. von Bortkiewicz, G. von Charasoff, E.E. Slutsky, A.D. Bilimoviĉ. Such an representation of the circular-flow theory interpreted as non-stop evolving t...

  20. EVOLUTION OF THE CIRCULAR FLOW THEORY WITHIN XX CENTURY AND ITS PRESENT-DAY PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Klyukin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article new retrospective of elaborating of the circular-flow theory from F. Quesnay (1758 up to P. Sraffa (1960 is proposed. This retrospective is based on organic integration Russian-Ukrainian pre-Revolutionary economic heritage, which has been realized in works written by M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky, V.K. Dmitriev, N.N. Shaposhnikoff, L. von Bortkiewicz, G. von Charasoff, E.E. Slutsky, A.D. Bilimoviĉ. Such an representation of the circular-flow theory interpreted as non-stop evolving thematic tradition (in spirit of post-positivist methodologist Gerald Holton makes it possi-ble to construct a new circular-flow scheme of economy.

  1. Technological changes in present-day conditions: reflections of an economist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All economists agree that technological changes constitute the main source of economic development. Nonetheless, many economists are convinced that such changes are important only in pushing up the rate of economic development, which in the long run would otherwise be lower and constant, with capital accumulation and labor force growth taking place gradually. To the contrary, the present work argues that in the long run, technical progress is not the main factor of economic development, but rather a necessary condition. The author examines technological change in economic theory and the history of economic development. Technological unemployment and Keynesian unemployment are then considered as well as the reduction of working hours. Finally, the author considers more recent technological and economic developments and their relation to manual and intellectual labour.

  2. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, B.C.; Didova, O.; Riva, R. E. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; J. T. M. Lenaerts; King, M.A.; M. R. van den Broeke; T. Urban

    2014-01-01

    This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating a firn densification model to account for firn compaction and surface processes as well as reprocessed data sets over a slightly longer period of time. A range of different Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity ...

  3. Simulation of present-day precipitation over India using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rajesh Kumar Singh; Singh, G. P.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present paper is to examine the capability of the regional climate model version 3 (RegCM3) to simulate the annual as well as seasonal precipitation variability over the Indian subcontinent. RegCM3 has been run at 40 km horizontal resolution for the period of 1982-2006 continuously and model results were compared to the observed precipitation datasets of India Meteorological Department (IMD) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). Model evaluation has been done using different statistical methods like mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error, mean percentage error (MPE) and studied the spatial pattern of annual and seasonal variability and trend. Daily precipitation data at 1° × 1° grids of IMD have been used to study observed climatological means (both annual and seasonal), regression trends, interannual and intraseasonal variability over India from 1951 to 2007. The spatial distribution of annual precipitation shows a decreasing trend over west coast of India, central India, hilly region of India and an increasing trend is found over the northwest India, peninsular India and northeast India. The temporal distribution of daily precipitation shows highest rainfall of 18 mm/day in mid July (in composite flood cases only) and 12 mm/day during August (in composite drought cases only). The RegCM3 simulated annual and seasonal precipitation variability is close to the observed IMD and CMAP over all India (AI). During winter and pre-monsoon season, the model has overestimated the mean precipitation while underestimated in summer and post-monsoon season. Overall, annual precipitation showed the deficiency of -22.44 % compared to IMD and -1.41 % compared to CMAP over India. To understand the possible cause of annual and seasonal precipitation biases over India and its six homogeneous regions, the vertical difference (model mines National Centre for Environmental Prediction; NCEP) fields of water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) and air temperature from surface to top level (1 σ-18 σ level) have been studied in detail. The model produced more moisture at the lower level during winter (JF) and pre-monsoon (MAM) season and reduced WVMR at the same levels during summer (JJAS) and post (OND) monsoon over India. High moisture content at the lower level simulated in the model can explain the increased precipitation during JF and MAM season and vice versa during JJAS and OND. Similar results were found over the homogeneous regions of India. This analysis indicates that the RegCM3 has more transport of vertical WVMR from surface to mid layer of the troposphere compared to NCEP.

  4. Familial Mediterranean fever (a periodic disease: The present-day view of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Stanislavovich Fedorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the most common classical autoinflammatory disease familial Mediterra-nean fever (FMF/periodic disease. This is a monogenic hereditary disease caused by mutations with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. The most common types of mutations are given. Hyperactivation of innate (antigen-specific immunity is a basic pathogenic mechanism of the disease and IL-1ß is a leading mediator. FMF prominently occurs in certain ethnic groups (Sephardic Jews, Armenians, Turks, and Arabs. In spite of the fact that there may be multiple organ failure, 12-72-hour febrile fever episodes accompanied by the symptoms of peritonitis and/or pleuropericarditis. AA amyloidosis is the most serious complication of FMF. Colchicine therapy is a basic treatment for preventing this complication. In case of colchicine inef-fi-cacy/intolerance, other agents, including genetically engineered biological drugs (IL-1ß inhibitors, etc., may be used.

  5. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is 'to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site' (p. 1-1). The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (1) the net infiltration estimates, (2) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (3) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they oversimplify a complex landscape and associated hydrologic processes, especially since the model assumptions have not been adequately corroborated by field and laboratory observations at Yucca Mountain

  6. Methodological Problems of the Present-Day Sociology of Education: A Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An all-Russian conference on "Education and Society" was held on 22 October 2009 at the Academy of Labor and Social Relations, in the course of which roundtables were conducted with leading representatives of Russian sociological science. The conference was timed to coincide with the twentieth anniversary of the founding of the Russian Society of…

  7. Disposable sensor system: a present-day truly low cost unattended ground sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Wade; Jones, Barry; McQuiddy, John

    2005-05-01

    This paper will review the work being performed at McQ on the development of a family of truly low cost unattended ground sensor systems using conventional technology and manufacturing techniques. The goal of this work is to produce tactically useable sensors that can be manufactured in large quantities (1-10M units/year) for $10 each. Secondary goals are small size (10-50 cm^3), lightweight (15-60gm), moderate lifetimes (48-72hrs) and moderate communications ranges (10-1000m). Our research indicates that sensors meeting these performance metrics can be manufactured today using conventional manufacturing techniques. The paper will review the basic system architecture proposed, projected sensor performance and projected manufacturing costs.

  8. Present-day Block Motions and Strain Accumulation on Active Faults in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left and right lateral strike-slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip between major plates. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling at the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. We used the block modeling approach described in Meade and Loveless (2009) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solved for angular velocities for each block/plate and strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region. Then we calculated the variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries using the accumulated strain rates. We tested 11 different block geometries; they are all based on geological evidences unless they are suggested by discrepancies within the GPS and seismological data or by previously published results. We confirm the existence of the micro Gonave plate. The boundary between the Micro-Gonave plate and the Hispaniola crustal block is better suited along the Haitian-Thrust-Belt instead of the Neiba-Matheux fault. The interseismic GPS velocities do not show evidence for a distinct North Lesser Antilles block. We found a totally uncoupled section of the subduction starting from the Puerto-Rico trench to the end of the Lesser Antilles section. All the relative motion of the Caribbean block is lost aseismically along the boundary of that portion of the subduction. While we found strong coupling along the northern Hispaniola section, most of the deformation on this region is being accumulated along intrablock faults with very low strain (~2mm/yr) along the intraplate subduction interface. We also performed several tests resolutions to assess the ability of the existing GPS data and the associated uncertainties to adequately resolved different aspects of the strain accumulation along the subduction. We found reasonable lateral resolution and very poor vertical resolution.

  9. Features of present day Cs 137 contamination of Bryansk-Belarusian Poles'e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to estimation of changes of the area of radioactive pollution in Bryansk-Belarusian Poles'e due to intensity of landscape factors influence. Research of influence of geochemical conditions on transformation of soil pollution with Cs 137 was carried out on the catchment of small and medium size rivers: the Besed' river (Bryansk-Belarusian cesium spot), the Nesvich river (the territory of exclusion zone of Chernobyl NPP) (Belarus), the Moskovka river and the Oleshnya river (Russia) of Dnieper basin (Bryansk-Belarusian cesium spot). Investigation results have shown that soddy podsolic sandy soil under a pine forest resist Cs 137 migration, strongly fixing this radionuclide in a thin layer of the humus horizon lying under forest litter. In the processes of redistribution of Cs 137 in hydromorphous landscapes of Bryansk woodlands, vertical migration prevails above lateral one. In soils with redundant humidification Cs 137 significant transfer from the top 5-cm layer of soil occurs in comparison with automorphous soils. On arable lands there is an appreciable Cs 137 transfer in a horizontal direction and its accumulation on negative elements of relief. (authors)

  10. A Present-day Educational View of the Thought of Democritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmopoulos, Alexander

    1980-01-01

    The Democritean pedagogic credo says that: (1) man can be changed and shaped through education; (2) education should function in correspondence with the theoretical and practical needs of man; (3) education has a strong ethical and ascetic character; and (4) difficulty must be accepted as a unique means of education. (RM)

  11. Modelling the nebular emission from primeval to present-day star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gutkin, Julia; Bruzual, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of the nebular emission from star-forming galaxies in a wide range of chemical compositions, appropriate to interpret observations of galaxies at all cosmic epochs. The model relies on the combination of state-of-the-art stellar population synthesis and photoionization codes to describe the ensemble of HII regions and the diffuse gas ionized by young stars in a galaxy. A main feature of this model is the self-consistent yet versatile treatment of element abundances and depletion onto dust grains, which allows one to relate the observed nebular emission from a galaxy to both gas-phase and dust-phase metal enrichment. We show that this model can account for the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission-line properties of galaxies at different redshifts and find that ultraviolet emission lines are more sensitive than optical ones to parameters such as C/O abundance ratio, hydrogen gas density, dust-to-metal mass ratio and upper cutoff of the stellar initial mass function. We also find th...

  12. Present-day state of automatization of scientific researches in academic institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of works on technology relative to creation and development of technical and programming means for scientific research computerized systems based on international standards, networks and interfaces is presented. The review is based on the analysis of periodical publications, conference and symposia materials, as well as materials specially presented to the Council on automation. An attempt is made to forecast the basic trends. 16 refs.; 19 figs

  13. Present-day knowledge of chemistry of iodine, rhenium, technetium and manganese of highest oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of intramolecular reduction of perrhenic acid in crystal-phase and liquid-phase states is analyzed. On the basis of analysis the mechanism of the process is proposed as a tetraelectron in the coordination sphere of a multinuclear complex in the system with an oscillatory process of hydration-hydrolisis and oxidation-reduction

  14. A Mechanism for the Present-Day Creation of a New Class of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Andrew P

    2011-01-01

    In this first paper of a series on the formation and abundance of substellar mass dwarf black holes (DBHs), we present a heuristic for deducing the stability of non-rotating matter embedded in a medium against collapse and the formation of a black hole. We demonstrate the heuristic's accuracy for a family of spherical mass distributions whose stability is known through other means. We also present the applications of this heuristic that could be applied to data sets of various types of simulations, including the possible formation of DBHs in the expanding gases of extreme astrophysical phenomena including Type Ia and Type II supernovae, hypernovae, and in the collision of two compact objects. These papers will also explore the observational and cosmological implications of DBHs, including estimates of the total masses of these objects bound in galaxies and ejected into the intergalactic medium. Applying our formalism to a Type II supernova simulation, we have found regions in one data set that are within a fa...

  15. The Cosmic Ray Radiation Dose in Interplanetary Space - Present Day and Worst-Case Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Mewaldt, R.A; Davis, A. J.; Binns, W. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; George, J. S.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2005-01-01

    A physics-based cosmic-ray transport model has been fit to solar-minimum and solar-maximum cosmic ray spectra and used for preliminary evaluations of the radiation dose and dose-equivalent of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). We find a solar-minimum radiation dose-equivalent somewhat lower than previous estimates, with a smaller difference between solar minimum and solar maximum. Measurements of Be-10 in polar ice cores and other data show that the cosmic-ray intensity was significantl...

  16. Conventional extracapsular cataract extraction and its importance in the present day ophthalmic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Mohanty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A retrospective study aimed to evaluate high risk cases where conventional Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE was performed, their intra-operative and post-operative outcomes. Setting: Sri Srinivasa Sankara Nethralaya (Tirupati Tirumala Tirupati Devastanams Central Hospital, Tirupati, India. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective study of 207 patients who underwent ECCE at the hospital between august 2010 to June 2012. Operative data included details like grade of risk, intra and postoperative complications and visual outcome. Results: Out of 207 cases, 188 were in group 3 (moderate risk, 3-5 points and 19 in group 4 (high risk, 6 points or more. The intra operative complications in group 3 were 8 (0.042% and none in group 4. Final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 6/12 and more were 184 (88.88%. Final refraction of less than 2.0 astigmatism was seen in 80.19% (n=166. Conclusion: Segregation of cases depending on the risk factors can lead to lower intra operative complications and therefore good postoperative outcome. We believe that phacoemulsification, manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS and ECCE each has its own importance and should be used as per the cataract with risk factors.

  17. Conventional extracapsular cataract extraction and its importance in the present day ophthalmic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Mohanty; Vishnu Vahan Prasan; U Vivekanand

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study aimed to evaluate high risk cases where conventional Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) was performed, their intra-operative and post-operative outcomes. Setting: Sri Srinivasa Sankara Nethralaya (Tirupati) Tirumala Tirupati Devastanams Central Hospital, Tirupati, India. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective study of 207 patients who underwent ECCE at the hospital between august 2010 to June 2012. Operative data included details like grade of risk, i...

  18. Geochemistry and geobiology of a present-day serpentinization site in California: The Cedars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Penny L.; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Johnson, Orion J.; Suzuki, Shino; Rietze, Amanda; Sessions, Alex L.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    2013-05-01

    Ultra-basic (pH 11-12) reducing (-656 to -585 mV) groundwater springs discharging from serpentinized peridotite of The Cedars, CA, were investigated for their geochemistry and geobiology. The spring waters investigated were of meteoric origin; however, geochemical modeling suggests that there were two sources of groundwater, a shallow source with sufficient contact with The Cedars' peridotite body to be altered geochemically by serpentinization, and a deeper groundwater source that not only flows through the peridotite body but was also in contact with the marine sediments of the Franciscan Subduction Complex (FSC) below the peridotite body. We propose that the groundwater discharging from lower elevations (GPS1 and CS1) reflect the geochemistry of the deeper groundwater in contact with FSC, while groundwaters discharging from springs at higher elevations (NS1 and BSC) were a mixture of the shallow peridotite-only groundwater and the deeper groundwater that has been in contact with the FSC. Cell densities of suspended microbes within these waters were extremely low. In the NS1 and BSC spring fluids, cell densities ranged from 102 to 103 cells/ml, while suspended cells at GPS were lower than 10 cells/mL. However, glass slides incubated in the BSC and GPS1 springs for 2-3 weeks were colonized by cells with densities ranging from 106 to 107 cells/cm2 attached to their surfaces. All of the springs were very low (⩽1 μM) in several essential elements and electron acceptors (e.g. nitrate/ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) required for (microbial) growth, which is not uncommon at sites of continental serpentinization. Gases rich in N2, H2, and CH4 were exsolving from the springs. The stable carbon isotope value (δ13CCH4 = -68 ± 0.6‰) and the CH4/C2+ (>103) of methane and other gaseous hydrocarbons exsolving from NS1 were typical of microbially sourced methane, whereas the isotope values and the CH4/C2+ of BSC and CS1 springs were more enriched in 13C and had CH4/C2+ < 103, suggesting a mixture of microbial and non-microbial methane. The concentrations of aromatic compounds, and ethane, propane, iso- and n-butane were well described by simple physical mixing between the aromatic- and alkane-poor, shallow groundwater and the relatively aromatic, and alkane-rich groundwater that flows through both the peridotite and the FSC suggesting that these aromatic and alkane compounds originated in the deeper FSC groundwater and are not produced in the shallow peridotite-only groundwater. The aromatic compounds most probably originated from the diagenesis/degradation of organic matter in the marine sediments below the peridotite body, while the gaseous alkanes may have multiple sources including thermal degradation of the organic matter in the marine sediments below the peridotite body and possibly by abiogenic reactions occurring within the peridotite body. This geochemical study demonstrates the complexity of The Cedars, and the possible sources of hydrocarbons at continental sites of serpentinization.

  19. Present-Day Vegetation Helps Quantifying Past Land Cover in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, V.; Oušková, V.; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), s. 1-16, e100117. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/0649 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : landscape reconstruction * pollen analysis * REVEALS model Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  20. PRESENT-DAY AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyskiy Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made an overview of the status of production of cement concrete using nanotechnologies. The authors also provide their analysis of domestic and foreign researches into the application of nanotechnologies in the field of building materials. The authors have picked out positive examples of introduction of nano-scale particles into the concrete mix. The process needs continuous monitoring for the composition and the mixing time to be adjustable. The findings have been solely made by local developers of nano-materials and technologies. The authors propose their method of cement consumption reduction through the introduction of nanoparticles and simultaneous grinding of cement. The authors provide a new procedure of treatment of materials that contemplates enhanced mixing processes accompanied by simultaneous grinding of materials and their exposure to the electromagnetic treatment. The experiments completed by the team of authors have proven the efficiency of a combination of two nanotechnologies within one process, including the treatment of wet cement at the final grinding stage of processing to ensure specific cement properties for a specific surface area of 8,000 cm2/g, and the introduction of nano-scale particles into the process of manufacturing of cement compositions. The use of carbon nanotubes in the process of manufacturing of cement concrete can improve its physical and mechanical properties and reduce the cement consumption rate while maintaining the design strength of concrete.

  1. Organohalogen compounds in present day vegetable oils sourced from the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Covaci, A. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Organohalogen chemicals such as hexachlorohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, hydrophobic and thus accumulate in the food chain. The relevance of fish and dairy products as source for human contamination with these pollutants is widely recognized and as a result, routine monitoring programs of fish and dairy products are used to monitor exposure. Monitoring of vegetable oils for organohalogen contaminants is more on an ad hoc basis vegetable oils are generally far less contaminated than animal fats. Where monitoring is undertaken, samples originating from or entering the European and US market are generally analysed and data are available in the published literature. However, little data is available in the public domain for other major producers, particularly the Middle East. Olive oil is integral to Middle Eastern cooking and is widely consumed in relatively large quantities. Rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, nutritionally olive oil is considered to impart important health benefits as observed in southern Mediterranean diet studies. Here we report the levels of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PBDEs in eight olive oil and three vegetable oil samples from the Middle East obtained in 2003 and in three additional olive oil samples from the Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Greece and Egypt). The present study provides an extension of our previous study on organohalogen contaminant data in historic olive and ground nut oil from Palestine and gives a preliminary indication of dietary exposure to organohalogen contaminants from vegetable oils.

  2. Influence of ocean tide dynamics on the climate system from the Cretaceous to present day

    OpenAIRE

    T. Weber; M. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Global numerical ocean models used for paleo-climate reconstructions generally only consider the ocean’s general circulation, but neglect tidal dynamics. However, it has been demonstrated that tidally induced friction at the ocean bottom alters the mean ocean circulation and energy fluxes on timescales larger than one tidal period and up to climate timescales. Thereby the mean ocean circulation and temperature advection is altered and can thus affect climate. We simultaneously ...

  3. Shot noise: from Schottky's vacuum tube to present-day quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonenberger, Christian; Oberholzer, Stefan

    2004-05-01

    Shot-noise in the electrical current through a 'device' is caused by random processes that determine the electron transport from source to drain. Two sources can be distinguished: on the hand, electrons may randomly emanate from the contacts (source and drain), because the relevant states in the reservoirs fluctuate. On the other hand, the transmission through the device is non-deterministic (non-classical). As we demonstrate in this article the former dominates noise in the vacuum tube, whereas the latter applies to coherent mesoscopic devices, which have been studied in great detail during the last decade.

  4. Isolated galaxies in hierarchical galaxy formation models - present-day properties and environmental histories

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Iovino, Angela; Cucciati, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have carried out a detailed, statistical analysis of isolated model galaxies, taking advantage of publicly available hierarchical galaxy formation models. To select isolated galaxies, we employ 2D methods widely used in the observational literature, as well as a more stringent 3D isolation criterion that uses the full 3D-real space information. In qualitative agreement with observational results, isolated model galaxies have larger fractions of late-type, star forming galaxies with respect to randomly selected samples of galaxies with the same mass distribution. We also find that the samples of isolated model galaxies typically contain a fraction of less than 15 per cent of satellite galaxies, that reside at the outskirts of their parent haloes where the galaxy number density is low. Projection effects cause a contamination of 2D samples of about 18 per cent, while we estimate a typical completeness of 65 per cent. Irrespectively of the isolation criteria, roughly 45 per cent of isolated gal...

  5. Present day situation and perspectives of the nuclear sector in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the restart-up of Browns Ferry NPP on May 22, 2007, the US nuclear park comprises now 104 reactors in operation: 35 BWR-type and 69 PWR-type. NPPs are present in only 31 states and mainly in the eastern half of the country. Nuclear energy represents 20% of the US energy mix (coal: 50%, gas: 19%, hydro-power: 6%, petroleum: 3% and other renewable energies: 2%). The highest average availability rate in power generation is reached by nuclear energy (89.9%). The nuclear power generation reached 787.2 TWh in 2006, i.e. the second best result after the 2004 record (788.5 TWh). This document presents also some nuclear safety and radioprotection indicators (number of unplanned outages, failures, injury frequency rate), the programme of licenses extension, the permissions for power increase, the demands for design certification, for early site permit, and for combined construction permit and operating license. The regulation may be different from one state to the other and sometimes not favorable to a re-launch of nuclear energy. The situation of each state in this domain is presented in appendix. (J.S.)

  6. Evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India: Addressing the present day challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenously developed Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) that form the backbone of current stage of nuclear power development in India have seen continuous evolution of their containment systems. This evolution that has taken place over implementation of 18 PHWRs (200/220/540 MWe) has encompassed all aspects of containment design, viz. the structural system, energy management system, radio-activity management and hydrogen management system. As a part of ongoing efforts toward strengthening of safety performance, India is also ready with the design of Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), which represents a technology demonstrator for advanced reactor systems and for thorium utilization. This reactor has a number of improved passive safety features and it is capable of meeting the demanding safety challenges that future reactor system would be expected to meet as a result of emerging expectations in the background of accidents over the past three decades viz. those at Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and most recently at Fukushima (2011). In this lecture I shall focus on the evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India and highlight the design, associated structural and thermal hydraulics safety assessment made over the years for the improvement of containment performance

  7. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to plant-herbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size was negatively related to leaf-miner prevalence, with larger egg and mine densities in small populations. Percentage of eggs hatching and developing into mines, and percentage of adult flies emerging from mines also differed among host populations, but were not related to population size or host cover. Feeding punctures left by adults were marginally more frequent on male plants, whereas egg scars and mines were more common on females. Overall survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was higher on female plants. Egg density was negatively correlated with hatching, while mine density was positively correlated with emergence of the larvae. The inverse effects of host population size were not in line with predictions based on island biogeography and resource concentration theory. We discuss how a thorough knowledge of the immigration behaviour of this fly might help to understand the patterns found.

  8. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C.; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  9. Quasars and their host galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This review attempts to describe developments in the fields of quasar and quasar host galaxies in the past five. In this time period, the Sloan and 2dF quasar surveys have added several tens of thousands of quasars, with Sloan quasars being found to z>6. Obscured, or partially obscured quasars have begun to be found in significant numbers. Black hole mass estimates for quasars, and our confidence in them, have improved significantly, allowing a start on relating quasar properties such as radi...

  10. Adult Education and Lifelong Learning. The case of GSAE (General Secretary for Adult Education in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Kalogiannakis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The participation rates in adult education in Greece are low in comparison with other European countries. Within the framework of the present research an effort has been undertaken in order to evaluate the program of training instructors of adults through distance learning education hosted by the GSAE (General Secretary for Adult Education and the ICAE (Institute for the Continuing Adult Education in Greece. Among the most important outcomes of this research was considered to be the positive attitude of the participants concerning the program in general as well as the electronic educational material distributed. Furthermore, the hybrid educational process selected for use by the program was thought to be particularly flexible. As for the program’s negative aspects, the main problems noted were the distance certain trainees had to cover in order to participate physically during the scheduled meetings, as well as the technical issues arose within the e-learning environment.

  11. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with traits involved with reproductive isolation and revealed previously undocumented

  12. The host and the flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, S; Antoni, L; Stange, E F

    2013-01-01

    To prevent bacterial overgrowth, colonization of the epithelium and subsequent translocation, the gastrointestinal tract maintains an effective mucosal barrier. Besides mucus the most important components of this protective system are epithelial antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, the cathelicidin LL-37, lysozyme, phospholipase A, and proteins with additional antimicrobial properties such as ubiquicidin, ribosomal proteins or histones. Commensal species may tolerate intestinal antimicrobial peptides, for example Bacteroides ssp. or Parabacteroides ssp. as major species in the human colon were highly resistant to the constitutive defensin HBD-1 and only susceptible to the inducible defensin HBD-3. Reduction of disulfide bonds is an important mechanism activating HBD-1. As several studies show, alterations in the expression of antimicrobial peptides directly influence the composition of the intestinal flora. Correspondingly, an increased production of defensins or inhibition of the processing of mouse defensins to their active form led to a quantitative shift of luminal and mucosal bacterial species. On the other hand, microorganisms also modulate the synthesis of host defensins by induction or inhibition of specific peptides. Lactobacilli, the probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enteritica stimulate HBD-2 expression, whereas Shigella flexneri downregulates the synthesis of HBD-1, HBD-3 and LL-37. Thus, the proper balance between the luminal flora and the mucosa is a permanently dynamic, sensitive and host-specific relationship. PMID:24246976

  13. Winds of Planet Hosting Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, B A; Brookshaw, L; Vidotto, A A; Carter, B D; Marsden, S C; Soutter, J; Waite, I A; Horner, J

    2015-01-01

    The field of exoplanetary science is one of the most rapidly growing areas of astrophysical research. As more planets are discovered around other stars, new techniques have been developed that have allowed astronomers to begin to characterise them. Two of the most important factors in understanding the evolution of these planets, and potentially determining whether they are habitable, are the behaviour of the winds of the host star and the way in which they interact with the planet. The purpose of this project is to reconstruct the magnetic fields of planet hosting stars from spectropolarimetric observations, and to use these magnetic field maps to inform simulations of the stellar winds in those systems using the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. The BATS-R-US code was originally written to investigate the behaviour of the Solar wind, and so has been altered to be used in the context of other stellar systems. These simulations will give information about the velocity, pressur...

  14. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite. PMID:26072999

  15. Characterization of host lymphoid cells in antibody-facilitated bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have produced stable murine antibody-facilitated (AF) chimeras by the simultaneous injection of P1 bone marrow cells and anti-P2 monoclonal antibody into normal (unirradiated) adult (P1 X P2)F1 recipients. These AF chimeras are healthy, long-lived, and exhibit no overt signs of graft-versus-host disease. They are immunocompetent and tolerant of host, P2-encoded alloantigens. Donor cell engraftment and takeover, monitored by glucosephosphate isomerase isozyme patterns, is usually complete (greater than 95%) in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and hemopoietic stem cell compartments of long-term (greater than 3 months posttransplantation) AF chimeras. The authors report here, however, that splenic, lymph node, and thymic leukocytes of AF chimeras represent donor/host chimeric populations. Spleen cell populations of AF chimeras exhibit substantial chimera-to-chimera variation in the preponderant residual host cell type(s) present. Interpretations of the implications of these findings are discussed

  16. New evidence on a cold case: trophic transmission, distribution and host-specificity in Hedruris spinigera (Nematoda: Hedruridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, José L; Vieira, Fabiano M; Herrmann, Kristin; King, Tania M; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2010-09-01

    The life cycle of Hedruris spinigera Baylis, 1931 (Nematoda: Hedruridae) is determined here with the first formal identification of the parasite's intermediate host: the crustacean amphipod Paracorophium excavatum Thomson. Adult H. spinigera are redescribed from specimens collected from the stomach of fishes, Retropinna retropinna (Richardson) and Aldrichettaforsteri (Valenciennes), from Lake Waihola, New Zealand. Immature adults of the parasite collected from intermediate hosts (P. excavatum) are also described for the first time. The prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection of H. spinigera in several fish species are quantified along with the occurrence of P. excavatum, the parasite's intermediate host, in fish stomach contents. Although H. spinigera's transmission mode (trophic transmission) and fish diet potentially expose all fish species to infection, some level of host specificity must exist as parasite prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection vary greatly between potential definitive host species. We suggest here that the anatomy of the fish digestive tract and especially that of the stomach plays an important role in host suitability for H. spinigera. While P. excavatum is the only intermediate host in Lake Waihola, H. spinigera was found in six different fish species: Aldrichetta forsteri, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), Retropinna retropinna, Rhombosolea retiaria Hutton, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus and Salmo trutta Linnaeus; although typical hedrurid attachment and mating positions were observed only in R. retropinna and A. forsteri. The limited distribution of H. spinigera is most likely due to that of its different host species (intermediate and definitive), all inhabitants of coastal fresh and brackish waters. PMID:20941914

  17. Evolution of host range in Coleosporium ipomoeae, a plant pathogen with multiple hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Thomas M; Rausher, Mark D

    2016-05-10

    Plants and their pathogens coevolve locally. Previous investigations of one host-one pathogen systems have demonstrated that natural selection favors pathogen genotypes that are virulent on a broad range of host genotypes. In the present study, we examine a system consisting of one pathogen species that infects three host species in the morning glory genus Ipomoea. We show that many pathogen genotypes can infect two or three of the host species when tested on plants from nonlocal communities. By contrast, pathogen genotypes are highly host-specific, infecting only one host species, when tested on host species from the local community. This pattern indicates that within-community evolution narrows the host breadth of pathogen genotypes. Possible evolutionary mechanisms include direct selection for narrow host breadth due to costs of virulence and evolution of ipomoea resistance in the host species. PMID:27114547

  18. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  19. Host Cell Invasion by Toxoplasma gondii Is Temporally Regulated by the Host Microtubule Cytoskeleton ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Kristin R.; Morrissette, Naomi S.; LaChapelle, Stephanie; Blader, Ira J.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that invades and replicates within most nucleated cells of warm-blooded animals. The basis for this wide host cell tropism is unknown but could be because parasites invade host cells using distinct pathways and/or repertoires of host factors. Using synchronized parasite invasion assays, we found that host microtubule disruption significantly reduces parasite invasion into host cells early after stimulating parasite invasion but...

  20. Adult Neurogenesis in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Fernández-Hernández; Christa Rhiner; Eduardo Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been linked to several cognitive functions and neurological disorders. Description of adult neurogenesis in a model organism like Drosophila could facilitate the genetic study of normal and abnormal neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, formation of new neurons has not been detected in adult fly brains and hence has been thought to be absent in Drosophila. Here, we used an improved lineage-labeling method to show that, surprisingly, adult neurogenesis occurs in the m...

  1. Depression in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk fac...

  2. Host Resistance and Immune Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Thilinie; Shaw, Albert C

    2016-08-01

    Human immune system aging results in impaired responses to pathogens or vaccines. In the innate immune system, which mediates the earliest pro-inflammatory responses to immunologic challenge, processes ranging from Toll-like Receptor function to Neutrophil Extracellular Trap formation are generally diminished in older adults. Dysregulated, enhanced basal inflammation with age reflecting activation by endogenous damage-associated ligands contributes to impaired innate immune responses. In the adaptive immune system, T and B cell subsets and function alter with age. The control of cytomegalovirus infection, particularly in the T lineage, plays a dominant role in the differentiation and diversity of the T cell compartment. PMID:27394014

  3. Ultrastructural Observation and Gene Expression Profiling of Schistosoma japonicum Derived from Two Natural Reservoir Hosts, Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jianmei Yang; Xingang Feng; Zhiqiang Fu; Chunxiu Yuan; Yang Hong; Yaojun Shi; Min Zhang; Jinming Liu; Hao Li; Ke Lu; Jiaojiao Lin

    2012-01-01

    Water buffalo and yellow cattle are the two of the most important natural reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in endemic areas of China, although their susceptibility differs, with water buffalo being less conducive to the growth and development of S. japonicum. Results from the current study show that the general morphology and ultrastructure of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts also differed. Using high-throughput microarray technology, we also compared the gene expression...

  4. Differences in all-cause mortality: A comparison between immigrants and the host population in Norway 1990-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Astri Syse; Bjorn H. Strand; Oyvind Naess; Ólöf Anna Steingímsdóottir; Kumar, Bernadette N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Differences in all-cause mortality between immigrants and host populations may provide insight into health inequities that could be reduced. Objective: Death risks of adult immigrants were compared to those of the host population to assess effects of country of origin, duration of residence, calendar period, and sociodemographic characteristics, i.e., sex, education, and marital and parental status. Methods: Registry data encompassing the entire Norwegian population age 25-7...

  5. Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae were the preferred host of the olive fruit fly. Family Rosaceae had nine host tree species followed by Rutaceae (five host tree species. Other host tree species were distributed in Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Lythraceae and Malpigiaceae families. These hosts were mostly fruit trees with the exceptions of Brazilian pepper tree, carob, crape myrtle and ornamental plum. The host list reflects typical hosts and is not comprehensive. It is unknown if different olive cultivars are more attractive to the fly or more susceptible to fly damage. The pest directly attacks olive fruits and can devastate entire harvests. Adults feed on nectar, honeydew and other opportunistic sources of liquid or semi-liquid food. University of California scientists are now developing specific information about the olive fruit fly in California and have synthesized useful findings from Europe, where the pest has long been established.

  6. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  7. Anonymous Web Browsing and Hosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KUMAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In today’s high tech environment every organization, individual computer users use internet for accessing web data. To maintain high confidentiality and security of the data secure web solutions are required. In this paper we described dedicated anonymous web browsing solutions which makes our browsing faster and secure. Web application which play important role for transferring our secret information including like email need more and more security concerns. This paper also describes that how we can choose safe web hosting solutions and what the main functions are which provides more security over server data. With the browser security network security is also important which can be implemented using cryptography solutions, VPN and by implementing firewalls on the network. Hackers always try to steal our identity and data, they track our activities using the network application software’s and do harmful activities. So in this paper we described that how we can monitor them from security purposes.

  8. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Wan Yang

    Full Text Available Destructive host-feeding is common in hymenopteran parasitoids. Such feeding may be restricted to host stages not preferred for oviposition. However, whether this is a fixed strategy or can vary according to resource levels or parasitoid needs is less clear. We tested the trade-off between host feeding and oviposition on two whitefly parasitoids under varying host densities. Females of two aphelinid parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati and Encarsia sophia were exposed to nine different densities of their whitefly host, Bemisia tabaci, in single-instar tests to identify their functional response. Mixed-instar host choice tests were also conducted by exposing whiteflies at four densities to the parasitoids. We hypothesized that the parasitoid females can detect different host densities, and decide on oviposition vs. host-feeding accordingly. The results showed that both Er. hayati and En. sophia females tended to increase both oviposition and host-feeding with increased host density within a certain range. Oviposition reached a plateau at lower host density than host-feeding in Er. hayati, while En. sophia reached its oviposition plateau at higher densities. At low densities, Er. hayati parasitized most on first and second (the optimal ones, and fed most on third nymphal instars (the suboptimal one of the whitefly host as theory predicts, while at high densities, both parasitism and host-feeding occurred on first and second instars which are preferred for oviposition. En. sophia parasitized most on third and fourth (the optimal ones, while fed on first instars (the suboptimal one at low densities, and utilized third and fourth instars for both at high densities. In conclusion, oviposition vs. host-feeding strategy of parasitoid females was found to vary at different host densities. The balance between reserving optimal hosts for oviposition or using them for host-feeding depended on parasitoid life history and the availability of host resources.

  9. New insights into the impact of Lactobacillus population on host-bacteria metabolic interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Epp; Songisepp, Epp; Claus, Sandrine P.; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2015-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the association between intestinal Lactobacillus sp. composition and their metabolic activity with the host metabolism in adult and elderly individuals. Faecal and plasma metabolites were measured and correlated to the Lactobacillus species distribution in healthy Estonian cohorts of adult (n = 16; 65 y). Total cholesterol, LDL, C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin were statistically higher in elderly, while platelets, white blood cells and urinary creatinine were higher in adults. Aging was associated with the presence of L. paracasei and L. plantarum and the absence of L. salivarius and L. helveticus. High levels of intestinal Lactobacillus sp. were positively associated with increased concentrations of faecal short chain fatty acids, lactate and essential amino acids. In adults, high red blood cell distribution width was positively associated with presence of L. helveticus and absence of L. ruminis. L. helveticus was correlated to lactate and butyrate in faecal waters. This indicates a strong relationship between the composition of the gut Lactobacillus sp. and host metabolism. Our results confirm that aging is associated with modulations of blood biomarkers and intestinal Lactobacillus species composition. We identified specific Lactobacillus contributions to gut metabolic environment and related those to blood biomarkers. Such associations may prove useful to decipher the biological mechanisms underlying host-gut microbial metabolic interactions in an ageing population. PMID:26437083

  10. New insights into the impact of Lactobacillus population on host-bacteria metabolic interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Caroline I; Štšepetova, Jelena; Sepp, Epp; Songisepp, Epp; Claus, Sandrine P; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2015-10-13

    We aimed at evaluating the association between intestinal Lactobacillus sp. composition and their metabolic activity with the host metabolism in adult and elderly individuals. Faecal and plasma metabolites were measured and correlated to the Lactobacillus species distribution in healthy Estonian cohorts of adult (n = 16; 65 y). Total cholesterol, LDL, C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin were statistically higher in elderly, while platelets, white blood cells and urinary creatinine were higher in adults. Aging was associated with the presence of L. paracasei and L. plantarum and the absence of L. salivarius and L. helveticus. High levels of intestinal Lactobacillus sp. were positively associated with increased concentrations of faecal short chain fatty acids, lactate and essential amino acids. In adults, high red blood cell distribution width was positively associated with presence of L. helveticus and absence of L. ruminis. L. helveticus was correlated to lactate and butyrate in faecal waters. This indicates a strong relationship between the composition of the gut Lactobacillus sp. and host metabolism. Our results confirm that aging is associated with modulations of blood biomarkers and intestinal Lactobacillus species composition. We identified specific Lactobacillus contributions to gut metabolic environment and related those to blood biomarkers. Such associations may prove useful to decipher the biological mechanisms underlying host-gut microbial metabolic interactions in an ageing population. PMID:26437083

  11. Interference with the host haemostatic system by schistosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M Mebius

    Full Text Available Schistosomes, parasitic flatworms that cause the tropical disease schistosomiasis, are still a threat. They are responsible for 200 million infections worldwide and an estimated 280,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa alone. The adult parasites reside as pairs in the mesenteric or perivesicular veins of their human host, where they can survive for up to 30 years. The parasite is a potential activator of blood coagulation according to Virchow's triad, because it is expected to alter blood flow and endothelial function, leading to hypercoagulability. In contrast, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis patients are in a hypocoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic state, indicating that schistosomes interfere with the haemostatic system of their host. In this review, the interactions of schistosomes with primary haemostasis, secondary haemostasis, fibrinolysis, and the vascular tone will be discussed to provide insight into the reduction in coagulation observed in schistosomiasis patients. Interference with the haemostatic system by pathogens is a common mechanism and has been described for other parasitic worms, bacteria, and fungi as a mechanism to support survival and spread or enhance virulence. Insight into the mechanisms used by schistosomes to interfere with the haemostatic system will provide important insight into the maintenance of the parasitic life cycle within the host. This knowledge may reveal new potential anti-schistosome drug and vaccine targets. In addition, some of the survival mechanisms employed by schistosomes might be used by other pathogens, and therefore, these mechanisms that interfere with host haemostasis might be a broad target for drug development against blood-dwelling pathogens. Also, schistosome antithrombotic or thrombolytic molecules could form potential new drugs in the treatment of haemostatic disorders.

  12. Host selection of Helicoverpa armigera and H.assulta and its inheritance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenzhu; DONG Junfeng; TANG Deliang; ZHANG Jihong; LI Wei; QIN Junde

    2004-01-01

    The difference in host selection between the polyphagous Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and the oligophagous H. assulta Quenée was examined, with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) (hosts of H. armigera), tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) (host of both H. armigera and H. assulta), and bush redpepper (Capsicum frutescens) (host of H. assulta) as testing plants. A multiple-choice test was used with caged plant cuttings for adult oviposition and with leaf discs for larval feeding. A no-choice test was run for evaluating larval growth rate. The results indicated that the relationship between larval performance and adult preference of H. assulta was more conspicuous than that of H. armigera. Reciprocal hybridization between H. armigera and H. assulta followed by backcrossing of the hybrids (F1) with H. armigera was also carried out for genetic study on host selection of these two insect species. A two-choice test with cotton and bush redpepper leaf discs showed that H. armigera larvae preferred to feed on cotton, and H. assulta larvae to bush redpepper; feeding preferences of the two F1 lines were intermediate between those of their parents, but close to that of their female parent; preference indexes of backcross lines also showed that both maternal factor and chromosomal inheritance were involved in feeding selection of two Helicoverpa species.

  13. Ecological and genetic differences between Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera, Psyllidae populations reveal species host plant preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Malagnini

    Full Text Available The psyllid Cacopsylla melanoneura is considered one of the vectors of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali', the causal agent of apple proliferation disease. In Northern Italy, overwintered C. melanoneura adults reach apple and hawthorn around the end of January. Nymph development takes place between March and the end of April. The new generation adults migrate onto conifers around mid-June and come back to the host plant species after overwintering. In this study we investigated behavioural differences, genetic differentiation and gene flow between samples of C. melanoneura collected from the two different host plants. Further analyses were performed on some samples collected from conifers. To assess the ecological differences, host-switching experiments were conducted on C. melanoneura samples collected from apple and hawthorn. Furthermore, the genetic structure of the samples was studied by genotyping microsatellite markers. The examined C. melanoneura samples performed better on their native host plant species. This was verified in terms of oviposition and development of the offspring. Data resulting from microsatellite analysis indicated a low, but statistically significant difference between collected-from-apple and hawthorn samples. In conclusion, both ecological and genetic results indicate a differentiation between C. melanoneura samples associated with the two host plants.

  14. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study. PMID:26442707

  15. Host Selection of Microbiota via Differential Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Kirstie; Schluter, Jonas; Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Smith, Adrian L; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-04-13

    The host epithelium is the critical interface with microbial communities, but the mechanisms by which the host regulates these communities are poorly understood. Here we develop the hypothesis that hosts use differential adhesion to select for and against particular members of their microbiota. We use an established computational, individual-based model to study the impact of host factors that regulate adhesion at the epithelial surface. Our simulations predict that host-mediated adhesion can increase the competitive advantage of microbes and create ecological refugia for slow-growing species. We show how positive selection via adhesion can be transformed into negative selection if the host secretes large quantities of a matrix such as mucus. Our work predicts that adhesion is a powerful mechanism for both positive and negative selection within the microbiota. We discuss molecules-mucus glycans and IgA-that affect microbe adhesion and identify testable predictions of the adhesion-as-selection model. PMID:27053168

  16. Tax fingerprint in adult T-cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbachi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In this issue of Blood, Fujikawa et al demonstrate that the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax induces an epigenetic-dependent global modification of host gene expression in adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL). Hence, the fingerprint of Tax is all over ATL and this may be used for finally capturing ATL. PMID:27056993

  17. Integrating Volunteering into the Adult Immigrant Second Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    For immigrants, the acquisition of language, specifically the ability to communicate effectively, is one prerequisite of full integration into the host society. For an adult immigrant second language (L2) learner in Canada, access to opportunities that may enhance communicative ability are often limited to the ESL classroom. However, while…

  18. The Host Genotype and Environment Affect Strain Types of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Inhabiting the Intestinal Tracts of Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Min; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influences of host genotype and environment on Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum inhabiting human intestines at the strain level, six pairs of twins, divided into two groups (children and adults), were recruited. Each group consisted of two monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and one dizygotic (DZ) twin pair. Child twins had been living together from birth, while adult twins had been living separately for 5 to 10 years. A total of 345 B. longum subsp. longum isolates obtained fr...

  19. Caterpillars and host plant records for 59 species of Geometridae (Lepidoptera) from a montane rainforest in southern Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodner, Florian; Brehm, Gunnar; Homeier, Jürgen; Strutzenberger, Patrick; Fiedler, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    During four months of field surveys at the Reserva Biológica San Francisco in the south Ecuadorian Andes, caterpillars of 59 Geometridae species were collected in a montane rainforest between 1800 and 2800m altitude and reared to adults. The resulting data on host plant affiliations of these species was collated. The preimaginal stages of 58 and adult stages of all 59 species are depicted in colour plates. Observations on morphology and behaviour are briefly described. Five species, documente...

  20. MHC polymorphism under host-pathogen coevolution

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, J.A.M.; J.B. Beltman; de Boer, R J

    2004-01-01

    The genes encoding major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules are among the most polymorphic genes known for vertebrates. Since MHC molecules play an important role in the induction of immune responses, the evolution of MHC polymorphism is often explained in terms of increased protection of hosts against pathogens. Two selective pressures that are thought to be involved are (1) selection favoring MHC heterozygous hosts, and (2) selection for rare MHC alleles by host-pathogen coevolution. We hav...

  1. Immunological aspects of host-schistosome relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond T. Damian

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex immunological relationships between schistosomes and their vertebrate hosts are considered to be conveniently divisible into four distinct, though interrelated categories: the parasite's vulnerability to, its evasion of, and its exploitation of the host's immune response, and its stimulation of the host's immune response to produce immunopathology. Some significant recent advances in the first three categories are discussed, as well as their relationships to the fourth category of immunopathology.

  2. Host manipulation by parasites: a multidimensional phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, F; Poulin, R.; Brodeur, J.

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of ways in which parasites manipulate the phenotype of their hosts to increase their transmission has been well-documented during the past decades. Parasites clearly have the potential to alter a broad range of phenotypic traits in their hosts, extending from behaviour and colour to morphology and physiology. While the vast majority of studies have concentrated on few, often only one, host characters, there is increasing evidence that manipulative parasites alter multiple charac...

  3. Revisiting Caspase-11 Function in Host Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Tessie M.; Monack, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory caspases play important roles in innate immunity. Much attention has focused on caspase-1, which acts to eliminate pathogens by obliterating their replicative niches as well as alerting the host to their presence. Emerging data now sheds light on the lesser-studied pro-inflammatory caspase-11 in the combat between host and pathogen. With new tools available, researchers are now further elucidating the mechanisms by which caspase-11 contributes to host defense. Here, we review...

  4. Host defense reinforces host–parasite cospeciation

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Dale H.; Bush, Sarah E.; Goates, Brad M.; Johnson, Kevin P.

    2003-01-01

    Cospeciation occurs when interacting groups, such as hosts and parasites, speciate in tandem, generating congruent phylogenies. Cospeciation can be a neutral process in which parasites speciate merely because they are isolated on diverging host islands. Adaptive evolution may also play a role, but this has seldom been tested. We explored the adaptive basis of cospeciation by using a model system consisting of feather lice (Columbicola) and their pigeon and dove hosts (Columbiformes). We recon...

  5. Patterns of host ant use by sympatric populations of Maculinea alcon and M. 'rebeli' in the Carpathian Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartally, A.; Nash, David Richard; Lengyel, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Maculinea butterflies show social parasitism via obligatory myrmecophily as their larvae are adopted and raised to pupation by Myrmica ants. Suitable hosts differ for different Maculinea species, and host ant specificity can further differ at the population-level. Although early studies suggested...... single ant species as main hosts for each Maculinea species, it has recently become clear that their host ant specificity is more complex. Maculinea alcon and Maculinea ‘rebeli’ have variously been separated according to adult and larval morphology, phenology, and their use of different ecosystems......, including host plant and host ant species. However, recent genetic evidence has questioned their separation as good species. Here we compare the use of host ants by M. alcon and M. ‘rebeli’ at the regional scale in NE-Hungary and Transylvania (Romania), where molecular studies have found no species...

  6. Redescription of Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850 (Callodistomidae, Digenea with New Host Records and Data on Morphological Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kohn

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing,1850 Travassos, 1922 from the gall bladder of Astyanax bimaculatus, Caranx gibbosus, Galeocharax humeralis, Leporinus copelandii, Pimelodus fur, Pseudopimelodus roosevelti, Salminus brevidens, Salminus maxillosus and from the new hosts, Cynopotamus amazonum and Triurobrycon lundii is redescribed, demonstrating a large morphological variation, mainly in body and testes size and shape. New hosts harbouring immature specimens of P. obesa are presented: Brycon sp., Leporellus vittatus, Pachyurus squamipinnis, Pimelodus clarias, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Salminus hilarii. Scanning electron microscopy micrographies, original figures and measurements of adult and immature specimens from different Brazilian hosts and localities are presented

  7. Molluscs as intermediate hosts of ruminant parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Manga-González, M. Yolanda

    2000-01-01

    To review the phylum Mollusca species involved in the life cycle of the main Digenea (Fasciolidae, Paramphistomidae, Schistomatidae, Dicrocoeliidae) and Nematoda (Protostrongylidae) parasitcs of ruminant definitive hosts (DH).

  8. Host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrezana, Sergio; Bono, Jeremy M

    2012-01-01

    The process of local adaptation creates diversity among allopatric populations, and may eventually lead to speciation. Plant-feeding insect populations that specialize on different host species provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the causes of ecological specialization and the subsequent consequences for diversity. In this study, we used geographically separated Drosophila mettleri populations that specialize on different host cacti to examine oviposition preference for and larval performance on an array of natural and non-natural hosts (eight total). We found evidence of local adaptation in performance on saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) for populations that are typically associated with this host, and to chemically divergent prickly pear species (Opuntia spp.) in a genetically isolated population on Santa Catalina Island. Moreover, each population exhibited reduced performance on the alternative host. This finding is consistent with trade-offs associated with adaptation to these chemically divergent hosts, although we also discuss alternative explanations for this pattern. For oviposition preference, Santa Catalina Island flies were more likely to oviposit on some prickly pear species, but all populations readily laid eggs on saguaro. Experiments with non-natural hosts suggest that factors such as ecological opportunity may play a more important role than host plant chemistry in explaining the lack of natural associations with some hosts. PMID:22493678

  9. Host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castrezana

    Full Text Available The process of local adaptation creates diversity among allopatric populations, and may eventually lead to speciation. Plant-feeding insect populations that specialize on different host species provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the causes of ecological specialization and the subsequent consequences for diversity. In this study, we used geographically separated Drosophila mettleri populations that specialize on different host cacti to examine oviposition preference for and larval performance on an array of natural and non-natural hosts (eight total. We found evidence of local adaptation in performance on saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea for populations that are typically associated with this host, and to chemically divergent prickly pear species (Opuntia spp. in a genetically isolated population on Santa Catalina Island. Moreover, each population exhibited reduced performance on the alternative host. This finding is consistent with trade-offs associated with adaptation to these chemically divergent hosts, although we also discuss alternative explanations for this pattern. For oviposition preference, Santa Catalina Island flies were more likely to oviposit on some prickly pear species, but all populations readily laid eggs on saguaro. Experiments with non-natural hosts suggest that factors such as ecological opportunity may play a more important role than host plant chemistry in explaining the lack of natural associations with some hosts.

  10. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that expatriates’ host country language ability is positively associated with their adjustment. But does the advantage of expatriates’ language ability depend on the difficulty of the host language? To examine this issue, data were collected from expatriates in two European...... countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language as...... opposed to the host country with an easy language....

  11. Olfaction in vector-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Takken, W; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    This book addresses the topic how blood-feeding arthropods interact with their vertebrate hosts. As the transmission of infectious vector-borne pathogens is much dependent on the contact between vector and host, the efficacy of host location is of profound importance. Interruption of vector-host contact is considered on of the most effective means of vector-borne disease control, as is currently witnessed by the successful use of insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria control in sub-Saharan...

  12. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; et al.

    2016-04-20

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  13. Studies on avian malaria in vectors and hosts of encephalitis in Kern County, California. I. Infections in avian hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Reeves, W.C.; McClure, H.E.; French, E.M.; Hammon, W.M.

    1954-01-01

    An epizoological study of Plasmodium infections in wild birds of Kern County, California, in the years 1946 through 1951 greatly extended knowledge of the occurrence of these parasites and their behavior in nature. Examination of 10,459 blood smears from 8,674 birds representing 73 species resulted in the observation of Plasmodium spp. in 1,094 smears representing 888 individual birds of 27 species. Seven species of Plasmodium were found: relictum, elongatum, hexamerium, nucleophilum, polare, rouxi and vaughani. Plasmodium relictum was by far the most frequently observed species, occurring in at least 79 per cent of the infected birds. Twelve new host species are recorded for this parasite. Sufficient morphological variation was observed to indicate that two strains of this species probably exist in nature. Numerous new host records were made of plasmodia with elongate gametocytes. The finding of parasites believed to be P. rouxi in two new host species represents the first record of the occurrence of this Plasmodium outside of Algeria. Multiple smears were obtained from a number of individual birds over varying time periods. Evidence of prolonged parasitemia was unusual, but some individuals had parasitemia on consecutive months and even for three successive years. In most individuals, parasitemias were of short duration. The inoculation of blood from wild birds into canaries led to the demonstration of many infections not observed on blood smear examination of donors. Use of these two complementary techniques led to more complete host records and a truer picture of the prevalence of infection. Three age classes of birds were studied--nestling, immature (less than 1 year of age) and adult. Parasites were observed in all three groups but infections in the younger individuals were most susceptible to interpretation. As to time of onset, numerous records were obtained of infection in nestling birds. Prevalence rates in immature birds after a single season's exposure

  14. Ultrastructural observation and gene expression profiling of Schistosoma japonicum derived from two natural reservoir hosts, water buffalo and yellow cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Yang

    Full Text Available Water buffalo and yellow cattle are the two of the most important natural reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in endemic areas of China, although their susceptibility differs, with water buffalo being less conducive to the growth and development of S. japonicum. Results from the current study show that the general morphology and ultrastructure of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts also differed. Using high-throughput microarray technology, we also compared the gene expression profiles of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts. We identified genes that were differentially expressed in worms from the two natural hosts. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with protein kinase and phosphatase, the stimulus response, and lipid and nucleotide metabolism were overexpressed, whereas genes associated with reproduction, anatomical structure morphogenesis and multifunctional motif were underexpressed in schistosomes from water buffalo. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in nucleotide, energy, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, transcription, transport and signaling pathway. This suggests that they are key molecules affecting the survival and development of schistosomes in different natural host species. The results of this study add to current understanding of the interplay between parasites and their natural hosts, and provide valuable information for the screening of vaccine candidates or new drug targets against schistosomiasis in the natural reservoir hosts in endemic areas.

  15. Shifts in stable-isotope signatures confirm parasitic relationship of freshwater mussel glochidia attached to host fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Mark W.; Fritts, Andrea K.; Carleton, Scott A.; Bringolf, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    The parasitic nature of the association between glochidia of unionoidean bivalves and their host fish (i.e. the role of fish hosts in providing nutritional resources to the developing glochidia) is still uncertain. While previous work has provided descriptions of development of glochidia on fish hosts, earlier studies have not explicitly documented the flow of nutrition from the host fish to the juvenile mussel. Therefore, our objective was to use stable isotope analysis to quantitatively document nutrient flow between fish and glochidia. Glochidia were collected from nine adult Lampsilis cardium and used to inoculate Micropterus salmoides(n = 27; three fish per maternal mussel) that produced juvenile mussels for the experiment. Adult mussel tissue samples, glochidia, transformed juvenile mussels and fish gill tissues were analysed for δ15N and δ13C isotope ratios. We used a linear mixing model to estimate the fraction of juvenile mussel tissue derived from the host fish's tissue during attachment. Our analyses indicate a distinct shift in both C and N isotopic ratios from the glochidial stage to the juvenile stage during mussel attachment and development. Linear mixing model analysis indicated that 57.4% of the δ15N in juvenile tissues were obtained from the host fish. This work provides novel evidence that larval unionoideans are true parasites that derive nutrition from host fish during their metamorphosis into the juvenile stage.

  16. Host-to-host variation of ecological interactions in polymicrobial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host-to-host variability with respect to interactions between microorganisms and multicellular hosts are commonly observed in infection and in homeostasis. However, the majority of mechanistic models used to analyze host–microorganism relationships, as well as most of the ecological theories proposed to explain coevolution of hosts and microbes, are based on averages across a host population. By assuming that observed variations are random and independent, these models overlook the role of differences between hosts. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying host-to-host variations of bacterial infection kinetics, using the well characterized experimental infection model of polymicrobial otitis media (OM) in chinchillas, in combination with population dynamic models and a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) based inference scheme. We find that the nature of the interactions between bacterial species critically regulates host-to-host variations in these interactions. Surprisingly, seemingly unrelated phenomena, such as the efficiency of individual bacterial species in utilizing nutrients for growth, and the microbe-specific host immune response, can become interdependent in a host population. The latter finding suggests a potential mechanism that could lead to selection of specific strains of bacterial species during the coevolution of the host immune response and the bacterial species. (paper)

  17. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  18. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  19. Chemical ecology of the cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae ) on a newly recorded host Senecio adonidifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Klaas

    2006-09-01

    The cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae, Arctiidae) normally feeds on Senecio jacobaea in the field. For the first time, naturally occurring populations of T. jacobaeae have been found thriving on Senecio adonidifolius, even though the moth's preferred host, S. jacobaea, is available within 50-400 m. In the laboratory, the cinnabar moth has been shown to feed on and develop on S. adonidifolius despite its different leaf morphology, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profile and a large taxonomic distance to S. jacobaea. Here I examined whether T. jacobaeae has adapted to this new host in the field using adult oviposition behavior and plant acquired defense chemistry in pupae as criteria. Choice tests indicated local adaptation to this newly recorded host. T. jacobaeae reared on S. adonidifolius hosts laid more egg batches and total eggs on it than T. jacobaeae from S. jacobaea. The egg batches were smaller on S. adonidifolius possibly due to highly pinnate thread-like structure of its leaves. The bouquet of plant acquired PAs and the insect metabolized callimorphine in pupae differed widely between pupae collected from the two hosts. T. jacobaeae pupae taken from S. adonidifolius hosts contained more of the insect metabolized callimorphine than pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts, but they did not differ in total PA concentration. Pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts contained more unmetabolized plant PA's than pupae from S. adonidifolius hosts. Additionally, 10% of T. jacobaeae larvae taken from S. adonidifolius in Biausse were infested with Carcelia dubia, a parasitic and rare tachinid fly that typically attacks arctiid moths.

  20. Bathroom safety - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000021.htm Bathroom safety - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Older adult bathroom safety What to consider at home Staying safe ...

  1. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Adults and Depression Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order a ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels down or sad sometimes, but these ...

  2. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators’ required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural env...... profiles, the author notes that adult educators’ ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked....

  3. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  4. Adult Learning Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  5. Adult Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  6. Adults Role in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  7. Sexuality in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Sexuality in Older Adults Sexuality in Older Adults What are the benefits of a healthy sex life for older adults? Sex is ... concerns, and acknowledge new relationships with respect. Bibliography Sexuality in Later Life by National Institute on Aging ( ...

  8. Host selection by the shiny cowbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Factors important in Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) host selection were examined within the mangrove community in Puerto Rico. Cowbirds did not parasitize birds in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with those of its major hosts, which were 'high-quality' foster species (i.e., species that fledge .gtoreq. 55% of cowbirds hatched: Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia; Yellow-shouldered Blackbird, Agelaius xanthomus; Black-whiskered Vireo, Vireo altiloquus; Black-cowled Oriole, Icterus dominicensis; Peurto Rican Flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum; Troupial, Icterus icterus), and did not extend into other periods even though nests of 'low-quality: species (i.e., species that fledge hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this combination. Cowbirds located host nests primarily by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitats. Other nest locating strategies were active searching of suitable habitat and 'flushing' of hosts by the cowbird's noisy approach. Cowbirds closely monitored nest status with frequent visits that peaked on the host's first day of egg laying. Hosts using covered nests (e.g., cavities, domed nests) were as vulnerable to cowbird parasitism as those building open nests.

  9. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Graham

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  10. Host-pathogen interactions during apoptosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyed E Hasnain; Rasheeda Begum; K V A Ramaiah; Sudhir Sahdev; E M Shajil; Tarvinder K Taneja; Manjari Mohan; M Athar; Nand K Sah; M Krishnaveni

    2003-04-01

    Host pathogen interaction results in a variety of responses, which include phagocytosis of the pathogen, release of cytokines, secretion of toxins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have shown that many pathogens exert control on the processes that regulate apoptosis in the host. The induction of apoptosis upon infection results from a complex interaction of parasite proteins with cellular host proteins. Abrogation of host cell apoptosis is often beneficial for the pathogen and results in a successful host invasion. However, in some cases, it has been shown that induction of apoptosis in the infected cells significantly imparts protection to the host from the pathogen. There is a strong correlation between apoptosis and the host protein translation machinery: the pathogen makes all possible efforts to modify this process so as to inhibit cell suicide and ensure that it can survive and, in some cases, establish latent infection. This review discusses the significance of various pathways/steps during virus-mediated modulation of host cell apoptosis.

  11. Host selection by the autoparasitoid Encarsia pergandiella on primary (Bemisia tabaci) and secondary (Eretmocerus mundus) hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Bo; Castañé, Cristina; Gabarra, Rosa; Albajes, Ramon; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2015-12-01

    In autoparasitoids, females are generally primary endoparasitoids of Hemiptera, while males are hyperparasitoids developing in or on conspecific females or other primary parasitoids. Female-host acceptance can be influenced by extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors. In this paper, we are concerned with intrinsic factors such as nutritional status, mating status, etc. We observed the behavior of Encarsia pergandiella Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) females when parasitizing primary (3rd instar larvae of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius [Homoptera: Aleyrodidae]) and secondary hosts (3rd instar larvae and pupae of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet [Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae]) for a period of 1 h. Females had different reproductive (virgin or mated younger) and physiological (fed elder or mated elder) status. Virgin females killed a large number of secondary hosts while investing a long time per host. However, they did not feed upon them. Mated females killed a lower number of secondary hosts and host feeding was observed in both consuming primary and secondary hosts. It was common to observe host examining females of all physiological statues tested repeatedly stinging the same hosts when parasitizing, killing or rejecting them. Fed elder females parasitized more B. tabaci larvae than E. mundus larvae or pupae, while investing less time on the primary host than on the secondary host. They also parasitized more B. tabaci larvae than mated elder females, while investing less time per host. The access of females to honey allowed them to lay more eggs. PMID:24992443

  12. The effect of Leptomastix dactylopii parasitism and venom injection on host Planococcus citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Battaglia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major alterations observed in mealybug Planococcus citri parasitized by Leptomastix dactylopii is a strong reduction of laid eggs, which is evident soon after parasitization. Venom injection in unparasitized hosts determines a drastic reduction of fecundity indicating that this female secretion injected at the oviposition plays a key-role in host regulation. In order to assess the impact of parasitism and venom injection on host reproductive tissues, ovaries were dissected at different time intervals after these treatments and observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The developing eggs showed clear symptoms of degeneration, already half an hour after parasitization or venom injection. Heat and protease treatments of venom nearly suppressed its effects on host reproduction, indicating that proteins are likely responsible for the observed alterations. The electrophoretic profile of venom proteins covers a wide range of molecular masses between 15 to 200 kDa but five major bands having a molecular mass of about 27, 30, 40, 90 and 120 kDa respectively were more evident. Moreover, to establish any parasitoid preference in host selection, among the adult female mealybugs at different stages of maturation and a possible relation with fecundity reduction in the host, the parasitoid behavior was observed.

  13. The relationship between variable host grouping and functional responses among parasitoids of Antispila nysaefoliella (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Candace; Scheffer, Sonja J; Lewis, Matthew L; Gates, Michael W

    2012-12-01

    Our study investigated the importance of variability in the parasitoid community as a source of selection on host group size using a field population of the tupelo leafminer, Antispila nysaefoliella Clemens, which specializes on tupelo, Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Larvae were collected from leaves with variable numbers of larvae and screened for parasitism using polymerase chain reaction of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I using markers designed specifically for amplifying parasitoid DNA while excluding host DNA. This method of selective PCR was effective for detecting the presence and identifying species of immature stages of three hymenopteran superfamilies: Chalcidoidea, Ichneumonoidea and Platygastroidea, which represented 83.4%, 16.0% and 0.6% of the total detectable parasitism, respectively. Our resulting sequences were then calibrated with sequences from identified adult parasitoids that had been either reared or field-captured. A cluster analysis revealed 10 distinct clades that showed differences in attack patterns with respect to host traits and season. Total parasitism followed an inverse density-dependent or density-independent pattern with respect to host density (number per leaf). However, when parasitoid taxa were considered separately, one clade, which could be a cryptic species of Pnigalio maculipes Crawford (Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae), was found to increase its per leaf attack rate with host density. Our results suggest that parasitoid community composition and differences among species in their attack strategies can play a large role in determining the adaptive advantage of host grouping. PMID:23094653

  14. Combining personal with social information facilitates host defences and explains why cuckoos should be secretive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    Individuals often vary defences in response to local predation or parasitism risk. But how should they assess threat levels when it pays their enemies to hide? For common cuckoo hosts, assessing parasitism risk is challenging: cuckoo eggs are mimetic and adult cuckoos are secretive and resemble hawks. Here, we show that egg rejection by reed warblers depends on combining personal and social information of local risk. We presented model cuckoos or controls at a pair's own nest (personal information of an intruder) and/or on a neighbouring territory, to which they were attracted by broadcasts of alarm calls (social information). Rejection of an experimental egg was stimulated only when hosts were alerted by both social and personal information of cuckoos. However, pairs that rejected eggs were not more likely to mob a cuckoo. Therefore, while hosts can assess risk from the sight of a cuckoo, a cuckoo cannot gauge if her egg will be accepted from host mobbing. Our results reveal how hosts respond rapidly to local variation in parasitism, and why it pays cuckoos to be secretive, both to avoid alerting their targets and to limit the spread of social information in the local host neighbourhood. PMID:26794435

  15. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  16. Codivergence of mycoviruses with their hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Göker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations between pathogens and their hosts are complex and can result from any combination of evolutionary events such as codivergence, switching, and duplication of the pathogen. Mycoviruses are RNA viruses which infect fungi and for which natural vectors are so far unknown. Thus, lateral transfer might be improbable and codivergence their dominant mode of evolution. Accordingly, mycoviruses are a suitable target for statistical tests of virus-host codivergence, but inference of mycovirus phylogenies might be difficult because of low sequence similarity even within families. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed here the evolutionary dynamics of all mycovirus families by comparing virus and host phylogenies. Additionally, we assessed the sensitivity of the co-phylogenetic tests to the settings for inferring virus trees from their genome sequences and approximate, taxonomy-based host trees. CONCLUSIONS: While sequence alignment filtering modes affected branch support, the overall results of the co-phylogenetic tests were significantly influenced only by the number of viruses sampled per family. The trees of the two largest families, Partitiviridae and Totiviridae, were significantly more similar to those of their hosts than expected by chance, and most individual host-virus links had a significant positive impact on the global fit, indicating that codivergence is the dominant mode of virus diversification. However, in this regard mycoviruses did not differ from closely related viruses sampled from non-fungus hosts. The remaining virus families were either dominated by other evolutionary modes or lacked an apparent overall pattern. As this negative result might be caused by insufficient taxon sampling, the most parsimonious hypothesis still is that host-parasite evolution is basically the same in all mycovirus families. This is the first study of mycovirus-host codivergence, and the results shed light not only on how mycovirus biology

  17. Ectoparasitism and stress hormones: strategy of host exploitation, common host-parasite history and energetics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Juliana, Justin R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Wielebnowski, Nadja; Kotler, Burt P; Krasnov, Boris R

    2014-09-01

    Parasites are thought to have numerous negative effects on their hosts. These negative effects may be associated with stress in a host. We evaluated the effects of four species of flea ectoparasites (Parapulex chephrenis, Synosternus cleopatrae, Xenopsylla conformis and Xenopsylla ramesis) on non-specific responses of eight species of rodents (Meriones crassus, Gerbillus dasyurus, Gerbillus andersoni, Gerbillus pyramidum, Gerbillus nanus, Acomys cahirinus, Acomys russatus and Mesocricetus auratus) and measured faecal glucocorticoid metabolites concentrations (FGMC) produced by the hosts. We found no effect of body mass of an individual rodent on FGMCs. Parasitism by fleas with a 'stay on the host body' exploitation strategy was associated with higher host FGMCs than parasitism by fleas that spent most of their life 'off-host'. FGMCs among rodents infested by the same flea species were correlated positively with the phylogenetic distance of a given rodent from the principal host of this flea; changes in FGMCs were lower in the host species more closely related to the flea's principal host. Changes in FMGCs of a host while parasitized were correlated with a host's change in body mass, where hosts that lost more body mass had higher FGMCs. Our results suggest that ectoparasitism can be stressful to their hosts. However, the occurrence of parasite-induced stress seems to depend on the identity of both host and parasite species and the evolutionary history of a host-parasite association. To our knowledge, this is the first multispecies study to evaluate the effect of ectoparasites on glucocorticoid hormones in small mammals. PMID:24661039

  18. Emergence of host-adapted Salmonella Enteritidis through rapid evolution in an immunocompromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Elizabeth J; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Hadfield, James; Forbester, Jessica L; Harris, Simon R; Hale, Christine; Heath, Jennifer N; Wileman, Thomas; Clare, Simon; Kane, Leanne; Goulding, David; Otto, Thomas D; Kay, Sally; Doffinger, Rainer; Cooke, Fiona J; Carmichael, Andrew; Lever, Andrew M L; Parkhill, Julian; MacLennan, Calman A; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Host adaptation is a key factor contributing to the emergence of new bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens. Many pathogens are considered promiscuous because they cause disease across a range of host species, while others are host-adapted, infecting particular hosts(1). Host adaptation can potentially progress to host restriction, where the pathogen is strictly limited to a single host species and is frequently associated with more severe symptoms. Host-adapted and host-restricted bacterial clades evolve from within a broader host-promiscuous species and sometimes target different niches within their specialist hosts, such as adapting from a mucosal to a systemic lifestyle. Genome degradation, marked by gene inactivation and deletion, is a key feature of host adaptation, although the triggers initiating genome degradation are not well understood. Here, we show that a chronic systemic non-typhoidal Salmonella infection in an immunocompromised human patient resulted in genome degradation targeting genes that are expendable for a systemic lifestyle. We present a genome-based investigation of a recurrent blood-borne Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection covering 15 years in an interleukin-12 β1 receptor-deficient individual that developed into an asymptomatic chronic infection. The infecting S. Enteritidis harboured a mutation in the mismatch repair gene mutS that accelerated the genomic mutation rate. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotyping of multiple patient isolates provides evidence for a remarkable level of within-host evolution that parallels genome changes present in successful host-restricted bacterial pathogens but never before observed on this timescale. Our analysis identifies common pathways of host adaptation and demonstrates the role that immunocompromised individuals can play in this process. PMID:27572160

  19. Lymphotoxin organizes contributions to host defense and metabolic illness from innate lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The lymphotoxin (LT)-pathway is a unique constituent branch of the Tumor Necrosis Superfamily (TNFSF). Use of LT is a critical mechanism by which fetal innate lymphoid cells regulate lymphoid organogenesis. Within recent years, adult innate lymphoid cells have been discovered to utilize this same pathway to regulate IL-22 and IL-23 production for host defense. Notably, genetic studies have linked polymorphisms in the genes encoding LTα to several phenotypes contributing to metabolic syndrome....

  20. The effect of gluten on the host-microbial metabolism assessed by urinary metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Gøbel, Rikke Juul;

    A gluten-free diet clearly improves the life of patients with celiac disease, but the scientific evidence supporting possible health benefits of a gluten-free diet for non-celiac adults is limited. Therefore, as urine reflects the host and gut microbial metabolism, the study aimed to assess the l...... of the affected metabolites as well as integration of the metabolomics data with gut microbiota metagenomics data is ongoing hereby understanding how the metabolite changes are related to the gut microbiota....

  1. Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) associated with new host plants belonging to Annona (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Germano H. Rosado-Neto; Iracilda M. de Moura Lima

    2002-01-01

    Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936) feeding on Annona squamosa L., A. cherimola Mill., A. glabra L., and A. muricata L. was observed. The last three host plants are recorded for the first time. The endophitic oviposition occurs in the veins of the ventral surface of the young leaves. The larvae, leaf miners, eat the parenchyma and the adults make small holes in the leaves. The pupation occurs in spherical cocoons protected by a sort of nest (pupation chamber) between the two epidermal lay...

  2. Effects of conventional pesticides on the preimaginal developmental stages and on adults of Trichogramma cordubensis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, António; Oliveira, Luísa; Garcia, Patrícia

    2001-01-01

    The effects of seven pesticides sprayed on hosts with parasitoids at different phases of egg to adult development (24, 24± 48, 48± 72, 72± 96, 120± 144, 192± 216 h) of Trichogramma cordubensis (Vargas & Cabello) were studied. The effect of these pesticides on the mortality of adult parasitoids upon contact with the hosts immediately or 24 h after the treatments was also tested. One organophosphate insecticide (trichlorfon), one organochlorine insecticide (endosulfan), two pyrethroids (delt...

  3. Host response to biomaterials the impact of host response on biomaterial selection

    CERN Document Server

    Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fiel

  4. Comparing Immature Development and Life History Traits in Two Coexisting Host-Feeding Parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea and Neochrysocharis formosa (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-bo; LU Shu-long; LIU Wan-xue; WANG Wen-xia; WANG Wei; WAN Fang-hao

    2014-01-01

    Coexisting natural enemies that share a common host resource in the same guild usually exhibit variation in their life history traits, due to their need to share a similar ecological niche. In this study, we compared the immature development times and adult life history traits of two coexisting, host-feeding parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea Walker and Neochrysocharis formosa Westwood (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae), of which both attack larvae of the same agromyzid leafminers. These two species are both synovigenic, idiobiont parasitoids, whose adults consume host lfuids (“host feeding”) and lay anhydropic eggs. Of the two, D. isaea has a larger body but little or no initial egg load, and engages in similar lifetime host-feeding events. However, it achieves higher fecundity, longer adult longevity, and higher host suppression ability than N. formosa, which has a smaller body and higher initial egg load. Although D. isaea engages in similar lifetime host-feeding events with N. formosa, all of its gains in life history traits per host-feeding event of D. isaea were larger than those of N. formosa. The age-speciifc fecundity and host mortality curves of N. formosa were more skewed in early life than those of D. isaea. In addition, the ovigeny index of N. formosa was negatively correlated to body size. Our results conifrmed that two coexisting parasitoids, which share the same host resource, show different immature development patterns and life history traits, suggesting that different resource allocation mode could be a general rule of coexisting species sharing the same habitat or host.

  5. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  6. Suitability of different lepidopteran host species for development of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Mukti N; Phillips, Thomas W

    2010-04-01

    Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of several species of Lepidoptera that are associated with stored products. The suitability of 12 potential lepidopteran host species representing four families was studied in this study for the development and reproduction of B. hebetor. The Lepidoptera species used were the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller), almond moth, E. cautella (Walker), rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Walker), navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Stainton), greater wax moth (laboratory reared and commercial), Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) (all Pyralidae); tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricus), corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (all Noctuidae); webbing clothes moth, Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Tineidae); and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Gelichiidae). Experiments were conducted using petri dishes (100 by 15 mm) as experimental arenas at 29 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L: D) h. B. hebetor females were introduced singly into arenas and given a full-grown host larva every day for 5 consecutive d. Paralysis of the host larvae and oviposition by B. hebetor females were significantly affected by host species. The cumulative fecundity in the 5-d period was highest on A. transitella (106.42 +/- 5.19) and lowest on T. bisselliella (9.64 +/- 1.28). The egg-to-adult survivorship and progeny sex ratio were also significantly affected by the host species. The highest percentage of parasitoid survival to the adult stage was on A. transitella (84.07 +/- 2.26) and zero on T. bisselliella. Egg to adult development time was shortest on E. cautella (9.75 +/- 0.25 d) and longest on G. mellonella (12.63 +/- 0.28 d). Results from these studies suggest that B. hebetor females can use a wide range of lepidopteran hosts for paralysis and

  7. CLEPTOPARASITE BEES, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE OILBEES HOSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVES-DOS SANTOS ISABEL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT

    Cleptoparasite bees lay their eggs inside nests constructed by other bee species and the larvae feed on pollen provided by the host, in this case, solitary bees. The cleptoparasite (adult and larvae show many morphological and behavior adaptations to this life style. In this paper I present some data on the cleptoparasite bees whose hosts are bees specialized to collect floral oil.

    Key words: solitary bee, interspecific interaction, parasitic strategies, hospicidal larvae.

    RESUMEN

    Las abejas Cleptoparásitas depositan sus huevos en nidos construídos por otras especies de abejas y las larvas se alimentan del polen que proveen las hospederas, en este caso, abejas solitarias. El cleptoparásito (adulo y larva muestra muchas adaptaciones morfológicas y comportamentales para este estilo de vida. En este manuscrito presento datos sobre abejas cleptoparásitas cuyos hospederos son abejas especializadas en recolectar aceite floral.

    Palabras clave: abejas solitarias, interacción interespecífica, estrategias parasíticas, larva assassina.

  8. Host utilization and seasonal occurrence of Dermacentor species (Acari:Ixodidae) in Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Masters, E J; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    2000-08-01

    A total of 3,235 Dermacentor variabilis (Say) specimens were collected from birds, mammals, and by dragging vegetation, and 2,683 D. albipictus (Packard) ticks were collected from deer from 1993 to 1996. Peak seasonal occurrence of adult D. variabilis was from May through July with a precipitous decrease in August. Nymphal D. variabilis populations peaked in June. Peak activity of larvae was bimodal, with one activity peak during late summer (September) and a second peak in winter or early spring. The raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.), was the principal host of adults followed by the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Rodents and the eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), were the primary hosts of nymphs. The marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan), was the principal host of larvae followed by the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte), and white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque). All stages of D. albipictus were found only on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Numbers of adult and nymphal D. albipictus peaked in November, whereas larvae peaked in September. PMID:11201355

  9. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ravi R; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D'Andrea, Chris B; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J; Nichol, Robert C; Finley, David A; Fischer, John A; Foley, Ryan J; Kim, Alex G; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M C; Abdalla, Filipe B; Benoit-Levy, Aurelien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E; da Costa, Luiz N; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F; Evrard, August E; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A G; Marshall, Jennifer L; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andres A; Romer, A Kathy; Sanchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E C; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R; Wester, William

    2016-01-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated alg...

  10. Spatial covariation of local abundance among different parasite species: the effect of shared hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrue, C; Poulin, R

    2015-10-01

    Within any parasite species, abundance varies spatially, reaching higher values in certain localities than in others, presumably reflecting the local availability of host resources or the local suitability of habitat characteristics for free-living stages. In the absence of strong interactions between two species of helminths with complex life cycles, we might predict that the degree to which their abundances covary spatially is determined by their common resource requirements, i.e. how many host species they share throughout their life cycles. We test this prediction using five trematode species, all with a typical three-host cycle, from multiple lake sampling sites in New Zealand's South Island: Stegodexamene anguillae, Telogaster opisthorchis, Coitocaecum parvum, Maritrema poulini, and an Apatemon sp. Pairs of species from this set of five share the same host species at either one, two, or all three life cycle stages. Our results show that when two trematode species share the same host species at all three life stages, they show positive spatial covariation in abundance (of metacercarial and adult stages) across localities. When they share hosts at two life stages, they show positive spatial covariation in abundance in some cases but not others. Finally, if two trematode species share only one host species, at a single life stage, their abundances do not covary spatially. These findings indicate that the extent of resource sharing between parasite species can drive the spatial match-mismatch between their abundances, and thus influence their coevolutionary dynamics and the degree to which host populations suffer from additive or synergistic effects of multiple infections. PMID:26113509

  11. Integral field spectroscopy of QSO host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, K.; Wisotzki, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Christensen, L.; Becker, T.; Kelz, A.; Roth, M. M.

    2004-02-01

    We describe a project to study the state of the ISM in ˜20 low redshift (z<0.3) QSO host galaxies observed with the PMAS integral field spectrograph. We describe the development of the method to access the stellar and gas components of the spectrum without the strong nuclear emission, in order to access the host galaxy properties in the central region. It shows that integral field spectroscopy promises to be very efficient in studying the gas distribution and its velocity field, and also the spatially resolved stellar population in the host galaxies of luminous AGN.

  12. Integral field spectroscopy of QSO host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, K; Sánchez, S F; Christensen, L; Becker, T; Kelz, A; Roth, M M

    2003-01-01

    We describe a project to study the state of the ISM in ~20 low redshift (z<0.3) QSO host galaxies observed with the PMAS integral field spectrograph. We describe method developement to access the stellar and gas component of the spectrum without the strong nuclear emission to access the host galaxy properties also in the central region. It shows that integral field spectroscopy promises to be very efficient to study the gas distribution and its velocity field, and also spatially resolved stellar population in the host galaxies also of luminous AGN.

  13. The effect of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility on host population size in natural and manipulated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Stephen L; Fox, Charles W; Jiggins, Francis M

    2002-03-01

    Obligate, intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia often behave as reproductive parasites by manipulating host reproduction to enhance their vertical transmission. One of these reproductive manipulations, cytoplasmic incompatibility, causes a reduction in egg-hatch rate in crosses between individuals with differing infections. Applied strategies based upon cytoplasmic incompatibility have been proposed for both the suppression and replacement of host populations. As Wolbachia infections occur within a broad range of invertebrates, these strategies are potentially applicable to a variety of medically and economically important insects. Here, we examine the interaction between Wolbachia infection frequency and host population size. We use a model to describe natural invasions of Wolbachia infections, artificial releases of infected hosts and releases of sterile males, as part of a traditional sterile insect technique programme. Model simulations demonstrate the importance of understanding the reproductive rate and intraspecific competition type of the targeted population, showing that releases of sterile or incompatible individuals may cause an undesired increase in the adult number. In addition, the model suggests a novel applied strategy that employs Wolbachia infections to suppress host populations. Releases of Wolbachia-infected hosts can be used to sustain artificially an unstable coexistence of multiple incompatible infections within a host population, allowing the host population size to be reduced, maintained at low levels, or eliminated. PMID:11886634

  14. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  15. Characterizing the host and symbiont proteomes in the association between the Bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bacterium, Vibrio fischeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler R Schleicher

    Full Text Available The beneficial symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, provides a unique opportunity to study host/microbe interactions within a natural microenvironment. Colonization of the squid light organ by V. fischeri begins a lifelong association with a regulated daily rhythm. Each morning the host expels an exudate from the light organ consisting of 95% of the symbiont population in addition to host hemocytes and shed epithelial cells. We analyzed the host and symbiont proteomes of adult squid exudate and surrounding light organ epithelial tissue using 1D- and 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT in an effort to understand the contribution of both partners to the maintenance of this association. These proteomic analyses putatively identified 1581 unique proteins, 870 proteins originating from the symbiont and 711 from the host. Identified host proteins indicate a role of the innate immune system and reactive oxygen species (ROS in regulating the symbiosis. Symbiont proteins detected enhance our understanding of the role of quorum sensing, two-component signaling, motility, and detoxification of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS inside the light organ. This study offers the first proteomic analysis of the symbiotic microenvironment of the adult light organ and provides the identification of proteins important to the regulation of this beneficial association.

  16. Host Specificity of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae with Comments on the Drop-off Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marques Lisbôa Lopes

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic specificity of larval, nymph and adult Amblyomma cajennense on six different host species: Oryctolagus cuniculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchus, Coturnix coturnix and Streptopelia decorata is described. In terms of the numbers of larvae and nymphs recovered, O. cuniculus was the best host species. The modal day for drop-off of larvae and nymphs was day three for the mammal hosts, but variable in the birds. We conclude that adult A. cajennense have a strong degree of specificity due to the fact that the tick failed to complete its life cycle on any of the evaluated hosts. The immature stages, on the other hand, showed a low level of specificity, most especially in the larval stage, indicating the existence of secondary hosts which probably serve as dispersers in the wild. The results also indicated a variable drop-off rhythm for larvae and nymphs in two periods, diurnal (6-18 hr and nocturnal (18-6 hr, which differed depending upon the host.

  17. Influence of Dietary Experience on the Induction of Preference of Adult Moths and Larvae for a New Olfactory Cue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Petit

    Full Text Available In Lepidoptera, host plant selection is first conditioned by oviposition site preference of adult females followed by feeding site preference of larvae. Dietary experience to plant volatile cues can induce larval and adult host plant preference. We investigated how the parent's and self-experience induce host preference in adult females and larvae of three lepidopteran stem borer species with different host plant ranges, namely the polyphagous Sesamia nonagrioides, the oligophagous Busseola fusca and the monophagous Busseola nairobica, and whether this induction can be linked to a neurophysiological phenotypic plasticity. The three species were conditioned to artificial diet enriched with vanillin from the neonate larvae to the adult stage during two generations. Thereafter, two-choice tests on both larvae and adults using a Y-tube olfactometer and electrophysiological (electroantennography [EAG] recordings experiments on adults were carried out. In the polyphagous species, the induction of preference for a new olfactory cue (vanillin by females and 3rd instar larvae was determined by parents' and self-experiences, without any modification of the sensitivity of the females antennae. No preference induction was found in the oligophagous and monophagous species. Our results suggest that lepidopteran stem borers may acquire preferences for new olfactory cues from the larval to the adult stage as described by Hopkins' host selection principle (HHSP, neo-Hopkins' principle, and the concept of 'chemical legacy.'

  18. Directional Selection from Host Plants Is a Major Force Driving Host Specificity in Magnaporthe Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhenhui; Norvienyeku, Justice; Chen, Meilian; Bao, Jiandong; Lin, Lianyu; Chen, Liqiong; Lin, Yahong; Wu, Xiaoxian; Cai, Zena; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Xiaoye; Hong, Yonghe; Huang, Jun; Xu, Linghong; Zhang, Honghong; Chen, Long; Tang, Wei; Zheng, Huakun; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yanli; Lian, Bi; Zhang, Liangsheng; Tang, Haibao; Lu, Guodong; Ebbole, Daniel J; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    One major threat to global food security that requires immediate attention, is the increasing incidence of host shift and host expansion in growing number of pathogenic fungi and emergence of new pathogens. The threat is more alarming because, yield quality and quantity improvement efforts are encouraging the cultivation of uniform plants with low genetic diversity that are increasingly susceptible to emerging pathogens. However, the influence of host genome differentiation on pathogen genome differentiation and its contribution to emergence and adaptability is still obscure. Here, we compared genome sequence of 6 isolates of Magnaporthe species obtained from three different host plants. We demonstrated the evolutionary relationship between Magnaporthe species and the influence of host differentiation on pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that evolution of pathogen directly corresponds with host divergence, suggesting that host-pathogen interaction has led to co-evolution. Furthermore, we identified an asymmetric selection pressure on Magnaporthe species. Oryza sativa-infecting isolates showed higher directional selection from host and subsequently tends to lower the genetic diversity in its genome. We concluded that, frequent gene loss or gain, new transposon acquisition and sequence divergence are host adaptability mechanisms for Magnaporthe species, and this coevolution processes is greatly driven by directional selection from host plants. PMID:27151494

  19. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  20. Malaria parasite interactions with the human host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouniotis D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the malaria parasite and the human host involves a number of interactions that result in the parasite evading the human immune system. Since the stages of the malaria lifecycle are complex, this allows the use of various immune evasion strategies by the malaria parasite and has major implications in the development of a vaccine for malaria endemic areas. The present review highlights key host:parasite interactions. Plasmodia puts selection pressure on human gene frequencies, and studies into host genetic factors such as the Duffy blood group and sickle cell anaemia offer insight into the host- parasite relationship. In addition, parasite interactions with the different effector arms of the immune system can result in altered peptide ligand (APL antagonism which alters the immune response from a pro- to an anti-inflammatory T cell response. Recent insights into the interaction between professional antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs, and malaria parasites is discussed in detail.