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Sample records for adult heat tolerance

  1. Adult Heat Tolerance Variation in Drosophila melanogaster is Not Related to Hsp70 Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Toft; Cockerell, Fiona Elizabeth; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard;

    2010-01-01

    Expression of heat-inducible Hsp70 is considered closely linked to thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and other ectotherms. However, intra-specific variation of Hsp70 expression levels and its relationship to heat resistance has only been investigated in a few studies. Although...... in adult heat tolerance. Therefore, although Hsp70 expression is a major component of the cellular heat stress response, its influence on intra-specific heat tolerance variation may be life-stage specific. J. Exp. Zool. 313A:35-44, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc...... in Drosophila larvae Hsp70 expression may be a key determinant of heat tolerance, the evidence for this in adults is equivocal. We therefore examined heat-induced Hsp70 expression and several measurements of adult heat tolerance in three independent collections of D. melanogaster, measured in three laboratories...

  2. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    and quantitative genetics in particular, plant phenotyping based quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery for a physiological trait under heat stress. Chlorophyll a fluorescence trait, Fv/Fm was used as a phenotyping tool, as it reflects the effect of heat stress on maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem...... reveal how important these identified QTLs are in terms of improving heat tolerance in wheat. Similar approach of plant phenotyping based gene discovery can be used to understand other physiological traits in plants in response to different abiotic stresses, which may lead to identification of genes...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...

  3. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  4. Heat Stress in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Heat Stress in Older Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... What You Can Do for Someone With Heat Stress If you see any signs of severe heat ...

  5. Tolerability of Antihypertensive Medications in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, Thiruvinvamalai S; Dharmarajan, Lekshmi

    2015-10-01

    Several guidelines for hypertension have recently undergone revisions to incorporate an approach providing choices of medications based on age, race, and specific situations where hypertension may co-exist with disorders such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. Initial recommendations include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers; beta blockers are favored in some guidelines and are a choice in specific settings. Within the classes of drugs, several antihypertensive agents provide options. This review discusses antihypertensive drugs by class, including adverse effects and tolerability, with preferences in older adults and specific settings. Adverse drug events from antihypertensive medications are discussed by class and where applicable for specific agents. Data from select studies pertinent to tolerability and adverse effects are presented in tables for several classes of drugs. The rationale for nonadherence to medication is reviewed, including the roles played by tolerability and adverse drug effects. Antihypertensive therapy in typical settings in older adults is discussed; they include hypertension in association with impaired cognition, depression, diabetes, sexual dysfunction, and falls. The key to successful therapy and tolerability is to promote a healthy lifestyle in conjunction with medications as the approach, thereby also lowering the adverse drug effects. The eventual choice of the specific drug(s) is based on risks, benefits, and patient preferences, and is best tailored for each older adult. PMID:26442857

  6. Enhancement of reproductive heat tolerance in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Burke

    Full Text Available Comparison of average crop yields with reported record yields has shown that major crops exhibit annual average yields three- to seven-fold lower than record yields because of unfavorable environments. The current study investigated the enhancement of pollen heat tolerance through expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein 101 (AtHSP101 that is not normally expressed in pollen but reported to play a crucial role in vegetative thermotolerance. The AtHSP101 construct under the control of the constitutive ocs/mas 'superpromoter' was transformed into cotton Coker 312 and tobacco SRI lines via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Thermotolerance of pollen was evaluated by in vitro pollen germination studies. Comparing with those of wild type and transgenic null lines, pollen from AtHSP101 transgenic tobacco and cotton lines exhibited significantly higher germination rate and much greater pollen tube elongation under elevated temperatures or after a heat exposure. In addition, significant increases in boll set and seed numbers were also observed in transgenic cotton lines exposed to elevated day and night temperatures in both greenhouse and field studies. The results of this study suggest that enhancing heat tolerance of reproductive tissues in plant holds promise in the development of crops with improved yield production and yield sustainability in unfavorable environments.

  7. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591

  8. Studies on heat tolerance at rest and orthostatic heat tolerance in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, S; Ihzuka, H

    1979-12-01

    Twelve young male Japanese were exposed to a hot environment in summer, and changes in systolic blood pressure induced by changing the position from recumbent to sitting were observed. Sweating was induced in a climatic chamber at 30 degree C with 70% relative humidity by immersing both legs up to the knees into a water bath of 42 degree C for 90 min after sitting on a chair at rest for 30 min in the chamber. The mean values of rise in rectal temperature, body weight loss and mean sodium concentration in sweat were 0.62 degree C, 0.67 kg and 46 mEq/l, respectively. The mean values of fall in systolic blood pressure associated with changing posture and its recovery time were 13.7 mm Hg and 77.5 sec, respectively. Heat tolerance at rest was assessed by a numerical heat tolerance index involving relative water loss, relative rise in rectal temperature, and relative salt loss. Values of relative water loss, relative rise in rectal temperature, and the numerical heat tolerance index correlated closely to those of fall in systolic blood pressure and its recovery time. PMID:555471

  9. Urban Physiology: City Ants Possess High Heat Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Angilletta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S; Niehaus, Amanda C.; Michael W Sears; Navas, Carlos A.; Ribeiro, Pedro L.

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil). Specifically, we compared thermal tole...

  10. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  11. Urban physiology: city ants possess high heat tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Angilletta

    Full Text Available Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil. Specifically, we compared thermal tolerances of ants from inside and outside of the city. Knock-down resistance and chill-coma recovery were used as indicators of heat and cold tolerances, respectively. Ants from within the city took 20% longer to lose mobility at 42 degrees C than ants from outside the city. Interestingly, greater heat tolerance came at no obvious expense of cold tolerance; hence, our observations only partially support current theory. Our results indicate that thermal tolerances of some organisms can respond to rapid changes in climate. Predictive models should account for acclimatory and evolutionary responses during climate change.

  12. A comprehensive assessment of geographic variation in heat tolerance and hardening capacity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgrò, C M; Overgaard, J; Kristensen, T N;

    2010-01-01

    knockdown temperature increased towards temperate latitudes, probably reflecting a greater capacity of temperate flies to withstand sudden temperature increases during summer in temperate Australia. Larval viability showed a quadratic association with latitude under heat stress. Thus, patterns of heat......We examined latitudinal variation in adult and larval heat tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia. Adults were assessed using static and ramping assays. Basal and hardened static heat knockdown time showed significant linear clines; heat tolerance increased towards the tropics......, particularly for hardened flies, suggesting that tropical populations have a greater hardening response. A similar pattern was evident for ramping heat knockdown time at 0.06 °C min-1 increase. There was no cline for ramping heat knockdown temperature (CTmax) at 0.1 °C min-1 increase. Acute (static) heat...

  13. Comprehensive assessment of geographic variation in heat tolerance and hardening capacity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgro, Carla M.; Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård;

    2010-01-01

    (static) heat knockdown temperature increased towards temperate latitudes, probably reflecting a greater capacity of temperate flies to withstand sudden temperature increases during summer in temperate Australia. Larval viability showed a quadratic association with latitude under heat stress. Thus......We examined latitudinal variation in adult and larval heat tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia. Adults were assessed using static and ramping assays. Basal and hardened static heat knockdown time showed significant linear clines; heat tolerance increased towards the tropics......, particularly for hardened flies, suggesting that tropical populations have a greater hardening response. A similar pattern was evident for ramping heat knockdown time at 0.06 degrees C min-1 increase. There was no cline for ramping heat knockdown temperature (CTmax) at 0.1 degrees C min-1 increase. Acute...

  14. Heat tolerance in sheep with white and dark coat under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanne Lopes Batista

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate heat tolerance of thirty crossbred sheep (Santa Ines with Dorper with white and black coat under heat stress. The experiment was conducted in September and October of 2012 and a completely randomized design was used. Before and after one hour exposure to solar radiation (14h00 - 15h00, rectal temperature, respiratory rate and surface temperature of the animals were measured. The Black Globe Temperature Humidity Index, the Heat Tolerance Index and the Heat Tolerance Coefficient were calculated. The values found for the Black Globe Temperature Humidity Index in the sun and in the shade were 89.08 and 82.81 respectively. Animals coat coloring did not influence on their rectal temperature and there was no difference on the heat tolerance index. It was verified the effect of coat coloring on the respiratory rate in dark colored hair coat sheep (P < 0.05 and the effect of the environment and coat coloring on the surface temperature and on the heat tolerance coefficient under the sun. Dark colored hair coat sheep presented lower heat tolerance.

  15. An exploration of heat tolerance in mice utilizing mRNA and microRNA expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals who rapidly develop hyperthermia during heat exposure (heat-intolerant are vulnerable to heat associated illness and injury. We recently reported that heat intolerant mice exhibit complex alterations in stress proteins in response to heat exposure. In the present study, we further explored the role of genes and molecular networks associated with heat tolerance in mice. METHODOLOGY: Heat-induced physiological and biochemical changes were assessed to determine heat tolerance levels in mice. We performed RNA and microRNA expression profiling on mouse gastrocnemius muscle tissue samples to determine novel biological pathways associated with heat tolerance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice (n = 18 were assigned to heat-tolerant (TOL and heat-intolerant (INT groups based on peak core temperatures during heat exposures. This was followed by biochemical assessments (Hsp40, Hsp72, Hsp90 and Hsf1 protein levels. Microarray analysis identified a total of 3,081 mRNA transcripts that were significantly misregulated in INT compared to TOL mice (p<0.05. Among them, Hspa1a, Dnajb1 and Hspb7 were differentially expressed by more than two-fold under these conditions. Furthermore, we identified 61 distinct microRNA (miRNA sequences significantly associated with TOL compared to INT mice; eight miRNAs corresponded to target sites in seven genes identified as being associated with heat tolerance pathways (Hspa1a, Dnajb1, Dnajb4, Dnajb6, Hspa2, Hspb3 and Hspb7. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of mRNA and miRNA data from the skeletal muscle of adult mice following heat stress provides new insights into the pathophysiology of thermoregulatory disturbances of heat intolerance.

  16. Gastrointestinal tolerance and utilization of agave inulin by healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Hannah D; Doligale, Jamie L; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-06-01

    Little clinical research exists on agave inulin as a fiber source. Due to differences in botanical origin and chemical structure compared to other inulin-type fibers, research is needed to assess gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance following consumption. This study aimed to evaluate GI tolerance and utilization of 5.0 and 7.5 g per day of agave inulin in healthy adults (n = 29) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial consisting of three 21 day periods with 1 week washouts among periods. GI tolerance was assessed via daily and weekly questionnaires, three fecal samples were collected on days 16-20 of each period, and breath hydrogen testing was completed on the final day of each treatment period. Survey data were compared using a generalized linear mixed model. All other outcomes were analyzed using a mixed linear model with a repeated measures procedure. Composite GI intolerance scores for 5.0 and 7.5 g treatments were both greater (P inulin. Abdominal pain and rumbling intensity were marginally greater (P inulin did not affect diarrhea (P > 0.05). Number of bowel movements per day increased, stools were softer, and stool dry matter percentage was lower with 7.5 g (P inulin compared to control. These data demonstrate that doses up to 7.5 g per day of agave inulin led to minimal GI upset, do not increase diarrhea, and improve laxation in healthy young adults.

  17. Heat tolerance of dairy lactococcal c2 phages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Basheer, Aideh; Neve, H.;

    2011-01-01

    Nine Lactococcus lactis c2 phages propagated on different hosts were screened for thermal resistance in skimmed milk. Pronounced variations in thermal resistance were found. Three phages displayed high sensitivity towards heat resulting in >8 log reductions after 70 °C for 5 min, whereas the most...... thermal resistant phages required 80 °C for 5 min to obtain the same reduction. Inactivation kinetics were determined for a thermo-sensitive and a thermo-resistant phage at 60–70 °C and 65–78 °C, respectively, using a submerged-coil system with extremely short heating-up times. Inactivation followed first...... thermal inactivated lysates (15% phage inactivation) of the heat tolerant phage P635....

  18. Elevatated CO2 alleviates heat stress tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2014-01-01

    Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...... origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 µl l-1) and elevated (800 µl l-1) CO2 with a day/night temperature of 15/10°С. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40°С for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum...... to the combination of elevated CO2 and heat stress. The results show that heat stress tolerance in wheat is related to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence...

  19. Chlorophyll a fluorescence to phenotype wheat genotypes for heat tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    . Chlorophyll a fluorescence has been a versatile tool in photosynthesis research to measure plant responses to various abiotic stresses that affect PSII. We aim to establish a reproducible protocol to measure response of wheat genotypes to high temperature, based on the physiological marker, maximum quantum......%. Our protocol seems to be stable over environments since interaction between genotypes and the three repeated experiments separated in time was not statistically significant. The chlorophyll a fluorescence protocol may enable identification of wheat lines reliably more or less tolerant to heat stress...

  20. Relationships between ultra drying tolerance and heat stable proteins in rice seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Genotype differences on the ultra drying tolerances in rice have been reported, but the mechanism is still unknown. Here the relationship between ultra drying tolerance and heat stable proteins was studied in different rice.

  1. Identification for Heat Tolerance in Backcross Recombinant Lines and Screening of Backcross Introgression Lines with Heat Tolerance at Milky Stage in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Jiang-lin; ZHANG Hong-yu; SHAO Xue-lian; ZHONG Ping-an; HUANG Ying-jin

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at breeding new rice germplasms with similar genome but significantly differed in heat tolerance during the grain filling stage.A total of 791 BC1F8 backcross recombinant lines,derived from the cross of Xieqingzao B / N22∥Xieqingzao B,were used as materials.Each rice line was separated evenly into two groups,and the heat tolerance of all rice lines were evaluated at natural high temperature in fields.The rice lines with heat tolerant index higher than 90% or lower than 40% were selected to compare the phenotypic characters and further identify heat tolerance at the early milky stage in a phytotron.Rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were analyzed by 887 simple sequence repeat markers that were evenly distributed on the 12 rice chromosomes.In the result,12 (6 pairs) rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were obtained.Molecular marker analysis indicated that the genomic polymorphism between 703T and 704S was the smallest in the 6 pairs of rice lines,with only 16 polymorphic sites,including 22 different alleles.The application of these two backcross introgression rice lines for future study on the mechanisms of heat tolerance in rice at the milky stage will be theoretically beneficial in reducing the interference caused by genetic differences from experimental materials.

  2. Hot bats: extreme thermal tolerance in a desert heat wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenco, Artiom; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase temperature extremes and thus thermal stress on organisms. Animals living in hot deserts are already exposed to high ambient temperatures ( T a) making them especially vulnerable to further warming. However, little is known about the effect of extreme heat events on small desert mammals, especially tree-roosting microbats that are not strongly protected from environmental temperature fluctuations. During a heat wave with record T as at Sturt National Park, we quantified the thermal physiology and behaviour of a single free-ranging little broad-nosed ( Scotorepens greyii, henceforth Scotorepens) and two inland freetail bats ( Mormopterus species 3, henceforth Mormopterus) using temperature telemetry over 3 days. On 11 and 13 January, maximum T a was ˜45.0 °C, and all monitored bats were thermoconforming. On 12 January 2013, when T a exceeded 48.0 °C, Scotorepens abandoned its poorly insulated roost during the daytime, whereas both Mormopterus remained in their better insulated roosts and were mostly thermoconforming. Maximum skin temperatures ( T skin) ranged from 44.0 to 44.3 °C in Scotorepens and from 40.0 to 45.8 °C in Mormopterus, and these are the highest T skin values reported for any free-ranging bat. Our study provides the first evidence of extensive heat tolerance in free-ranging desert microbats. It shows that these bats can tolerate the most extreme T skin range known for mammals (3.3 to 45.8 °C) and delay regulation of T skin by thermoconforming over a wide temperature range and thus decrease the risks of dehydration and consequently death.

  3. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Gautier, Roland; Nick, Marcel; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species, populations, individuals, and even within individuals. Age- or developmental stage- and sex-specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature, despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage- and sex- specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), a species common throughout the northern hemisphere that generally favours cool climates. Exposure of eggs to temperatures up to 32°C did not affect larval hatching rate, but subsequent egg-to-adult survival at a benign temperature was reduced. Permanent transfer from benign (18°C) to hot temperatures (up to 31°C) at different larval and pupal stages strongly decreased egg-to-adult survival, though survival continuously improved the later the transfer occurred. Temporary transfer for only two days increased mortality more weakly, survival being lowest when temperature stress was imposed early during the larval or pupal stages. Adult flies provided with sugar and water tolerated 31°C longer than previously thought (5 days in males to 9 days in females). Eggs were thus less susceptible to thermal stress than larvae, pupae or adults, in agreement with the hypothesis that more mobile stages require less physiological protection against heat because they can behaviourally thermoregulate. The probability of mating, of laying a clutch, and hatching success were generally independently reduced by exposure of females or males to warm temperatures (24°C) during the juvenile or adult stages, with some interactions evident. High temperature stress thus affects survival differentially depending on when it occurs during the juvenile or the pre-reproductive adult life stage, and affects reproductive success via the mating behaviour of both sexes, female physiology in terms of

  4. Heat-tolerant Asian HLB meets heat-sensitive African HLB in the Arabian Peninsula! Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Bové, Josy

    2014-01-01

    It will be recalled how the notions of “heat-sensitive/heat-tolerant HLB” and “African HLB/Asian HLB” were developed. These notions benefited from the possibility to confirm, for the first time, the non-specific HLB symptoms by reliable laboratory techniques: detection of the HLB-associated bacterium by transmission electron microscopy from 1970 onwards to DNA-hybridization and PCR of the liberibacters in the 1990s. With these tools, the early history of citrus HLB in the many countries surve...

  5. Effect of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test on Bone Turnover Markers in Adults with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shou-Kui; Wan, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Hua; Ma, Jin-Hong; Hua, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well known that enteral nutrients result in acute suppression of bone turnover markers (BTMs), and incretin hormones are believed to play a significant role in this physiological skeletal response. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of parenteral nutrients on BTMs. Our aim was to assess the influence of intravenous glucose on BTMs in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Material/Methods We conducted 1-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in 24 subjects with NGT. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min after administration of glucose, then serum levels of bone formation marker procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and resorption marker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) were measured. Results During IVGTT, the fasting CTX level fell gradually and reached a nadir of 80.4% of the basal value at 60 min. Conversely, the fasting P1NP level decreased mildly and reached a nadir of 90.6% of the basal value at 15 min, then gradually increased and reached 96.6% at 60 min. The CTX-to-P1NP ratio increased slightly and reached a peak of 104.3% of the basal value at 10 min, then fell gradually and reached a nadir of 83% at 60 min. Conclusions Our study indicates that intravenous glucose results in an acute suppression of BTMs in the absence of incretin hormones. The mechanism responsible for this needs further investigation. PMID:27447783

  6. Rectal temperature as an indicator for heat tolerance in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing Y; Wei, Pei P; Xu, Shen Y; Geng, Zhao Y; Jiang, Run S

    2013-11-01

    High environmental temperature is perhaps the most important inhibiting factor to poultry production in hot regions. The objective of this study was to test adaptive responses of chickens to high ambient temperatures and identify suitable indicators for selection of heat-tolerant individuals. Full-sib or half-sib Anak-40 pullets (n = 55) with similar body weights were raised in a room with a temperature ranging from 24°C to 28°C, and relative humidity of 50% from 61 to 65 days of age. On day 66, the ambient temperature was increased within 60 min to 35 ± 1°C which was defined as the initial of heat stress (0 h). Rectal temperature (RT) was measured on each pullet at 0, 6, 18, 30, 42, 54 and 66 h. After 66 h the ambient temperature was increased within 30 min to 41 ± 1°C and survival time (HSST) as well as lethal rectal temperatures (LRT) were recorded for each individual. The gap between the RT and initial RT was calculated as ΔTn (ΔT6, ΔT18, ΔT30, ΔT42, ΔT54 and ΔT66), and the interval between LRT and initial RT as ΔTT, respectively. A negative correlation was found between HSST and ΔTn as well as ΔTT (rΔ T 18  = -0.28 and rΔ TT  = -0.31, respectively, P < 0.05; rΔT30  = -0.36, rΔ T 42  = -0.38, rΔT54  = -0.56, P < 0.01). Importantly, pullets with low ΔT18 showed a longer HSST (256.0 ± 208.4 min) than those with high ΔT18 (HSST = 123.7 ± 78.3 min). This observation suggested that the ΔT18 or early increment of RT under heat stress might be considered as a reliable indicator for evaluation of heat resistance in chickens.

  7. Post heat shock tolerance: a neuroimmunological anti-inflammatory phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazani Nima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously showed that the progression of burn-induced injury was inhibited by exposing the peripheral area of injured skin to sublethal hyperthermia following the burn. We called this phenomenon post-heat shock tolerance. Here we suggest a mechanism for this phenomenon. Exposure of the peripheral primary hyperalgesic/allodynic area of burned skin to local hyperthermia (45°C, 30 seconds, which is a non-painful stimulus for normal skin, results in a painful sensation transmitted by nociceptors. This hyperthermia is too mild to induce any tissue injury, but it does result in pain due to burn-induced hyperalgesia/allodynia. This mild painful stimulus can result in the induction of descending anti-nociceptive mechanisms, especially in the adjacent burned area. Some of these inhibitory mechanisms, such as alterations of sympathetic outflow and the production of endogenous opioids, can modify peripheral tissue inflammation. This decrease in burn-induced inflammation can diminish the progression of burn injury.

  8. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  9. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  10. Heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura along a latitudinal gradient: Contrasting patterns between plastic and genetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Luis E; Rezende, Enrico L; Santos, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to global warming relies on how thermal tolerances respond to increasing temperatures through plasticity or evolution. Climatic adaptation can be assessed by examining the geographic variation in thermal-related traits. We studied latitudinal patterns in heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura reared at two temperatures. We used four static stressful temperatures to estimate the thermal death time (TDT) curves, and two ramping assays with fast and slow heating rates. Thermal death time curves allow estimation of the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), by extrapolating to the temperature that would knock down the flies almost "instantaneously," and the thermal sensitivity to increasing stressful temperatures. We found a positive latitudinal cline for CT(max), but no clinal pattern for knockdown temperatures estimated from the ramping assays. Although high-latitude populations were more tolerant to an acute heat stress, they were also more sensitive to prolonged exposure to less stressful temperatures, supporting a trade-off between acute and chronic heat tolerances. Conversely, developmental plasticity did not affect CT(max) but increased the tolerance to chronic heat exposition. The patterns observed from the TDT curves help to understand why the relationship between heat tolerance and latitude depends on the methodology used and, therefore, these curves provide a more complete and reliable measurement of heat tolerance. PMID:26292981

  11. Identification and Characterization of Proteins Associated with Plant Tolerance to Heat Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingru Huang; Chenping Xu

    2008-01-01

    Heat stress is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth and productivity in many areas of the world. Understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to heat stress would facilitate the development of heat-tolerant cultivars for improving productivity in warm climatic regions. Protein metabolism involving protein synthesis and degradation is one of the most sensitive processes to heat stress. Changes in the level and expression pattern of some proteins may play an important role in plant adaptation to heat stress. The identification of stress-responsive proteins and pathways has been facilitated by an increasing number of tools and resources, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the rapidly expanding nucleotide and amino acid sequence databases. Heat stress may induce or enhance protein expression or cause protein degradation. The induction of heat-responsive proteins, particularly heat shock proteins (HSPs), plays a key role in plant tolerance to heat stress. Protein degradation involving various proteases is also important in regulating plant responses to heat stress. This review provides an overview of recent research on proteomic profiling for the identification of heat-responsive proteins associated with heat tolerance, heat induction and characteristics of HSPs, and protein degradation in relation to plant responses to heat stress.

  12. Germplasm Innovation of Heat Tolerance in Rice for Irrigated Lowland Conditions in the Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norvie L.MANIGBAS; Leslie Angela F.LAMBIO; Luvina B.MADRID; Corazon C.CARDENAS

    2014-01-01

    Heat-tolerant varieties, such as N22 and Dular, which were used in this study, usually have low yield potential and undesirable plant characteristics but combining them with high yielding and improved rice varieties, new heat-tolerant rice genotypes with high yield potential can be achieved. In this study, phenotyping and selecting desirable materials from various crosses were performed under high temperature conditions during the reproductive stage. Screening was performed in the field and glasshouse to select individuals with heat tolerance and high yield potential. Several advanced breeding lines from Gayabyeo/N22 cross produced desirable individuals with heat tolerance, resistance to pests and diseases, and high yield potential. The genetic variation in percent sterility among the selected backcross populations grown in high temperature environments showed that large number of plants can be identified and selected with lower percent sterility.

  13. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults. PMID:24138995

  14. A novel system for in situ determination of heat tolerance of plants: first results on alpine dwarf shrubs

    OpenAIRE

    Buchner, Othmar; Karadar, Matthias; Bauer, Ines; Neuner, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat stress and heat damage to plants gain globally increasing importance for crop production and plant survival in endangered habitats. Therefore the knowledge of heat tolerance of plants is of great interest. As many heat tolerance measurement procedures require detachment of plants and protocols expose samples to various heat temperatures in darkness, the ecological relevance of such results may be doubted. To overcome these constraints we designed a novel field compatible Heat ...

  15. Chlorophyll a fluorescence to phenotype wheat genotypes for heat tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    In prospects of global climate change, heat stress is a rising constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a heat-susceptible crop beyond 17-23oC temperature throughout its phenological stages, flowering phase being the most sensitive stage. Chlorophyll a fluorescence...

  16. In vitro induction of variability through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro cultured shoots of potato, cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi', were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Microtubers, obtained from MIV3 shoots multiplied in vitro, were planted in pots. The resulting plants were screened for resistance to late blight, using detached leaf method. In 'Kufri Chandramukhi', 42% plants and in 'Kufri Jyoti' 36% plants, obtained from 40 Gy treatment, showed resistance to late blight. The frequency of resistant plants was lower from 20 Gy treatment. The progenies of putatively resistant plants were grown in field, and inoculated with sporangial inoculum of late blight fungus. The field grown progeny segregated for disease resistance, and approximately 56% plants showed resistance. During the next propagation, the frequency of resistant plants increased to 72%. For developing heat tolerance, microtubers obtained from 20 and 40 Gy treatments and in vitro multiplied M1V3 shoots were cultured at high temperature of 28C. In both varieties, the number of the microtubers per plant was highly reduced and the resulting microtubers had distorted shape but showed better germination (62%), even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. Of the two radiation doses, the higher dose of 40 Gy gave better results in both the varieties. Heat tolerance was also assessed from chlorophyll persistence. The progenies from putative heat-tolerant plants were tested in field by planting at higher temperature in two subsequent generations. The heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation, but the frequency of heat-tolerant plants increased. (author)

  17. Extremely heat tolerant photosymbiosis in a shallow marine benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christiane; Danna, Titelboim; Janett, Brandt; Raphael, Morard; Barak, Herut; Sigal, Abramovich; Ahuva, Almogi-Labin; Michal, Kucera

    2016-04-01

    Thermal stress leads to the loss of algal symbionts (bleaching) in many shallow marine calcifiers including foraminifera. The bleaching threshold often occurs at water temperatures, which are likely to be exceeded in the near future due to global warming. Preadaptation represents one mechanism allowing photosymbiotic organisms to persist under warmer conditions, providing the tolerance can be carried to new habitats. Here we provide evidence for the existence of such adaptation in the benthic foraminifera Pararotalia calcariformata recently discovered in the eastern Mediterranean. We identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We show that in the field, the foraminifera retains its pigments at a thermally polluted site, where peak water temperatures reach 36°C. To test whether this tolerance represents a widespread adaptation, we conducted manipulative experiments exposing populations from an unpolluted site to elevated temperatures for up to three weeks. The populations were kept in co-culture with the more thermally sensitive diatom-bearing foraminifera Amphistegina lobifera. Reduced photosynthetic activity in A. lobifera occurred at 32°C whereas photochemical stress in P. calcariformata was first observed during exposure to 36°C and chronic photoinhibition (but not mortality) first occurred at 42°C. Survivorship was high in all treatments, and growth was observed under thermal conditions similar to summer maxima at the thermally polluted site (35-36°C). The photosymbiosis in P. calcariformata is unusually thermally tolerant for a photosymbiont-bearing eukaryote. The thermal tolerance of this photosymbiosis is present in a natural environment where its thermal threshold is never realized. These observations imply that photosymbiosis in marine protists can respond to elevated temperatures by drawing on a pool of naturally occurring pre-adaptations. It also provides a perspective on the massive occurrence of

  18. Sweat loss during heat stress contributes to subsequent reductions in lower-body negative pressure tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebekah A. I.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of sweating to heat stress-induced reductions in haemorrhagic tolerance is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that fluid loss due to sweating contributes to reductions in simulated haemorrhagic tolerance in conditions of heat stress. Eight subjects (35 ± 8 years old; 77 ± 5 kg) underwent a normothermic time control and two heat stress trials (randomized). The two heat stress trials were as follows: (i) with slow intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer solution sufficient to offset sweat loss (IV trial); or (ii) without intravenous infusion (dehydration; DEH trial). Haemorrhage was simulated via progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope after core body (intestinal) temperature was raised by ~1.5°C using a water-perfused suit or a normothermic time control period. The LBNP tolerance was quantified via a cumulative stress index. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial Doppler) and mean blood pressure (Finometer®) were measured continuously. Relative changes in plasma volume were calculated from haematocrit and haemoglobin. Increases in core body temperature and sweat loss (~1.6% body mass deficit) were similar (P > 0.05) between heat stress trials. Slow intravenous infusion (1.2 ± 0.3 litres) prevented heat-induced reductions in plasma volume (IV trial, −0.6 ± 6.1%; and DEH trial, −6.6 ± 5.1%; P = 0.01). Intravenous infusion improved LBNP tolerance (632 ± 64 mmHg min) by ~20% when compared with the DEH trial (407 ± 117 mmHg min; P = 0.01), yet tolerance remained 44% lower in the IV trial relative to the time control normothermic trial (1138 ± 183 mmHg min; P < 0.01). These data indicate that although sweat-induced dehydration impairs simulated haemorrhagic tolerance, this impairment is secondary to the negative impact of heat stress itself. PMID:22872657

  19. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    functionality, therefore, its physiological relevance in terms of overall plant performance was validated under moderate heat stress (36°C for a week) mimicking natural heat waves. Interestingly, the wheat cultivars previously selected for high Fv/Fm also showed higher net photosynthesis,chlorophyll content......, wheat is sensitive to heat stress, particularly at the reproductive phase. Heat tolerance is a complex trait. In the present study, a combined approach of physiological phenotyping and quantitative genetics was used to dissect the complex nature of heat tolerance into photosynthesis related traits......: Genotyping and linkage analysis of molecular markers was carried out to analyze quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in three bi-parental segregating populations derived from the parents contrasting for Fv/Fm. Three QTLs each explaining about 12-16% of the phenotypic variation were mapped at a resolution of around...

  20. Characterization of heat tolerance in wheat cultivars and effects on production components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adérico Júnior Badaró Pimentel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is a need for heat tolerant wheat cultivars adapted to the expansion of cultivation areas in warmer regions due to the high demand of this cereal for human consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high temperatures on grain yield and yield components of wheat and characterize heat tolerant wheat genotypes at different development stages. The genotypes were evaluated in the field with and without heat stress. High temperatures reduced the number of spikelets per spike (21%, number of grains per spike (39%, number of grains per spikelet (23%, 1000-grain weight (27% and grain yield (79%. Cultivars MGS 1 Aliança, Embrapa 42, IAC 24-Tucuruí and IAC 364-Tucuruí III are the most tolerant to heat stress between the stages double ridge and terminal spikelet; MGS 1 Aliança, BRS 264, IAC 24-Tucuruí, IAC 364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between meiosis and anthesis; and BRS 254, IAC-24-Tucuruí, IAC-364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between anthesis and physiological maturity. High temperatures reduce grain yield and yield components. The number of grains per spike is the most reduced component under heat stress. The genotypes differed in tolerance to heat stress in different developmental stages.

  1. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  2. The Relationship Between Heat-induced Chilling Tolerance and Endogenous ABA Levels in Mangoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-jiang; JI Zuo-liang

    2002-01-01

    Heating "Zhihua" mangoes (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zhihua) in hot air at 38℃ for 12hours significantly reduced the development of chilling injury following storage for 12days at 2℃. Prolonging the heating up to 72hours acquired similar results. During the 12 days' storage at 2℃ following heating for 72hours, the membrane leakage of the mango peels showed little change, while it increased with time for the control fruits, and the endogenous ABA levels in the heated fruits were higher than that in the control. These results indicated that higher ABA rates were linked with stronger chilling tolerance in mangoes.

  3. Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals.

  4. Creatine Use and Exercise Heat Tolerance in Dehydrated Men

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Greig; Douglas J Casa; Fiala, Kelly A; Hile, Amy; Roti, Melissa W; Healey, Julie C.; Lawrence E. Armstrong; Carl M. Maresh

    2006-01-01

    Context: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) use is highly prevalent in team sports (eg, football, lacrosse, ice hockey) and by athletes at the high school, college, professional, and recreational levels. Concerns have been raised about whether creatine use is associated with increased cramping, muscle injury, heat intolerance, and risk of dehydration.

  5. Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van M.

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance entails acceptance of the very things one disagrees with, disapproves of or dislikes. Tolerance can be seen as ‘a flawed virtue’ (Schuyt, 2001), because it concerns acceptance of the differences between others and ourselves we would rather fight, ignore or overcome. Although tolerance carr

  6. Complex patterns of geographic variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels in the common frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Pekkonen, Minna; Lindgren, Beatrice;

    2009-01-01

    1. We tested for geographical variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels of Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500 km long latitudinal gradient in Sweden.   2. Temperature tolerance of the hatchling tadpoles did not differ among populations, but they tolerated stressful hot temperatur...

  7. Germplasm evaluation of heat tolerance in bread wheat in Tel Hadya, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka C Okechukwu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for heat tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a serious global concern due to the increasing threats of high temperature. Thus, 189 wheat genotypes coded from 1 to 189 were evaluated for heat tolerance in normal and late seasons in the International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA, Tel Hadya, Syria, from 2010 to 2012. The experiments were laid out in alpha lattice designs with two replicates. Data collected on the grain yield, days to heading and maturity, grain filling duration and plant height were subjected to restricted maximum likelihood (REML analysis for generation of the best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs. Very highly significant effects (p < 0.001 of genotype, season, and genotype by season interaction on grain yield and other traits were obtained. The grain yield and other traits performance of the wheat genotypes were significantly (p < 0.05 higher in the normal season than in the late season. Genotype 148 was among the 30 top grain yielding genotypes in all the environments, while genotypes 172 and 124 were among the top yielding genotypes in all the environments except in late season 2. The relative heat tolerance of the genotypes ranged from -33.69% to -77.95% in late season 1 vs. normal season 1 and -65.28% to -95.83% in late season 2 vs. normal season 2. The high variability obtained in the germplasm underlies sufficient genetic variability for improving heat tolerance in bread wheat.

  8. Development of late blight resistance and heat tolerance through gamma irradiation of shoot cultures in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro shoot cultures of two potato varieties viz., Kufri jyoti and Kufri Chandramukhi were gamma irradiated at 20 Gy and 40 Gy. Micro tubers were induced in micro propagated M1V3 generation. For heat tolerance micro tubers were induced at elevated (28C) incubation temperature (optimum being 201C) and were characterized by early sowing, chlorophyll persistence and harvest index. The number of micro tubers/plant was highly reduced at elevated temperature and the resulting tubers exhibited distorted shapes and growth of apical buds. Thus obtained micro tubers exhibited better germination (62.3%) even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. The progenies from putative heat tolerant plants were grown in the field by sowing at higher temperature for four subsequent generations. Heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation but the frequency of heat tolerant plants increased in the advanced generation. For developing late blight resistance micro tubers produced from irradiated shoot cultures were sown in pots and resulting plants were screened using detached leaf method. The progenies of putative resistant plants grown in the field were artificially inoculated with sporangial inoculum of Phytophthora infection's. Field grown plants exhibited segregation with respect to disease reaction and about 56 per cent plants showed resistance. Segregation was reduced during following generation and the frequency of resistant plants was increased up to 72.3 per cent. Thus, repeated selections has helped in developing stable mutants in both the varieties

  9. The importance of seed mass for the tolerance to heat shocks of savanna and forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, L.C.; Barbosa, E.R.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Borghetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    Questions: Does seed mass influence the tolerance of seeds to the effects of heating in fires? Is the tolerance to heat shocks during fire events dependent mostly on seed mass itself or to other traits linked to the species ecological origin, e.g. non-fire-prone (forest) and fire-prone (savanna) env

  10. Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress-tolerant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bita, Craita E; Gerats, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to have a general negative effect on plant growth due to the damaging effect of high temperatures on plant development. The increasing threat of climatological extremes including very high temperatures might lead to catastrophic loss of crop productivity and result in wide spread famine. In this review, we assess the impact of global climate change on the agricultural crop production. There is a differential effect of climate change both in terms of geographic location and the crops that will likely show the most extreme reductions in yield as a result of expected extreme fluctuations in temperature and global warming in general. High temperature stress has a wide range of effects on plants in terms of physiology, biochemistry and gene regulation pathways. However, strategies exist to crop improvement for heat stress tolerance. In this review, we present recent advances of research on all these levels of investigation and focus on potential leads that may help to understand more fully the mechanisms that make plants tolerant or susceptible to heat stress. Finally, we review possible procedures and methods which could lead to the generation of new varieties with sustainable yield production, in a world likely to be challenged both by increasing population, higher average temperatures and larger temperature fluctuations. PMID:23914193

  11. Avian thermoregulation in the heat: efficient evaporative cooling allows for extreme heat tolerance in four southern hemisphere columbids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Andrew E; Whitfield, Maxine C; Smit, Ben; Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Talbot, William A; McWhorter, Todd J; Wolf, Blair O

    2016-07-15

    Birds show phylogenetic variation in the relative importance of respiratory versus cutaneous evaporation, but the consequences for heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity remain unclear. We measured evaporative water loss (EWL), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body temperature (Tb) in four arid-zone columbids from southern Africa [Namaqua dove (Oena capensis, ∼37 g), laughing dove (Spilopelia senegalensis, ∼89 g) and Cape turtle dove (Streptopelia capicola, ∼148 g)] and Australia [crested pigeon (Ocyphaps lophotes), ∼186 g] at air temperatures (Ta) of up to 62°C. There was no clear relationship between body mass and maximum Ta tolerated during acute heat exposure. Maximum Tb at very high Ta was 43.1±1.0, 43.7±0.8, 44.7±0.3 and 44.3±0.8°C in Namaqua doves, laughing doves, Cape turtle doves and crested pigeons, respectively. In all four species, RMR increased significantly at Ta above thermoneutrality, but the increases were relatively modest with RMR at Ta=56°C being 32, 60, 99 and 11% higher, respectively, than at Ta=35°C. At the highest Ta values reached, evaporative heat loss was equivalent to 466, 227, 230 and 275% of metabolic heat production. The maximum ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic production observed in Namaqua doves, 4.66, exceeds by a substantial margin previous values reported for birds. Our results support the notion that cutaneous evaporation provides a highly efficient mechanism of heat dissipation and an enhanced ability to tolerate extremely high Ta. PMID:27207640

  12. Skin cooling maintains cerebral blood flow velocity and orthostatic tolerance during tilting in heated humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Rong; Witkowski, Sarah; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is reduced in the heat-stressed human. The purpose of this project was to identify whether skin-surface cooling improves orthostatic tolerance. Nine subjects were exposed to 10 min of 60 degrees head-up tilting in each of four conditions: normothermia (NT-tilt), heat stress (HT-tilt), normothermia plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (NT-tilt(cool)), and heat stress plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (HT-tilt(cool)). Heating and cooling were accomplished by perfusing 46 and 15 degrees C water, respectively, though a tube-lined suit worn by each subject. During HT-tilt, four of nine subjects developed presyncopal symptoms resulting in the termination of the tilt test. In contrast, no subject experienced presyncopal symptoms during NT-tilt, NT-tilt(cool), or HT-tilt(cool). During the HT-tilt procedure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) decreased. However, during HT-tilt(cool), MAP, total peripheral resistance, and CBFV were significantly greater relative to HT-tilt (all P skin-surface cooling prevents the fall in CBFV during upright tilting and improves orthostatic tolerance, presumably via maintenance of MAP. Hence, skin-surface cooling may be a potent countermeasure to protect against orthostatic intolerance observed in heat-stressed humans.

  13. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech.......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  14. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide-improved heat tolerance in maize and involvement of proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Ding, Xiao-Jiao; Du, Pei-Fang

    2013-05-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered as a phytotoxin, but nowadays as a cell signal molecule involved in growth, development, and the acquisition of stress tolerance in higher plants. In the present study, hydrogen sulfide donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), pretreatment markedly improved germination percentage of seeds and survival percentage of seedlings of maize under heat stress, and alleviated an increase in electrolyte leakage of roots, a decrease in tissue vitality and an accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in coleoptiles of maize seedlings. In addition, pretreatment of NaHS could improve the activity of Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and lower proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) activity, which in turn induced accumulation of endogenous proline in maize seedlings. Also, application of proline could enhance endogenous proline content, followed by mitigated accumulation of MDA and increased survival percentage of maize seedlings under heat stress. These results suggest that sodium hydrosulfide pretreatment could improve heat tolerance of maize and the acquisition of this heat tolerance may be involved in proline.

  17. Heat priming induces trans-generational tolerance to high temperature stress in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH, the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1 which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production.

  18. Heat Priming Induces Trans-generational Tolerance to High Temperature Stress in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Xin, Caiyun; Cai, Jian; Zhou, Qin; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Jiang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH), the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH) possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production. PMID:27148324

  19. Molecular genetics of heat tolerance and heat shock proteins in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Elena; Klueva, Natalya; Perrotta, Carla; Gulli, Mariolina; Nguyen, Henry T; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Heat stress is common in most cereal-growing areas of the world. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular and genetic basis of thermotolerance in vegetative and reproductive tissues of cereals. Significance of heat stress response and expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in thermotolerance of cereal yield and quality is discussed. Major avenues for increasing thermotolerance in cereals via conventional breeding or genetic modification are outlined. PMID:11999842

  20. Efficiency of selection in early generations of potato families with a view toward heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Rodrigues de Figueiredo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of selection of potato families in early generations for heat tolerance. Thirty families were evaluated in the seedling generation (SG, first clonal generation (FCG in the field and greenhouse under high temperature conditions, and second clonal generation (SCG under mild temperatures. The mean of the families was obtained in each generation. The 16 most productive families in FCG were selected, and the clones of these families were evaluated in experiments in the winter and rainy crop seasons. The results showed that family selection for tuber shape may be applied as of the SG. It was also observed that family selection in the FCG and SCG for yield and tuber specific gravity contributed to identification of clones tolerant to heat and responsive to environmental improvement.

  1. Heat-tolerant methanotrophic bacteria from the hot water effluent of a natural gas field.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bodrossy; Murrell, J.C.; Dalton, H; Kalman, M; Puskas, L. G.; Kovacs, K L

    1995-01-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria were isolated from a natural environment potentially favorable to heat-tolerant methanotrophs. An improved colony plate assay was developed and used to identify putative methanotrophic colonies with high confidence. Fourteen new isolates were purified and partially characterized. These new isolates exhibit a DNA sequence homology of up to 97% with the conserved regions in the mmoX and mmoC genes of the soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO)-coding gene cluster of Methyloc...

  2. Efficiency of selection in early generations of potato families with a view toward heat tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Cristina Rodrigues de Figueiredo; César Augusto Brasil Pereira Pinto; Guilherme Henrique Martins Rodrigues Ribeiro; Leandro de Oliveira Lino; Danilo Hottis Lyra; Carolina Mariane Moreira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of selection of potato families in early generations for heat tolerance. Thirty families were evaluated in the seedling generation (SG), first clonal generation (FCG) in the field and greenhouse under high temperature conditions, and second clonal generation (SCG) under mild temperatures. The mean of the families was obtained in each generation. The 16 most productive families in FCG were selected, and the clones of these families were e...

  3. Roles of Protein Synthesis Elongation Factor EF-Tu in Heat Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EF-Tu proteins of plastids, mitochondria, and the cytosolic counterpart EF-1α in plants, as well as EF-Tu proteins of bacteria, are highly conserved and multifunctional. The functions of EF-Tu include transporting the aminoacyl-tRNA complex to the A site of the ribosome during protein biosynthesis; chaperone activity in protecting other proteins from aggregation caused by environmental stresses, facilitating renaturation of proteins when conditions return to normal; displaying a protein disulfide isomerase activity; participating in the degradation of N-terminally blocked proteins by the proteasome; eliciting innate immunity and triggering resistance to pathogenic bacteria in plants; participating in transcription when an E. coli host is infected with phages. EF-Tu genes are upregulated by abiotic stresses in plants, and EF-Tu plays important role in stress responses. Expression of a plant EF-Tu gene confers heat tolerance in E. coli, maize knock-out EF-Tu null mutants are heat susceptible, and over-expression of an EF-Tu gene improves heat tolerance in crop plants. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge of EF-Tu proteins in stress responses in plants and progress on application of EF-Tu for developing crop varieties tolerant to abiotic stresses, such as high temperatures.

  4. Distress tolerance predicts coping motives for marijuana use among treatment seeking young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semcho, Stephen; Bilsky, Sarah A; Lewis, Sarah F; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-07-01

    Given increasing marijuana use and abuse among young adults in the United States and the associated physical and mental health consequences, it is important to improve our understanding of factors that may contribute to problematic marijuana use. A convergence of theory and research underscores the relevance of particular marijuana use motives generally, and coping-related motives specifically, in enhancing risk for marijuana use problems. Distress tolerance is a transdiagnostic emotion vulnerability factor that may relate to coping-related motives for marijuana use. The current study was designed to further explore this relationship within a treatment-seeking sample of young adults (Mage=24.40; SD=2.06 years). Results were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting distress tolerance is related to coping motives for marijuana use within this treatment-seeking sample, even after accounting for a number of theoretically relevant covariates. Theoretical and applied implications of distress tolerance as it relates to coping motives for marijuana use as treatment targets are discussed. PMID:26921722

  5. Distress tolerance predicts coping motives for marijuana use among treatment seeking young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semcho, Stephen; Bilsky, Sarah A; Lewis, Sarah F; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-07-01

    Given increasing marijuana use and abuse among young adults in the United States and the associated physical and mental health consequences, it is important to improve our understanding of factors that may contribute to problematic marijuana use. A convergence of theory and research underscores the relevance of particular marijuana use motives generally, and coping-related motives specifically, in enhancing risk for marijuana use problems. Distress tolerance is a transdiagnostic emotion vulnerability factor that may relate to coping-related motives for marijuana use. The current study was designed to further explore this relationship within a treatment-seeking sample of young adults (Mage=24.40; SD=2.06 years). Results were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting distress tolerance is related to coping motives for marijuana use within this treatment-seeking sample, even after accounting for a number of theoretically relevant covariates. Theoretical and applied implications of distress tolerance as it relates to coping motives for marijuana use as treatment targets are discussed.

  6. Physiological and molecular evidence of differential short-term heat tolerance in Mediterranean seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, Lazaro; Ruiz, Juan M; Dattolo, Emanuela; Garcia-Munoz, Rocio; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The increase in extreme heat events associated to global warming threatens seagrass ecosystems, likely by affecting key plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding species' ability to acclimate to warming is crucial to better predict their future trends. Here, we study tolerance to warming in two key Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa. Stress responses of shallow and deep plants were followed during and after short-term heat exposure in mesocosms by coupling photo-physiological measures with analysis of expression of photosynthesis and stress-related genes. Contrasting tolerance and capacity to heat acclimation were shown by shallow and deep P. oceanica ecotypes. While shallow plants acclimated through respiratory homeostasis and activation of photo-protective mechanisms, deep ones experienced photosynthetic injury and impaired carbon balance. This suggests that P. oceanica ecotypes are thermally adapted to local conditions and that Mediterranean warming will likely diversely affect deep and shallow meadow stands. On the other hand, contrasting mechanisms of heat-acclimation were adopted by the two species. P. oceanica regulates photosynthesis and respiration at the level of control plants while C. nodosa balances both processes at enhanced rates. These acclimation discrepancies are discussed in relation to inherent attributes of the two species. PMID:27345831

  7. Can sea urchins beat the heat? Sea urchins, thermal tolerance and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sherman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The massive die-off of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, a significant reef grazer, in the mid 1980s was followed by phase shifts from coral dominated to macroalgae dominated reefs in the Caribbean. While Diadema populations have recovered in some reefs with concomitant increases in coral cover, the additional threat of increasing temperatures due to global climate change has not been investigated in adult sea urchins. In this study, I measured acute thermal tolerance of D. antillarum and that of a sympatric sea urchin not associated with coral cover, Echinometra lucunter, over winter, spring, and summer, thus exposing them to substantial natural thermal variation. Animals were taken from the wild and placed in laboratory tanks in room temperature water (∼22 °C that was then heated at 0.16–0.3 °C min−1 and the righting behavior of individual sea urchins was recorded. I measured both the temperature at which the animal could no longer right itself (TLoR and the righting time at temperatures below the TLoR. In all seasons, D. antillarum exhibited a higher mean TLoR than E. lucunter. The mean TLoR of each species increased with increasing environmental temperature revealing that both species acclimatize to seasonal changes in temperatures. The righting times of D. antillarum were much shorter than those of E. lucunter. The longer relative spine length of Diadema compared to that of Echinometra may contribute to their shorter righting times, but does not explain their higher TLoR. The thermal safety margin (the difference between the mean collection temperature and the mean TLoR was between 3.07–3.66 °C for Echinometra and 3.79–5.67 °C for Diadema. While these thermal safety margins exceed present day temperatures, they are modest compared to those of temperate marine invertebrates. If sea temperatures increase more rapidly than can be accommodated by the sea urchins (either by genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity

  8. Investigating inbreeding depression for heat stress tolerance in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Anders Christian;

    2012-01-01

    -year university students and discuss learning outcomes of the exercise as an example of inquiry-based science teaching. We use the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to test the ability of inbred and control (non-inbred) females to survive heat stress exposure. Flies were anaesthetised and collected...... the students to central topics in population genetics and demonstrates potential consequences of inbreeding and environmental stress on fitness. Furthermore, the practical gives insight into how to design, analyse, and interpret the results of a scientific study....... into vials before exposure to 38°C heat stress in a water bath for 1 h. Half an hour later the number of comatose inbred and control flies were scored and chi-square statistic procedures were used to test for different degrees of heat stress tolerance between the two lines of flies. The practical introduces...

  9. Evaluation of the xerovac process for the preparation of heat tolerant contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litamoi, J K; Ayelet, G; Rweyemamu, M M

    2005-04-01

    The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the xerovac process as a method for preparing contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine with increased heat resistance. The thermo-protective effects of various concentrations of trehalose in mycoplasma growth medium, various concentrations of trehalose in the dehydration stabilizer and the importance of some divalent cations were assessed. The results obtained indicate that a rapid dehydration of CBPP vaccine following the xerovac method and in an excipient composed of a high concentration of trehalose, renders the product more heat tolerant than a similar vaccine prepared using a regular or an extended freeze drying regime. It was also demonstrated that the addition of chitosan as a mycoplasma precipitating agent conferred additional heat resistance to the vaccine. It is suggested that the application of the xerovac process in the dehydration of CBPP vaccine offers the advantages of a faster, cheaper and easier process over the conventional dehydration methods like freeze drying.

  10. Catharanthus roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 confers UV and heat tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Susheel Kumar; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash Pandhari; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important source of pharmaceutically important Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids (MIAs). Accumulation of many of the MIAs is induced in response to abiotic stresses such as wound, ultra violet (UV) irradiations, etc. Recently, we have demonstrated a possible role of CrMPK3, a C. roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase in stress-induced accumulation of a few MIAs. Here, we extend our findings using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the role of CrMPK3 in giving tolerance to abiotic stresses. Yeast cells transformed with CrMPK3 was found to show enhanced tolerance to UV and heat stress. Comparison of CrMPK3 and SLT2, a MAPK from yeast shows high-sequence identity particularly at conserved domains. Additionally, heat stress is also shown to activate a 43 kDa MAP kinase, possibly CrMPK3 in C. roseus leaves. These findings indicate the role of CrMPK3 in stress-induced MIA accumulation as well as in stress tolerance. PMID:23221751

  11. Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Fujita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High temperature (HT stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plant responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plant type. HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high yields of crop plants under HT stress are important agricultural goals. Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. HT-induced gene expression and metabolite synthesis also substantially improve tolerance. The physiological and biochemical responses to heat stress are active research areas, and the molecular approaches are being adopted for developing HT tolerance in plants. This article reviews the recent findings on responses, adaptation, and tolerance to HT at the cellular, organellar, and whole plant levels and describes various approaches being taken to enhance thermotolerance in plants.

  12. The RdDM Pathway Is Required for Basal Heat Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga V.Popova; Huy Q.Dinh; Werner Aufsatz; Claudia Jonak

    2013-01-01

    Heat stress affects epigenetic gene silencing in Arabidopsis.To test for a mechanistic involvement of epigenetic regulation in heat-stress responses,we analyzed the heat tolerance of mutants defective in DNA methylation,histone modifications,chromatin-remodeling,or siRNA-based silencing pathways.Plants deficient in NRPD2,the common second-largest subunit of RNA polymerases Ⅳ and V,and in the Rpd3-type histone deacetylase HDA6 were hypersensitive to heat exposure.Microarray analysis demonstrated that NRPD2 and HDA6 have independent roles in transcriptional reprogramming in response to temperature stress.The misexpression of protein-coding genes in nrpd2 mutants recovering from heat correlated with defective epigenetic regulation of adjacent transposon remnants which involved the loss of control of heat-stress-induced read-through transcription.We provide evidence that the transcriptional response to temperature stress,at least partially,relies on the integrity of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation pathway.

  13. Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress tolerant crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita eBita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is predicted to have a general negative effect on plant growth due to the negative effect of high temperatures on plant development. The increasing threat of climatological extremes, including very high temperatures might lead to catastrophic loss of crop productivity and result in wide spread famine. In this review we assess the impact of global climate change on the production of agricultural crop production. There is a differential effect of climate change both in terms of geographic location and the crops that have will be likely to show the most extreme reductions in yield as a result of warming in general and the expected fluctuations in temperature. High temperature stress has a wide range of effects on plants both in terms of physiology, biochemistry and gene regulation pathways. In this review we present the recent advances of research on all these level of investigation focusing on potential leads that may help to understand more fully the mechanisms that make plants tolerant or susceptible to heat stress. Finally we review possible mechanisms and methods which can lead to the generation of new varieties that will allow sustainable yield production in a world likely to be challenged both by increasing population, higher average temperatures and larger temperature fluctuations.

  14. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Overexpression of Ferredoxin, PETF, Enhances Tolerance to Heat Stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by plants in adverse environments can cause damage to organelles and trigger cell death. Removal of excess ROS can be achieved through the ascorbate scavenger pathway to prevent plant cell death. The amount of this scavenger can be regulated by ferredoxin (FDX. Chloroplastic FDXs are electron transfer proteins that perform in distributing photosynthetic reducing power. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of the endogenous photosynthetic FDX gene, PETF, in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii could raise the level of reduced ascorbate and diminish H2O2 levels under normal growth conditions. Furthermore, the overexpressing PETF transgenic Chlamydomonas lines produced low levels of H2O2 and exhibited protective effects that were observed through decreased chlorophyll degradation and increased cell survival under heat-stress conditions. The findings of this study suggest that overexpression of PETF can increase the efficiency of ROS scavenging in chloroplasts to confer heat tolerance. The roles of PETF in the downregulation of the ROS level offer a method for potentially improving the tolerance of crops against heat stress.

  16. Clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity in Malaysian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T O; Ding, L M; Zaki, M; Merican, I; Kew, S T; Maimunah, A H; Rozita, H H; Rugayah, B

    2000-06-01

    We determine the prevalence and determinants of clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and overweight in Malaysia. A national probability sample of 17,392 individuals aged 30 years or older had usable data. 61% of adults had at least one risk factor, 27% had 2 or more risk factors. The observed frequency of 4 factors cluster was 6 times greater than that expected by chance. Indian and Malay women were at particular high risk of risk factors clustering. Individuals with a risk factor had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of other risk factors. Ordinal regression analyses show that higher income, urban residence and physical inactivity were independently associated with risk factors clustering, lending support to the hypotheses that risk factors clustering is related to lifestyle changes brought about by modernisation and urbanisation. In conclusion, risk factor clustering is highly prevalent among Malaysian adults. Treatment and prevention programme must emphasise the multiple risk factor approach.

  17. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Ara; Korakot Nakkanong; Wenhui Lv; Jinghua Yang; Zhongyuan Hu; Mingfang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant inte...

  18. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2012-01-01

    on a physiological trait, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). A chlorophyll fluorescence protocol was standardised and used for repeated screening with increased selection pressure with a view to identifying a set of cultivars extreme for the trait. An initial mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars....... The identification of a set of wheat cultivars contrasting for their inherent photochemical efficiency may aid future studies to understand the genetic and physiological nature of heat stress tolerance in order to dissect quantitative traits into simpler genetic factors....

  19. ASSOCIATION OF HSP72 WITH THE NUCLEAR (TX-100-INSOLUBLE) FRACTION UPON HEATING TOLERANT AND NONTOLERANT HELA S3 CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMPINGA, HH; MULLER, E; BRUNSTING, JF; HEINE, L; KONINGS, AWT; ISSELS, RD

    1993-01-01

    HSP72 levels in the cellular and the nuclear (TX-insoluble) fraction before and after heating of heat- and sodium arsenite-induced thermotolerant and non-tolerant HeLa S3 cells have been investigated by ID- and 2D-electrophoresis, followed by Western blotting and immunostaining, using a newly develo

  20. The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogueta, Maite; Cibik, Osman; Eltrop, Rouven; Schneider, Andrea; Scholz, Henrike

    2010-11-01

    Preference determines behavioral choices such as choosing among food sources and mates. One preference-affecting chemical is ethanol, which guides insects to fermenting fruits or leaves. Here, we show that adult Drosophila melanogaster prefer food containing up to 5% ethanol over food without ethanol and avoid food with high levels (23%) of ethanol. Although female and male flies behaved differently at ethanol-containing food sources, there was no sexual dimorphism in the preference for food containing modest ethanol levels. We also investigated whether Drosophila preference, sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol was related to the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), the primary ethanol-metabolizing enzyme in D. melanogaster. Impaired Adh function reduced ethanol preference in both D. melanogaster and a related species, D. sechellia. Adh-impaired flies also displayed reduced aversion to high ethanol concentrations, increased sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on postural control, and negative tolerance/sensitization (i.e., a reduction of the increased resistance to ethanol's effects that normally occurs upon repeated exposure). These data strongly indicate a linkage between ethanol-induced behavior and ethanol metabolism in adult fruit flies: Adh deficiency resulted in reduced preference to low ethanol concentrations and reduced aversion to high ones, despite recovery from ethanol being strongly impaired.

  1. Effect of the C.-1 388 A>G polymorphism in chicken heat shock transcription factor 3 gene on heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-wu; KONG Li-na; ZHANG De-xiang; JI Cong-liang; ZHANG Xi-quan; LUO Qing-bin

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors that inlfuence poultry production. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to affect heat tolerance. The formation of HSPs is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 3 (HSF3) in chicken. A DNA pool was established for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the chicken HSF3, and 13 SNPs were detected. The bioinformatic analysis showed that 8 SNPs had the capacity to alter the transcription activity of HSF3. The dual luciferase report gene assay showed that there was a signiifcant difference (PG (S1) and C.–1 388 A>G (S4) sites at the 5´-untranslated region (UTR) of chicken HSF3. The elec-trophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the S4 site was a transcription binding factor. The analysis of the association of the S1 and S4 sites with heat tolerance index revealed that the S4 site was signiifcantly correlated with the CD3+T cel , corticosterone, and T3 levels in Lingshan chickens and with the heterophil/lymphocyte value in White Recessive Rock. These results showed that the S4 site at the 5´ UTR of chicken HSF3 might have an impact on heat tolerance in summer and could be used as a potential marker for the selection of chicken with heat tolerance in the future.

  2. Wheat cultivars differing in heat tolerance show a differential response to oxidative stress during monocarpic senescence under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna-Chopra, Renu; Chauhan, Shakti

    2015-09-01

    Wheat crop may experience heat stress during post-anthesis phase associated with oxidative stress, enhanced senescence, and reduced productivity. Stay green is a desirable character for the selection for heat tolerance in wheat. In the present study, antioxidant metabolism was studied under post-anthesis heat stress in field during monocarpic senescence by comparing two wheat genotypes, namely Hindi62 (heat tolerant and delayed senescent) and PBW343 (heat susceptible and early senescent). Hindi62 exhibited lesser oxidative stress, membrane damage, and coordinated antioxidant defense as compared to PBW343 under heat stress during post-anthesis stage. Higher activity of SOD, CAT, APX, GR, and MDHAR under heat stress contributed towards delayed senescence in Hindi62 compared to PBW343. GSH/GSSG ratio was also maintained at higher level in Hindi62 under heat stress compared to PBW343 during senescence. Hence, the present study clearly shows that upregulated level of the total antioxidant capacity during grain development contributed towards delayed senescence and heat tolerance in Hindi62 compared to the heat-susceptible PBW343. PMID:25586109

  3. Molecular programs induced by heat acclimation confer neuroprotection against TBI and hypoxic insults via cross-tolerance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eHorowitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection following prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures (heat acclimation HA develops via altered molecular programs such as cross-tolerance (Heat Acclimation -Neuroprotection Cross-Tolerance -HANCT. The mechanisms underlying cross-tolerance depend on enhanced on-demand protective pathways evolving during acclimation. The protection achieved is long lasting and limits the need for de novo recruitment of cytoprotective pathways upon exposure to novel stressors. Using mouse and rat acclimated phenotypes, we will focus on the impact of heat acclimation on Angiotensin II-AT2 receptors in neurogenesis and on HIF-1 as key mediators in spontaneous recovery and HANCT after traumatic brain injury (TBI. The neuroprotective consequences of heat acclimation on NMDA and AMPA receptors will be discussed using the global hypoxia model. A behavioral-molecular link will be crystallized. The differences between HANCT and consensus preconditioning will be reviewed.

  4. Heat-stress Tolerance of Some Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge KESICI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiological parameters were used to investigate genotypic variations in 15 strawberry cultivars [‘Aromas’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Carmine’, ‘Cal. Giant 3’ (CG3, ‘Cal. Giant 5’ (CG5, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Fern’, ‘Festival’, ‘Honeoye’, ‘Kabarla’, ‘Redlands Hope’ (R.Hope, ‘Ruby Gem’, ‘Selva’, ‘Sweet Charlie’ and ‘Whitney’] and their relationship to heat-stress tolerance (HST. Cold stored (frigo strawberry seedlings were grown in pots for six weeks and then transferred to a growth chamber. The temperature in the growth chamber was increased stepwise from 35 to 40, 45 and 50°C to create a heat-stressed environment. Leaf relative water content (RWC, loss of turgidity and chlorophyll content were measured at each temperature. The ‘Elsanta’ and ‘R.Hope’ had the highest RWC, while the ‘Festival’ and ‘CG3’ had the lowest. However, ‘Elsanta’ and ‘R.Hope’ had the lowest loss of turgidity, while ‘Festival’ and ‘CG3’ had the highest. ‘Elsanta’ and ‘R.Hope’ showed the lowest chlorophyll content, and ‘CG3’ and ‘Whitney’ had the highest. To determine HST (LT50, leaf discs of each cultivar were exposed to 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60°C. A considerable decrease in the LT50 was observed with increasing temperature in all cultivars. The LT50 of the cultivars ranged from 51.8 to 52.9°C. Based on the data collected, ‘Elsanta’, ‘R. Hope’ and ‘Camarosa’ were determined to be relatively heat-tolerant cultivars, while ‘Whitney’, ‘Fern’, ‘Festival’ and ‘CG3’ were heat-sensitive cultivars.

  5. Heat tolerance in Tuli-, Senepol-, and Brahman-sired F1 Angus heifers in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Olson, T A; Randel, R D

    1998-06-01

    We investigated heat tolerance and growth rate in two trials under ambient conditions in central Florida. Trial 1 (1994) involved 38 Brahman (B), 21 Senepol (S), 19 B x Angus (A), 20 S x A, and 20 Tuli (T) x A heifers. Trial 2 (1995) involved 13 A, 35 B, 30 S, 23 B x A, 17 S x A, and 28 T x A heifers. Measurements were made on three consecutive weeks during the hotter and cooler seasons of each year and included rectal temperature (RT, degrees C), respiration rate (RR, bpm), temperament score (TS; 1 = very docile, 5 = very aggressive), blood packed-cell volume (PCV), and plasma cortisol concentration (CORT). Data for RT were transformed (log10 [RT - 37]) before analysis. On the hottest date in Trial 1, log10 RT was not different between B (.39 +/- .011) and B x A (.37 +/- .016) or between T x A (.35 +/- .015) and B x A, but log10 RT was lower (P Senepol, Brahman) with a temperate breed (Angus) is similar to heat tolerance displayed by purebred tropical breeds (Senepol, Brahman). PMID:9655576

  6. Tolerance to Gamma Radiation in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini from Embryo to Adult Correlate Inversely with Cellular Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Beltrán-Pardo

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are highly tolerant to desiccation and ionizing radiation but the mechanisms of this tolerance are not well understood. In this paper, we report studies on dose responses of adults and eggs of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini exposed to gamma radiation. In adults the LD50/48h for survival was estimated at ~ 4200 Gy, and doses higher than 100 Gy reduced both fertility and hatchability of laid eggs drastically. We also evaluated the effect of radiation (doses 50 Gy, 200 Gy, 500 Gy on eggs in the early and late embryonic stage of development, and observed a reduced hatchability in the early stage, while no effect was found in the late stage of development. Survival of juveniles from irradiated eggs was highly affected by a 500 Gy dose, both in the early and the late stage. Juveniles hatched from eggs irradiated at 50 Gy and 200 Gy developed into adults and produced offspring, but their fertility was reduced compared to the controls. Finally we measured the effect of low temperature during irradiation at 4000 Gy and 4500 Gy on survival in adult tardigrades, and observed a slight delay in the expressed mortality when tardigrades were irradiated on ice. Since H. dujardini is a freshwater tardigrade with lower tolerance to desiccation compared to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the high radiation tolerance in adults, similar to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, is unexpected and seems to challenge the idea that desiccation and radiation tolerance rely on the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest that the higher radiation tolerance in adults and late stage embryos of H. dujardini (and in other studied tardigrades compared to early stage embryos may partly be due to limited mitotic activity, since tardigrades have a low degree of somatic cell division (eutely, and dividing cells are known to be more sensitive to radiation.

  7. Differences in heat tolerance between preimplantation embryos from Brahman, Romosinuano, and Angus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cerón, J; Chase, C C; Hansen, P J

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to 41 degrees C reduces development of embryos of heat-sensitive breeds (Holstein and Angus) more than for embryos of the heat-tolerant Brahman breed. Here it was tested whether embryonic resistance to heat shock occurs for a thermotolerant breed of different genetic origin than the Brahman. In particular, the thermal sensitivity of in vitro produced embryos of the Romosinuano, a Bos taurus, Criollo-derived breed, was compared to that for in vitro produced Brahman and Angus embryos. At d 4 after insemination, embryos > or = 8 cells were randomly assigned to control (38.5 degrees C) or heat shock (41 degrees C for 6 h) treatments. Heat shock reduced the proportion of embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage on d 8 after insemination. At 38.5 degrees C, there were no significant differences in development between breeds. Among embryos exposed to 41 degrees C, however, development was lower for Angus embryos than for Brahman and Romosinuano embryos. Furthermore, an Angus vs. (Brahman + Romosinuano) x temperature interaction occurred because heat shock reduced development more in Angus (30.3 +/- 4.6% at 38.5 degrees C vs. 4.9 +/- 4.6% at 41 degrees C) than in Brahman (25.1 +/- 4.6% vs. 13.6 +/- 4.6%) and Romosinuano (28.3 +/- 4.1% vs. 17.5 +/- 4.1%). Results demonstrate that embryos from Brahman and Romosinuano breeds are more resistant to elevated temperature than embryos from Angus. Thus, the process of adaptation of Brahman and Romosinuano breeds to hot environments resulted in both cases in selection of genes controlling thermotolerance at the cellular level. PMID:14765810

  8. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments. PMID:25675104

  9. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble, as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  10. Influence of hydration status and fluid replacement on heat tolerance while wearing NBC protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, S S; McLellan, T M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of hypohydration and fluid replacement on tolerance to an uncompensable heat stress. Eight healthy young males completed a matrix of six trials in an environmental chamber, set at 40 degrees C and 30% relative humidity, while wearing nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing. Subjects performed either light (3.5 km x h(-1), 0% grade, no wind) or heavy (4.8 km x h(-1), 4% grade, no wind) treadmill exercise combined with three hydration states [euhydration with fluid replacement (EU/F), euhydration without fluid replacement (EU/NF), and hypohydration with fluid replacement (H/F)]. Hypohydration of 2.2% body mass was achieved by exercise and fluid restriction on the day preceding the trials. No differences in the endpoint mean skin temperature (Tsk), sweat rate, or rectal temperature (Tre) were observed among the hydration conditions for either work rate. During light exercise, the change in Tre (deltaTre) was significantly higher with H/F than EU/F after 40 min, and heart rate was greater after 25 min. The heart rate was greater during EU/NF than during EU/F after 60 min. Tolerance times were significantly greater for EU/F than for either EU/NF or H/F. With heavy exercise, no differences in deltaTre were observed across hydration conditions. Compared to EU/F, heart rates were higher after 10 and 30 min for H/F and EU/NF, respectively. Tolerance times were significantly less during H/F than with either of the EU conditions. Stroke volume was significantly decreased in H/F trials compared to EU/F trials for both light and heavy work rates, but no differences in cardiac output were observed. It was concluded that even minor levels of hypohydration significantly impaired exercise tolerance in a severely uncompensable heat stress environment at both light and heavy exercise intensities. PMID:9459534

  11. Exercise tolerance in a hot and humid climate in heat-acclimatized girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, A M; Rowland, T W; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Santacana, G; Vann, A

    2006-12-01

    This study compared physiological responses associated with exercise tolerance in girls (G) and women (W) of similar fitness and heat acclimatization level during exercise in a hot and humid outdoor environment (33.4 degrees C and 55.1 % RH; WBGT = 29.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C). Nine pre-menarcheal G (age = 11.3 yr) and nine W (age = 26.8 yr), matched for aerobic capacity and heat acclimatization level, performed a cycling session at 60 % VO2max until fatigue. A sports drink was provided periodically to prevent dehydration. Tolerance time was not different between the groups (G = 56.9 +/- 6.3, W = 76.5 +/- 9.9 min, p > 0.05). During exercise, sweat rate (G = 9.1 +/- 1.1, W = 12.0 +/- 1.1 ml.m(-2).min(-1)), the increase in rectal temperature [T(re)] (G = 0.9 +/- 0.1, W = 1.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C), and heat storage (G = 10.6 +/- 5.3, W = 20.5 +/- 4.5 W.m(-2)) did not differ between the groups. At fatigue, T(re) (G = 38.2 +/- 0.1, W = 38.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C), heart rate (G = 167.3 +/- 7.3, W = 171 +/- 3.3 beats.min(-1)), stroke index (G = 48.3 +/- 1.5, W = 52.4 +/- 1.8 ml.m(-2)), and forearm skin blood flow (G = 9.5 +/- 1.3, W = 11.7 +/- 1.5 ml.100 ml(- 1).min(-1)) did not differ between the groups. Similar to women, the main reasons reported by girls to stop exercising in the heat were localized leg fatigue and gluteus muscle discomfort. We conclude that heat-acclimatized girls exhibit an adequate cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adjustment while exercising in a hot and humid outdoor environment when hypohydration is prevented. PMID:16739090

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine in adult patients with non-productive cough. Comparison with dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, E; Daffonchio, L

    1997-01-01

    The results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial involving 209 adult patients of either sex with moderate non-productive cough are reported. The therapeutic efficacy and the tolerability of levodropropizine syrup (60 mg t.i.d. for 5 days) was evaluated in comparison with dextromethorphan syrup (15 mg t.i.d. for 5 days). Efficacy was assessed by the number of coughing spells in a 6h period, the cough frequency classes, the cough intensity and the night awakenings due to cough. Tolerability was evaluated by laboratory results, vital signs and any adverse event occurred during the clinical trial, including presence or absence of somnolence. Independently from the underlying pathology and from the degree of baseline cough severity, the number of coughing spells was significantly (P levodropropizine and dextromethorphan already after the 2nd day of treatment, the effect and its time of onset being similar for both drugs. Cough intensity was significantly (P levodropropizine than with dextromethorphan. Concurrently with the relief of cough, the number of night awakenings was decreased remarkably and significantly (P levodropropizine displaying an improvement significantly higher (P levodropropizine (3.6%) group. Overall, somnolence was reported for a low percentage of patients with both drugs, with the percentage of patients experiencing this side effect being one half in the group treated with levodropropizine (4.6%) as compared with dextromethorphan (10.4%). These results confirm the antitussive effectiveness of levodropropizine and point out a more favourable benefit/risk profile when compared to dextromethorphan.

  13. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Lima, Flávia Gontijo; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Egito, Andrea Alves do; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula E; Tanure, Candice Bergmann; Peripolli, Vanessa; McManus, Concepta

    2016-01-29

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001). Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001). Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05) showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points.

  14. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001. Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001. Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05 showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points.

  15. Food crops face rising temperatures: An overview of responses, adaptive mechanisms, and approaches to improve heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Kaushal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising temperatures are resulting in heat stress for various agricultural crops to limit their growth, metabolism, and leading to significant loss of yield potential worldwide. Heat stress adversely affects normal plant growth and development depending on the sensitivity of each crop species. Each crop species has its own range of temperature maxima and minima at different developmental stages beyond which all these processes get inhibited. The reproductive stage is on the whole more sensitive to heat stress, resulting in impaired fertilization to cause abortion of flowers. During seed filling, heat stress retards seed growth by affecting all the biochemical events to reduce seed size. Unfavorable temperature may significantly affect photosynthesis, respiration, water balance, and membrane stability of leaves. To combat heat stress, plants acquire various defense mechanisms for their survival such as maintaining membrane stability, and scavenging reactive oxygen species by generating antioxidants and stress proteins. Thermo-tolerance can be improved by the accumulation of various compounds of low molecular mass known as thermo-protectants as well as phyto-hormones. Exogenous application of these molecules has benefited plants growing under heat stress. Alternatively, transgenic plants over-expressing the enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of these molecules may be raised to increase their endogenous levels to improve heat tolerance. In recent times, various transgenics have been developed with improved thermo-tolerance having potential benefits for inducing heat tolerance in food crops. Updated information about of the effects of heat stress on various food crops and their responses as well as adaptive mechanisms is reviewed here.

  16. Thermal tolerance and survival responses to scenarios of experimental climatic change: changing thermal variability reduces the heat and cold tolerance in a fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Medina, Nadia R; Alruiz, José M; Cavieres, Grisel; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Climate change poses one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Most analyses of the impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but increasing variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the combined effects of the mean and the variance of temperature on thermal tolerances-i.e., critical thermal maxima, critical thermal minima, scope of thermal tolerance, and survival in Drosophila melanogaster. Our six experimental climatic scenarios were: constant mean with zero variance or constant variance or increasing variance; changing mean with zero variance or constant variance or increasing variance. Our key result was that environments with changing thermal variance reduce the scope of thermal tolerance and survival. Heat tolerance seems to be conserved, but cold tolerance decreases significantly with mean low as well as changing environmental temperatures. Flies acclimated to scenarios of changing variance-with either constant or changing mean temperatures-exhibited significantly lower survival rate. Our results imply that changing and constant variances would be just as important in future scenarios of climate change under greenhouse warming as increases in mean annual temperature. To develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, such interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature should be considered.

  17. Thermal tolerance and survival responses to scenarios of experimental climatic change: changing thermal variability reduces the heat and cold tolerance in a fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Medina, Nadia R; Alruiz, José M; Cavieres, Grisel; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Climate change poses one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Most analyses of the impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but increasing variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the combined effects of the mean and the variance of temperature on thermal tolerances-i.e., critical thermal maxima, critical thermal minima, scope of thermal tolerance, and survival in Drosophila melanogaster. Our six experimental climatic scenarios were: constant mean with zero variance or constant variance or increasing variance; changing mean with zero variance or constant variance or increasing variance. Our key result was that environments with changing thermal variance reduce the scope of thermal tolerance and survival. Heat tolerance seems to be conserved, but cold tolerance decreases significantly with mean low as well as changing environmental temperatures. Flies acclimated to scenarios of changing variance-with either constant or changing mean temperatures-exhibited significantly lower survival rate. Our results imply that changing and constant variances would be just as important in future scenarios of climate change under greenhouse warming as increases in mean annual temperature. To develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, such interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature should be considered. PMID:27003422

  18. Heritability and Genetic Advance among Chili Pepper Genotypes for Heat Tolerance and Morphophysiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT, photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20% was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60% was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r=0.23–0.56 at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes.

  19. Heritability and genetic advance among chili pepper genotypes for heat tolerance and morphophysiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, M Y; Ismail, M R; Malek, M A; Abdul Latif, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT), photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20%) was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60%) was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r = 0.23-0.56) at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes. PMID:25478590

  20. Physiological tolerance to uncompensated heat stress in soldiers: Effects of various types of body cooling systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    directly improve heat tolerance, hydration state, decrease in the risk of heat illness, and extends the duration of soldiers’ exposure to extreme conditions.

  1. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show (P < 0.05) higher heat tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested (P < 0.05) higher production performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  2. HsfA1d, a Protein Identified via FOX Hunting Using Thellungiella salsuginea cDNAs Improves Heat Tolerance by Regulating Heat-Stress-Responsive Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukari Higashi; Naohiko Ohama; Tomoko Ishikawa; Taku Katori; Ayaka Shimura; Kazuya Kusakabe; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki

    2013-01-01

    Theilungiella salsuginea (formerly T.halophila),a species closely related to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana),is tolerant not only to high salt levels,but also to chilling,freezing,and ozone.Here,we report that T.salsuginea also shows greater heat tolerance than Arabidopsis.We identified T.salsuginea HsfAld (TsHsfAld) as a gene that can confer marked heat tolerance on Arabidopsis.TsHsfAld was identified via Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressing gene (FOX) hunting from among a collection of heat-stress-related T.salsuginea cDNAs.Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TsHsfAld showed constitutive up-regulation of many genes in the Arabidopsis AtHsfA1 regulon under normal growth temperature.In Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts,TsHsfAld was localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm.TsHsfAld also interacted with AtHSP90,which negatively regulates AtHsfAls by forming HsfA1-HSP90 complexes in the cytoplasm.It is likely that the partial nuclear localization of TsHsfAld induced the expression of the AtHsfAld regulon in the transgenic plants at normal temperature.We also discovered that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtHsfAld were more heat-tolerant than wild-type plants and up-regulated the expression of the HsfAld regulon,as was observed in TsHsfAld-overexpressing plants.We propose that the products of both TsHsfAld and AtHsfAld function as positive regulators of Arabidopsis heat-stress response and would be useful for the improvement of heat-stress tolerance in other plants.

  3. Effect of the C.-1 388 A〉G polymorphism in chicken heat shock transcription factor 3 gene on heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-wu[1,2,3; KONG Li-na[1,2,3; ZHANG De-xian[1,4; JI Cong-liang[4; ZHANG Xi-quan[1,2; LUO Qing-bin[1,2,3

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors that influence poultry production. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to affect heat tolerance. The formation of HSPs is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 3 (HSF3) in chicken. A DNA pool was established for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the chicken HSF3, and 13 SNPs were detected. The bioinformatic analysis showed that 8 SNPs had the capacity to alter the transcdption activity of HSF3. The dual luciferase report gene assay showed that there was a significant difference (P〈0.01) in the Firefly luciferase/Renilla luciferase ratio (F/R) of C.-1 703 A〉G ($1) and C.-1 388 A〉G (S4) sites at the 5"-untranslated region (UTR) of chicken HSF3. The elec- trophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the S4 site was a transcription binding factor. The analysis of the association of the S1 and S4 sites with heat tolerance index revealed that the $4 site was significantly correlated with the CD3+ T cell, corticosterone, and T3 levels in Lingshan chickens and with the heterophil/lymphocyte value in White Recessive Rock. These results showed that the S4 site at the 5 UTR of chicken HSF3 might have an impact on heat tolerance in summer and could be used as a potential marker for the selection of chicken with heat tolerance in the future.

  4. LeCDJ1, a chloroplast DnaJ protein, facilitates heat tolerance in transgenic tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanying Kong; Yongsheng Deng; Guodong Wang; Jieru Wang; Xiaoqing Liang; Qingwei Meng

    2014-01-01

    The roles of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) chloroplast-targeted DnaJ protein (LeCDJ1) were investigat-ed using wild-type (WT) and sense transgenic tomatoes. The LeCDJ1 expression was upregulated by 38 °C, 42 °C, 45 °C, NaCl, PEG, methyl viologen (MV) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), but not by 30 °C and 35 °C. Meanwhile, LeCDJ1 was involved in the response of plants to abscisic acid (ABA). Under heat stress, the sense plants showed better growth, higher chlorophyll content, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and relative electrical conductivity (REC), and also less PSII photoinhibition than WT. Interestingly, the sense plants treated with streptomycin (SM), an inhibitor of organellar translation, still showed higher maximum photo-chemistry efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and D1 protein levels than the SM-untreated WT, suggesting that the protective effect of LeCDJ1 on PSII was, at least partially, independent of D1 protein synthesis. Furthermore, the relatively lower super-oxide radical (O2•?) and H2O2 levels in the sense plants were considered to be due to the higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, which seemed unlikely dependent on their transcription level. These results indicated that LeCDJ1 overexpression facilitated heat tolerance in transgenic tomatoes.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins and ascorbate peroxidase by CtHsfA2b from African bermudagrass conferring heat tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Yang, Zhimin; Liu, Jun; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress transcription factor A2s (HsfA2s) are key regulators in plant response to high temperature. Our objectives were to isolate an HsfA2 gene (CtHsfA2b) from a warm-season grass species, African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), and to determine the physiological functions and transcriptional regulation of HsfA2 for improving heat tolerance. Gene expression analysis revealed that CtHsfA2b was heat-inducible and exhibited rapid response to increasing temperature. Ectopic expression of CtHsfA2b improved heat tolerance in Arabidopsis and restored heat-sensitive defects of Arabidopsis hsfa2 mutant, which was demonstrated by higher survival rate and photosynthetic parameters, and lower electrolyte leakage in transgenic plants compared to the WT or hsfa2 mutant. CtHsfA2b transgenic plants showed elevated transcriptional regulation of several downstream genes, including those encoding ascorbate peroxidase (AtApx2) and heat shock proteins [AtHsp18.1-CI, AtHsp22.0-ER, AtHsp25.3-P and AtHsp26.5-P(r), AtHsp70b and AtHsp101-3]. CtHsfA2b was found to bind to the heat shock element (HSE) on the promoter of AtApx2 and enhanced transcriptional activity of AtApx2. These results suggested that CtHsfA2b could play positive roles in heat protection by up-regulating antioxidant defense and chaperoning mechanisms. CtHsfA2b has the potential to be used as a candidate gene to genetically modify cool-season species for improving heat tolerance. PMID:27320381

  6. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai;

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared...

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine in adult patients with non-productive cough. Comparison with dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, E; Daffonchio, L

    1997-01-01

    The results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial involving 209 adult patients of either sex with moderate non-productive cough are reported. The therapeutic efficacy and the tolerability of levodropropizine syrup (60 mg t.i.d. for 5 days) was evaluated in comparison with dextromethorphan syrup (15 mg t.i.d. for 5 days). Efficacy was assessed by the number of coughing spells in a 6h period, the cough frequency classes, the cough intensity and the night awakenings due to cough. Tolerability was evaluated by laboratory results, vital signs and any adverse event occurred during the clinical trial, including presence or absence of somnolence. Independently from the underlying pathology and from the degree of baseline cough severity, the number of coughing spells was significantly (P levodropropizine and dextromethorphan already after the 2nd day of treatment, the effect and its time of onset being similar for both drugs. Cough intensity was significantly (P levodropropizine than with dextromethorphan. Concurrently with the relief of cough, the number of night awakenings was decreased remarkably and significantly (P levodropropizine displaying an improvement significantly higher (P levodropropizine (3.6%) group. Overall, somnolence was reported for a low percentage of patients with both drugs, with the percentage of patients experiencing this side effect being one half in the group treated with levodropropizine (4.6%) as compared with dextromethorphan (10.4%). These results confirm the antitussive effectiveness of levodropropizine and point out a more favourable benefit/risk profile when compared to dextromethorphan. PMID:9425640

  8. Establishment, Growth kinetics, and Susceptibility to AcMNPV of Heat Tolerant Lepidop teran Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-lei Wu; Lei Jiang; Yoshifumi Hashimoto; Robert R.Granados; Guo-xun Li

    2011-01-01

    Lepidopteran heat-tolerant(ht)cell lines have been obtained with sf-9,sf-21 and several Bombyx cells.They have a distinct karyotype,membrane lipid composition,morphology and growth kinetics from the parental cell lines.In this paper,we report the development of ht cell lines from other insect species and examination of their growth characteristics and virus susceptibility.Adaptation of cell lines sf-9,BTI-TN-5131-4(High5)and BTI-TN-MG1(MG 1)to 33℃ and 35℃ was carried out by shifting the culture temperature between 28℃ and higher temperatures by a gradual stepwise increase in temperature.The process of adaption to a higher culture temperature was accomplished over a period of 2 months.The cell lines with the temperature adaption were designated as sf9-ht33,sf9-ht35,High5-ht33,High5-ht35,MG1-ht33,MG1-ht35.These cell lines have been subcultured over 70 passages.Adaption to high temperatures was confirmed by a constant population doubling time with individual cell lines.The population doubling time of heat adapted cell lines were 1-4 h less than these of parental cell lines.Cell shapes did not show obvious change,however,the cell size of sf9-ht cells was enlarged and those of High5 and MG1 ht cells were reduced after heat adaption.When the cell lines were infected with Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus(AcMNPV)at 28℃,33℃,35℃ and 37℃,production of budded virus and occlusion bodies in each cell line was optimum at its own adapted temperature.

  9. Pharmacotherapy of overactive bladder in adults: a review of efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayarajan J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jyotsna Jayarajan, Sidney B RadomskiDivision of Urology, Department of Surgery, Toronto Western Hospital (University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaIntroduction: Overactive bladder (OAB is a prevalent condition that has a significant impact on quality of life. The usual treatment approach is both behavioral and pharmacological. The first-line pharmacological treatment commonly utilizes anticholinergic agents, which may be limited by their tolerability, efficacy, and long-term compliance. Developments in elucidating the pathophysiology of OAB and alternative targets for pharmacological therapy have led to newer agents being developed to manage this condition. These agents include mirabegron and botulinum toxin, which have alternate mechanism of action and avoid the anticholinergic side effects.Objectives: To provide an update for clinicians managing OAB with an overview of the existing and newer medical options for OAB, including pharmacology, efficacy, side-effect profile, tolerability, and impact on patient quality of life.Methods: PubMed and Medline were searched for randomized controlled drug trials in adults with OAB, meta-analyses of medical therapy for OAB, and individual drug names, including the keywords efficacy, tolerability, quality of life, and compliance. Nonhuman studies, pediatric trials, and those involving patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (with the exception of studies involving botulinum toxin A were excluded.Results: There is level 1, Grade A evidence to support the efficacy of anticholinergic drugs, botulinum toxin, and mirabegron for OAB. Long-term compliance with anticholinergic medications is limited. The mechanism of action, effectiveness, and side effects of these drugs are discussed, and where the data are available compared with other OAB medications.Conclusion: Most of the anticholinergic agents have comparative efficacies and core side-effect profiles, with individual

  10. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. II. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat and Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation are limiting factors to the livestock production in the tropics. Therefore, in a tropical sustainable livestock, cattle should be tick resistant and heat tolerant. The relationship between the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick infestation and heat characteristics like rectal temperature and respiratory frequency was studied in 6 Nellore and 4 Holstein, seven-month-old steers. They were submitted to an artificial infestation (a.i. with 10,000 larvae (Holstein and 20,000 larvae (Nellore of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick in 16/Apr/2011. Females ticks bigger than 4.0 mm were counted in the left side from day 19 to 27 after the artificial infestation. The infestation rate was calculated by summing and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that females are half of infesting larvae (5,000 for Holstein and 10,000 for Nellore. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female fourteen days after. The rectal temperature (RT, measured by a digital thermometer in the animal’s rectum and respiratory frequency (RF, respiratory movements per minute were measured on days 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and on day 05/May (19 days after the a.i.. The RT and RF were measured in the morning and in the afternoon, after they had been exposed to noon sun. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Analyses of variance for the random variables RT and RF to evaluate the effects of period of day, date and breed were performed using the SPSS 12.0. The RF was greater in the afternoon (64.82 ± 2.44 mov/min versus 38.42 ± 2.44 mov/min in the morning, P<0.001 and did not varied between dates; Nellore cattle had lower RF (41.50 ± 2.20 mov/min than Holstein (61.75 ± 2.70 mov/min, P<0.001. About RT, breed

  11. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-07-26

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis.

  12. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27455877

  13. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. III. Sweating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle in a sustainable tropical livestock should be heat tolerant and resistant to ticks. The relationship between Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation and sweating rate, an important heat tolerance characteristic, was studied in six Nellore and four Holstein steers of seven-month-old. They were artificial infested (a.i. with 10,000 (Holstein and 20,000 (Nellore larvae in 16/Apr/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female tick fourteen days after. The sweating rate (SRskin, measured by Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method, in a shaved area of shoulder skin was evaluated in 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and in 05/May (19 days after a.i.. In 14/Apr the Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method was done on the coat not shaved (SRcoat. The sweating rate was measured in the afternoon (from 2 P.M., after 30 minutes of direct sunlight, on April. On May, the animals remained 60 minutes in direct sunlight because this day was colder. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data from the steers’ sweating rate were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using SRskin as dependent variable and breed and sampling date as independent variables. For SRcoat breed was the independent variable. Nellore, a tropical cattle breed, had higher SRskin (1,000.82 ± 64.59 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than Holstein (620.45 ± 79.10 g m-2 h-1. SRskin was higher on May (1,187.33 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than on April (433.93 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1. The correlation between the two different measurements of SR was positive and significant (r= 0,545, P<0,01, Pearson correlation. But in SRcoat the breed effect disappeared because the Holstein SRcoat increased (Holstein: 884.95 ± 472.12 g m-2 h-1 and Nellore: 1,060.72 ± 318.21 g m-2 h-1

  14. Cross acclimation between heat and hypoxia: Heat acclimation improves cellular tolerance and exercise performance in acute normobaric hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben James Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The potential for cross acclimation between environmental stressors is not well understood. Thus the aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of fixed-workload heat or hypoxic acclimation on cellular, physiological and performance responses during post acclimation hypoxic exercise in humans. Method. Twenty-one males (age 22 ± 5 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.07m; mass 71.8 ± 7.9kg; V ̇O2 peak 51 ± 7mL.kg-1.min-1 completed a cycling hypoxic stress test (HST and self-paced 16.1km time trial (TT before (HST1, TT1, and after (HST2, TT2 a series of 10 daily 60 min training sessions (50% N V ̇O2peak in control (CON, n = 7; 18°C, 35%RH, hypoxic (HYP, n = 7; or hot (HOT, n = 7; 40°C, 25% RH conditions. Results. TT performance in hypoxia was improved following both acclimation treatments, HYP (-3:16 ± 3:10 mins:sec; p = 0.0006 and HOT (-2:02 ± 1:02 mins:sec; p = 0.005, but unchanged after CON (+0:31 ± 1:42 mins:sec. Resting monocyte heat shock protein 72 (mHSP72 increased prior to HST2 in HOT (62 ± 46% and HYP (58 ± 52%, but was unchanged after CON (9 ± 46%, leading to an attenuated mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise in HOT and HYP HST2 compared to HST1 (p < 0.01. Changes in extracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α followed a similar pattern to those of mHSP72. Physiological strain index (PSI was attenuated in HOT (HST1 = 4.12 ± 0.58, HST2 = 3.60 ± 0.42; p = 0.007 as a result of a reduced HR (HST1 = 140 ± 14 b.min-1; HST2 131 ± 9 b.min-1 p = 0.0006 and Trectal (HST1 = 37.55 ± 0.18°C; HST2 37.45 ± 0.14°C; p = 0.018 during exercise. Whereas PSI did not change in HYP (HST1 = 4.82 ± 0.64, HST2 4.83 ± 0.63. Conclusion. Heat acclimation improved cellular and systemic physiological tolerance to steady state exercise in moderate hypoxia. Additionally we show, for the first time, that heat acclimation improved cycling time trial performance to a magnitude similar to that achieved by hypoxic acclimation.

  15. The Arabidopsis transcriptional regulator DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hikaru; Todaka, Daisuke; Kudo, Madoka; Mizoi, Junya; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Zhao, Yu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2016-08-01

    The enhancement of heat stress tolerance in crops is an important challenge for food security to facilitate adaptation to global warming. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the transcriptional regulator DNA polymerase II subunit B3-1 (DPB3-1)/nuclear factor Y subunit C10 (NF-YC10) has been reported as a positive regulator of Dehydration-responsive element binding protein 2A (DREB2A), and the overexpression of DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation. Here, we show that DPB3-1 interacts with DREB2A homologues in rice and soya bean. Transactivation analyses with Arabidopsis and rice mesophyll protoplasts indicate that DPB3-1 and its rice homologue OsDPB3-2 function as positive regulators of DREB2A homologues. Overexpression of DPB3-1 did not affect plant growth or yield in rice under nonstress conditions. Moreover, DPB3-1-overexpressing rice showed enhanced heat stress tolerance. Microarray analysis revealed that many heat stress-inducible genes were up-regulated in DPB3-1-overexpressing rice under heat stress conditions. However, the overexpression of DPB3-1 using a constitutive promoter had almost no effect on the expression of these genes under nonstress conditions. This may be because DPB3-1 is a coactivator and thus lacks inherent transcriptional activity. We conclude that DPB3-1, a coactivator that functions specifically under abiotic stress conditions, could be utilized to increase heat stress tolerance in crops without negative effects on vegetative and reproductive growth. PMID:26841113

  16. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars.

  17. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-09-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show ( P environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  18. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  19. In vitro induction of variation through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro plants were obtained from nodal sections of sprouts of cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi' of potato cultured on MS medium with 3% sucrose. Callus from leaves of in vitro cultured plantlets was induced on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/1 NAA. The obtained shoots and calli were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Irradiatied shoots were transferred to MS medium with 8% sucrose for multiplication, and then to MS medium with 8% sucrose and 10 mg/1 BAP to induce microtuber formation, which gave on average 1.3 microtubers per plant. The microtubers were planted in pots and variation was observed in plant morphology and tuber characters. To study variation for late blight resistance, irradiated calli were kept on Gamborg B-5 medium with culture filtrate of Phytophthora infestans. To induce variation for heat tolerance, in vitro shoots from irradiated material were mass-propagated and allowed to produce microtubers at high temperature. (author). 3 refs, 3 tabs

  20. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show (P animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  1. Knowledge and awareness of heat-related morbidity among adult recreational endurance athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Alexander, Melannie S.; Lorentzson, Lauren; McCarty, Frances A.

    2010-07-01

    Adults have been increasingly motivated to compete in recreational endurance sports events. Amateurs may lack a complete understanding of recommended strategies for handling heat and humidity, making heat-related illnesses increasingly possible. This is compounded by global climate change and increasing average surface and air temperatures, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America that have hosted most events to date. We conducted an on-line, secure survey at the 2nd Annual ING Georgia Marathon and Half-Marathon in Atlanta, Georgia, in 2008. We included previously validated questions on participant socio-demographics, training locations, and knowledge and awareness of heat-related illnesses. Participants were aware of heat illnesses, and of heat stroke as a serious form of heat stress. However, the majority, across age and gender, did not understand the potential severity of heat stroke. Furthermore, 1-in-5 participants did not understand the concept of heat stress as a form of heat-related illness, and how heat stress may result from buildup of muscle-generated heat in the body. Adult recreational endurance athletes are another susceptible, vulnerable population sub-group for applied research and public health educational interventions, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America.

  2. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S; Hung, SSO; Fangue, NA; Haller, L.; Verhille, CE; Zhao, J; Todgham, AE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12....

  3. NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling is not involved in elevated CO2-induced heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; LI, XIN; Yu, Jingquan; Kai SHI

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 can protect plants from heat stress (HS); however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we used a set of Arabidopsis mutants such as salicylic acid (SA) signaling mutants nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1-1 and npr1-5) and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) mutants (hsp21 and hsp70-1) to understand the requirement of SA signaling and HSPs in elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. Under ambient CO2 (380 µmol mol−1) conditions, HS (42°C, 24 h) drastically decrea...

  4. Synergistic effect of antioxidant system and osmolyte in hydrogen sulfide and salicylic acid crosstalk-induced heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), is a plant hormone with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development and the acquisition of stress tolerance. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging similar functions, but crosstalk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. Our recent study firstly reported that SA treatment enhanced the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES), a key enzyme in H2S biosynthesis, followed by induced endogenous H2S accumulation, which in turn improved the heat tolerance of maize seedlings. (1) In addition, NaHS, a H2S donor, enhanced SA-induced heat tolerance, while its biosynthesis inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and scavenger hydroxylamine (HT) weakened SA-induced heat tolerance. Also, NaHS had no significant effect on SA accumulation and its biosynthesis enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and benzoic-acid-2-hydroxylase (BA2H) activities, as well as significant difference was not observed in NaHS-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings by SA biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol (PAC) and 2-aminoindan-2-phosph- onic acid (AIP) treatment. (1) Further study displayed that SA induced osmolytes (proline, betaine and trehalose) accumulation and enhancement in activity of antioxidant system in maize seedlings. These results showed that antioxidant system and osmolyte play a synergistic role in SA and H2S crosstalk-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings.

  5. Overexpression of WsSGTL1 gene of Withania somnifera enhances salt tolerance, heat tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Mishra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sterol glycosyltrnasferases (SGT are enzymes that glycosylate sterols which play important role in plant adaptation to stress and are medicinally important in plants like Withania somnifera. The present study aims to find the role of WsSGTL1 which is a sterol glycosyltransferase from W. somnifera, in plant's adaptation to abiotic stress. METHODOLOGY: The WsSGTL1 gene was transformed in Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, using the binary vector pBI121, by floral dip method. The phenotypic and physiological parameters like germination, root length, shoot weight, relative electrolyte conductivity, MDA content, SOD levels, relative electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll measurements were compared between transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants under different abiotic stresses--salt, heat and cold. Biochemical analysis was done by HPLC-TLC and radiolabelled enzyme assay. The promoter of the WsSGTL1 gene was cloned by using Genome Walker kit (Clontech, USA and the 3D structures were predicted by using Discovery Studio Ver. 2.5. RESULTS: The WsSGTL1 transgenic plants were confirmed to be single copy by Southern and homozygous by segregation analysis. As compared to WT, the transgenic plants showed better germination, salt tolerance, heat and cold tolerance. The level of the transgene WsSGTL1 was elevated in heat, cold and salt stress along with other marker genes such as HSP70, HSP90, RD29, SOS3 and LEA4-5. Biochemical analysis showed the formation of sterol glycosides and increase in enzyme activity. When the promoter of WsSGTL1 gene was cloned from W. somnifera and sequenced, it contained stress responsive elements. Bioinformatics analysis of the 3D structure of the WsSGTL1 protein showed functional similarity with sterol glycosyltransferase AtSGT of A. thaliana. CONCLUSIONS: Transformation of WsSGTL1 gene in A. thaliana conferred abiotic stress tolerance. The promoter of the gene in W.somnifera was found

  6. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. I. Hair length and coat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To be heat adapted and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick resistant are important characteristics for cattle in the Brazilian sustainable livestock, because this ectoparasite causes serious harm to the health of susceptible animals and, in the tropics, not heat adapted cattle have poor performance. Besides, the control of this tick is increasingly difficult due to drug resistance. Relationship between tick infestation and heat tolerance traits, as the hair length and coat thickness, are important because animals with long hair are easily identifiable, helping in the disposal of the least adapted cattle. In order to infer the relationship between tick infestation and fur characteristics, 6 Nellore and 4 Black and White Holstein steers, with about seven months old, underwent an artificial infestation (with 10,000 larvae on the Holstein, and 20,000 larvae on the Nellore in 16/April/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 post-infestation, the bigger 10 females ticks found throughout the body were weighed and their egg mass weighed 14 days later. Hair length, HL (collected with pliers specially adapted for this purpose, and measured the 10 longest hair and the coat thickness, CT (measured with a metal ruler inserted perpendicular to the skin were evaluated in the middle of the shoulder on 11/April (5 days before artificial tick infestation and on 12/May (26 days after artificial tick infestation. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data of HL and CT were analyzed using General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using breed and sampling day as independent variables. There were significant differences between the measurements obtained on April and May, respectively: HL Nellore: 9.53 ± 1.80 mm and 14.55 ± 1.77 mm; HL Holstein: 23.40 ± 9.29 and 34.05 ± 5.50 mm, P <0.001; CT Nellore: 2.83 ± 0.41 mm and 3.16 ± 0.98 mm; CT Holstein: 5.00 ± 1.63 mm and 13.75 ± 4.78 mm, P <0

  7. Some like it hot: heat tolerance of the Crab-eating Frog, Fejervarya cancrivora (Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett, W.A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Critical Thermal Methodology to quantify thermal tolerance of the crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora,from Hoga Island, southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The critical thermal maximum of F. cancrivora was 42.1 ± 0.76°C, and is perhaps the highest thermal tolerance value known in an anuran acclimatized to 25°C. The frogs’ ability to tolerate extreme high temperatures allows them to exploit abiotically harsh mangal habitats and accounts for their wide distribution across the tropical Pacific.

  8. 椰心叶甲耐热性初步研究%Heat Tolerance of Coconut Leaf Beetle, Brontispa longissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青; 卢芙萍; 徐雪莲; 卢辉; 经福林; 彭正强

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is one of the important ecological factors for development and reproduction of coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima. To investigate the mechanism of its ecological adaptation, the heat tolerance was preliminarily studied. The results showed that high temperature had a great effect on its development and reproduction, and it would not finish any development above 30 ℃; 2 h at 42 ℃ was its most heat-sensitive time; the activity increase of PPO, POD, AsA-POD, CAT and SOD were relative to its heat tolerance. The results would be much helpful for in-deep studies on the mechanism of heat tolerance and ecological adaptation of coconut leaf beetle.%温度是影响椰心叶甲生长发育与繁殖的重要生态因子之一.通过开展椰心叶甲耐热性研究,探讨椰心叶甲的生态适应性机理.结果表明,高温显著影响椰心叶甲的发育与繁殖,椰心叶甲在高于30℃温度下不能完成任何发育历期;42℃极端高温处理2h为椰心叶甲热最敏感时间;各龄期椰心叶甲PPO、POD、AsA-POD、CAT和SOD活性显著升高与椰心叶甲耐热性相关.上述结果为进一步探讨椰心叶甲耐热性分子机理及其生态适应性机理提供了理论依据与前期工作基础.

  9. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG. PMID:25989370

  10. Thresholds and Tolerance of Physical Pain Among Young Adults Who Self-Injure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina McCoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence rates of nonsuicidal self-injury among college students range from 17% to 38%. Research indicates that individuals with borderline personality disorder who self-injure sometimes report an absence of pain during self-injury. Furthermore, self-injury in the absence of pain has been associated with more frequent suicide attempts. The present study examined pain thresholds and tolerance among 44 college students (11 who engaged in self-injury and 33 who did not. Pain thresholds and tolerance were measured using an algometer pressure device that was used to produce pain in previous laboratory research. Participants who engaged in self-injury had a higher pain tolerance than those who did not. In addition, participants who engaged in self-injury rated the pain as less intense than participants who did not. ANCOVAs revealed that depression was associated with pain rating and pain tolerance.

  11. A seed preferential heat shock transcription factor from wheat provides abiotic stress tolerance and yield enhancement in transgenic Arabidopsis under heat stress environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Chauhan

    Full Text Available Reduction in crop yield and quality due to various abiotic stresses is a worldwide phenomenon. In the present investigation, a heat shock factor (HSF gene expressing preferentially in developing seed tissues of wheat grown under high temperatures was cloned. This newly identified heat shock factor possesses the characteristic domains of class A type plant HSFs and shows high similarity to rice OsHsfA2d, hence named as TaHsfA2d. The transcription factor activity of TaHsfA2d was confirmed through transactivation assay in yeast. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaHsfA2d not only possess higher tolerance towards high temperature but also showed considerable tolerance to salinity and drought stresses, they also showed higher yield and biomass accumulation under constant heat stress conditions. Analysis of putative target genes of AtHSFA2 through quantitative RT-PCR showed higher and constitutive expression of several abiotic stress responsive genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing TaHsfA2d. Under stress conditions, TaHsfA2d can also functionally complement the T-DNA insertion mutants of AtHsfA2, although partially. These observations suggest that TaHsfA2d may be useful in molecular breeding of crop plants, especially wheat, to improve yield under abiotic stress conditions.

  12. Hsp20, a small heat shock protein of Deinococcus radiodurans, confers tolerance to hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder; Appukuttan, Deepti; Lim, Sangyong

    2014-08-01

    The present study shows that DR1114 (Hsp20), a small heat shock protein of the radiationresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, enhances tolerance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress when expressed in Escherichia coli. A protein profile comparison showed that E. coli cells overexpressing D. radiodurans Hsp20 (EC-pHsp20) activated the redox state proteins, thus maintaining redox homeostasis. The cells also showed increased expression of pseudouridine (psi) synthases, which are important to the stability and proper functioning of structural RNA molecules. We found that the D. radiodurans mutant strain, which lacks a psi synthase (DR0896), was more sensitive to H2O2 stress than wild type. These suggest that an increased expression of proteins involved in the control of redox state homeostasis along with more stable ribosomal function may explain the improved tolerance of EC-pHsp20 to H2O2 stress.

  13. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan K Buitelaar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Jan K Buitelaar1, J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga2, Miguel Casas2, J J Sandra Kooij3, Asko Niemelä4, Eric Konofal5, Joachim Dejonckheere6, Bradford H Challis7, Rossella Medori81Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center, St. Radboud and Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron and Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3PsyQ, Psycho-Medical Programs, Program Adult ADHD, Den Haag, The Netherlands; 4Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Oulu, Finland; 5Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris, France; 6SGS Life Sciences, Mechelen, Belgium; 7Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Titusville, NJ, USA; 8Janssen-Cilag EMEA, Neuss, GermanyAbstract: The osmotic release oral system (OROS methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety and tolerability of OROS methylphenidate in a flexible dose regimen (18–90 mg daily for the treatment of adults diagnosed with ADHD (N = 370. Medication was adjusted to optimize efficacy and tolerability for each patient. Adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory parameters were assessed. Most patients (337; 91% completed the seven-week treatment and the final dispensed dose was 18 mg (8%, 36 mg (29%, 54 mg (34%, 72 mg (20%, or 90 mg (9%. Adverse events were reported in 253 (68% patients and most were mild or moderate in severity; most frequently reported included headache (17%, decreased appetite (13%, and insomnia (11%. Adverse events were rarely serious (<1%; 2/370. Small mean increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (both 2.4 mmHg and pulse (3.2 bpm were observed. Body weight decreased

  14. Temperature acclimation and heat tolerance of photosynthesis in Norwegian Saccharina latissima (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogn Andersen, Guri; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2013-01-01

    Kelps, seaweeds and seagrasses provide important ecosystem services in coastal areas, and loss of these macrophytes is a global concern. Recent surveys have documented severe declines in populations of the dominant kelp species, Saccharina latissima, along the south coast of Norway. S. latissima....... We investigated the potential for thermal acclimation and heat tolerance in S. latissima collected from three locations along the south coast of Norway. Plants were kept in laboratory cultures at three different growth temperatures (10, 15, and 20°C) for 4–6 weeks, after which their photosynthetic...

  15. Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cells Improve Heat Tolerance and Hypothalamic Damage in Heat Stressed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Shu Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour and then returned to room temperature (26°C for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C. Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i systemic inflammation; (ii ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone; (iv decreased fractional survival; and (v thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature. These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment.

  16. Protein and carbohydrate composition of larval food affects tolerance tothermal stress and desiccation in adult Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laila H; Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2010-01-01

    Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult insects. Here we test whether raising larvae of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, on two different nutritional regimes affects resistance to cold, heat and desiccation...... when developing on the protein-enriched medium. Our study indicates that larval nutrition has a strong impact on the ability to cope with stress, and that the optimal nutrient composition varies with the type of stress...

  17. Hydrogen sulfide acts as a downstream signal molecule in salicylic acid-induced heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Xie, Lin-Run; Li, Xiao-Juan

    2015-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, is a small phenolic compound with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development, and the acquisition of stress tolerance. In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to have similar functions, but cross talk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. In this study, pretreatment of maize seedlings with SA improved the survival percentage of seedlings under heat stress, indicating that SA pretreatment could improve the heat tolerance of maize seedlings. In addition, treatment with SA enhanced the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES), a key enzyme in H2S biosynthesis, which in turn induced accumulation of endogenous H2S. Interestingly, SA-induced heat tolerance was enhanced by addition of NaHS, a H2S donor, but weakened by specific inhibitors of H2S biosynthesis DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and its scavenger hydroxylamine (HT). Furthermore, pretreatment with paclobutrazol (PAC) and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), inhibitors of SA biosynthesis, had no significant effect on NaHS-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings. Similarly, significant change in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and benzoic-acid-2-hydroxylase (BA2H), the key enzymes in SA biosynthesis, and the content of endogenous SA, was not observed in maize seedlings by NaHS treatment. All of the above-mentioned results suggest that SA pretreatment could improve the heat tolerance of maize seedlings, and H2S might be a novel downstream signal molecule in SA-induced heat tolerance.

  18. NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling is not involved in elevated CO2-induced heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Xin; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 can protect plants from heat stress (HS); however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we used a set of Arabidopsis mutants such as salicylic acid (SA) signaling mutants nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1-1 and npr1-5) and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) mutants (hsp21 and hsp70-1) to understand the requirement of SA signaling and HSPs in elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. Under ambient CO2 (380 µmol mol(-1)) conditions, HS (42°C, 24 h) drastically decreased maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in all studied plant groups. Enrichment of CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1)) with HS remarkably increased the Fv/Fm value in all plant groups except hsp70-1, indicating that NPR1-dependent SA signaling is not involved in the elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. These results also suggest an essentiality of HSP70-1, but not HSP21 in elevated CO2-induced HS mitigation.

  19. Effects of mineral nutrition conditions on heat tolerance of chufa (Сyperus esculentus L.) plant communities to super optimal air temperatures in the BTLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklavtsova, E. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Shikhov, V. N.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2014-09-01

    The use of mineralized human wastes as a basis for nutrient solutions will increase the degree of material closure of bio-technical human life support systems. As stress tolerance of plants is determined, among other factors, by the conditions under which they have been grown before exposure to a stressor, the purpose of the study is to investigate the level of tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plant communities grown in solutions based on mineralized human wastes to a damaging air temperature, 45 °C. Experiments were performed with 30-day-old chufa plant communities grown hydroponically, on expanded clay aggregate, under artificial light, at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR and at a temperature of 25 °C. Plants were grown in Knop’s solution and solutions based on human wastes mineralized according to Yu.A. Kudenko’s method, which contained nitrogen either as ammonium and urea or as nitrates. The heat shock treatment lasted 20 h at 690 and 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR. Chufa heat tolerance was evaluated based on parameters of CO2 gas exchange, the state of its photosynthetic apparatus (PSA), and intensity of peroxidation of leaf lipids. Chufa plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that contained ammonium and urea had lower heat tolerance than plants grown in standard mineral solutions. Heat tolerance of the plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that mainly contained nitrate nitrogen was insignificantly different from the heat tolerance of the plants grown in standard mineral solutions. A PAR intensity increase from 690 μmol m-2 s-1 to 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 enhanced heat tolerance of chufa plant communities, irrespective of the conditions of mineral nutrition under which they had been grown.

  20. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jones

    Full Text Available One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  1. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison; Berkelmans, Ray

    2010-05-03

    One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  2. Pharmacotherapy of overactive bladder in adults: a review of efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Jayarajan J; Radomski SB

    2013-01-01

    Jyotsna Jayarajan, Sidney B RadomskiDivision of Urology, Department of Surgery, Toronto Western Hospital (University Health Network), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaIntroduction: Overactive bladder (OAB) is a prevalent condition that has a significant impact on quality of life. The usual treatment approach is both behavioral and pharmacological. The first-line pharmacological treatment commonly utilizes anticholinergic agents, which may be limited by their tolerability, effica...

  3. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Hung, Silas S O; Fangue, Nann A; Haller, Liran; Verhille, Christine E; Zhao, Juan; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of optimum feeding rate (100% OFR were 1.6% and 1.8% body weight/day, respectively) for four weeks. Following the trials, the critical thermal maximum (CTMax, 0.3°C/min) of sturgeon (N=12/treatment/species) was assessed as an indicator of whole-organism upper thermal tolerance. To assess temperature sensitivity, sturgeon (N=9/treatment/species) were acutely transferred to two temperature treatments (28°C and 18°C as a handling control) for 2h followed by 2h of recovery at 18°C before being sacrificed, and gill, brain, and mucus sampled for measurements of 70-kDa heat shock protein levels (Hsc/Hsp70). Feeding rate had species-specific effects on CTMax in green and white sturgeon such that CTMax of green sturgeon decreased as the magnitude of feed restriction increased; whereas, CTMax of white sturgeon did not change with feed restriction. Elevated temperature (28°C) and feed restriction increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the gill tissue of green sturgeon, while heat shock increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the mucus of white sturgeon. Our results suggest that green sturgeon may be more susceptible to temperature stress under food-limited conditions. PMID:27095630

  4. Recession-Tolerant Heat Flux Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...

  5. Physiological tolerance to uncompensated heat stress in soldiers: Effects of various types of body cooling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Dalibor; Karkalić Radovan; Zeba Snježana; Pavlović Miroslav; Radaković Sonja S.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. In military services, emergency situations when soldiers are exposed to a combination of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) contamination combined with heat stress, are frequent and complex. In these specific conditions, usage of personal body cooling systems may be effective in reducing heat stress. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficiency of four various types of contemporary personal body cooling systems bas...

  6. AtHsfA2 modulates expression of stress responsive genes and enhances tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunguang; CHEN Qijun; GAO Xinqi; QI Bishu; CHEN Naizhi; XU Shouming; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for considerable interlinking between the responses to heat stress and oxidative stress, and recent researches suggest heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals. In this paper, we present evidence that AtHsfA2 modulated expression of stress responsive genes and enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Using Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrated that the expression of AtHsfA2 was induced by not only HS but also oxidative stress. By functional analysis of AtHsfA2 knockout mutants and AtHsfA2 overexpressing transgenic plants, we also demonstrated that the mutants displayed reduced the basal and acquired thermotolerance as well as oxidative stress tolerance but the overexpression lines displayed increased tolerance to these stress. The phenotypes correlated with the expression of some Hsps and APX1, ion leakage, H2O2 level and degree of oxidative injuries. These results showed that, by modulated expression of stress responsive genes, AtHsfA2 enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. So we suggest that AtHsfA2 plays an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide-induced heat tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) suspension cultured cells and involvement of Ca(2+) and calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Gong, Ming; Xie, Hong; Yang, Lan; Li, Jing

    2012-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is considered as a new emerging cell signal in higher plants. Hydrogen sulfide donor, sodium hydrosulfide, pretreatment significantly increased survival percentage of tobacco suspension cultured cells under heat stress and regrowth ability after heat stress, and alleviated decrease in vitality of cells, increase in electrolyte leakage and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, sodium hydrosulfide-induced heat tolerance was markedly strengthened by application of exogenous Ca(2+) and its ionophore A23187, respectively, while this heat tolerance was weakened by addition of Ca(2+) chelator ethylene glycol-bis(b-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), plasma membrane channel blocker La(3+), as well as calmodulin (CaM) antagonists chlorpromazine (CPZ) and trifluoperazine (TFP), respectively, but intracellular channel blocker ruthenium red (RR) did not. These results suggested that sodium hydrosulfide pretreatment could improve heat tolerance in tobacco suspension cultured cells and the acquisition of this heat tolerance requires the entry of extracellular Ca(2+) into cells across the plasma membrane and the mediation of intracellular CaM.

  8. A study on nuclear heat load tolerable for NET/TF coils cooled by internal flow of helium II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NbTi cables cooled by internal flow of superfluid helium are considered an option for the design of NET/TF coils with about 11 T peak fields. Starting from an available winding cross section of 0.61x0.61 m2 for a 8 MA turns coil made of a 16 kA conductor it is shown that sufficient hydraulic cross section can be provided within such cables to remove the expected thermal load resulting from nuclear heating with exponential decay from inboard to outboard side of the winding. The concept is a pancake type coil with 1.8 K helium fed-in the high field region of each pancake. The temperature distribution within such coils is calculated, and the local safety margin is determined from temperature and field. The calculation takes account of nuclear and a.c. heating, and of thermal conductance between the individual layers and the coil casing. It is shown that operation with 1.8 K inlet and about 3 K outlet temperature is possible. The electrical insulation with about 0.5 mm thickness proves to provide sufficient thermal insulation. No additional thermal shield is required between the coil casing and the winding package. Two different types of conductors are being considered: a) POLO type cable with quadratic cross section and a central circular coolant duct, and b) an LCT type cable with two conductors wound in hand. Both concepts with about 500 m length of the cooland channels are shown to meet the requirements resulting from a peak nuclear heat load of 0.3 mW/cm3 in the inboard turns. The hydraulic diameters are sufficient to operate each coils with self-sustained fountain effect pumps. Even appreciably higher heat loads with up to 3 mW/cm3 of nuclear heating can be tolerated for the POLO type cable when the hydraulic diameter is enlarged to its maximum of 17 mm. (orig.)

  9. EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF LACOSAMIDE (VIMPAT FOR TREATMENT OF EPILEPSY IN ADULTS (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the significant progress achieved in epileptology, resistant forms of epilepsy comprise about 30 % of all cases of epilepsy. The articles reviews modern concepts and basic mechanisms of pharmacoresistance, as well as the ways to overcome them. The authors presented a detailed review of modern literature devoted to studies of efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drug (AED lacosamide (Vimpat® with uncontrolled epilepsy. Lacosamidе is registered in Russia for additional therapy of patients of 16 y.o. and older with focal seizures with or without secondary generalization. The drug is a functionalized amino acid. The assumed action mechanism differs from that of other AEDs: this drug selectively lowers the pathological hyperactivity of neurons without affecting their physiological activity, decreases abnormal epileptogenic neuronal excitability, selectively enhances slow inactivation of sodium channels without affecting rapid inactivation. Lacosamidе has the following pharmacokinetic advantages: linear kinetics; the drug is a weak inducer of liver enzymes (CYP and, therefore, does not alter the metabolism of other AEDs and is only slightly bound to plasma proteins (< 15 %. Clinical studies have shown the efficacy and good tolerability of lacosamidе by patients with focal seizures; the dosage of the drug of 400 mg/day was assessedto be optimal. Efficacy and good tolerability of lacosamidе has been confirmed by postmarketing studies after beginning of its broad use in clinical practice. Frequent side effects associated with the therapy ( 15 % include dizziness, headache, drowsiness, nausea, and diplopia. Concurrent intake of other AEDs that block sodium channels statistically significantly increased the risk of arising of side effects associated with the therapy. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of several studies showed favorable indicator of lacosamidе regarding the cost/efficacy criterion for treatment

  10. Identification of differential responses to an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years an individual's ability to respond to an acute dietary challenge has emerged as a measure of their biological flexibility. Analysis of such responses has been proposed to be an indicator of health status. However, for this to be fully realised further work on differential responses to nutritional challenge is needed. This study examined whether metabolic phenotyping could identify differential responders to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and examined the phenotypic basis of the response. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 214 individuals were recruited and underwent challenge tests in the form of an OGTT and an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT. Detailed biochemical parameters, body composition and fitness tests were recorded. Mixed model clustering was employed to define 4 metabotypes consisting of 4 different responses to an OGTT. Cluster 1 was of particular interest, with this metabotype having the highest BMI, triacylglycerol, hsCRP, c-peptide, insulin and HOMA- IR score and lowest VO2max. Cluster 1 had a reduced beta cell function and a differential response to insulin and c-peptide during an OGTT. Additionally, cluster 1 displayed a differential response to the OLTT. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrated that there were four distinct metabolic responses to the OGTT. Classification of subjects based on their response curves revealed an "at risk" metabolic phenotype.

  11. Determining heat tolerance of interspecific (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) inbred line of squash ‘Maxchata’ and its parents through photosynthetic response

    OpenAIRE

    Ara, Neelam; Yang, Jing Hua; Hu, Zhong Yuan; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Development of heat tolerant cultivars is the need of hour to combat the challenges of global warming and food supply to increasing population. This study was conducted to determine the extent of heat tolerance of newly developed interspecific inbred line of squash named as ‘Maxchata’ through comparing its photosynthetic attributes with its parents C. maxima and C. moschata. Plants of these three cultivars were subjected to three different temperatures i.e 30°C day/ 25°C night as co...

  12. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H. B.; Bement, M. Hoeger; Madsen, A. B.;

    2016-01-01

    : On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized......BACKGROUND: Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. METHODS...

  13. Extremely heat tolerant photo-symbiosis in a shallow marine benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Titelboim, D.; Brandt, J.; Herut, B.; Abramovich, S.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Kucera, M.

    2016-08-01

    Bleaching, the loss of algal symbionts, occurs in marine photosymbiotic organisms at water temperatures minimally exceeding average summer SST (sea surface temperatures). Pre-adaptation allows organisms to persist under warmer conditions, providing the tolerance can be carried to new habitats. Here we provide evidence for the existence of such adaptation in the benthic foraminifera Pararotalia calcariformata. This species occurs at a thermally polluted site in the Mediterranean, where water temperatures reach a maxima daily average of 36 °C during the summer. To test whether this occurrence represents a widespread adaptation, we conducted manipulative experiments exposing this species from an unpolluted site to elevated temperatures (20–42 °C). It was kept in co-culture with the more thermally sensitive foraminifera Amphistegina lobifera in two experiments (20–36 °C). Reduced photosynthetic activity in A. lobifera occurred at 32 °C whereas photochemical stress in P. calcariformata was first observed during exposure to 36 °C. Pararotalia calcariformata survived all treatment conditions and grew under 36 °C. The photosymbiosis in P. calcariformata is unusually thermally tolerant. These observations imply that marine eukaryote-eukaryote photosymbiosis can respond to elevated temperatures by drawing on a pool of naturally occurring pre-adaptations. It also provides a perspective on the massive occurrence of symbiont-bearing foraminifera in the early Cenozoic hothouse climate.

  14. Extremely heat tolerant photo-symbiosis in a shallow marine benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Titelboim, D.; Brandt, J.; Herut, B.; Abramovich, S.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Kucera, M.

    2016-08-01

    Bleaching, the loss of algal symbionts, occurs in marine photosymbiotic organisms at water temperatures minimally exceeding average summer SST (sea surface temperatures). Pre-adaptation allows organisms to persist under warmer conditions, providing the tolerance can be carried to new habitats. Here we provide evidence for the existence of such adaptation in the benthic foraminifera Pararotalia calcariformata. This species occurs at a thermally polluted site in the Mediterranean, where water temperatures reach a maxima daily average of 36 °C during the summer. To test whether this occurrence represents a widespread adaptation, we conducted manipulative experiments exposing this species from an unpolluted site to elevated temperatures (20-42 °C). It was kept in co-culture with the more thermally sensitive foraminifera Amphistegina lobifera in two experiments (20-36 °C). Reduced photosynthetic activity in A. lobifera occurred at 32 °C whereas photochemical stress in P. calcariformata was first observed during exposure to 36 °C. Pararotalia calcariformata survived all treatment conditions and grew under 36 °C. The photosymbiosis in P. calcariformata is unusually thermally tolerant. These observations imply that marine eukaryote-eukaryote photosymbiosis can respond to elevated temperatures by drawing on a pool of naturally occurring pre-adaptations. It also provides a perspective on the massive occurrence of symbiont-bearing foraminifera in the early Cenozoic hothouse climate.

  15. Enhancing heat tolerance of the little dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with introduction of a superoxide reductase gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin eGeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA, and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  16. Enhancing Heat Tolerance of the Little Dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with Introduction of a Superoxide Reductase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xing-Min; Liu, Xiang; Ji, Mikyoung; Hoffmann, William A; Grunden, Amy; Xiang, Qiu-Yun J

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP) was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  17. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-06-30

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  18. The relationship of adult attachment to emotion, catastrophizing, control, threshold and tolerance, in experimentally-induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela J; Strong, Jenny; Feeney, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    Although insecure attachment has been associated with a range of variables linked with problematic adjustment to chronic pain, the causal direction of these relationships remains unclear. Adult attachment style is, theoretically, developmentally antecedent to cognitions, emotions and behaviours (and might therefore be expected to contribute to maladjustment). It can also be argued, however, that the experience of chronic pain increases attachment insecurity. This project examined this issue by determining associations between adult attachment characteristics, collected prior to an acute (coldpressor) pain experience, and a range of emotional, cognitive, pain tolerance, intensity and threshold variables collected during and after the coldpressor task. A convenience sample of 58 participants with no history of chronic pain was recruited. Results demonstrated that attachment anxiety was associated with lower pain thresholds; more stress, depression, and catastrophizing; diminished perceptions of control over pain; and diminished ability to decrease pain. Conversely, secure attachment was linked with lower levels of depression and catastrophizing, and more control over pain. Of particular interest were findings that attachment style moderated the effects of pain intensity on the tendency to catastrophize, such that insecurely attached individuals were more likely to catastrophize when reporting high pain intensity. This is the first study to link attachment with perceptions of pain in a pain-free sample. These findings cast anxious attachment as a vulnerability factor for chronic pain following acute episodes of pain, while secure attachment may provide more resilience. PMID:16359795

  19. Non-lethal heat shock increased Hsp70 and immune protein transcripts but not Vibrio tolerance in the white-leg shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hong Loc

    Full Text Available Non-lethal heat shock boosts bacterial and viral disease tolerance in shrimp, possibly due to increases in endogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and/or immune proteins. To further understand the mechanisms protecting shrimp against infection, Hsp70 and the mRNAs encoding the immune-related proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO, peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and hemocyanin were studied in post-larvae of the white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, following a non-lethal heat shock. As indicated by RT-qPCR, a 30 min abrupt heat shock increased Hsp70 mRNA in comparison to non-heated animals. Immunoprobing of western blots and quantification by ELISA revealed that Hsp70 production after heat shock was correlated with enhanced Hsp70 mRNA. proPO and hemocyanin mRNA levels were augmented, whereas peroxinectin and crustin mRNA levels were unchanged following non-lethal heat shock. Penaeidin mRNA was decreased by all heat shock treatments. Thirty min abrupt heat shock failed to improve survival of post-larvae in a standardized challenge test with Vibrio harveyi, indicating that under the conditions of this study, L. vannamei tolerance to Vibrio infection was influenced neither by Hsp70 accumulation nor the changes in the immune-related proteins, observations dissimilar to other shrimp species examined.

  20. Thermal shocks in solar boiler tubes and mechanical tolerance to heating velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boiler circular cross-section tubes are cooled by an internal flow and are subjected to a non uniform heat flux around their outer circumference that changes very rapidly with time. Thus thermal shocks can develop in the thickness of tube walls and may cause brittle fracture or fatigue damage. We solve the corresponding thermoelastic problem. The determination of temperature distribution through the wall thickness requires the solution of one-dimensional transient heat equation obtained by performing a Fourier expansion in the angular variable. For each harmonic, Galerkin's method with respect to the radial coordinate together with a finite difference scheme with respect to time permit to completely discretize the associated equation. (orig.)

  1. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Growth Temperature on the Tolerance of Photosynthesis to Acute Heat Stress in C3 and C4 Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. William Hamilton Ⅲ; Scott A. Heckathorn; Puneet Joshi; Dan Wang; Deepak Barua

    2008-01-01

    Determining effects of elevated CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat-stress (heat wave) is necessary for predicting plant responses to global warming, as photosynthesis is thermolabile and acute heat-stress and atmospheric CO2 will increase in the future. Few studies have examined this, and past results are variable, which may be due to methodological variation. To address this, we grew two C3 and two C4 species at current or elevated CO2 and three different growth temperatures (GT). We assessed photosynthetic thermotolerance in both unacclimated (basal tolerance) and preheat-stressed (preHS = acclimated) plants. In C3 species, basal thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn) was increased In high CO2, but in C4 species, Pn thermotlerance was decreased by high CO2 (except Zea maya at low GT); CO2 effects in preHS plants were mostly small or absent, though high CO2 was detrimental in one C3 and one C4 species at warmer GT. Though high CO2 generally decreased stomatal conductance, decreases in Pn during heat stress were mostly due to non-stomatal effects. Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was often decreased by high CO2 during heat stress, especially at high GT; CO2 effects on post-PSll electron transport were variable. Thus, high CO2 often affected photosynthetic theromotolerance, and the effects varied with photosynthetic pathway, growth temperature, and acclimation state. Most importantly, in heat-stressed plants at normal or warmer growth temperatures, high CO2 may often decrease, or not benefit as expected, tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat stress. Therefore, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and warmer growth temperatures on acute heat tolerance may contribute to future changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity.

  2. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Thom

    Full Text Available Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  3. Stress tolerance and stress-induced injury in crop plants measured by chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo: chilling, freezing, ice cover, heat, and high light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, R M; Hetherington, S E

    1983-08-01

    The proposition is examined that measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo can be used to monitor cellular injury caused by environmental stresses rapidly and nondestructively and to determine the relative stress tolerances of different species. Stress responses of leaf tissue were measured by F(R), the maximal rate of the induced rise in chlorophyll fluorescence. The time taken for F(R) to decrease by 50% in leaves at 0 degrees C was used as a measure of chilling tolerance. This value was 4.3 hours for chilling-sensitive cucumber. In contrast, F(R) decreased very slowly in cucumber leaves at 10 degrees C or in chilling-tolerant cabbage leaves at 0 degrees C. Long-term changes in F(R) of barley, wheat, and rye leaves kept at 0 degrees C were different in frost-hardened and unhardened material and in the latter appeared to be correlated to plant frost tolerance. To simulate damage caused by a thick ice cover, wheat leaves were placed at 0 degrees C under N(2). Kharkov wheat, a variety tolerant of ice encapsulation, showed a slower decrease in F(R) than Gatcher, a spring wheat. Relative heat tolerance was also indicated by the decrease in F(R) in heated leaves while changes in vivo resulting from photoinhibition, ultraviolet radiation, and photobleaching can also be measured. PMID:16663118

  4. Comparative analysis of the heat stable proteome of radicles of Medicago truncatula seeds during germination identifies late embryogenesis abundant proteins associated with desiccation tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudet, J.; Buitink, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rogniaux, H.; Larré, C.; Satour, P.; Leprince, O.

    2006-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was performed on the heat stable protein fraction of imbibed radicles of Medicago truncatula seeds to investigate whether proteins can be identified that are specifically linked to desiccation tolerance (DT). Radicles were compared before and after emergence (2.8 mm long) in ass

  5. Steam-treatment-based soil remediation promotes heat-tolerant, potentially pathogenic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Bender, Mikkel; Ekelund, Flemming; Elmholt, Susanne; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2014-01-01

    We investigated microbiota in surface and subsurface soil from a site, above steam-treated deep sub-soil originally contaminated with chlorinated solvents. During the steam treatment, the surface soil reached temperatures c. 30 degrees C higher than the temperature in untreated soil; whereas the subsurface soil, at a depth of about 40 cm, reached a temperature c. 45 degrees C higher than untreated soil. The soil was examined prior to, during, and 6, 12, 14, 20 and 31 months after treatment. Numbers of bacteria cultivable at 42 degrees C increased significantly in subsurface soil. Similarly, substrate utilization in ECOLOG plates, incubated at 42 degrees C, increased from less than 10% of available carbon sources in the untreated soil to more than 60% of the available carbon sources in the steam-treated soil. Aspergillus fumigatus was quantified as an example ofheat-tolerant fungi normally found in compost. These organisms are rarely detected in Danish soils but high numbers (c. 10(5) hyphal forming units g(-1)) occurred in the treated soil up to 31 months after the steam-treatment. We conclude that steam-treatment leads to changes of the microbial communities. Some changes are temporary while others can last for years after termination of the steam-treatment; reflecting different strategies that soil microorganisms follow.

  6. The rewarming benefit of anterior torso heat pad application in mildly hypothermic conscious adult trauma patients remains inconclusive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Joseph

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rewarming benefit of anterior torso heat pad application in mildly hypothermic conscious adult trauma patients remains inconclusive in this randomized comparative clinical trial. There was no between-group rewarming gain in ear canal temperature when an anterior torso chemical heat pad was compared with blankets. Patient awareness, and favorable perception of, being administered the active intervention (heat pad could explain the significant improvement in patient-rated cold discomfort discerned with the heat pad. In the context of marginal demonstrated benefit, it would have been informative to ascertain adverse effects related to the heat pad, including burn injury to the chest wall.

  7. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Ravaux

    Full Text Available The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  8. ClpB/Hsp100 proteins and heat stress tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Grover, Anil

    2016-10-01

    High-temperature stress can disrupt cellular proteostasis, resulting in the accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates. For survival under stressful conditions, it is important for cells to maintain a pool of native soluble proteins by preventing and/or dissociating these aggregates. Chaperones such as GroEL/GroES (Hsp60/Hsp10) and DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE (Hsp70/Hsp40/nucleotide exchange factor) help cells minimize protein aggregation. Protein disaggregation is accomplished by chaperones belonging to the Caseinolytic Protease (Clp) family of proteins. ClpB/Hsp100 proteins are strikingly ubiquitous and are found in bacteria, yeast and multi-cellular plants. The expression of these proteins is regulated by heat stress (HS) and developmental cues. Bacteria and yeast contain one and two forms of ClpB proteins, respectively. Plants possess multiple forms of these proteins that are localized to different cellular compartments (i.e. cytoplasm/nucleus, chloroplast or mitochondria). Overwhelming evidence suggests that ClpB/Hsp100 proteins play decisive roles in cell adaptation to HS. Mutant bacteria and yeast cells lacking active ClpB/Hsp100 proteins are critically sensitive to high-temperature stress. Likewise, Arabidopsis, maize and rice mutants lacking cytoplasmic ClpB proteins are very sensitive to heat. In this study, we present the structural and functional attributes of plant ClpB forms. PMID:26121931

  9. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

  10. In Vivo Profiling Reveals a Competent Heat Shock Response in Adult Neurons: Implications for Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisia Carnemolla

    Full Text Available The heat shock response (HSR is the main pathway used by cells to counteract proteotoxicity. The inability of differentiated neurons to induce an HSR has been documented in primary neuronal cultures and has been proposed to play a critical role in ageing and neurodegeneration. However, this accepted dogma has not been demonstrated in vivo. We used BAC transgenic mice generated by the Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas project to investigate the capacity of striatal medium sized spiny neurons to induce an HSR as compared to that of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. We found that all cell populations were competent to induce an HSR upon HSP90 inhibition. We also show the presence and relative abundance of heat shock-related genes and proteins in these striatal cell populations. The identification of a competent HSR in adult neurons supports the development of therapeutics that target the HSR pathway as treatments for neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Heat sensitive persons with multiple sclerosis are more tolerant to resistance exercise than to endurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerbæk, Anders G; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jensen, Ellen;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heat sensitivity (HS) is reported by 58% of all persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), causing symptom exacerbation possibly limiting exercise participation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that (a) a relationship between exercise-induced changes in core...... Functional Composite (MSFC) and Body Sway. Composite scores describing average subjective symptom intensity (SI) and total number of symptoms (SN) were calculated from VAS scores. RESULTS: C(temp) (0.9±0.4°C vs 0.3±0.1°C, p...... randomly completed a session of RE and EE, or EE and RE, respectively. Testing was conducted pre, post and one hour after exercise and consisted of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scoring (fatigue, spasticity, pain, strength, walking and balance), the 5-time sit-to-stand (5STS), the Multiple Sclerosis...

  12. Mycophenolic acid formulations in adult renal transplantation – update on efficacy and tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déla Golshayan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Déla Golshayan1,2, M Pascual2, Bruno Vogt11Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, 2Transplantation Centre and Transplantation Immunopathology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV, Lausanne University, 1011 Lausanne, SwitzerlandAbstract: The description more than 30 years ago of the role of de novo purine synthesis in T and B lymphocytes clonal proliferation opened the possibility for selective immunosuppression by targeting specific enzymatic pathways. Mycophenolic acid (MPA blocks the key enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and the production of guanosine nucleotides required for DNA synthesis. Two MPA formulations are currently used in clinical transplantation as part of the maintenance immunosuppressive regimen. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF was the first MPA agent to be approved for the prevention of acute rejection following renal transplantation, in combination with cyclosporine and steroids. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS is an alternative MPA formulation available in clinical transplantation. In this review, we will discuss the clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy and safety of MPA in adult kidney transplantation for the prevention of acute rejection and their use in new combination regimens aiming at minimizing calcineurin inhibitor toxicity and chronic allograft nephropathy. We will also discuss MPA pharmacokinetics and the rationale for therapeutic drug monitoring in optimizing the balance between efficacy and safety in individual patients.Keywords: kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, acute rejection, chronic allograft nephropathy

  13. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  14. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micael Reis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes.

  15. The Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E Mucin Gene Influences Adult Size, Starvation Tolerance, and Cold Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Micael; Silva, Ana C; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Mucins have been implicated in many different biological processes, such as protection from mechanical damage, microorganisms, and toxic molecules, as well as providing a luminal scaffold during development. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that mucins have the potential to modulate food absorption as well, and thus contribute to the definition of several important phenotypic traits. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Muc68E gene is 40- to 60-million-yr old, and is present in Drosophila species of the subgenus Sophophora only. The central repeat region of this gene is fast evolving, and shows evidence for repeated expansions/contractions. This and/or frequent gene conversion events lead to the homogenization of its repeats. The amino acid pattern P[ED][ED][ST][ST][ST] is found in the repeat region of Muc68E proteins from all Drosophila species studied, and can occur multiple times within a single conserved repeat block, and thus may have functional significance. Muc68E is a nonessential gene under laboratory conditions, but Muc68E mutant flies are smaller and lighter than controls at birth. However, at 4 d of age, Muc68E mutants are heavier, recover faster from chill-coma, and are more resistant to starvation than control flies, although they have the same percentage of lipids as controls. Mutant flies have enlarged abdominal size 1 d after chill-coma recovery, which is associated with higher lipid content. These results suggest that Muc68E has a role in metabolism modulation, food absorption, and/or feeding patterns in larvae and adults, and under normal and stress conditions. Such biological function is novel for mucin genes. PMID:27172221

  16. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata” and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Ara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C and severe (42 °C heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide (O2− and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  17. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration. PMID:24336062

  18. Antioxidant enzymatic activities and gene expression associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of two cucurbit species ("Cucurbita maxima" and "Cucurbita moschata") and their interspecific inbred line "Maxchata".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-12-10

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant "C. moschata", thermolabile "C. maxima" and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line "Maxchata" genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. "C. moschata" exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2(-)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by "Maxchata". The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among "C. maxima" and "Maxchata", most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in "Maxchata", which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  19. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Gaur, Pooran Mal; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N; Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Gangarao, N V P R; Fikre, Asnake; Kimurto, Paul; Sharma, Prakash C; Sheshashayee, M S; Tobita, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Ito, Osamu; Killian, Andrzej; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions) for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore) and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia). Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20) was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs), both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM) analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70) was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP) were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance. PMID:24801366

  20. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendar Thudi

    Full Text Available To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia. Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20 was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs, both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs] and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70 was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance.

  1. A randomized, double-blind, duloxetine-referenced study comparing efficacy and tolerability of 2 fixed doses of vortioxetine in the acute treatment of adults with MDD

    OpenAIRE

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R.; Jacobsen, Paula L.; Chen, Yinzhong; Serenko, Michael; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Vortioxetine has reduced depressive symptoms in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) in multiple clinical trials. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine 15 and 20 mg vs placebo in adults with MDD. Methods Patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 to vortioxetine 15 mg, vortioxetine 20 mg, duloxetine 60 mg (active reference), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean change in Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating S...

  2. Possible Involvement of Anti-Oxidant Enzymes in the Cross-Tolerance of the Germination/Growth of Wheat Seeds to Salinity and Heat Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Bao LEI; Song-Quan SONG; Jia-Rui FU

    2005-01-01

    The germination/growth of wheat (Triticun aestivum L. cv. Zimai 1) seeds and changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT), as well as in the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), in response to salt and heat stress, as well as cross-stress, were investigated in the present study. With increasing temperature and decreasing water potential caused by NaC1 solution, the germination percentage of seeds and the fresh weight of seedlings decreased markedly, SOD activity increased, activities of APX and CAT decreased distinctly, and the TBARS content increased gradually. Seeds pretreated at 33 ℃ for different times displayed increased tolerance to subsequent salt stress, enhanced SOD, APX, and CAT activities, and decreased TBARS content. Seeds pretreated at -0.8 MPa NaC1 for different times displayed increased tolerance to subsequent heat stress and marked increases in SOD, APX, and CAT activities, which were associated with decreased TBARS content. It is considered that the common component in the cross-tolerance of the germination and growth of wheat seeds to salinity and heat stress is the anti-oxidant enzyme system.

  3. Optimization of a heat-tolerant β-glucosidase production by Bacillus sp. ZJ1308 and its purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenni; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the medium composition to improve the production of the heat-tolerant β-glucosidase from Bacillus sp. ZJ1308. Three significant factors were found to be corn cob, beef extract, and MnSO4 ·H2 O. The final medium compositions optimized were corn cob (51.8 g/L), beef extract (23.8 g/L), salicin (0.5 g/L), MnSO4 ·H2 O (0.363 g/L), MgSO4 ·7H2 O (0.4 g/L), and NaCl (5 g/L). Under the optimal conditions, the activity of β-glucosidase was up to 4.71 U/mL. β-Glucosidase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery rate of 5% and a specific activity of 110.47 U/mg. The optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 60 °C, respectively. β-Glucosidase was stable within a pH range of 6.0-8.0 and showed an extremely high thermostability at 80 and 90 °C, retaining 56% and 38% of its maximal activity, respectively. Ni(2+) and Ba(2+) heavily inhibited the β-glucosidase activity. The purified β-glucosidase showed a high substrate specificity. The kinetic parameters revealed that it had a high catalytic efficiency toward the substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (Kcat /Km = 700). It also showed a high catalytic activity toward the natural substrate salicin. This study provides a new insight into the future development and use of β-glucosidase from Bacillus sp. ZJ1308. PMID:26077129

  4. Pegylated Long-Acting Human Growth Hormone Possesses a Promising Once-Weekly Treatment Profile, and Multiple Dosing Is Well Tolerated in Adult Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Klose, Marianne; Hansen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    at the highest NNC126-0083 dose (0.16 mg protein/kg). Steady-state pharmacokinetics seemed achieved after the second dosing. A clear dose-dependent pharmacodynamic response in circulating IGF-I levels was observed [from a predose mean (SD) IGF-I SD score of -3.2 (1.7) to peak plasma concentration of -0.5 (1......: Our objective was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of multiple doses of NNC126-0083 in adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD). Subjects and Methods: Thirty-three adult patients with GHD, age 20-65 yr, body mass index 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2), and glycated.......3), 1.6 (1.3), 2.1 (0.5), and 4.4 (0.9) in the four dose groups, respectively]. Conclusion: After multiple dosing of NNC126-0083, a sustained pharmacodynamic response was observed. NNC126-0083 has the potential to serve as an efficacious, safe, and well-tolerated once-weekly treatment of adult patients...

  5. Problematic Alcohol and Cannabis Use among Young Adults: The Roles of Depression and Discomfort and Distress Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Keough, Meghan E.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2006-01-01

    Problematic substance use is associated with depression. Clarifying the relationship between substance use and depression remains an important research goal, with implications for prevention and treatment. Individual differences in the ability to tolerate negative physical and emotional sensations were hypothesized to play a role in substance use behaviors among depressed individuals. The present study investigated the roles of discomfort and distress tolerance in the relationship between alc...

  6. Heat treatment of samples improve the performance of the Nijmegen-Bethesda assay in hemophilia A patients undergoing immune tolerance induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Montalvão, Silmara Aparecida; Tucunduva, Alini Camargo; de Almeida Sambo, Andrea Luísa; De Paula, Erich Vinicius; de Souza Medina, Samuel; Ozelo, Margareth Castro

    2015-12-01

    Nijmegen-Bethesda assay is the gold standard to assess inhibitory antibodies against factor (F) VIII. This method has some limitations, including high coefficient of variation and possible interference of residual endogenous or exogenous factor VIII. Heat-treatment of samples at 56 °C for 30 min could be a strategy to improve the sensitivity of this test. The aim of this study was to compare inhibitor quantification in hemophilia patients with and without inhibitor performed in previously heated and non-heated samples. A total of 109 analyses from 46 patients with severe hemophilia A were performed. Patients were divided into three groups: 20 patients with no history of inhibitor, recently and not recently exposed to FVIII (group I), 21 patients with history of inhibitor not exposed to FVIII (group II), and 5 patients (68 samples) undergoing an immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocol (group III). For patients with no history of inhibitor, heat-treatment did not modify the results (p=0.24). However, differences in inhibitor levels between heated and non-heated samples were observed in patients with history of inhibitor (group II, pITI (group III, pITI patient showed similar trend line for the results of heated and non-heated samples. In this study, we demonstrated that heating samples increase sensitivity of Nijmegen-Bethesda assay, with no shift from negative to positive results in patients with no history of inhibitor. Furthermore, this procedure has an important role to patients undergoing an ITI protocol. PMID:26344704

  7. Improved training tolerance by supplementation with α-Keto acids in untrained young adults: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuefei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise causes a variety of physiological and metabolic changes that can in turn reduce exercise tolerance. One of the potential mechanisms responsible for fatigue is “exercise-induced hyperammonemia”. Previous studies have shown that supplementation with amino acids can increase training tolerance. The α-keto acids are biochemical analogs of amino acids and can be converted to amino acids through transamination, thus reducing the cellular ammonia level. This double blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the effects of α-keto acid supplementation (KAS on training tolerance, training effect, and stress-recovery state. Methods Thirty-three untrained young male adults underwent four weeks of training (5 sessions/week; 30 minutes running at the individual anaerobic threshold followed by 3 x 3 minute sprints/each session. Throughout the 4 weeks of training and one week of recovery, subjects took α-ketoglutarate (AKG group, 0.2 g/kg/d, n = 9, branched-chain keto acids (BCKA group, 0.2 g/kg/d, n = 12 or isocaloric placebo (control group, n = 12 daily. Results The 4th week training volume, maximum power output and muscle torque were higher in the AKG group (175 ± 42 min, 412 ± 49 Watts and 293 ± 58 Newton meters, respectively, Prd week of training increased significantly in the control group (P Conclusions Under KAS, subjects could bear a higher training volume and reach a higher power output and peak muscle torque, accompanied by a better stress-recovery-state. Thus, KAS improves exercise tolerance and training effects along with a better stress-recovery state. Whether the improved training tolerance by KAS is associated with effects on ammonia homeostasis requires further observation.

  8. Universal Stress Protein exhibits a redox-dependent chaperone function in Arabidopsis and enhances plant tolerance to heat shock and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung eYoung Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although a wide range of physiological information on Universal Stress Proteins (USPs is available from many organisms, their biochemical and molecular functions remain unidentified. The biochemical function of AtUSP (At3g53990 from Arabidopsis thaliana was therefore investigated. Plants over-expressing AtUSP showed a strong resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress, compared with wild-type and Atusp knock-out plants, confirming the crucial role of AtUSP in stress tolerance. AtUSP was present in a variety of structures including monomers, dimers, trimers, and oligomeric complexes, and switched in response to external stresses from low molecular weight (LMW species to high molecular weight (HMW complexes. AtUSP exhibited a strong chaperone function under stress conditions in particular, and this activity was significantly increased by heat treatment. Chaperone activity of AtUSP was critically regulated by the redox status of cells and accompanied by structural changes to the protein. Over-expression of AtUSP conferred a strong tolerance to heat shock and oxidative stress upon Arabidopsis, primarily via its chaperone function.

  9. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ali, Amir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Maolong [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blandford, Edward [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  10. The nature of tolerance in adult recipient mice made tolerant of alloantigens with supralethal irradiation followed by syngeneic bone marrow cell transplantation plus injection of F1 spleen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The length of time after syngeneic bone marrow reconstitution when tolerance to alloantigens can be induced in adult mice during T cell differentiation from bone marrow cells was studied by exposing those T cells to (recipient x donor)F1 spleen cells. Supralethally irradiated C3H/He Slc(C3H; H-2k) mice were reconstituted with 1 x 10(7) syngeneic T cell-depleted bone marrow cells and then injected intravenously with 5 x 10(7) (C3H x C57BL/6[B6])F1 (B6C3F1; H-2bxk) or (C3H x AKR/J[AKR])F1 (AKC3F1; H-2kxk) spleen cells at various intervals. In the fully allogeneic combination of B6C3F1----C3H, EL-4 tumor originating from B6 was accepted, and survival of grafted B6 skin was significantly prolonged in the tolerant C3H mice treated with irradiation on day -1 followed by injection of syngeneic bone marrow cells on day 0 plus B6C3F1 spleen cells on days 0, 5, or 10, in a tolerogen-specific manner. In the multiminor histocompatibility antigen-disparate combination of AKC3F1----C3H, AKR skin grafts were permanently accepted in the tolerant C3H mice treated with AKC3F1 spleen cells on days 0, 5, 10, or 15. Immunological parameters, including cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and delayed foot-pad reaction (DFR), were almost completely suppressed in C3H mice made tolerant of B6 or AKR antigens. A chimeric assay using a direct immunofluorescence method revealed that the tolerant C3H mice given B6C3F1 spleen cells on day 0 were mixed-chimeric for at least 8 weeks after syngeneic bone marrow reconstitution, but not definitely chimeric thereafter. The C3H mice given AKC3F1 spleen cells on day 0 were chimeric even 43 weeks after syngeneic bone marrow reconstitution, but the C3H mice given AKC3F1 spleen cells on day 15 showed temporal chimerism that disappeared within 43 weeks. The untolerant mice were never detectably chimeric

  11. Regulation of auxin, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels by ascorbate application under heat stress in sensitive and tolerant maize leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Demir, Emel; Kompe, Yasemin Ozdener

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of ascorbic acid (5 mM) on some physiological parameters and three hormones (auxin, abscisic acid, salicylic acid) was determined under heat stress (40 °C) in maize tolerant cv. (MAY 69) and sensitive cv. SHEMAL (SH) at 0 h, 4 h and 8 h. Heat stress reduced total chlorophyll content (CHL), relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance (gs) in SH but did not lead to changes in MAY 69 at 4 h and 8 h. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid increased (CHL), (RWC) and (gs) in SH under heat stress while it reduced MDA content significantly in both cv. We also observed that heat stress led to a reduction in SA level but increased ABA and IAA levels in SH, whereas it increased SA and IAA levels but did not change ABA level in MAY 69 at 4 h. Furthermore, in SH, ASC application under heat stress increased SA level and decreased IAA and ABA levels at 4 h, but it had no effect on SA and ABA at 8 h. PMID:25475985

  12. "Infectious" Transplantation Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shixin; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Pope, Heather; Elliott, James; Kioussis, Dimitris; Davies, Joanna; Waldmann, Herman

    1993-02-01

    The maintenance of transplantation tolerance induced in adult mice after short-term treatment with nonlytic monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8 was investigated. CD4^+ T cells from tolerant mice disabled naive lymphocytes so that they too could not reject the graft. The naive lymphocytes that had been so disabled also became tolerant and, in turn, developed the capacity to specifically disable other naive lymphocytes. This process of "infectious" tolerance explains why no further immunosuppression was needed to maintain long-term transplantation tolerance.

  13. Rapid cold hardening increases cold and chilling tolerances more than acclimation in the adults of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Xiao, Yu-Yu; Li, Bo

    2011-11-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata is a new, invasive pest of Platanus trees in China. Although C. ciliata is often subjected to acute low temperatures in early winter and spring in northern and eastern China, the cold tolerance of C. ciliata has not been well studied. The objectives of this study were to determine whether adults of C. ciliata are capable of rapid cold hardening (RCH), and to compare the benefits of RCH vs. cold acclimation (ACC) in the laboratory. When the adult females incubated at 26°C were transferred directly to the discriminating temperature (-12°C) for 2 h, survival was only 22%. However, exposure to 0°C for 4 h before transfer to -12°C for 2 h induced RCH, i.e., increased survival to 68%. RCH could also be induced by gradual cooling of the insects at rates between 0.1 and 0.25°C min(-1). The protection against cold shock obtained through RCH at 0°C for 4 h was lost within 1h if the adults were returned to 26°C before exposure to -12°C. Survival at both -12 and -5°C was greater for RCH-treated than for ACC-treated adults (for ACC, adults were kept at 15°C for 5 days), and the lethal temperature (2 h exposure) was lower for RCH-treated than for ACC-treated adults. The results suggest that RCH may help C. ciliata survive the acute low temperatures that often occur in early winter and early spring in northern and eastern China.

  14. The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Aerial Parts of the Mentha piperita in the Acquisition, Tolerance Expression and Dependence to Morphine in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khajeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Morphine dependence is a compulsive pattern of drug taking, resulting from the positive reinforcement of the rewarding effects of drug taking and the negative reinforcement of withdrawal syndrome that accompanies the cessation of drug taking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of aerial parts of the Mentha piperita in the acquisition, tolerance expression and dependence to morphine in adult male mice Methods: In the present study, 75 NMRI mice were divided into fifiteen groups. The Hot-plate test was used to survey the morphine activity. Morphine was injected (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg, i.p. twice daily for seven days, except in 8th day in which morphine was administrated at a single dose (50 mg/kg. The extract (50, 75, 100 mg/kg was injected for eight days. The control animals were intact, and sham animals only received morphine. Naloxone was injected (10 mg/kg five hours after the final dose of morphine and the withdrawal signs were recorded during a 30 minute period. The data were expressed as mean values ± SEM and tested, using analysis of one-way ANOVA test. Results: Peppermint extract at doses of 75 and 100 kg significantly improved the tolerance expression and dependence to morphine in animals and significantly reduced the symptoms of withdrawal. Conclusion: Peppermint extract was commuted morphine tolerance and dependence in mice.The plant contained component(s that alleviate morphine withdrawal syndrome. The extract possibly be effective in improving tolerance to morphine.

  15. A calcium-binding protein, rice annexin OsANN1, enhances heat stress tolerance by modulating the production of H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bei; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Dongliang; Wang, Haiqi; Yin, Jingya; Wang, Rui; He, Mengli; Cui, Meng; Shang, Zhonglin; Wang, Dekai; Zhu, Zhengge

    2015-09-01

    OsANN1 is a member of the annexin protein family in rice. The function of this protein and the mechanisms of its involvement in stress responses and stress tolerance are largely unknown. Here it is reported that OsANN1 confers abiotic stress tolerance by modulating antioxidant accumulation under abiotic stress. OsANN1-knockdown [RNA interference (RNAi)] plants were more sensitive to heat and drought stresses, whereas OsANN1-overexpression (OE) lines showed improved growth with higher expression of OsANN1 under abiotic stress. Overexpression of OsANN1 promoted SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) activities, which regulate H2O2 content and redox homeostasis, suggesting the existence of a feedback mechanism between OsANN1 and H2O2 production under abiotic stress. Higher expression of OsANN1 can provide overall cellular protection against abiotic stress-induced damage, and a significant accumulation of OsANN1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) signals was found in the cytosol after heat shock treatment. OsANN1 also has calcium-binding and ATPase activities in vitro, indicating that OsANN1 has multiple functions in rice growth. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays demonstrated that OsANN1 interacts with OsCDPK24. This cross-talk may provide additional layers of regulation in the abiotic stress response. PMID:26085678

  16. Tolerability of Two Sequential Electroporation Treatments Using MedPulser DNA Delivery System (DDS) in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Mark; Evans, Barbara; Woods, Sandra; Mogg, Robin; Zhang, Lei; Finnefrock, Adam C.; Rabussay, Dietmar; Fons, Michael; Mallee, John; Mehrotra, Devan; Schödel, Florian; Musey, Luwy

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy against infectious agents and malignant tumors requires efficient priming of effector cells through direct expression and/or efficient cross-presentation of antigens by antigen-presenting cells. Electroporation is a new procedure aimed at transiently increasing cell membrane permeability and direct delivery of antigen or antigen-encoding nucleic acids inside targeted cells. We evaluated the tolerability including compliance with repeated electroporation treatments using MedPulse...

  17. How Fast Is Recovery of Impaired Glucose Tolerance after 21-Day Bed Rest (NUC Study in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Heer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We hypothesized that 4 days of normal daily activity after 21 days of experimental bed rest (BR will not reverse BR induced impaired glucose tolerance. Design. Glucose tolerance of seven male, healthy, untrained test subjects (age: 27.6 (3.3 years (mean (SD; body mass: 78.6 (6.4 kg; height: 1.81 (0.04 m; VO2 max: 39.5 (5.4 ml/kg body mass/min was studied. They stayed twice in the metabolic ward (crossover design, 21 days in bed and 7 days before and after BR each. Oral glucose tolerance tests were applied before, on day 21 of BR, and 5 and 14 days after BR. Results. On day 21 of BR, AUC120 min of glucose concentration was increased by 28.8 (5.2% and AUC120 min of insulin by 35.9 (10.2% (glucose: P<0.001; insulin: P=0.02. Fourteen days after BR, AUC120 min of serum insulin concentrations returned to pre-bed-rest concentrations (P=0.352 and AUC120 min of glucose was still higher (P=0.038. Insulin resistance did not change, but sensitivity index was reduced during BR (P=0.005. Conclusion. Four days of light physical workload does not compensate inactivity induced impaired glucose tolerance. An individually tailored and intensified training regime is mandatory in patients being in bed rest to get back to normal glucose metabolism in a reasonable time frame.

  18. Pushing the limit: Examining factors that affect anoxia tolerance in a single genotype of adult D. melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Benasayag-Meszaros; Monica G. Risley; Priscilla Hernandez; Margo Fendrich; Ken Dawson-Scully

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a promiscuous species that inhabits a large range of harsh environments including flooded habitats and varying temperature changes. To survive these environments, fruit flies have adapted mechanisms of tolerance that allow them to thrive. During exposure to anoxic stress, fruit flies and other poikilotherms enter into a reversible, protective coma. This coma can be manipulated based on controlled environmental conditions inside the laboratory. Here we utilize a comm...

  19. The combined effects of magnetic asymmetry, assembly and manufacturing tolerances on the plasma heat load to the ITER first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The base plasma heat load on the ITER first wall results from the projection of the plasma scrape off layer power profile onto the shaped surface of the first wall panels. The actual heat load on the first wall is larger than the base heat load, due to enhancement factors such as design approximations, manufacturing and assembly errors, and deviations to the ideally toroidal magnetic field configurations. The heat load increase is accounted for through penalty coefficients, ranging individually from a few percent to 50%. The probabilistic combination of individual penalty coefficients to give a global penalty coefficient is presented in the paper. The global penalty coefficient ranges from 1.37 to 2.44, depending of the first wall row and plasma phase

  20. Ribosomal P3 protein AtP3B of Arabidopsis acts as both protein and RNA chaperone to increase tolerance of heat and cold stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Ho; Lee, Young Mee; Park, Joung Hun; Nawkar, Ganesh M; Oh, Hun Taek; Kim, Min Gab; Lee, Soo In; Kim, Woe Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2016-07-01

    The P3 proteins are plant-specific ribosomal P-proteins; however, their molecular functions have not been characterized. In a screen for components of heat-stable high-molecular weight (HMW) complexes, we isolated the P3 protein AtP3B from heat-treated Arabidopsis suspension cultures. By size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), SDS-PAGE and native PAGE followed by immunoblotting with anti-AtP3B antibody, we showed that AtP3B was stably retained in HMW complexes following heat shock. The level of AtP3B mRNA increased in response to both high- and low-temperature stresses. Bacterially expressed recombinant AtP3B protein exhibited both protein and RNA chaperone activities. Knockdown of AtP3B by RNAi made plants sensitive to both high- and low-temperature stresses, whereas overexpression of AtP3B increased tolerance of both conditions. Together, our results suggest that AtP3B protects cells against both high- and low-temperature stresses. These findings provide novel insight into the molecular functions and in vivo roles of acidic ribosomal P-proteins, thereby expanding our knowledge of the protein production machinery. PMID:27004478

  1. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Konofal, E.; Dejonckheere, J.; Challis, B.H.; Medori, R.

    2009-01-01

    The osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety

  2. Overexpression of small heat shock protein LimHSP16.45 in Arabidopsis enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Mu

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (smHSPs play important and extensive roles in plant defenses against abiotic stresses. We cloned a gene for a smHSP from the David Lily (Lilium davidii (E. H. Wilson Raffill var. Willmottiae, which we named LimHSP16.45 based on its protein molecular weight. Its expression was induced by many kinds of abiotic stresses in both the lily and transgenic plants of Arabidopsis. Heterologous expression enhanced cell viability of the latter under high temperatures, high salt, and oxidative stress, and heat shock granules (HSGs formed under heat or salinity treatment. Assays of enzymes showed that LimHSP16.45 overexpression was related to greater activity by superoxide dismutase and catalase in transgenic lines. Therefore, we conclude that heterologous expression can protect plants against abiotic stresses by preventing irreversible protein aggregation, and by scavenging cellular reactive oxygen species.

  3. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  4. Multiple heat priming enhances thermo-tolerance to a later high temperature stress via improving subcellular antioxidant activities in wheat seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai;

    2014-01-01

    an improvement of light use efficiency due to the priming pre-treatment. Under the later high temperature stress, PH could be maintained a better redox homeostasis than NH, as exemplified by the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in chloroplasts and glutathione reductase (GR), and of peroxidase (POD......) in mitochondria, which contributed to the lower superoxide radical production rate and malondialdehyde concentration in both chloroplasts and mitochondria. The improved antioxidant capacity in chloroplasts and mitochondria was related to the up-regulated expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and GR in PH. Collectively......, heat priming effectively improved thermo-tolerance of wheat seedlings subjected to a later high temperature stress, which could be largely ascribed to the enhanced anti-oxidation at the subcellular level....

  5. ACQUISITION OF THERMOTOLERANCE INDUCED BY HEAT AND ARSENITE IN HELA S3-CELLS - MULTIPLE PATHWAYS TO INDUCE TOLERANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMPINGA, HH; BRUNSTING, JF; KONINGS, AWT

    1992-01-01

    Recent data indicate that cells may acquire thermotolerance via more than one route. In this study, we observed differences in thermotolerance development in HeLa S3 cells induced by prior heating (15 minutes at 44-degrees-C) or pretreatment with sodium-arsenite (1 hour at 37-degrees-C, 100-mu-M). I

  6. Environmental heat exposure and cognitive performance in older adults: a controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Trezza, Beatriz Maria; Apolinario, Daniel; de Oliveira, Rafaela Sanchez; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Thermal stress has a negative effect on the cognitive performance of military personnel and industry workers exposed to extreme environments. However, no studies have investigated the effects of environmental thermal stress on the cognitive functions of older adults. We carried out a controlled trial with 68 healthy older adults (mean age 73.3 years, 69 % female), each of whom has been assessed twice on the same day with selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Batt...

  7. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  8. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 μM) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The sho...

  9. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL.

  10. Pushing the limit: examining factors that affect anoxia tolerance in a single genotype of adult D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benasayag-Meszaros, Raquel; Risley, Monica G; Hernandez, Priscilla; Fendrich, Margo; Dawson-Scully, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a promiscuous species that inhabits a large range of harsh environments including flooded habitats and varying temperature changes. To survive these environments, fruit flies have adapted mechanisms of tolerance that allow them to thrive. During exposure to anoxic stress, fruit flies and other poikilotherms enter into a reversible, protective coma. This coma can be manipulated based on controlled environmental conditions inside the laboratory. Here we utilize a common laboratory raised strain of D. melanogaster to characterize adaptation abilities to better understand coma recovery and survival limitations. Our goal is to mimic the fly's natural environments (wet anoxia) and relate findings to a typical gas induced environment (dry anoxia) that is commonly used in a laboratory. Despite the abundance of research regarding acute and chronic anoxic exposure and cold stress, the literature is lacking evidence linking anoxic stress with variable environmental conditions such as animal age and stress duration. We present novel ways to assess coma recovery and survival using readily available laboratory tools. Our findings suggest that younger age, exposure to colder temperatures and wet environments increase resistance to anoxic stress. PMID:25777190

  11. Tradeoffs to Thermal Acclimation: Energetics and Reproduction of a Reef Coral with Heat Tolerant Symbiodinium Type-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo-physiological characteristics of thermo-tolerant Symbiodinium types have been postulated to have negative effects on the energetics of the reef corals by reducing fitness. To investigate this, two key and inextricably coupled indicators of fitness, lipids and reproduction, were monitored in colonies of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora millepora over a two-year period that included a natural bleaching event. In the absence of bleaching ITS1-type clade D predominant colonies had 26% lower stored lipids compared to C2 colonies. At spawning time, this correlated with 28% smaller eggs in type-D colonies. This energetic disparity is expected to have reduced larval duration and settlement-competency periods in type-D compared to type-C2 colonies. More importantly, irrespective of the effect of genotype, the fitness of all corals was adversely affected by the stress of the bleaching event which reduced prespawning lipids by 60% and halved the number of eggs compared to the previous year. Our results extend work that has shown that direct temperature stress and symbiont change are likely to work in concert on corals by demonstrating that the lipids and reproduction of the reef building corals on tropical reefs are likely to be impaired by these processes as our climate warms.

  12. Post-hatch heat warms adult beaks: irreversible physiological plasticity in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, Gary; Huard, Jacqueline R; Malcolm, Emily; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2013-09-22

    Across taxa, the early rearing environment contributes to adult morphological and physiological variation. For example, in birds, environmental temperature plays a key role in shaping bill size and clinal trends across latitudinal/thermal gradients. Such patterns support the role of the bill as a thermal window and in thermal balance. It remains unknown whether bill size and thermal function are reversibly plastic. We raised Japanese quail in warm (30°C) or cold (15°C) environments and then at a common intermediate temperature. We predicted that birds raised in cold temperatures would develop smaller bills than warm-reared individuals, and that regulation of blood flow to the bill in response to changing temperatures would parallel the bill's role in thermal balance. Cold-reared birds developed shorter bills, although bill size exhibited 'catch-up' growth once adults were placed at a common temperature. Despite having lived in a common thermal environment as adults, individuals that were initially reared in the warmth had higher bill surface temperatures than cold-reared individuals, particularly under cold conditions. This suggests that blood vessel density and/or the control over blood flow in the bill retained a memory of early thermal ontogeny. We conclude that post-hatch temperature reversibly affects adult bill morphology but irreversibly influences the thermal physiological role of bills and may play an underappreciated role in avian energetics.

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy in adults: a 12-week, open-label, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tariq Saeed,1 Muhammad Nasrullah,2 Adnan Ghafoor,3 Riaz Shahid,4 Nadeem Islam,5 Mohammad Usman Khattak,6 Neeta Maheshwary,7 Ahson Siddiqi,7 Muhammad Athar Khan81Pakistan Telecommunication Company Ltd, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Cavalary Hospital, Gulberg, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 4Dr Riaz Shahid Clinic, Peshawar Cantt, Peshawar, Pakistan; 5Punjab Employs Social Security Institution, Islamabad, Pakistan; 6Medical B Unit, Hayat Abad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Pakistan; 7Novartis Pharma Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan; 8Department of Medical Education, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaObjective: Anticonvulsants are increasingly being used in the symptomatic management of several neuropathic pain disorders. The present observational study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life (QoL of carbamazepine use for 12 weeks in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy, in Pakistan.Methods: This was a 12-week, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled trial in adult type 2 diabetic patients (aged 18–65 years suffering from clinically confirmed neuropathic pain (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 [DN4] score ≥4. Change in neuropathic pain at week 12 compared with baseline was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory Scale–Short Form (pain severity score and pain interference score. QoL was determined by the American Chronic Pain Association QoL scale. Safety was assessed based on patient reported adverse events (AEs and serious AEs.Results: Of the total 500 screened patients, 452 enrolled and completed the study. The mean (± standard deviation [SD] pain interference score decreased from 4.5±2.0 at baseline to 3.1±1.9 at week 12 (P<0.001. The mean (± SD pain severity score decreased from 5.8±2.0 at baseline to 3.6±2.2 at week 12 (P<0.001. There was a decrease of ≥30% in the pain severity score between visits. The mean (± SD QoL scale score improved from 5.9±1

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy in adults: a 12-week, open-label, multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Tariq; Nasrullah, Muhammad; Ghafoor, Adnan; Shahid, Riaz; Islam, Nadeem; Khattak, Mohammad Usman; Maheshwary, Neeta; Siddiqi, Ahson; Khan, Muhammad Athar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anticonvulsants are increasingly being used in the symptomatic management of several neuropathic pain disorders. The present observational study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life (QoL) of carbamazepine use for 12 weeks in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy, in Pakistan. Methods This was a 12-week, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled trial in adult type 2 diabetic patients (aged 18–65 years) suffering from clinically confirmed neuropathic pain (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 [DN4] score ≥4). Change in neuropathic pain at week 12 compared with baseline was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory Scale–Short Form (pain severity score and pain interference score). QoL was determined by the American Chronic Pain Association QoL scale. Safety was assessed based on patient reported adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Results Of the total 500 screened patients, 452 enrolled and completed the study. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) pain interference score decreased from 4.5±2.0 at baseline to 3.1±1.9 at week 12 (P<0.001). The mean (± SD) pain severity score decreased from 5.8±2.0 at baseline to 3.6±2.2 at week 12 (P<0.001). There was a decrease of ≥30% in the pain severity score between visits. The mean (± SD) QoL scale score improved from 5.9±1.6 at baseline to 8.0±1.7 at week 12. A total of ten (2.2%) patients reported AEs during the study period. No patient discontinued the study due to AEs. Conclusion In this real-life experience study, carbamazepine, when prescribed for 12 weeks to adult diabetic patients suffering from neuropathic pain, showed pain-relief effect, with reduced mean pain severity and mean pain interference scores and with improved QoL and good tolerability profile. PMID:25061334

  15. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra) Information for adults A A A ... bumps can suddenly occur, as seen here. Overview Heat rash (miliaria rubra), also known as prickly heat, ...

  16. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different between Brahman and Senepol on the hottest summer date. On this date, rectal temperature did not differ between Brahman and Senepol, which supports the hypothesis that there is a relationship between response to stress and rectal temperature that helps

  17. Heat stress, health and well-being: findings from a large national cohort of Thai adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kjellström, Tord; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the association between self-reported heat stress interference with daily activities (sleeping, work, travel, housework and exercise) and three graded-holistic health and well-being outcomes (energy, emotions and life satisfaction). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The setting is tropical and developing countries as Thailand, where high temperature and high humidity are common, particularly during the hottest seasons. PARTICIPANTS: This study is...

  18. Phosphorylated heat shock protein 27 is involved in enhanced heart tolerance to ischemia in short-term type 1 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong CHEN; King-jun WU; Xi-yuan LU; Liang ZHU; Li-ping WANG; Huang-tian YANG; Hong-zhuan CHEN; Wen-jun YUAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the tolerance of type 1 diabetic hearts to ischemia and reperfusion injury.Myocardial contents of 27-kDa and 70-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp) as well as phosphorylated hsp27 were also determined.Methods: Hearts from hyperglycemic rats 3 weeks after streptozocin injection and age-matched normal rats were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion in vitro.Cardiac function and electrocardiogram were recorded throughout experiments.Myocardial heat shock proteins were detected with Western blot.Results: Despite depressed systolic function at the baseline, diabetic hearts exhibited considerable enhancement in postischemic heart function, manifested by an increase in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise and fall (post-ischemic dp/dtmax and dp/dtmin were 560± 117and -313±68 mmHg/s in control, n=7, 1249±57 and -1204±36 mmHg/s in diabetes,n=10, P<0.01).Reperfusion ventricular fibrillation in the diabetic group were attenuated compared with controls (1.5±0.3 vs 7.2±2.1 min in control, P<0.01).The increased heart resistance to ischemia in diabetes was associated with hyperglycemia and accompanied by enhanced expression of myocardial phosphorylated hsp27 with normal aortic vessel relaxation.Cardioprotection was abrogated by metabolic correction with insulin and accompanied by phospho-hsp27 reduction.Conclusion: Heart resistance to ischemia is increased in type 1 diabetes, and hyperglycemia may present a mild yet stressful stimulus leading to upregulation of endogenous stress protein, which may play a potential role in cardioprotection and compensate for detrimental effects of hyperglycemia in diabetes.

  19. Production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids in tropical areas by a new heat-tolerant microalga Tetraselmis sp. DS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Pei; Chuang, Lu-Te; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2016-02-01

    Demand for long chain ω-3 fatty acids from non-fish source for vegetarians has increased recently. Marine microalgae are the primary producers of EPA/DHA and promising alternatives for fish oil. Tropical areas have abundant sunlight throughout the year for microalgal cultivation but this practice can be hindered by high temperature. Discovery of heat-tolerant marine microalgae that can synthesize EPA/DHA will solve these problems. A new species of microalga was isolated from a high temperature lagoon and identified as Tetraselmis sp. DS3. These cells could grow at 40 °C, the highest temperature for marine microalgal growth ever reported. Its ω-3 fatty acids and EPA accounted for 33 and 10% of total lipids, respectively, grown in nitrogen-depleted conditions. These cells also accumulated more than 5% β-carotene and 0.48% lutein in biomass. This new microalga can be cultivated for long chain ω-3 fatty acids and lutein production in the tropical areas.

  20. Effect of caffeine on glucose tolerance of healthy adults%咖啡因对健康成人糖耐量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳; 陈充抒; 梁莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察口服400 mg咖啡因对正常成人糖耐量的影响.方法:采用单盲、安慰剂对照的随机临床研究.46位年龄在25~40岁的健康成人在4周观察期内需戒饮茶,咖啡,可口可乐或巧克力,并写下知情同意书.观察期结束后,随机分为两组分别服用1周咖啡因或安慰剂,进行葡萄糖耐量测试.结果:在前2h,两组受试者血糖值正常且相似,但到第3,4h,口服咖啡因组受试者与空白对照组比较,糖耐量曲线明显左移,血浆胰岛素水平略有增加.结论:健康成人口服咖啡因有降低血糖的作用,且伴有胰岛素水平轻微升高的依赖作用.%Objective; To investigate the effect of 400 mg oral caffeine on glucose tolerance. Methods; In a single-blind random clinical study, 46 healthy adults aged 25 ~40 years were treated with oral caffeine or placebo after getting their informed consents. They were abstained from coffee, tea, chocolate and cola for 4 weeks before testing. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed one week after taking caffeine or placebo. Results; The blood glucose curve was normal in all subjects, and was similar in the two groups until the second hour. In subjects taking caffeine, a shift in the curve towards the left was detected at the 3rd and 4th hours in comparison to those taking the placebo. Blood insulin levels were increased at 3rd and 4th hours after taking caffeine. Conclusion; Caffeine can reduce blood glucose levels in an insulin-dependent manner.

  1. Impact of varying levels of sanitation on mortality of Tribolium castaneum eggs and adults during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an economically important pest in flour mills, was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to two, 24-h heat treatments. One hundred eggs or 100 adults of T...

  2. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time.

  3. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time. PMID:25297618

  4. Pilot Dietary Intervention with Heat-Stabilized Rice Bran Modulates Stool Microbiota and Metabolites in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Sheflin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stabilized rice bran (SRB has been shown to regulate blood lipids and glucose, modulate gut mucosal immunity and inhibit colorectal cancer in animal and human studies. However, SRB’s effects on gut microbial composition and metabolism and the resulting implications for health remain largely unknown. A pilot, randomized-controlled trial was developed to investigate the effects of eating 30 g/day SRB on the stool microbiome and metabolome. Seven healthy participants consumed a study meal and snack daily for 28 days. The microbiome and metabolome were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS at baseline, two and four weeks post-intervention. Increases in eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs, including three from Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus genera, were observed after two and four weeks of SRB consumption (p < 0.01. Branched chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids and eleven other putative microbial metabolites were significantly elevated in the SRB group after four weeks. The largest metabolite change was a rice bran component, indole-2-carboxylic acid, which showed a mean 12% increase with SRB consumption. These data support the feasibility of dietary SRB intervention in adults and support that SRB consumption can affect gut microbial metabolism. These findings warrant future investigations of larger cohorts evaluating SRB’s effects on intestinal health.

  5. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Contreras-Sesvold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285, HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581, and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29% in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL and higher (29% among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation on heat tolerance of various lettuce seedlings%不同生菜品种苗期耐热性的综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云鹏; 刘凯歌; 龚繁荣

    2015-01-01

    To detect the adaptability difference under high temperature of different lettuce cultivars, leaf segments of seven lettuce cultivars ( A-G) were used to study the heat tolerance by electrical conductivity method and antioxidant enzyme indexes.The results showed that with the rise of treated temperature, cells injured rate of leaf segments from A to G were increased with trends of slow-fast-slow, showed typical S-type curve, the significance test of which was fit Logistic equation.The heat resistance of the seven lettuce cultivars followed the order: C>D>F>B>G>E>A, respectively.Meanwhile, treating with high temperature for 6 d increased the superoxidase ( SOD) , peroxidase ( POD) , catalase ( CAT) activities and the malondisldehyde ( MDA) contents of various lettuce cultivars.The rela-tionship between semi-lethal high temperature and antioxidant enzyme indexes was significant.The above results showed that semi-lethal high temperature could be considered as the index of lettuce heat resistance.%为探明生菜不同品种对高温的适应性差异,以生菜叶片为试验材料,以半致死温度及抗氧化酶活性为参照指标,对7个生菜品种,A(战神)、B(玉湖)、C(剑客)、D(小叶苦苣)、E(申选5号)、F(玛丽娜)、G(橡叶绿)的耐热性进行研究。结果表明,随着处理温度的升高,7个生菜品种叶片的细胞伤害率增长速度均呈现“慢—快—慢”的趋势,呈典型的“S”型曲线,显著性检验均符合Logistic方程。7个生菜品种耐高温能力由强到弱依次为C(49.67℃)>D(49.60℃)>F(49.36℃)>B(49.13℃)>G(48.81℃)>E(48.74℃)>A (47.86℃)。同时,高温处理6 d后,各品种的超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)、过氧化物酶( POD)、过氧化氢酶( CAT)活性和丙二醛( MDA)含量均比对照有不同程度的上升;半致死温度与MDA含量及SOD、POD、CAT等抗氧化酶活性呈显著

  7. Similar clinical features among patients with severe adult growth hormone deficiency diagnosed with insulin tolerance test or arginine or glucagon stimulation tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toogood, Andrew; Brabant, Georg; Maiter, Dominique;

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether insulin tolerance tests (ITTs), arginine stimulation tests (ASTs), and glucagon stimulation tests (GST) identify patients who have similar clinical features of growth hormone (GH) deficiency when a diagnostic GH threshold of 3 μg/L is used.......To determine whether insulin tolerance tests (ITTs), arginine stimulation tests (ASTs), and glucagon stimulation tests (GST) identify patients who have similar clinical features of growth hormone (GH) deficiency when a diagnostic GH threshold of 3 μg/L is used....

  8. The Relationship between Protein Change and Heat Tolerance of Forages and Feed Crops%牧草和饲料作物蛋白质变化与耐热性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雁; 毕玉芬; 邵辰光; 王荟

    2012-01-01

    高温胁迫影响牧草和饲料作物的生长和生理生化代谢,原有蛋白质的降解、正常细胞蛋白的合成受阻以及诱导合成新的蛋白质等过程均能显著改变蛋白质的组成和含量,进而影响植物的耐热性.本文从热激蛋白(HSPs)等高温诱导蛋白以及高温胁迫对可溶性蛋白、磷脂酶D (PLD)、蔗糖合酶(SS)和蔗糖磷酸合酶(SPS)活性影响等方面,综述了牧草和饲料作物蛋白质变化与耐热性关系的研究现状.提出应进一步对高温胁迫导致蛋白质变化的机理以及蛋白质在植物体内的功能等方面开展研究,为进一步阐明牧草和饲料作物耐热的分子机制和提高牧草的耐热性提供了新的思路.%Supraoptiraal temperature limits growth and metabolic activities of forages and feed crops,by causing protein denaturalion,inhibition of normal celullar proteins synthesis,and induction of some heat stock proteins (HSPs).Such protein changes could result in variation in protein composition and content,which in turn,affect plant tolerance ability to heat.In this article,the relationship between protein change and heat tolerance of forages and feed crops,focusing on heat induced proteins,such as HSPs,and effects of heat stress on soluble proteins,phospholipase D ( PLD),the sucrose synthase (SS) and the sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) were reviewed.The proteins change with regard to thermotolerance in forages and feed crops are relatively well understood,however,further studies on the mechanisms and functions of changed proteins under heat stress are still highly demanded,which could provide basic information for further research on understanding molecular mechanism of heat tolerance and improve thermotolerance of forages and feed crops.

  9. Early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate intestinal enzymes, but not inducible heat shock proteins in young adult Swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Edith Arnal

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP. The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12 or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11, and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27 and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently

  10. Alterações fenotípicas em cultivares de alface selecionadas para calor Phenotypical alterations in lettuce genotypes selected for heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Conti

    2000-11-01

    unselected ones of the same groups were analyzed for morphological variations, to quantify possible adaptative modifications for the cultivation conditions in heat seasons. Cultivars of the groups "butterhead" (Regina, Glória, IAC 303, IAC 202, Sem Rival and Luciana, "leaf-lettuce" (Grand Rapids and Brisa, and "crisphead" (Great Lakes and Mesa 659 were compared in two summer seasons, in Piracicaba, Brazil, in randomized blocks design. In the first (November/1990 were analyzed the characteristics of stomata number, leaf thickness and amount of chlorophyl of the whole plants. In the second (September/1991, were analyzed the characteristics of number of leaves, and dry and fresh weight of the whole plants. Cultivars selected for heat tolerance in the "butterhead" group (Gloria and Regina, presented larger stomata number (respectively 9,487/cm² and 7,973/cm² and thicker leaves (respectively 556 mm e 439 mm and, also, they accumulated larger amount of dry matter (respectively 24.55 g and 25.50 g, Cultivars selected for heat of the group "leaf-lettuce" (Brisa, accumulated larger amount of green matter (446.77g and dry ones (22.40 g, in the same way that presented larger stomata number (7,279/cm². For the cultivars of the group "crisphead", significant difference was just observed for leaf thickness; cv. Mesa 659 presented thicker leaves (589 mm. Significant increases of vegetal biomass were verified in cultivars selected for heat in relation to the unselected ones. Cultivars that reached larger dry matter yield were Mesa 659 (28.74 g, Great Lakes (27.17 g and Regina. The results checked that the slow bolting selection indirectly produced adaptative variations in the lettuce plants.

  11. The physiological consequences of varied heat exposure events in adult Myzus persicae: a single prolonged exposure compared to repeated shorter exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Behnaz; Andrew, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    The study of environmental stress tolerance in aphids has primarily been at low temperatures. In these cases, and in the rare cases of high temperature tolerance assessments, all exposures had been during a single stress event. In the present study, we examined the physiological consequences of repeated high temperature exposure with recovery periods between these stress events in Myzus persicae. We subjected individuals to either a single prolonged three hour heating event, or three one hour heating events with a recovery time of 24 h between bouts. Aphids exposed to repeated bouts of high temperatures had more glucose and higher expression of proteins and osmolyte compounds, such as glycerol, compared to the prolonged exposure group. However, aphids exposed to the repeated high temperature treatment had reduced sources of energy such as trehalose and triglyceride compounds than the prolonged exposure group. Recovery time had more physiological costs (based on production of more protein and consumption of more trehalose and triglyceride) and benefits (based on production of more osmolytes) in repeated high temperature treatments. As aphids are known to respond differently to constant versus 'natural' fluctuating temperature regimes, conclusions drawn from constant temperature data sets may be problematic. We suggest future experiments assessing insect responses to thermal stress incorporate a repeated stress and recovery pattern into their methodologies. PMID:27547583

  12. Generic vapor heat treatments to control Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2004-08-01

    Vapor heat treatments were developed against life stages of the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Treatments tested were 47 degrees C for 5-50 min in 5-min increments and 49 degrees C for 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12 min. All tests were conducted with mixed age M. hirsutus on Chinese pea, Pisum sativum L. Treatment at 47 degrees C required 45 min to kill all M. hirsutus, whereas treatment at 49 degrees C required 10 min. The adult female and nymphal stages were the most heat tolerant at 47 degrees C, but the egg stage was the most heat tolerant at 49 degrees C. Use of the vapor heat treatments on other commodities will require achieving or exceeding the proper temperature and duration at all locations on the host where M. hirsutus may reside.

  13. Relationship of serum methotrexate concentration in high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy to prognosis and tolerability: A prospective cohort study in chinese adults with osteosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Feng; Juan, Yue; Zheng, Shui-er; Shen, Zan; Tang, Li-Na; Hui ZHAO; Yao, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cancer that originates in the bone, termed primary bone cancer, is rare. Osteosarcoma (OS) occurs primarily in growing bone tissue and is more prevalent in children and adolescents. OS in adults is rare, with 3 to 5 cases per million population per year worldwide. There are limited data on treatment-related prognosis and adverse reactions in adults reported in the literature.

  14. Impact of varying levels of sanitation on mortality of Tribolium castaneum eggs and adults during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijwani, Monika; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Flinn, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an economically important pest in flour mills, was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to two, 24-h heat treatments. One hundred eggs or 100 adults of T. castaneum were exposed inside each 20-cm diameter by 15-cm high PVC rings holding 0.1-, 0.2-, 1.0-, 3.0-, 6.0-, and 10.0-cm-deep wheat flour to simulate different sanitation levels that may exist in a flour mill. These rings were placed on the first and third floors of a pilot flour mill. On the first floor, temperatures inside rings with eggs reached 50 degrees C in 7-11 h only in 0.1- and 0.2-cm-deep flour treatments. In all other treatments the maximum temperatures attained generally were below 50 degrees C and inversely related to flour depth. Adults of T. castaneum on this floor were less susceptible than eggs. The egg mortality decreased linearly with an increase in flour depth, whereas that of adults decreased exponentially. All eggs and adults in rings on the third floor were killed irrespective of flour depth, because temperatures inside rings reached 50 degrees C in 15-17 h and were held above 50 degrees C for 6-8 h with the maximum temperatures ranging between 55.0 and 57.0 degrees C. Although the protective effects of flour on survival of T. castaneum eggs and adults were evident only if temperatures did not reach 50 degrees C, removal of flour accumulations is essential to improve heat treatment effectiveness.

  15. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AMONG ADULTS 30 YEARS ABOVE IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF KATIHAR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES : 1) To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type - 2 in an urban population of age 30 year and above 2) To determine the prevalence of impaired an urban population of age 30 years and above 3) To study the association of various risk factors with diabe tes mellitus Type - 2 and Implored Glucose Tolerance. METHODOLOGY : A community based cross section study will be carried out in population 30 years above at Sharifganj with Dist...

  16. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AMONG ADULTS 30 YEARS ABOVE IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF KATIHAR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : 1 To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type - 2 in an urban population of age 30 year and above 2 To determine the prevalence of impaired an urban population of age 30 years and above 3 To study the association of various risk factors with diabe tes mellitus Type - 2 and Implored Glucose Tolerance. METHODOLOGY : A community based cross section study will be carried out in population 30 years above at Sharifganj with District Katihar Bihar during January 2013 - June 2013. Population approximately 5000 i s an urban field practice area of Katihar Medical College Katihar , during the six months study period. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS was estimated to identify the diabetes and the Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT. Information from the study population was collected through pre tested questionnaire using several anthropometric measurements. RESULT : All of the 910 subjects examined far fasting blood glucose after overnight fast. FBS was detected by using standardized Glucometer (Accu - Check 32 cases were detected as Diabetic or having Impaired Glucose Tolerance (ITG prevalence of diabetes and IGT was higher among urban and is increasing with increase in age. Several long and short team steps should be taken for promotion of healthy life style modifications to present diabetes and emergence of its complications.

  17. The trade-off between heat tolerance and metabolic cost drives the bimodal life strategy at the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mostert, Bruce; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Giomi, Folco

    2016-01-01

    The principle of oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance in ectotherms suggests that the long-term upper limits of an organism's thermal niche are equivalent to the upper limits of the organism's functional capacity for oxygen provision to tissues. Air-breathing ectotherms show wider thermal tolerances, since they can take advantage of the higher availability of oxygen in air than in water. Bimodal species move from aquatic to aerial media and switch between habitats in response to environmental variations such as cyclical or anomalous temperature fluctuations. Here we tested the prediction that bimodal species cope better with thermal stress than truly aquatic species using the crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus as a model species. When in water, oxygen consumption rates of P. marmoratus acutely rise during warming. Beyond a temperature threshold of 23 °C the crab's aerobic metabolism in air remains lower than in water. In parallel, the haemolymph oxygen partial pressure of submerged animals progressive decreases during warming, while it remains low but constant during emersion. Our results demonstrate the ability of a bimodal breathing ectotherm to extend its thermal tolerance during air-breathing, suggesting that there are temperature-related physiological benefits during the evolution of the bimodal life style. PMID:26758742

  18. mRNA expression profiles of heat shock proteins of wild and salinity-tolerant swimming crabs, Portunus trituberculatus, subjected to low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X N; Mu, C K; Zhang, C; Wang, Y F; Song, W W; Li, R H; Wang, C L

    2014-08-29

    Challenged by the low salinity, 4 parts per thousand (4 ppt), for 72h, the survivals of swimming crabs (Portunus trituberculatus) were collected as the screened group (SG, tolerant to low salinity). Aiming at identifying the mechanism of low salinity tolerance, quantitative real-time PCR was employed to investigate the expression profiles of 4 HSP genes (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90-1, HSP90-2) in the hepatopancreas of wild (WG) and screened (SG) groups of P. trituberculatus exposed to low salinity (4 ppt). The results showed that 3 of the candidate genes (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90-1) exhibited similarly downregulated expression profiles in the first 3 h (P crabs. The results indicate that HSP genes are involved in the adaptation of crabs to low salinity exposure, and that different HSPs have diverse functions in response to low salinity stress in P. trituberculatus. In addition, HSP expression in SG indicates that this group is more tolerant to low salinity conditions compared to WG.

  19. The trade-off between heat tolerance and metabolic cost drives the bimodal life strategy at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2016-01-13

    The principle of oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance in ectotherms suggests that the long-term upper limits of an organism\\'s thermal niche are equivalent to the upper limits of the organism\\'s functional capacity for oxygen provision to tissues. Air-breathing ectotherms show wider thermal tolerances, since they can take advantage of the higher availability of oxygen in air than in water. Bimodal species move from aquatic to aerial media and switch between habitats in response to environmental variations such as cyclical or anomalous temperature fluctuations. Here we tested the prediction that bimodal species cope better with thermal stress than truly aquatic species using the crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus as a model species. When in water, oxygen consumption rates of P. marmoratus acutely rise during warming. Beyond a temperature threshold of 23 °C the crab\\'s aerobic metabolism in air remains lower than in water. In parallel, the haemolymph oxygen partial pressure of submerged animals progressive decreases during warming, while it remains low but constant during emersion. Our results demonstrate the ability of a bimodal breathing ectotherm to extend its thermal tolerance during air-breathing, suggesting that there are temperature-related physiological benefits during the evolution of the bimodal life style.

  20. Digestive tolerance and postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of dairy desserts containing maltitol and fructo-oligosaccharides in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Respondek, F; Hilpipre, C; Chauveau, P.; Cazaubiel, M; Gendre, D; Maudet, C; Wagner, A

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: To evaluate the short-term digestive tolerance and glycaemic response of several associations of maltitol and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) used to replace sugars (for example, dextrose) in foods. Subjects/methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects aged 18–60 years were recruited for the study and 32 completed it. The subjects consumed six different mixtures of dextrose, maltitol and scFOS added in a chocolate dairy dessert at a dosage of 35 g. The test days wer...

  1. Pegylated Long-Acting Human Growth Hormone Possesses a Promising Once-Weekly Treatment Profile, and Multiple Dosing Is Well Tolerated in Adult Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Klose, Marianne Christina; Hansen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement therapy in children and adults currently requires daily sc injections for several years or lifelong, which may be both inconvenient and distressing for patients. NNC126-0083 is a pegylated rhGH developed for once-weekly administration. Objective...

  2. Dopamine levels in the mosquito Aedes aegypti during adult development, following blood feeding and in response to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Schwartz, Alex; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert;

    2006-01-01

    concentrations of dopamine than females, and that dopamine concentrations decrease with age in both sexes. Dopamine levels increase in females following a blood meal suggesting that dopamine might be involved in ovarian- and/or egg-development. We also found that female mosquitoes have a higher tolerance...... to a short term thermal stress in a water bath than males up to 44 degrees C, however, both sexes die if exposed to short term temperatures between 44 and 45 degrees C. Finally, we did not find any indication that dopamine levels were associated with short time thermal stress response in female mosquitoes....

  3. In vivo mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Sayegh, M H;

    1997-01-01

    Injection of antigen into the thymus of adult animals induces specific systemic tolerance, but the mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance are not well understood. To investigate these mechanisms we used a model of intrathymic injection of ovalbumin (OVA) in BALB/c mice. We show an antigen-specif...

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of the hepatic response to heat stress in Muscovy and Pekin ducks: insight into thermal tolerance related to energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    Full Text Available The Pekin duck, bred from the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos in china, is one of the most famous meat duck species in the world. However, it is more sensitive to heat stress than Muscovy duck, which is believed to have originated in South America. With temperature raising, mortality, laying performance, and meat quality of the Pekin duck are severely affected. This study aims to uncover the temperature-dependent proteins of two duck species using comparative proteomic approach. Duck was cultured under 39°C ± 0.5°C for 1 h, and then immediately returned to 20°C for a 3 h recovery period, the liver proteins were extracted and electrophoresed in two-dimensional mode. After analysis of gel images, 61 differentially expressed proteins were detected, 54 were clearly identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Of the 54 differentially expressed protein spots identified, 7 were found in both species, whereas 47 were species specific (25 in Muscovy duck and 22 in Pekin duck. As is well known, chaperone proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP 70 and HSP10, were abundantly up-regulated in both species in response to heat stress. However, we also found that several proteins, such as α-enolase, and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, showed different expression patterns in the 2 duck species. The enriched biological processes were grouped into 3 main categories according to gene ontology analysis: cell death and apoptosis (20.93%, amino acid metabolism (13.95% and oxidation reduction (20.93%. The mRNA levels of several differentially expressed protein were investigated by real-time RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide insights into the differential expression of proteins following heat stress in ducks and enables better understanding of possible heat stress response mechanisms in animals.

  5. Towards Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper; Jurjen Iedema; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, public attitudes towards lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals range from broad tolerance to widespread rejection. Attitudes towards homosexuality are more than mere individual opinions, but form part of the social and political structures which foster or hinder the equality and

  6. 高热湿工业建筑中人体热耐受的性别差异%Gender difference of body heat tolerance in high thermal and humid industrial building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕石磊; 高萍; 朱能; 王志伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the differences of such physiological indexes as body heat endurance duration and heat endurance limit between male and female in high thermal and humid industrial building environment,a high temperature and hygrothermal environmental chamber was used to stimulate the high thermal and humid industrial building environment.The physiological indexes of test population with different gender were measured,and thus,the limit values of key physiological indexes such as heat endurance duration,nonnasality temperature,heart rate and dehydration rate of body samples with different gender were obtained.In addition,the differences between wet-bulb globe temperature(WBGT) values were also determined.The results indicate that the female exhibits stronger heat and humid endurance abilities than the male in high thermal and humid industrial building environment.When the body reaches the heat tolerance limit,the heat stress response of female body is stronger than that of male body.Within shorter time,the female shows better thermal adjustment ability than the male.In high thermal and humid industrial building environment,the dehydration rate of the female is obviously lower than that of the male.Moreover,the WBGT values subjected by female are higher than those subjected by male.With reaching the heat tolerance limit,the WBGT values subjected by experimental body samples exceed the WBGT limit values in ISO7243 health standard by 6 ℃ to 8 ℃.%为了研究在高热湿工业建筑环境下男性与女性的人体耐热时长和人体耐热极限各生理指标值的差异性,采用高温高湿热环境舱模拟高热湿工业建筑环境,对不同性别受试群体进行生理指标实测,得出不同性别人体样本的耐热时长、口腔温度、心率和失水率等关键生理指标限值以及湿球黑球温度(WBGT,wet-bulb globe temperature)值之间的差异.实验结果表明:女性在高热湿工业建筑环境中的耐热、耐湿能力

  7. 叶用莴苣种质资源的主要农艺性状鉴定与耐热性评价%Evaluation of Major Agronomic Traits and Heat Tolerance of Lettuce Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青君; 韩莹琰; 谷建田; 范双喜

    2011-01-01

    In 2 environment conditions of open field and greenhouse, in spring and summer 2 cultivation seasons, the agronomic traits of 110 accessions of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ) germplasm were investigated. At the same time, the heat tolerance was evaluated by the center column length, number of bolting days and the index of heat injury. The results showed that the leaves traits of no-heading lettuce tip, leaf shape, leaf color, plant height, petiole length, stem thickness, plant weight and fresh-cut vegetables weight all varied greatly, showing that the no-heading lettuce bears great potential in germplasm variation and innovation ability. Heading lettuce varieties have a higher similarity. Only in the petiole thick, rosette leaves, fresh-cut vegetables weight ( head weight), there is a big variation. In early summer, the no-heading lettuce bolts 12-36 days earlier than the spring, and the heading lettuce bolts18-38 days earlier. In greenhouse under strong high temperature stress, the no-heading lettuce bolts further ahead of schedule, and 82% of them holt within 10 days, showing sensitivity to high temperature. Some heading lettuce varieties die of heat injury. The heat injury index can accurately reflect the heat tolerance between varieties of heading lettuce. The number of bolting days, center column length and single plant weight, head weight, leaf /shape ratio, etc. Show remarkable correlation. They are also important indicators to evaluate the heat tolerance of lettuce. In spring greenhouse cultivation, the heat tolerance of lettuce germplasm resources are preferably evaluated by heat injury index and the number of bolting days.%在露地和大棚两种环境、春季和初夏两种栽培季节下,对110份叶用莴苣种质资源的农艺性状进行了调查,同时以中心柱长、抽薹天数和热害指数3个指标综合评价叶用莴苣种质资源的田间耐热性.结果表明:散叶莴苣叶尖形状、叶形、叶色、株高、叶柄长、叶柄厚

  8. Identification and functional characterization of Siberian wild rye (Elymus sibiricus L.) small heat shock protein 16.9 gene (EsHsp16.9) conferring diverse stress tolerance in prokaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Won; Lee, Dong-Gi; Son, Daeyoung; Park, Su Jung; Kim, Ki-Yong; Park, Hyung Soo; Cha, Joon-Yung

    2015-04-01

    Small heat shock proteins (Hsps) protect against stress-inducible denaturation of substrates. Our objectives were to clone and examine the mRNA expression of the Hsp16.9 gene from Siberian wild rye grown under diverse stress treatments. We characterized EsHsp16.9 from Elymus sibiricus L. EsHsp16.9 has a 456-bp open reading frame that encodes a 151-amino acid protein with a conserved α-crystallin domain. Northern blot analysis showed that EsHsp16.9 transcripts were enhanced by heat, drought, arsenate, methyl viologen, and H2O2 treatment. In addition, recombinant EsHsp16.9 protein acts as a molecular chaperone to prevent the denaturation of malate dehydrogenase. Growth of cells overexpressing EsHsp16.9 was up to 200% more rapid in the presence of NaCl, arsenate, and polyethylene glycol than that of cells harboring an empty vector. These data suggest that EsHsp16.9 acts as a molecular chaperone that enhances stress tolerance in living organisms.

  9. Parâmetros fisiológicos e índice de tolerância ao calor de bovinos da raça sindi no semi-árido paraibano Physiological parameters and heat tolerance index of sindi breed bovine in the semi-arid of Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifácio Benício de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, Paraíba. Foram utilizadas 12 fêmeas da raça Sindi, com idade média de 18 meses, com o objetivo de determinar os parâmetros fisiológicos e o índice de tolerância ao calor (ITC. Os parâmetros fisiológicos foram observados pela manhã e à tarde, semanalmente, durante 3 meses em cada estação (chuvosa e seca. Durante o período experimental as temperaturas máximas foram de 32,2 ºC e 38,2 ºC e mínimas de 24 ºC e 26º C, e o índice de temperatura do globo e umidade (ITGU na sombra à tarde foi de 88,8 e 88,7, nas estações chuvosa e seca, respectivamente. Observou-se efeito (PThis experiment was carried out in the Health and Technology Center (CSTR of the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG in Paraiba. Twelve female of the Sindi breed with 18 months of age were utilized, with the objective to determine the physiological parameters and Heat Tolerance Index (HTI. The physiological parameters were observed weekly, in the morning and in the afternoon, during 3 months in each season (rainy and dry season. In the experimental period, the maximum temperatures were 32,2 ºC and 38,2 ºC, the minimum temperatures were 24 ºC and 26 ºC and the Black Globe-Humidity Index (BGHI in the shade was 88,8 and 88,7, for the rainy and dry season, respectively. There was significant effect of the season on the physiological parameters (Rectal temperature, Respiratory Frequency and Cardiac Frequency and on the hematological parameters. However, these parameters are considered normal to this specie. About the heat tolerance, the animals presented a index of 9,83, which is considered high. It was concluded that this breed is well adapted to the conditions of the Semi-arid region in Brazil.

  10. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  11. Controle genético e tolerância ao estresse de calor em populações híbridas e em cultivares de trigo Genetic control and tolerance to the heat stress in wheat hybrid population and cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacil Alves de Souza

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter informações sobre o controle genético da produtividade de grãos de trigo sob condições de estresse de calor, o grau de tolerância ao estresse de calor de algumas cultivares e linhagens e a identificação de populações segregantes promissoras para a obtenção de linhagens adaptadas às condições da região central do Brasil. Foram avaliados 13 parentais e 40 populações provenientes de um dialelo parcial, nas gerações F1 e F2 em condições de campo, em Lavras e Patos de Minas, MG, com as semeaduras feitas no verão (fevereiro e no inverno (maio. Houve diferença de tolerância ao calor entre os parentais e entre as populações híbridas quanto ao caráter produção de grãos, e ambos os efeitos aditivos e não-aditivos foram importantes no controle genético deste caráter na presença ou ausência de calor. Apesar da ocorrência de interações populações x épocas de semeadura, a alta repetibilidade dos efeitos da capacidade geral de combinação permite inferir a possibilidade de acelerar os programas de melhoramento na região, efetuando-se a seleção tanto na época de verão quanto no inverno.The objective of this work was to get information about the genetic control of the grain yield under heat stress conditions, the tolerance of cultivar and the identification of promising segregation populations for selections of lines adapted to the conditions of the central region of Brazil. Thirteen parents and 40 populations in F1 and F2 generations derived by partial diallel crosses were evaluated. The experiments were conducted under field conditions in Lavras and Patos de Minas, MG, Brazil, sowing the seeds in the summertime (February and in the winter (May. There was difference of heat tolerance among parents and hybrid populations for grain yield character, and both additive and non-additive effects were important in the genetic control of grain yield character in the presence or absence

  12. Death as a result of heat stroke in a vehicle: an adult case in winter confirmed with reconstruction and animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'walali, P M; Kibayashi, K; Yonemitsu, K; Ohtsu, Y; Tsunenari, S

    1998-12-01

    A 54-year-old man was found dead in the driver's seat of his vehicle on a winter's day. Investigations of the vehicle revealed that the engine was running, and the car heater was left on with the maximum temperature and velocity. The body was found excessively sweating. Rectal temperature of the body was 43 degrees C at 10 h post mortem. In autopsy, several superficial skin burns were observed on the face, the shoulders and the legs. The lungs were heavily congested and hemorrhagic. The liver showed typical alcohol-induced micronodular cirrhosis. The alcohol concentrations were 0.17% in the blood of both the left and the right heart, 0.17% in the femoral-vein blood, 0.21% in the bladder urine and 0.34% in the gastric contents. A reconstruction experiment demonstrated that the temperature inside the vehicle rose rapidly and reached 50-58 degrees C in 3 h. Animal experiments showed that the temperature threshold for rats to succumb to heat was between 40 and 45 degrees C. This case shows that heat stroke in a vehicle can occur in adults with chronic diseases or alcoholism, such as in this particular case, even in the winter. PMID:15335516

  13. Breeding of New Kiwifruit Cuitivars ‘Fengshuo' and ‘Yuanhong' with High Fruit Quality and Heat-tolerance%优质耐热猕猴桃新品种"丰硕"及"源红"的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中炎; 蔡金术; 彭俊彩; 沈英; 何科佳; 钟彩虹

    2011-01-01

    夏季高温问题普遍存在于我国广大猕猴桃产区,导致猕猴桃严重落叶落果、品质变差,贮藏性变劣,如红心类型猕猴桃品种红色性状不能稳定表达,从而严重制约了猕猴桃产业的发展.以国内外现有优质猕猴桃品种为亲本,在夏季炎热的长沙地区,采用实生育种的方法对优质耐热猕猴桃新品种的选育进行了系统研究."丰硕"、"源红"是新近选育的两个优质耐热中华猕猴桃品种.两品种耐热性强,在夏季高温地区长势强健,无落果现象.其中,"丰硕"果肉黄绿色,果实卵圆形,整齐度高,平均单果重110 g,可溶性固形物含量18.0%,丰产性好,成熟期9月中下旬."源红"为红心类型,果实卵圆形,自然情况下平均单果重约60 g,可溶性固形物17.6%,果实极早熟,8月上旬达到采收成熟度,贮藏性优异,红心性状稳定.%High temperature in summer is a common problem in most kiwifruit production regions in China, which causing severe defoliation, fruit drop and decreasing fruit quality and storability, and affecting red coloration for redfleshed cultivars. It is a key factor that hampers the development of kiwifruit industry in China. From 2001, Hunan Horticultural Research Institute and Changsha Truwind Fruit Co., Ltd. have carried out systematic breeding for new kiwifruit cultivars with good heat-tolerance and high fruit quality by using existed quality kiwifruit varieties in China and abroad and using seedling breeding method to conduct experiments in Changsha District where has hot summer.‘Fengshuo' and ‘Yuanhong' are the latest two new Chinese gooseberry cultivars with high fruit quality and heat-tolerance which released in 2010 from this breeding program. Both cultivars have strong heat-tolerance, which have strong growth in high-temperature area in summer and no fruit dropping. In which,‘Fengshuo' has yellow green flesh with 18.0% of SSC, ovate fruit with high regularity and with 110 g of average

  14. Tolerability of nausea and vomiting and associations with weight loss in a randomized trial of liraglutide in obese, non-diabetic adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lean, M E J; Carraro, R; Finer, N;

    2014-01-01

    Background:Liraglutide 3.0 mg, with diet and exercise, produced substantial weight loss over 1 year that was sustained over 2 years in obese non-diabetic adults. Nausea was the most frequent side-effect.Objective:To evaluate routinely-collected data on nausea and vomiting with liraglutide......, and subsequently to 3.0 mg (based on 20-week and 1-year results, respectively).Results:The intention-to-treat population comprised 561 participants (n=90-98/arm, age 45.9±10.3 years, BMI 34.8±2.7 kgm(-2) [mean±s.d.]). In year 1, more participants reported 1 episode of nausea/vomiting with liraglutide 1.2-3.0 mg...... (17-38%) than with placebo or orlistat (both 4%, P0.001). Most episodes occurred during dose-escalation (weeks 1-6), with 'mild' or 'moderate' symptoms. Among participants on liraglutide 3.0 mg, 48% reported some nausea and 13% some vomiting, with considerable variation between countries, but only 4...

  15. Productivity of determinate growth tomato lines tolerant to heat under the organic system Produtividade de linhagens de tomate rasteiro tolerantes ao calor sob o sistema orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido A da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the productive response of heat tolerant lines of determinate growth tomato under the organic production system. The experiment was carried out in the Instituto de Ciências Agrárias of UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of eight heat tolerant processing type tomato lines obtained from the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, China: CLN1621L, CLN1621F, CLN1621E, CLN1466P, CLN2026E, CLN2026D, CLN2026C and CLN2001C. There was an inverse relationship between the average weight of the fruits and the number of fruits per plant. The highest average fruit weight of some lines was compensated by the lowest quantity of fruits, in such a way that there were no significant differences among the lines. Symptoms of nutritional deficiency and incidences of pests and diseases were not verified in any of the studied lines. All lines presented potential for genetic improvement research and cultivation using organic production systems under higher temperature conditions.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de linhagens de tomate rasteiro tolerantes ao calor sob o sistema orgânico de produção. O experimento foi realizado no Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da UFMG, Montes Claros-MG. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de oito linhagens de tomate do tipo rasteiro tolerantes ao calor obtidos na Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, China: CLN1621L, CLN1621F, CLN1621E, CLN1466P, CLN2026E, CLN2026D, CLN2026C e CLN2001C. Houve uma relação inversa entre o peso médio dos frutos e o número de frutos produzidos por planta. O maior peso médio de frutos de algumas linhagens foi compensado pelo menor número de frutos, de tal

  16. Comparative acute efficacy and tolerability of OROS and immediate release formulations of methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerness Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of IR MPH administered three times daily to those of once daily OROS-MPH. Methods Subjects were outpatient adults satisfying full diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV ADHD between 19 and 60 years of age. Data from two independently conducted 6-week placebo controlled, randomized clinical trials of IR-MPH (tid and of OROS-MPH were pooled to create three study groups: Placebo (N = 116, IR-MPH (tid (N = 102 and OROS-MPH (N = 67. Results Eight-five percent (N = 99 of placebo treated subjects, 77% (N = 79 of the IR-MPH (tid treated subjects, and 82% (N = 55 of the OROS-MPH treated subjects completed the 6-week trial. Total daily doses at endpoint were 80.9 ± 31.9 mg, 74.8 ± 26.2 mg, and 95.4 ± 26.3 mg in the OROS-MPH, IR-MPH (tid, and placebo groups, respectively. At endpoint, 66% (N = 44 of subjects receiving OROS-MPH and 70% (N = 71 of subjects receiving IR-MPH (tid were considered responders compared with 31% (N = 36 on placebo. Conclusion Comparison of data from two similarly designed, large, randomized, placebo-controlled, trials, showed that equipotent daily doses of once daily OROS-MPH had similar efficacy to that of TID administered IR MPH. Trial Registration The trial of OROS-MPH was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00181571.

  17. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  18. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Lin Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50, less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change.

  19. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF but not nerve growth factor (NGF or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values

  20. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP.

  1. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  2. Safety and tolerability of conserved region vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus ankara administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-uninfected adults in a randomized, single-blind phase I trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma-Jo Hayton

    Full Text Available TRIAL DESIGN: HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported. METHODS: Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination. RESULTS: Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate

  3. Ethnopoly promotes tolerance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration.   The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...

  4. 丛枝菌根真菌对生菜耐热性的效应%Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Heat-Tolerance of Lactuca satica L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马通; 刘润进; 李敏

    2015-01-01

    There are problems of high temperature inhibiting growth of lettuce (Lactuca satica L.) in produc-tion, while arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the function of increasing plant tolerance to high tempera-ture, drought, and salt stress etc. The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate effects of AM fungi (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and Glomus versiforme) on heat tolerance of lettuce plants grown in pots under different temperature (25℃, 30℃and 35℃), and greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the three tested AM fungi could colonize lettuce roots and form mycorrhizas. The colonization percentage of G. mosseae was the highest (70.4%), while G. intraradices the lest (44.6%). Under the same temperature, the ac-tivity of SOD, POD and CAT in leaves of lettuce inoculated with AM fungi were higher than those of the con-trol, and the inoculation treatment with G. mosseae showed the highest under 35 degrees, which were 68.4%, 128.6%and 88.9%higher than those of the control respectively. The content of MDA and membrane permea-bility in leaves of lettuce inoculated with AM fungi was signiifcantly lower than that of the control, while the contents of soluble sugar, proline content and root activities were signiifcantly higher than those of the control. The contents of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein in lettuce inoculated G. mosseae were signiifcantly higher than those of the control, and the root activity and chlorophyll content also signiifcantly increased to 255.5%and 27.2%respectively, especially under the high temperature of 35 degrees. It was concluded that in-oculation with AM fungi could improve lettuce heat tolerance, of which G. mosseae was superior and should be a possible effective strains of increasing heat tolerance of lettuce in the production.%生菜即叶用莴苣栽培过程中,常常会遇到高温抑制生长等问题,而丛枝菌根(AM)真菌具有增强植物耐高温、干旱和盐害等抗逆性的功能

  5. Tolerance to high temperature extremes in an invasive lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae, in subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Ting Ju

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high temperatures, and that its thermal tolerance plays an important role in determining its seasonal abundance and geographic distribution. To test these hypotheses, the effects of heat shock on the survival and reproduction of C. ciliata adults were assessed in the laboratory. Adults were exposed to 26 (control, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, and 45°C for 2 h, and then were transferred to 26°C. Heat-shock temperatures ranging from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect survival pattern, longevity, and fecundity of adults, but heat shock at 43 and 45°C significantly reduced these traits. Exposing parent females to heat-shock treatments from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect the hatching rate of their eggs, survival of the nymphs, and the proportion of female F(1 progeny, while no progeny were produced with treatments of 43 and 45°C. The results indicate that C. ciliata can tolerate high temperatures less than 41°C, which may contribute to its expansion into the lower latitudes in China where its hosts (Platanus trees are widely planted. Our findings have important implications for predicting seasonal abundance and understanding invasion mechanisms of this important urban invader under climate change.

  6. 早熟耐热抗病大白菜新品种‘金早58’%A New Early Maturing Chinese Cabbage Cultivar 'Jinzao 58' with Diseases Resistance and Heat Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利民; 柯桂兰

    2012-01-01

    'Jinzao 58' is a new early maturing hybrid Chinese cabbage cultivar with diseases resistance and heat tolerance, it was crossed with new cytoplasm male sterile line 07RC4 as female parent and self-incompatibility line 07S132 as male plant. The plant is semi-erect. The leaf head is short and leaves congruence. The whole growing stage is about 58 days, average single head is 1.6 kg, and yield is 40 - 45 t·hm2. This cultivar is easy heading and leaf head is tight. It has good quality, high resistance to mildews, viruses, black rot and extensive adaptability. It is suitable to be cultivated in summer and early autumn.%‘金早58’系以新型胞质雄性不育系07RC4作母本,白交不亲和系07S132作父本配制的早熟、耐热、抗病大白菜一代杂种。植株半直立,叶球矮桩叠抱。生长期58d,单球质量1.6kg,产量40~45t·hm-2。成球性好,叶球紧实,品质优良,抗霜霉病,高抗病毒病和黑腐病,适应性广。适宜夏季和秋季早熟栽培。

  7. RAP2.4a Is Transported through the Phloem to Regulate Cold and Heat Tolerance in Papaya Tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol): Implications for Protection Against Abiotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Herrera, Ana; Rodriguez-Corona, Ulises; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Espadas-Alcocer, Jorge; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Barredo-Pool, Felipe; Castaño, Enrique; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10), and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2) domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily. Semiquantitative PCR experiments indicated that each CpRap2 gene is differentially expressed under stress conditions, such as extreme temperatures. Moreover, genetic transformants of tobacco plants overexpressing CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b genes show a high level of tolerance to cold and heat stress compared to non-transformed plants. Confocal microscopy analysis of tobacco transgenic plants showed that CpRAP2.4a and CpRAP2.4b proteins were mainly localized to the nuclei of cells from the leaves and roots and also in the sieve elements. Moreover, the movement of CpRap2.4a RNA in tobacco grafting was analyzed. Our results indicate that CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b RNA in the papaya tree have a functional role in the response to stress conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures via direct translation outside the parental RNA cell. PMID:27764197

  8. 甜瓜抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4的分子标记%The Effects of 5-azacytidine on DNA Methylation and Heat Tolerance of Seedlings of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红英; 钱春桃; 娄丽娜; 娄群峰; 张永兵; 伊鸿平; 吴明珠; 陈劲枫

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 5-azacytidine(5-azaC)on DNA methylation levels and heat tolerance of two commercial cultivars of non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis(L.) Makino],e.i‘.Xiadi’and‘Dongshangwei’,were studied. The results showed that DNA methylation levels of seedlings of the two cultivars were significantly decreased,no abnormal growth or development was observed. Pre-treatment of seeds of non-heading Chinese cabbage with 0.1–0.2 mol · L-1 of 5-azaC would slow down the decreasing of growth,POD activity,and soluble protein content of seedlings under heat stress,and decrease MDA content and cell membrane permeability as well.%以甜瓜(Cucumis melo L.)抗蔓枯病自交系PI482398(含抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4)和感病自交系‘白皮脆’以及它们的F1、BC1P1、BC1P2、F2群体为材料,苗期进行蔓枯病菌(Didymella bryoniae)接种鉴定,结果表明甜瓜抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4为单显性遗传。利用集团分离分析法(bulked segregant analysis,BSA)对89对SSR引物进行筛选,引物CMTA170a在抗性材料中可扩增出约为120bp的条带,并与抗性基因Gsb-4表现出连锁关系。统计了CMTA170a在118个F2单株上的多态性,并利用MAPMAKER/Exp version3.0b软件进行了计算,其与Gsb-4的遗传连锁距离为5.14cM。

  9. Acquired thymic tolerance: role of CTLA4 in the initiation and maintenance of tolerance in a clinically relevant autoimmune disease model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Zhang, M; Sayegh, M H;

    1999-01-01

    Injection of Ag into the thymus of adult animals induces specific systemic tolerance. The mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance include anergy and the deletion of Ag-specific T cells. Here, we report that anergy to nominal Ag induced via acquired thymic tolerance requires CTL-associated Ag 4 (C...

  10. Identification of the Differentially Expressed Proteins Between Heat-Tolerant and Heat-Sensitive Rice Responding to High-Temperature Stress at the Early Milky Stage%耐热和热敏感水稻应答灌浆初期高温胁迫过程中的差异表达蛋白质鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖江林; 宋宇; 钟平安; 周会汶; 张宏玉; 黄英金

    2014-01-01

    耐热和热敏感水稻)不同、高温胁迫程度(高温处理天数)不同而存在差异。%[Objective]The objective of this study is to identify the differentially expressed proteins and their biological functions involving in rice grain responding to high temperature stress at the early milky stage.[Method]The heat-tolerant rice line XN0437T and the heat-sensitive rice line XN0437S were used as plant materials. The tub-planting method and conventional cultivation way were used to culture the rice. To ensure that only uniformly developed samples were used for analysis, rice ears were labeled on the same heading date and the panicles on the labeled ears were further labeled on the same flowering date. On the 10th day after heading, plants with the same label were transferred to chambers and maintained at a temperature of 38.0/25.0 ± 0.5℃ (treatment / control) for 1 day, 3days and 5days. After the initiation of high temperature stress at the early milky stage of rice, rice grains from the same region (middle to bottom part) of labeled ears were harvested at three different time points. The total proteins from harvested sample were extracted by the trichloroacetate (TCA) - acetone precipitation method and the protein profiles of rice grain were set up by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The proteins in rice responding to high temperature stress (PRHT) were firstly identified by comparing the 2-DE protein profiles between treatment and its parallel control for heat-tolerant and -sensitive lines, respectively. The differentially expressed proteins were then confirmed by comparing the volume of PRHT from heat-tolerant and -sensitive lines. The functions of these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis and protein database searching.[Result]Twenty-seven differentially expressed protein spots were found and showed more

  11. Software fault tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinov, Tofik Hasanaga; Mostafa, Jalilian Shahrukh

    2009-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce errorfree software, software fault tolerance is and will contiune to be an important consideration in software system. The root cause of software design errors in the complexity of the systems. This paper surveys various software fault tolerance techniquest and methodologies. They are two gpoups: Single version and Multi version software fault tolerance techniques. It is expected that software fault tolerance research will benefit from this research...

  12. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  13. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  14. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundDimensioning and TolerancingTolerance Format and Decimal PlacesConverting Plus/Minus Dimensions and Tolerances into Equal Bilaterally Toleranced DimensionsVariation and Sources of VariationTolerance AnalysisWorst-case Tolerance StackupsStatistical Tolerance StackupsGeometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)Converting Plus/Minus Tolerancing to Positional Tolerancing and Projected Tolerance ZonesDiametral and Radial Tolerance StackupsSpecifying Material Condition Modifiers and Their Effect on Tolerance Stackups The Tolerance Stackup SketchThe Tolerance Stackup Report FormTolerance S

  15. Heat shock protection against cold stress of Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, V; Mitchell, H K; Young, P.; Petersen, N S

    1988-01-01

    Heat shock protein synthesis can be induced during recovery from cold treatment of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Survival of larvae after a cold treatment is dramatically improved by a mild heat shock just before the cold shock. The conditions which induce tolerance to cold are similar to those which confer tolerance to heat.

  16. Can tropical insects stand the heat? A case study with the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiranan Piyaphongkul

    Full Text Available The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål is the most serious pest of rice across the world, especially in tropical climates. N. lugens nymphs and adults were exposed to high temperatures to determine their critical thermal maximum (CT(max, heat coma temperature (HCT and upper lethal temperature (ULT. Thermal tolerance values differed between developmental stages: nymphs were consistently less heat tolerant than adults. The mean (± SE CT(max of nymphs and adult females and males were 34.9±0.3, 37.0±0.2 and 37.4±0.2°C respectively, and for the HCT were 37.7±0.3, 43.5±0.4 and 42.0±0.4°C. The ULT₅₀ values (± SE for nymphs and adults were 41.8±0.1 and 42.5±0.1°C respectively. The results indicate that nymphs of N. lugens are currently living at temperatures close to their upper thermal limits. Climate warming in tropical regions and occasional extreme high temperature events are likely to become important limiting factors affecting the survival and distribution of N. lugens.

  17. Identification of MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 Gene and Their Association with Heat Tolerance in Chinese Holstein%中国荷斯坦牛HSF1基因microRNA SNPs与耐热性能的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 鞠志花; 贾祥捷; 黄金明; 李建斌; 李荣岭; 李芳; 王长法; 仲跻峰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Heat shock transcription factorl (HSF1) is the key protein in regulating heat stress response. [Method] The polymorphisms of HSF1 gene and their association with heat tolerance in 638 Chinese Holstein cattle were investigated for the purpose of providing molecular marker information to facilitate the breeding efficiency ofthermo tolerant cows.Primers were designed to amplify HSF1 gene fragment. DNA sequencing, PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP methods were used to analyze the polymorphisms. MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene were localized by blasting to miRBASE database. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were analyzed using SHEsis software. The association of these polymorphisms with heat tolerance index including potassium content in erythrocytes (PCE), decrease rate of milk production (R), rectal temperature (RT) and heat-tolerance coefficient (HTC) was analyzed by SAS software. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was studied by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR technology. [Result] Two novel microRNA SNPs, T909C and G4693T, were found. The cows with CC and CT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with TT genotype at T909C locus (P< 0.05). The cows with TT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with GG genotype at G4693T locus (P<0.05). Four haplotype and 10 haplotype combinations were found. The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower PCE, RT and higher HCT than those with H1H3 haplotype combination (P<0.05). The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower R than those with H1H1 haplotype combination (P<0.05). H2H4 was the heat tolerant haplotype combination. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was different in different tissues. The highest is that in heart, which is 11.24-fold enrichment than that in muscle (P<0.05). [Conclusion] microRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene could be chosen as the molecular markers for choosing thermo tolerant dairy cattle in breeding program

  18. Effect of Different Light and Hormone Treatments on Isolated Microspore Cultures of Heat-Tolerance Chinese Cabbage%光照和激素对耐热型大白菜游离小孢子培养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛鹏; 张秀荣; 岳艳玲; 李晶晶; 邓静

    2011-01-01

    0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L NAA and 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5, 1.0 mg/L 6-BA were added to NLN media, and A-3 000 1x light, B-10 d dark then 3 000 1x light, C-15 d dark then 3 000 lx light and D-dark were applied to culturing isolated microspore of heat-tolerance Chinese cabbage-Xiajiangjiu in order to study the effect of light and hormone on the growth and induction of microspore-derived embryos. The results showed: 0.1 mg/L 6-BA could improve induction of mi crospore-derived embryos. The highest yield, 206 embryos, was obtained. At the same time adding 0.2 mg/L NAA could not only induce higher embryos, 205 embryos, but also promote growth of em bryos . Cotylednary and Germinated embryo increased to 33.7 % and abnormal embryo decreased to 14.1% . Dark culture could improve induction of microspore-derived embryos and D treat obtained 149embryos. Light culture, however, decreased embryo yield but improved the growth of embryos and regen erated plantlet. Better B treat induced 108 embryos and rate of regenerated plantlet increased to 145 % .%将分离纯化的小孢子悬浮培养在添加0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.5,1.0 mg/L的NAA和0,0.05,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.5,1.0 mg/L 6-BA的NLN培养基中,在A(3000 lx光培养)、B(10 d暗培养再3000k光培养)、C(15 d暗培养再3000k光培养)、D(ck,暗培养)条件下进行培养,研究光照和激素对耐热型大白菜“夏将军”游离小孢子成胚及胚状体发育的影响.结果表明:0.1 mg/L 6-BA能显著促进胚状体的发生,使胚产量达到最高,为206个.同时附加0.2 mg/L NAA不但保证有较高的胚产量(205个),还可促进胚状体发育,子叶胚及萌发胚可达33.7%,畸形胚比例下降到14.1%;暗培养能促进成胚,D处理成胚量高,达149个,光培养则明显抑制成胚,但可促进胚状体发育,提高成苗率,其中以B处理成胚成苗效果较好,成胚108个,成苗率145%.

  19. Characterization of drought- and heat-responsive microRNAs in switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivrale, Vandana; Zheng, Yun; Puli, Chandra Obul Reddy; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Gowdu, Kanchana; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Barakat, Abdelali; Sunkar, Ramanjulu

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in plant acclimation to stress conditions. Switchgrass, one of the important biofuel crop species can withstand hot and dry climates but the molecular basis of stress tolerance is relatively unknown. To identify miRNAs that are important for tolerating drought or heat, small RNAs were profiled in leaves of adult plants exposed to drought or heat. Sequence analysis enabled the identification of 29 conserved and 62 novel miRNA families. Notably, the abundances of several conserved and novel miRNAs were dramatically altered following drought or heat. Using at least one fold (log2) change as cut off, we observed that 13 conserved miRNA families were differentially regulated by both stresses, and, five and four families were specifically regulated by drought and heat, respectively. Similarly, using a more stringent cut off of two fold (log2) regulation, we found 5 and 16 novel miRNA families were upregulated but 6 and 7 families were downregulated under drought and heat, respectively. The stress-altered expression of a subset of miRNAs and their targets was confirmed using quantitative PCR. Overall, the switchgrass plants exposed to drought or heat revealed similarities as well as differences with respect to miRNA regulation, which could be important for enduring different stress conditions.

  20. Seleção de linhagens com tolerância ao calor em germoplasma de tomateiro coletado na região Norte do Brasil Selection of heat tolerant tomato inbred lines from landraces adapted for cultivation in the North Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de B. Giordano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As altas temperaturas nas regiões tropicais e equatoriais induzem uma série de distúrbios morfológicos e/ou fisiológicos em estruturas florais do tomateiro, resultando em menor produtividade devido a maiores taxas de abortamento e má formação de frutos. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas linhagens de tomateiro oriundas de duas populações que vêm sendo cultivadas em Roraima, região Norte do Brasil. Doze linhagens foram obtidas após um ciclo prévio de seleção (em Brasília-DF em condições de temperatura elevada. A avaliação destas doze linhagens e duas cultivares testemunhas ('Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' foi conduzida em casa de vegetação com temperaturas média das mínimas de 15ºC e média das máximas de 46,2ºC. Foram observadas diferenças significativas para número de frutos abortados, número de frutos maduros, peso de frutos maduros, teores de sólidos solúveis, firmeza e coloração de frutos. As linhagens (como um grupo apresentaram melhor desempenho do que as testemunhas 'Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' para os parâmetros número de frutos abortados, peso, número e coloração de frutos maduros. A metodologia adotada no presente trabalho, permite a identificação de genótipos superiores adaptados ao cultivo em regiões tropicais e equatoriais com elevadas temperaturas.Heat tolerance is a major trait for tomato breeding programs targeted for lowland wet climates in equatorial and tropical areas of the world. High temperatures might cause several disturbances to morphological and physiological characteristics of the tomato flowers leading to yield constraints due to reduction in fruit setting. In the present work, an experiment was conducted to evaluate tomato breeding lines, derived from two tomato landrace populations cultivated by farmers in Roraima State (North Region of Brazil. Twelve inbred lines were obtained from these populations after one cycle of selection in a plastic house with high temperatures. These 12

  1. Toleration and its enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the development of freedom of expression in Danish constitutional law, to freedom of the press in European human rights law - the Jersild case- to a right to mock and ridicule other faiths in recent Danish practice, the essay of Locke on toleration is examined, its...... background in arminist protestant theology of toleration considered, its conclusion that only faiths that demand allegiance and obedience to foreign powers can be excluded from toleration is highlighted....

  2. MERICAN CULTURAL TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG RUIXIAO

    2014-01-01

    As an emigrant country, the essential characteristic of America culture is its tolerance. It contributes to the formation the diversity of American culture. By tracing back to American history, this essay shows what caused American cultural tolerance. Through describing briefly the manifestation of American cultural tolerance from certain aspects and analyzing the major factors, it will give us a clue about the reason why America can be always prosperous. At last, the paper shows the limitation as well as advantages about the tolerance from the point of current status.

  3. Dopamine levels in the mosquito Aedes aegypti  during adult development, following blood feeding and in response to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Schwartz, Alex Mark; Gramsbergen, J.B.;

    2006-01-01

    concentrations of dopamine than females, and that dopamine concentrations decrease with age in both sexes. Dopamine levels increase in females following a blood meal suggesting that dopamine might be involved in ovarian- and/or egg-development. We also found that female mosquitoes have a higher tolerance...... to a short term thermal stress in a water bath than males up to 44 °C, however, both sexes die if exposed to short term temperatures between 44 and 45 °C. Finally, we did not find any indication that dopamine levels were associated with short time thermal stress response in female mosquitoes. Keywords: HPLC...

  4. ROLE OF THE THYMUS IN TOLERANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaković, Katarina; Smith, Stanley B.; Waksman, Byron H.

    1965-01-01

    Rats thymectomized and irradiated as adults were restored to immunologic reactivity by grafts of normal adult rat thymus and bone marrow. Reactivity of the delayed (cellular) type and formation of mercaptoethanol-sensitive (MES) and mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) antibody returned within 3 weeks, while Arthus reactivity remained subnormal till 9 weeks after irradiation and grafting. When the thymus donor was tolerant to BGG, the recipient showed specific non-reactivity to this antigen 3 weeks and, to a much lesser extent, 6 weeks after grafting. This non-reactivity affected delayed responses and MER antibody. No effect was noted on Arthus reactivity and a slight effect on MES antibody. Controls showed that the non-reactivity was not due to transfer of free antigen at the time of grafting. It was concluded that different source organs are responsible for different immune functions and that specific immunologic tolerance may be induced within such an organ as the thymus. PMID:4159035

  5. Loss Tolerant Optical Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C; Gilchrist, A; Gilchrist, Alexei

    2005-01-01

    We present a linear optics quantum computation scheme that employs a new encoding approach that incrementally adds qubits and is tolerant to photon loss errors. The scheme employs a circuit model but uses techniques from cluster state computation and achieves comparable resource usage. To illustrate our techniques we describe a quantum memory which is fault tolerant to photon loss.

  6. Remember Tolerance Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history, not by inv...

  7. Toleration, Groups, and Multiculturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    to the political and social relationship between the subject and the objects of toleration. Finally, toleration is often argued to be a normative requirement on the basis of the way it affects the object or receiver of toleration, e.g. on the basis of the good of or right to freedom from non-interference which....... The chapter relates the different possible meanings of groups toleration to widespread criticisms of multiculturalism for being excessively 'groupist' (e.g. to essentialise or reify groups), to promote group rights over individual rights, or to deny or ignore the internal heterogeneity of groups...... or the multiple identity affiliations of individuals. The chapter suggests that some of these standard criticisms of multiculturalism for being overly tolerant of minority groups, or being so in a way elevating groups over individuals, are less pressing on some understandings of the meaning of 'group...

  8. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    respecting the plurality of conceptions of the good in society, whereas political compromise embodies the disagreements in coercive laws. This difference between toleration and compromise has two important consequences. First, political compromise is justified in a different manner than is toleration...... in compromise are more stringent than those for being tolerated. Still, the limits of compromise cannot be drawn to narrowly if it is to remain its value as a form of agreement that respects and embodies the differences of opinion in society.......Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature...

  9. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth...

  10. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis.

  11. Tolerance Induction in Liver

    OpenAIRE

    M.H Karimi; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tol...

  12. Influencing factors of growth hormone in response to insulin tolerance test in 50 healthy adults%50名健康成人生长激素对胰岛素耐量试验反应性的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋向欣; 顾锋; 徐焱成; 葛家璞; 崔立全

    2014-01-01

    胰岛素耐量试验(ITT)激发的生长激素(GH)峰值是诊断成人生长激素缺乏症的“金标准”.本研究探讨50名中国健康成人中ITT激发的GH峰值的受影响因素.结果显示血糖谷值或血糖下降幅度与GH峰值无相关性.在多元回归分析中,ITT激发的GH与体重指数呈负相关(P<0.01),与年龄、性别和腹围无显著相关性.%The peak level of growth hormone (GH) stimulated by insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the " gold standard" for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in adults.This study was aimed to explore the factors influencing GH response to ITT in 50 healthy adults.The results showed that the nadir or decreased amplitude of blood glucose was not related to GH peak level.In multivariable analysis,the GH level stimulated by ITT was negatively associated with body mass index(P<0.01),but there was no any association with age,gender,and waist circumference.

  13. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  14. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium-water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  15. Genes related to high temperature tolerance during maize seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, S M F; Von Pinho, E V R; Santos, H O; Lima, A C; Von Pinho, R G; Carvalho, M L M

    2015-01-01

    The identification of genes related to heat tolerance is fundamental for the development of high-quality seeds that are tolerant to heat stress condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate maize lineages and the gene expression involved in high temperature tolerance during germination using physiological tests, proteomics, and transcriptome analysis. Seeds from six maize lineages (30, 44, 54, 63, 64, and 91) with different levels of tolerance to high temperatures were used. Lineages 54 and 91 were observed to be more tolerant to high temperature conditions. The highest expression of α-amylase was observed in maize seeds from lineages 30 and 91 that were subjected to controlled deterioration. The highest expression of α-amylase was observed in maize seeds from lineages 30 and 91 that were subjected to controlled deterioration; with the controlled deterioration, the highest level of gene expression did not occur in the most tolerant materials; the association of lower expression of genes involved in heat-resistant protein systems was observed in seeds from lineage 44, which were more susceptible to high temperatures, and the highest gene expression of LEA D-34, ZmAN13, and AOX-1 was observed in seeds from lineage 64 when submitted to controlled deterioration. PMID:26782452

  16. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  17. A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

  18. Tolerance and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Marius Hansteen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though “toleration” and “recognition” designate opposing attitudes (to tolerate something, implies a negative stance towards it, whereas recognition seems to imply a positive one, the concepts do not constitute mutually exclusive alternatives. However, “toleration” is often associated with liberal universalism, focusing on individual rights, whereas “recognition” often connotes communitarian perspectives, focusing on relations and identity. This paper argues that toleration may be founded on recognition, and that recognition may imply toleration. In outlining a differentiated understanding of the relationship between toleration and recognition, it seems apt to avoid an all-to-general dichotomy between universalism and particularism or, in other words, to reach beyond the debate between liberalism and communitarianism in political philosophy.The paper takes as its starting point the view that the discussion on toleration and diversity in intercultural communication is one of the contexts where it seems important to get beyond the liberal/communitarian dichotomy. Some basic features of Rainer Forst’s theory of toleration and Axel Honneth’s theory of the struggle for recognition are presented, in order to develop a more substantial understanding of the relationship between the concepts of toleration and recognition. One lesson from Forst is that toleration is a normatively dependent concept, i.e., that it is impossible to deduce principles for toleration and its limits from a theory of toleration as such. A central lesson from Honneth is that recognition – understood as a basic human need – is always conflictual and therefore dynamic.Accordingly, a main point in the paper is that the theory of struggles for and about recognition (where struggles for designates struggles within an established order of recognition, and struggles about designates struggles that challenge established orders of recognition may clarify what

  19. Is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants endangered by heat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Ursula; Pramsohler, Manuel; Bauer, Ines; Zimmermann, Sonja; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Strong solar irradiation in combination with still air and dry soil can cause prostrate high-mountain plants to heat up considerably and ultimately suffer heat damage. Such heat damage has been repeatedly shown for vegetative structures, but not for reproductive structures, which we expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat. Heat effects on cold-adapted plants may increase with rising global temperatures and the predicted increase in heat waves. We have tested the heat tolerance of reproductive versus vegetative shoots at different reproductive stages, comparing ten common plant species from different elevation belts in the European Alps. Plant samples were exposed to temperatures in 2-K steps of 30 min each between 42 and 56 °C. Heat damage was assessed by visual rating and vital staining. Reproductive shoots were on average 2.5 K less heat tolerant (LT50, i.e. the mean temperature causing 50 % heat damage, 47.2 °C) than vegetative shoots (mean LT50 49.7 °C). Initial heat injuries (mean LT10) were observed at 43-45 °C in heat-susceptible species and at 45-47 °C in more heat-tolerant species, in at least one reproductive stage. Generally, heat tolerance was significantly higher during fruiting than during the bud stages and anthesis. Prostrate species with acaulescent buds and flowers tolerated heat better than those with caulescent buds and flowers. Petals were the most heat-susceptible plant structure and mature pollen the most heat tolerant. Based on these data, heat tolerance of reproductive structures appears to be adapted to the prevailing maximum temperatures which the plants experience during different reproductive stages in their environment. During hot spells, however, heat tolerance thresholds may be exceeded. More frequent heat waves would decrease the reproductive output and, consequently, the competitiveness of heat-susceptible species.

  20. Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) as an Indicator of Bleaching Tolerance in Scleractinian Corals

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Graham B.; Stacey King

    2015-01-01

    Thermal tolerance tests on Acropora millepora, a common Indo-Pacific hard coral, have shown that adult corals can acquire increased thermal tolerance by shuffling existing type C to type D Symbiodinium zooxanthellae when subjected to increased seawater temperatures. We report here dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) concentrations in A. millepora and examine links between DMSP concentrations, zooxanthellae clade, and bleaching tolerance. DMSP analysis on native and transplanted corals from th...

  1. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  2. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  3. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... prescription, which Forst presents as a requirement of justice. At both levels, it is argued that Forst’s respect conception is problematic since it presupposes that answers to very substantial normative questions, which are precisely what people tend to disagree on under conditions of pluralism, are already...

  4. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... prescription, which Forst presents as a requirement of justice. At both levels, it is argued that Forst’s respect conception is problematic since it presupposes that answers to very substantial normative questions, which are precisely what people tend to disagree on under conditions of pluralism, are already...

  5. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    ¿ Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found

  6. 5种杜鹃幼苗对高温胁迫的生理生化响应及耐热性综合评价%Physiological-biochemical response of five species in Rhododendron L.to high temperature stress and comprehensive evaluation of their heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯红; 刘向平; 张乐华; 凌家慧; 李立

    2011-01-01

    Using four-year-old seedlings of five species belonging to five subgenera in Rhododendron L. as experimental materials, contents of malondialdeyde (MDA) , hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and proline (Pro) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were determined and analyzed under condition of artificial simulated high temperature ( 30 t and 38 T ) , and correlation and principal component analyses of above indexes were also conducted. On this basis, comprehensive evaluation of heat tolerance of the five species was performed by subordinate function method, and comprehensive evaluation results were tested by means of the established optimum regression equation. The determination results show that compared to the control (22 t ) , contents of MDA, H2O2, Pro and activities of CAT, APX of the five species seedlings all increase with rising of stress temperature, and SOD activity appears the trend of less increasing under 30 CC condition while decreasing under 38 t condition. CAT activity has extremely significant positive correlation with contents of H2O2 and Pro and APX activity (P<0. 01 ) , and APX activity has significant positive or negative correlations respectively with Pro content and SOD activity (P<0.05 ). Six single indexes tested of allspecies are converted into three independent comprehensive indexes with an accumulative contribution rate of 87.52% by principal component analysis. According to the comprehensive evaluation value (D), heat tolerance of the five species can be divided into four classes; heat tolerance of R. mucronatum (Blume) G. Don is the strongest, that of R. moulmainense Hook. f. and R. molle (Blume) G. Don is stronger, that of R. chihsinianum Chun et Fang is weaker, and that of R. rubiginosum Franch. is the weakest. The heat tolerance of the five species can be predicted using the optimum regression equation established and the prediction value order is completely in accordance with D value

  7. Physiological changes and heat tolerance comparison of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress%高温胁迫下五种杜鹃花属植物的生理变化及其耐热性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐华; 孙宝腾; 周广; 王书胜; 李晓花; 单文

    2011-01-01

    高温是制约分布于较高海拔地区杜鹃花迁地保育与园林应用的重要因子.为探讨杜鹃花属植物的 高温致伤机理,该实验以隶属不同亚属的白花杜鹃、羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃、红滩杜鹃及红棕杜鹃4年生实生苗为 材料,通过人工气候箱的盆栽实验,研究了30℃、38℃高温胁迫下其叶片生理生化指标的变化,并利用隶属 函数法及系统聚类分析法对其种间耐热性进行了综合评价.结果表明:高温胁迫下,5种杜鹃叶片的过氧化 氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性及脯氨酸(Pro)、过氧化氢(H2O2)、丙二醛(MDA)含量均随着 胁迫温度的升高而增大;超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)活性在30℃轻度胁迫时均小幅度上升,而38℃重度胁迫时 下降.2个高温条件下,SOD、CAT的变化幅度与杜鹃种间耐热性总体呈正相关,而H2 O2、MDA增幅与种间 耐热性呈负相关;Pro增幅在30℃轻度胁迫时与种间耐热性呈负相关,而38℃重度胁迫时与耐热性呈正相 关;APX增幅与种间耐热性的相关性较弱.隶属函数与聚类分析综合评判得出5种杜鹃耐热性强弱顺序为:白花杜鹃>羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃>红滩杜鹃>红棕杜鹃,与其田间耐热性表现一致.%High temperature is the important constraining factor of Rhododendron in ex situ conservation and landscape application. In order to reveal the injury of mechanism of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress,R. Mucronatum,R. Molle,R. Moulmainense,R. Chihsinianum and R. Rubiginosum which belong to different subg. Rhododendron were used in the experiment Four years-old seedlings of these five species were planted in artificial climate chambers and their changes of physiological and biochemical index were determined under high-temperature of 30 ℃ and 38 ℃ stress,and the heat tolerance was comprehensively evaluated with fuzzy subordinate function and system cluster analysis. The results showed that

  8. Photochemical efficiency of PSII and photoprotective pigments in seedlings and adults of two Proteaceae with different shade tolerance from the Chilean temperate rain forest Eficiencia fotoquímica del PSII y pigmentos fotoprotectores en plántulas y adultos de dos Proteáceas con diferente tolerancia a la sombra del bosque lluvioso templado chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIREN ALBERDI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation in energy quenching parameters of photosystem II and photoprotective pigments were studied in seedlings and adults of two Proteaceae: a shade-intolerant species (Embotrium coccineum J.R. et G. Forster and a shade-tolerant species (Lomatia ferruginea (Cav. R. Br.. We postúlate that the shade intolerant species favors photochemical energy driven processes (mainly C0(2 assimilation while the shade tolerant species exhibits higher non-photochemical energy dissipation under unfavorable conditions. Moreover, the shade tolerant species presents lower seasonal variations in these parameters that the shade intolerant species. Differences in energy dissipation should be more evident in seedlings than adults because of their contrasting light environments and temperatures are more evident at this stage. Their maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm was in the range 0.70-0.83. The effective photochemical efficiency (PSII, photochemical quenching (qP, and electrón transport rate (ETR were higher in seedlings of E. coccineum than in seedlings of L. ferruginea. Adults showed higher photochemical energy quenching parameters than seedlings. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ was frequently similar between daily periods, seasons, species, and developmental stages, with the exception of the lowest non-photochemical quenching in seedlings of E. coccineum in summer. Seedlings and adults showed a larger xanthophyll cycle pool contení at midday in summer than in winter, while the pool of antheraxanthin + zeaxanthin was always higher at midday. Lutein increased the most during summer. Thus, E. coccineum seedlings and adults maintained high photosynthesis, a higher fraction of open reaction centres, and higher ETR than the shade tolerant species. These differences are consistent with the ecological functions of both species: a pioneer character, higher growth rate, and wide altitudinal and latitudinal distribution of E. coccineum compared to L

  9. Susceptibility of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) developmental stages to high temperatures used during structural heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroof, R; Subramanyam, B

    2006-12-01

    Heating the ambient air of a whole, or a portion of a food-processing facility to 50 to 60 degrees C and maintaining these elevated temperatures for 24 to 36 h, is an old technology, referred to as heat treatment. There is renewed interest in adopting heat treatments around the world as a viable insect control alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. There is limited published information on responses of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), exposed to elevated temperatures typically used during heat treatments. Time-mortality relationships were determined for eggs, fifth-instars (wandering-phase larvae), pupae, and adults of P. interpunctella exposed to five constant temperatures between 44 and 52 degrees C. Mortality of each stage increased with increasing temperature and exposure time. In general, fifth-instars were the most heat-tolerant stage at all temperatures tested. Exposure for a minimum of 34 min at 50 degrees C was required to kill 99% of the fifth-instars. It is proposed that heat treatments aimed at controlling fifth-instars should be able to control all other stages of P. interpunctella.

  10. Hybrid vigor studies for different yield contributing traits in wheat under normal and heat stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jehanzeb Farooq; Ihsan Khaliq; Muhammad Akbar; Muhammad Kashif; Shahzadi Mahpara

    2013-01-01

    Terminal heat stress is among one of the major constraints in wheat productivity in many countriesof the world including Pakistan. To combat this natural calamity,one hundred spring wheatgenotypes were assessed for heat stress tolerance under plastic sheet tunnel resulting in sevenparents with varied heat stress tolerance. The seven parents including tolerant, moderately tolerantand susceptible but high yielders were later hybridized in a 7×7 diallel fashion. Analysis of variancerevealed sign...

  11. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW Criteria ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  12. The negative effect of starvation and the positive effect of mild thermal stress on thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wexler, Yonatan; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Presman, Shira; Simson, Eddie; Rosenstein, Shai

    2016-04-01

    The thermal tolerance of a terrestrial insect species can vary as a result of differences in population origin, developmental stage, age, and sex, as well as via phenotypic plasticity induced in response to changes in the abiotic environment. Here, we studied the effects of both starvation and mild cold and heat shocks on the thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Starvation led to impaired cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time, and this effect, which was stronger in males than females, persisted for longer than 2 days but less than 7 days. Heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time, was not affected by starvation. Our results highlight the difficulty faced by insects when encountering multiple stressors simultaneously and indicate physiological trade-offs. Both mild cold and heat shocks led to improved heat tolerance in both sexes. It could be that both mild shocks lead to the expression of heat shock proteins, enhancing heat tolerance in the short run. Cold tolerance was not affected by previous mild cold shock, suggesting that such a cold shock, as a single event, causes little stress and hence elicits only weak physiological reaction. However, previous mild heat stress led to improved cold tolerance but only in males. Our results point to both hardening and cross-tolerance between cold and heat shocks.

  13. The negative effect of starvation and the positive effect of mild thermal stress on thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wexler, Yonatan; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Presman, Shira; Simson, Eddie; Rosenstein, Shai

    2016-04-01

    The thermal tolerance of a terrestrial insect species can vary as a result of differences in population origin, developmental stage, age, and sex, as well as via phenotypic plasticity induced in response to changes in the abiotic environment. Here, we studied the effects of both starvation and mild cold and heat shocks on the thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Starvation led to impaired cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time, and this effect, which was stronger in males than females, persisted for longer than 2 days but less than 7 days. Heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time, was not affected by starvation. Our results highlight the difficulty faced by insects when encountering multiple stressors simultaneously and indicate physiological trade-offs. Both mild cold and heat shocks led to improved heat tolerance in both sexes. It could be that both mild shocks lead to the expression of heat shock proteins, enhancing heat tolerance in the short run. Cold tolerance was not affected by previous mild cold shock, suggesting that such a cold shock, as a single event, causes little stress and hence elicits only weak physiological reaction. However, previous mild heat stress led to improved cold tolerance but only in males. Our results point to both hardening and cross-tolerance between cold and heat shocks.

  14. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  15. Distinct mechanisms underlying tolerance to intermittent and constant hypoxia in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Azad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Constant hypoxia (CH and intermittent hypoxia (IH occur during several pathological conditions such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnea. Our research is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to injury or adaptation to hypoxic stress using Drosophila as a model system. Our current genome-wide study is designed to investigate gene expression changes and identify protective mechanism(s in D. melanogaster after exposure to severe (1% O(2 intermittent or constant hypoxia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our microarray analysis has identified multiple gene families that are up- or down-regulated in response to acute CH or IH. We observed distinct responses to IH and CH in gene expression that varied in the number of genes and type of gene families. We then studied the role of candidate genes (up-or down-regulated in hypoxia tolerance (adult survival for longer periods (CH-7 days, IH-10 days under severe CH or IH. Heat shock proteins up-regulation (specifically Hsp23 and Hsp70 led to a significant increase in adult survival (as compared to controls of P-element lines during CH. In contrast, during IH treatment the up-regulation of Mdr49 and l(208717 genes (P-element lines provided survival advantage over controls. This suggests that the increased transcript levels following treatment with either paradigm play an important role in tolerance to severe hypoxia. Furthermore, by over-expressing Hsp70 in specific tissues, we found that up-regulation of Hsp70 in heart and brain play critical role in tolerance to CH in flies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed that the gene expression response to IH or CH is specific and paradigm-dependent. We have identified several genes Hsp23, Hsp70, CG1600, l(208717 and Mdr49 that play an important role in hypoxia tolerance whether it is in CH or IH. These data provide further clues about the mechanisms by which IH or CH lead to cell injury and morbidity or adaptation and survival.

  16. Engineering microbes for tolerance to next-generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop Mary J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major challenge when using microorganisms to produce bulk chemicals such as biofuels is that the production targets are often toxic to cells. Many biofuels are known to reduce cell viability through damage to the cell membrane and interference with essential physiological processes. Therefore, cells must trade off biofuel production and survival, reducing potential yields. Recently, there have been several efforts towards engineering strains for biofuel tolerance. Promising methods include engineering biofuel export systems, heat shock proteins, membrane modifications, more general stress responses, and approaches that integrate multiple tolerance strategies. In addition, in situ recovery methods and media supplements can help to ease the burden of end-product toxicity and may be used in combination with genetic approaches. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology provide a framework for tolerance engineering. This review highlights recent targeted approaches towards improving microbial tolerance to next-generation biofuels with a particular emphasis on strategies that will improve production.

  17. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  18. Full Tolerant Archiving System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.

    2013-10-01

    The archiving system at the Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2) manages data from external sources like telescopes, observatories, or surveys and handles them in order to guarantee preservation, dissemination, and reliability, in most cases in a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant manner. A metadata model dynamic constructor and a data archive manager are new concepts aimed at automatizing the management of different astronomical data sources in a fault tolerant environment. The goal is a full tolerant archiving system, nevertheless complicated by the presence of various and time changing data models, file formats (FITS, HDF5, ROOT, PDS, etc.) and metadata content, even inside the same project. To avoid this unpleasant scenario a novel approach is proposed in order to guarantee data ingestion, backward compatibility, and information preservation.

  19. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    requirements for a dedicated software environment for fault tolerant control systems design. The second detailed study addressed the detection of a fault event and determination of the failed component. A variety of algorithms were compared, based on two fault scenarios in the speed governor actuator setup......This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis...

  20. Oral tolerance induction with altered forms of ovalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stransky B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As a T cell-dependent phenomenon, oral tolerance is not expected to depend necessarily on native configuration of antigens. We investigated the induction of oral tolerance with modified ovalbumin (Ova. Oral administration of heat-denatured (HD-Ova and cyanogen bromide-degraded ovalbumin was less effective than native Ova in inducing oral tolerance in B6D2F1 mice. HD-Ova was effective in suppressing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions but did not suppress specific antibody formation. Injection of Ova directly into the stomach, but not into the ileum or cecum, suppressed subsequent immunization to DTH reactions. Gavage with protease inhibitors (aprotinin or ovomucoid before gavage with Ova was ineffective in blocking tolerance induction. Treatment with hydroxyurea to destroy cycling cells 24 h before gavage with Ova blocked oral tolerance induction and also the possibility to passively transfer tolerance to naive recipients with the serum of mice gavaged with Ova 1 h before. The implications of these findings about oral tolerance induction are discussed

  1. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  2. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  3. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    J. Atsu Amegashie

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination of various forms. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race or gender is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is driven by either racial (gender) discrimination or generational discrimination (i.e., young versus old). I show that there exist parameters of the model where racial (gender) di...

  4. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is drive...

  5. Socially-tolerable discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  6. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Nezhadahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops’ production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants’ vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea, responsive to abscisic acid (Rab, rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.

  7. A Multirelational Account of Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, Maria Paola; Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Toleration classically denotes a relation between two agents that is characterised by three components: objection, power, and acceptance overriding the objection. Against recent claims that classical toleration is not applicable in liberal democracies and that toleration must therefore either be...... as wholes, rather than as sets of isolated relations. We explain this by showing how certain cases of toleration are multi-dimensional and how the descriptive concept of toleration might be understood intersectionally. We exemplify this by drawing on case studies of mosque controversies in Germany...

  8. A Multirelational Account of Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, Maria Paola; Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    be understood purely attitudinally or purely politically, we argue that the components of classical toleration are crucial elements of contemporary cases of minority accommodation. The concept of toleration is applicable to, and is an important element of descriptions of such cases, provided that one views them...... and Denmark. Finally, we propose that intersectionality is not only relevant to the descriptive concept of toleration but also captures an important aspect of normative theories of toleration. We illustrate this by discussing ideals of respect-based toleration, which we also apply to the case studies....

  9. Biological effects of intracorporeal radioisotope heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface heat flux of 0.04 watts/cm2 from a retroperitoneal implant with healthy surface ingrowth of tissue prior to generation of heat is intolerable, producing gross tissue necrosis. Percutaneous cooling of hot implants during the post-operative healing period is a feasible technique, but our current plutonium heat source implant design has been proven of inadequate size and a new design is described. Rough calculations based on tissue conductivity and conductance values suggest that even with this larger device, added heat to proximate tissues may produce long-term changes even though the heat burden may be tolerable over relatively short periods

  10. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  11. Temperature tolerance of young-of-the-year cisco, Coregonus artedii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    Young-of-the-year ciscoes (Coregonus artedii) acclimated to 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 C and tested for tolerance to high and low temperatures provide the first detailed description of the thermal tolerance of coregonids in North America. The upper ultimate lethal temperature of the young ciscoes was 26 C (6 C higher than the maximum sustained temperature tolerated by adult ciscoes in nature) and the ultimate lower lethal temperature approached 0 C (near that commonly tolerated in nature by adult ciscoes). The temperature of 26 C is slightly higher than the lowest ultimate upper lethal temperature recorded for North American freshwater fishes; however, published information on the depth distributions of fishes in the Great Lakes suggests that some of the other coregonids may be less tolerant of high temperatures than the cisco.

  12. Relationship between fish size and upper thermal tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recsetar, Matthew S.; Zeigler, Matthew P.; Ward, David L.; Bonar, Scott A.; Caldwell, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Using critical thermal maximum (CTMax) tests, we examined the relationship between upper temperature tolerances and fish size (fry-adult or subadult lengths) of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (41-200-mm TL), Apache trout O. gilae apache (40-220-mm TL), largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (72-266-mm TL), Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (35-206-mm TL), channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (62-264 mm-TL), and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis (36-181-mm TL). Rainbow trout and Apache trout were acclimated at 18°C, Rio Grande cutthroat trout were acclimated at 14°C, and Nile tilapia, largemouth bass, and channel catfish were acclimated at 25°C, all for 14 d. Critical thermal maximum temperatures were estimated and data were analyzed using simple linear regression. There was no significant relationship (P > 0.05) between thermal tolerance and length for Nile tilapia (P = 0.33), channel catfish (P = 0.55), rainbow trout (P = 0.76), or largemouth bass (P = 0.93) for the length ranges we tested. There was a significant negative relationship between thermal tolerance and length for Rio Grande cutthroat trout (R2 = 0.412, P 2 = 0.1374, P = 0.028); however, the difference was less than 1°C across all lengths of Apache trout tested and about 1.3°C across all lengths of Rio Grande cutthroat trout tested. Because there was either no or at most a slight relationship between upper thermal tolerance and size, management and research decisions based on upper thermal tolerance should be similar for the range of sizes within each species we tested. However, the different sizes we tested only encompassed life stages ranging from fry to adult/subadult, so thermal tolerance of eggs, alevins, and larger adults should also be considered before making management decisions affecting an entire species.

  13. Temperature-stress resistance and tolerance along a latitudinal cline in North American Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Wos

    Full Text Available The study of latitudinal gradients can yield important insights into adaptation to temperature stress. Two strategies are available: resistance by limiting damage, or tolerance by reducing the fitness consequences of damage. Here we studied latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to frost and heat and tested the prediction of a trade-off between the two strategies and their costliness. We raised plants of replicate maternal seed families from eight populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata collected along a latitudinal gradient in climate chambers and exposed them repeatedly to either frost or heat stress, while a set of control plants grew under standard conditions. When control plants reached maximum rosette size, leaf samples were exposed to frost and heat stress, and electrolyte leakage (PEL was measured and treated as an estimate of resistance. Difference in maximum rosette size between stressed and control plants was used as an estimate of tolerance. Northern populations were more frost resistant, and less heat resistant and less heat tolerant, but-unexpectedly-they were also less frost tolerant. Negative genetic correlations between resistance and tolerance to the same and different thermal stress were generally not significant, indicating only weak trade-offs. However, tolerance to frost was consistently accompanied by small size under control conditions, which may explain the non-adaptive latitudinal pattern for frost tolerance. Our results suggest that adaptation to frost and heat is not constrained by trade-offs between them. But the cost of frost tolerance in terms of plant size reduction may be important for the limits of species distributions and climate niches.

  14. Computational estimation of decline in sweating in the elderly from measured body temperatures and sweating for passive heat exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies reported the difference in heat tolerance between younger and older adults, which may be attributable to the decline in the sweating rate. One of the studies suggested a hypothesis that the dominant factor causing the decline in sweating was the decline in thermal sensitivity due to a weaker signal from the periphery to the regulatory centres. However, no quantitative investigation of the skin temperature threshold for activating the sweating has been conducted in previous studies. In this study, we developed a computational code to simulate the time evolution of the temperature variation and sweating in realistic human models under heat exposure, in part by comparing the computational results with measured data from younger and older adults. Based on our computational results, the difference in the threshold temperatures for activating the thermophysiological response, especially for sweating, is examined between older and younger adults. The threshold for activating sweating in older individuals was found to be about 1.5 °C higher than that in younger individuals. However, our computation did not suggest that it was possible to evaluate the central alteration with ageing by comparing the computation with the measurements for passive heat exposure, since the sweating rate is marginally affected by core temperature elevation at least for the scenarios considered here. The computational technique developed herein is useful for understanding the thermophysiological response of older individuals from measured data. (note)

  15. Adolescent rats are resistant to the development of ethanol-induced chronic tolerance and ethanol-induced conditioned aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of chronic tolerance to ethanol in adult and adolescent rats has yielded mixed results. Tolerance to some effects of ethanol has been reported in adolescents, yet other studies found adults to exhibit greater tolerance than adolescents or comparable expression of the phenomena at both ages. Another unanswered question is how chronic ethanol exposure affects subsequent ethanol-mediated motivational learning at these ages. The present study examined the development of chronic tolerance to ethanol's hypothermic and motor stimulating effects, and subsequent acquisition of ethanol-mediated odor conditioning, in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats given every-other-day intragastric administrations of ethanol. Adolescent and adult rats exhibited lack of tolerance to the hypothermic effects of ethanol during an induction phase; whereas adults, but not adolescents, exhibited a trend towards a reduction in hypothermia at a challenge phase (Experiment 1). Adolescents, unlike adults, exhibited ethanol-induced motor activation after the first ethanol administration. Adults, but not adolescents, exhibited conditioned odor aversion by ethanol. Subsequent experiments conducted only in adolescents (Experiment 2, Experiment 3 and Experiment 4) manipulated the context, length and predictability of ethanol administration. These manipulations did not promote the expression of ethanol-induced tolerance. This study indicated that, when moderate ethanol doses are given every-other day for a relatively short period, adolescents are less likely than adults to develop chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia. This resistance to tolerance development could limit long-term maintenance of ethanol intake. Adolescents, however, exhibited greater sensitivity than adults to the acute motor stimulating effects of ethanol and a blunted response to the aversive effects of ethanol. This pattern of response may put adolescents at risk for early initiation of ethanol intake.

  16. Quality assurances and tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschling, G.

    1991-12-31

    This book presents a comprehensive statistical solution to tolerance problems to be used as an alternative to the conventional arithmetic approach that is used for tolerancing. The book is a translation from an original text in German. The classificatio nof the book would be as a reference text for engineers who are working in the production and quality control fields, particularly in process control. Academics who are teaching such subjects as statistical process control of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing will also find the book useful.

  17. State, religion and toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    to underline not only the broadmindedness and liberty of individuals or of groups, but also the relevant distinctions and arguments in political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophical anthropology and their connection with educational issues. Through a discussion of these relations......Contribution to Religion and State - From separation to cooperation? Legal-philosophical reflections for a de-secularized world. (IVR Cracow Special Workshop). Eds. Bart. C. Labuschagne & Ari M. Solon. Abstract: Toleration is indeed a complex phenomenon. A discussion of the concept will have...

  18. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  19. Relationship between lifestyle interventions and glycemic level in adults with impaired glucose tolerance: A systematic review and meta-analysis%生活方式干预对成年糖耐量受损患者血糖影响的系统评价及meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚清海; 应焱燕; 李辉; 许国章

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of lifestyle interventions in adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).Methods MEDLINE (Pub Med),EMBASE,Science Citation Index (SCI),and Cochrane Database were retrieved for articles about the relations of lifestyle intervention and IGT.Searches were limited to English language publications.The RCTs outcome evaluated in this study included 2 h plasma glucose level and fasting plasma glucose,meta-analysis was carried oat by Stata 11.0 among articles for the inclusion and exclusion criteria.The difference of effects was expressed as standardized mean deviation(SMD).Results A total of 10 RCTs studies met the inclusion criteria.Lifestyle interventions were associated with a decline in 2 h plasma glucose and fasting plasma glucose level (SMD =-0.67,P<0.01 ;SMD =-0.33,P<0.01),but high heterogeneity was identified in this meta-analysis.Conclusion Physical,dietary and both combined interventions can reduce 2-h plasma glucose and fasting plasma glucose levels in adults with impaired glucose tolerance.As high heterogeneity was identified in this meta-analysis,more high quality research is needed.%目的 探讨生活方式干预对成年糖耐量受损患者血糖的影响.方法 检索MEDLINE(Pub Med)、EMBASE、Science Citation Index (SCI)及Cochrane数据库获取相关文献.以葡萄糖负荷后2h、空腹血糖水平为结局指标.仅限于英文文献.按照纳入和排除标准选择相关研究进行文献质量评价后,以标准化均数差(SMD)表示效应的差异,使用Stata 11.0进行meta分析.结果 共有10篇研究被纳入meta分析.生活方式干预对负荷后2h血糖和空腹血糖影响均有统计学意义(SMD:-0.67,P<0.01;SMD:-0.33,P<0.01),但均存在高异质性.结论 运动锻炼、饮食调节等生活方式干预可能降低糖耐量受损患者的血糖水平.由于研究间的异质性较大,生活方式干预对血糖水平的影响仍需要更多高质量的RCTs研究.

  20. Contrast medium tolerance in case of multiple injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschakert, H.

    1986-09-01

    In a randomised, intra-individual double-blind comparison the contrast medium tolerance of ionic and nonionic media used for CT scanning, applied by two injections, has been tested. As expected, the direct comparison reveals better tolerance of nonionic media, both upon first and second injection. Further, a significantly higher rate of side effects is observed after the second contrast medium bolus injection, both for ionic and nonionic media. The second injection induces stronger heat effects and a higher rate of anaphylactoid reactions. The higher rate of side effects after second bolus injections is mainly attributed to the structure-chemical properties of the contrast media.

  1. Clinical trial in healthy malaria-naïve adults to evaluate the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and efficacy of MuStDO5, a five-gene, sporozoite/hepatic stage Plasmodium falciparum DNA vaccine combined with escalating dose human GM-CSF DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Thomas L.; Charoenvit, Yupin; Wang, Ruobing; Epstein, Judith E.; Hedstrom, Richard C.; Kumar, Sanjai; Luke, Thomas C.; Freilich, Daniel A.; Aguiar, Joao C.; Sacci, Jr., John B.; Sedegah, Martha; Nosek, Jr., Ronald A.; De La Vega, Patricia; Berzins, Mara P.; Majam, Victoria F.; Abot, Esteban N.; Ganeshan, Harini; Richie, Nancy O.; Banania, Jo Glenna; Baraceros, Maria Fe B.; Geter, Tanya G.; Mere, Robin; Bebris, Lolita; Limbach, Keith; Hickey, Bradley W.; Lanar, David E.; Ng, Jennifer; Shi, Meng; Hobart, Peter M.; Norman, Jon A.; Soisson, Lorraine A.; Hollingdale, Michael R.; Rogers, William O.; Doolan, Denise L.; Hoffman, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    When introduced in the 1990s, immunization with DNA plasmids was considered potentially revolutionary for vaccine development, particularly for vaccines intended to induce protective CD8 T cell responses against multiple antigens. We conducted, in 1997−1998, the first clinical trial in healthy humans of a DNA vaccine, a single plasmid encoding Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP), as an initial step toward developing a multi-antigen malaria vaccine targeting the liver stages of the parasite. As the next step, we conducted in 2000–2001 a clinical trial of a five-plasmid mixture called MuStDO5 encoding pre-erythrocytic antigens PfCSP, PfSSP2/TRAP, PfEXP1, PfLSA1 and PfLSA3. Thirty-two, malaria-naïve, adult volunteers were enrolled sequentially into four cohorts receiving a mixture of 500 μg of each plasmid plus escalating doses (0, 20, 100 or 500 μg) of a sixth plasmid encoding human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF). Three doses of each formulation were administered intramuscularly by needle-less jet injection at 0, 4 and 8 weeks, and each cohort had controlled human malaria infection administered by five mosquito bites 18 d later. The vaccine was safe and well-tolerated, inducing moderate antigen-specific, MHC-restricted T cell interferon-γ responses but no antibodies. Although no volunteers were protected, T cell responses were boosted post malaria challenge. This trial demonstrated the MuStDO5 DNA and hGM-CSF plasmids to be safe and modestly immunogenic for T cell responses. It also laid the foundation for priming with DNA plasmids and boosting with recombinant viruses, an approach known for nearly 15 y to enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines. PMID:23151451

  2. HEAT RECUPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. new constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.

  3. Differential gene expression of two extreme honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies showing varroa tolerance and susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Robertson, T; Mostajeran, M; Robertson, A J; Qiu, X

    2016-06-01

    Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite of honey bees (Apis mellifera), is the most serious pest threatening the apiculture industry. In our honey bee breeding programme, two honey bee colonies showing extreme phenotypes for varroa tolerance/resistance (S88) and susceptibility (G4) were identified by natural selection from a large gene pool over a 6-year period. To investigate potential defence mechanisms for honey bee tolerance to varroa infestation, we employed DNA microarray and real time quantitative (PCR) analyses to identify differentially expressed genes in the tolerant and susceptible colonies at pupa and adult stages. Our results showed that more differentially expressed genes were identified in the tolerant bees than in bees from the susceptible colony, indicating that the tolerant colony showed an increased genetic capacity to respond to varroa mite infestation. In both colonies, there were more differentially expressed genes identified at the pupa stage than at the adult stage, indicating that pupa bees are more responsive to varroa infestation than adult bees. Genes showing differential expression in the colony phenotypes were categorized into several groups based on their molecular functions, such as olfactory signalling, detoxification processes, exoskeleton formation, protein degradation and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, suggesting that these biological processes play roles in conferring varroa tolerance to naturally selected colonies. Identification of differentially expressed genes between the two colony phenotypes provides potential molecular markers for selecting and breeding varroa-tolerant honey bees. PMID:26919127

  4. Relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation in the finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) in the finger. Nine males and 34 females participated in the following 2 tests: a CIVD test and a self-reported survey. The CIVD test was conducted 30-min cold-water immersion (3.8 ± 0.3 °C) of the middle finger at an air temperature of 27.9 ± 0.1 °C. The self-reported questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about whole and local body cold and heat tolerances. By a cluster analysis on the survey results, the participants were divided into two groups: high self-identified cold tolerance (HSCT, n = 25) and low self-identified cold tolerance (LSCT, n = 18). LSCT had lower self-identified cold tolerance ( P predict physiological cold tolerance.

  5. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  6. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization....

  7. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, L.B.; Farma, A.J.

    1987-01-06

    This invention concerns a heat exchanger as used in a space heater, of the type in which hot exhaust gases transfer heat to water or the like flowing through a helical heat exchange coil. A significant improvement to the efficiency of the heat exchange occurring between the air and water is achieved by using a conduit for the water having external helical fluting such that the hot gases circulate along two paths, rather than only one. A preferred embodiment of such a heat exchanger includes a porous combustion element for producing radiant heat from a combustible gas, surrounded by a helical coil for effectively transferring the heat in the exhaust gas, flowing radially from the combustion element, to the water flowing through the coil. 4 figs.

  8. Mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Wilson, Thad E; Crandall, Craig G

    2016-04-01

    Heat stress profoundly and unanimously reduces orthostatic tolerance. This review aims to provide an overview of the numerous and multifactorial mechanisms by which this occurs in humans. Potential causal factors include changes in arterial and venous vascular resistance and blood distribution, and the modulation of cardiac output, all of which contribute to the inability to maintain cerebral perfusion during heat and orthostatic stress. A number of countermeasures have been established to improve orthostatic tolerance during heat stress, which alleviate heat stress induced central hypovolemia (e.g., volume expansion) and/or increase peripheral vascular resistance (e.g., skin cooling). Unfortunately, these countermeasures can often be cumbersome to use with populations prone to syncopal episodes. Identifying the mechanisms of inter-individual differences in orthostatic intolerance during heat stress has proven elusive, but could provide greater insights into the development of novel and personalized countermeasures for maintaining or improving orthostatic tolerance during heat stress. This development will be especially impactful in occuational settings and clinical situations that present with orthostatic intolerance and/or central hypovolemia. Such investigations should be considered of vital importance given the impending increased incidence of heat events, and associated cardiovascular challenges that are predicted to occur with the ensuing changes in climate. PMID:26723547

  9. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  10. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  11. Reassessing Subjectivity, Criticality, and Inclusivity: Marcuse's Challenge to Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Although Herbert Marcuse did not write as an adult educator, his analysis of subjectivity, criticality, and inclusivity has implications for adult education. He demonstrated how apparently humanistic tolerance for diversity can be manipulated to reinforce dominant ideology, and he made a case for aesthetic education as a site for critical…

  12. Effect of GSM-1800 and U.M.T.S. exposures on micro-glial activation and heat shock proteins induction in brain: a study on young adult and elderly rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laclau, M.; Billaudel, B.; Taxil, M.; Haro, E.; Ruffie, G.; Sanchez, S.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Lagroye, I.; Veyret, B. [PIOM/Bioelecromagnetics Lab., ENSCPB/EPHE, 33 - Pessac (France)

    2006-07-01

    Contradictory results have emerged from recent studies describing low -level radiofrequency radiation (R.F.R.) as a hazardous factor for the central nervous system while others described such type of exposure as totally safe. In the brain, heat shock proteins (H.s.p.) are often induced under harmful conditions such as ischemia, traumatic injury, epilepsy, hyperthermia, drug administration, and neuro-degenerative diseases. Under those conditions, activation of the micro-glial cell population is often observed. In this work we studied the effect of two types of mobile phone signals, GSM-1800 and U.M.T.S. on the expression of two major H.s.p., induced in the brain under harmful conditions, H.s.p. 70 and H.s.p. 25. We also studied micro-glial activation in young adult (8 weeks) and elderly (17 months) Wistar rats. Height animals by group were exposed. Exposures were performed using a brain-averaged S.A.R. of 2 W/kg following two types of protocols: an acute exposure, with exposure lasting only two hours, and a sub chronic exposure in which the animals were exposed for two hours per day, five days per week, during four weeks. In all cases, rats were progressively habituated to the exposure setup (rockets) over two weeks to avoid stress and a sham group was exposed for each condition. Positive controls were performed by induction of a status epilepticus using a subcutaneous injection kainic acid (10 mg/kg). At the end of exposure, rats were anesthetized with isofluran and perfused from the heart with P.B.S. then paraformaldehyde prior to removing of the brain. Sections (10 m m thick) were prepared on slides for immunohistochemistry. Brain samples were coded and the analysis was performed in a blind manner. The sections were immuno-histo-chemically stained with antibodies raised in rabbits against H.s.p.25 and against the inducible form of H.s.p.70. The whole glial cell population was detected by its common cell surface glyco conjugates, which bind the plant Griffonia

  13. Adult medulloblastoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pobereskin, L; Treip, C

    1986-01-01

    Twelve cases of adult onset medulloblastoma are presented. Clinical features, treatment and outcome are discussed. It was found that the survival rates for adults are no better than for children. There were no clinical or histological features that distinguished these tumours from those occurring in childhood, except for a higher incidence of hemisphere lesions.

  14. Sound frequencies induce drought tolerance in rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the sound's effect on plant and its contribution in drought tolerance, plants were subjected to various sound frequencies for an hour. After 24 h sound treatment, plants were exposed to drought for next five days. During the experiment it was observed that sound initiated physiological changes showing tolerance in plant. Sound frequency with = 0.8 kHz enhanced relative water content, stomatal conductance and quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm ratio) in drought stress environment. Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) production in sound treated plant was declined compared to control. ThermaCAM (Infra-red camera) a software which was used to analyze the plant images temperature showed that sound treated plant and leaf had less temperature (heat) compared to control. The physiological mechanism of sound frequencies induce tolerance in rice plants are discussed. (author)

  15. Blood Doping Improves Endurance and Heat Tolerance, Studies Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Recent research on blood doping is reviewed, focusing on how the practice may help to determine what factors limit human performance, particularly regarding its potential benefit as an aid in thermal regulation. (CB)

  16. General tolerances -- Part 2: Geometrical tolerances for features without individual tolerance indications

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1989-01-01

    This part is intended to simplify drawing indications and specifies general tolerances in three tolerance classes. It mainly applies to features which are produced by removal of material. It contains tour tables and an informative annex A with regard to concepts behind general tolerancing of dimensions, as well as an informative annex B with further information.

  17. A CAD MODEL FOR FUZZY CONCURRENT TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Research situation of concurrent tolerance design has been analyzed. As fuzzy factors are objective and unavoidable in concurrent tolerance design, fuzzy optimization theory is applied in the design. A new mathematical model of concurrent tolerance design is constructed.

  18. Attenuation of morphine tolerance and dependence by thymoquinone in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dependence and tolerance are major restricting factors in the clinical use of opioid analgesics. In the present study, the effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, on morphine dependence and tolerance were investigated in mice. Materials and Methods: Male adult NMRI mice were made tolerant and dependent by repeated injections of morphine (50, 50, and 75 mg/kg, i.p. on 9 a.m., 1 p.m., and 5 p.m., respectively during a 3-day administration schedule. The hot-plate test was used to assess tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p. was injected to precipitate withdrawal syndrome in order to assess the morphine dependence. To evaluate the effects of thymoquinone on tolerance and dependence to morphine, different single or repeated doses of thymoquinone were administered in mice. Rotarod was used to assess the motor coordination. Results: Administration of single or repeated doses of thymoquinone (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. significantly decreased the number of jumps in morphine dependent animals. Repeated administration of thymoquinone (20 and 40 mg/kg, for 3 days and also single injection of thymoquinone (40 mg/kg, on the fourth day attenuated tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. None of the thymoquinone doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg produced any antinociceptive effects on their own. Motor coordination of animals was impaired by the high dose of thymoquinone (40 mg/kg. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that thymoquinone prevents the development of tolerance and dependence to morphine.

  19. Gender Differences in Hip Anatomy: Possible Implications for Injury Tolerance in Frontal Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Stewart C.; Brede, Chris; Lange, David; Poster, Craig S.; Lange, Aaron W.; Kohoyda-Inglis, Carla; Sochor, Mark R.; Ipaktchi, Kyros; Rowe, Stephen A.; Patel, Smita; Garton, Hugh J

    2004-01-01

    Male occupants in frontal motor vehicle collisions have reduced tolerance for hip fractures than females in similar crashes. We studied 92 adult pelvic CT scans and found significant gender differences in bony pelvic geometry, including acetabular socket depth and femoral head width. Significant differences were also noted in the presentation angle of the acetabular socket to frontal loading. The observed differences provide biomechanical insight into why hip injury tolerance may differ with ...

  20. Female Smokers Show Lower Pain Tolerance in a Physical Distress Task

    OpenAIRE

    Pulvers, Kim; Hood, Anna; Limas, Eleuterio F.; Thomas, Marie D.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have established a link between distress tolerance and smoking cessation outcomes. The present study examined whether smoking status affected physical distress tolerance, and considered this question separately for men and women. The sample was comprised of healthy adults, 56 smokers (63% male) and 58 nonsmokers (62% female). The pain stimulus was a cold pressor task. Outcome variables were seconds immersed in cold water when pain was first reported (threshold), and total sec...

  1. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ole Sigmund

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded)or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

  2. Commitment and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasma, D C

    1988-11-01

    The article attempts to approach the abortion issue in a rather unconventional manner. Instead of picking a side and then trying to support it, the author demonstrates first how most people in the US are fence sitters on the issue of abortion. They support neither side with very much intensity, although most of them are currently facing the pro-abortion side. From there the author argues that the activists on both side are so extreme in their views that they both lose their legitimacy. The anti-abortionists do not seem interested in improving the quality of life for anyone other than unborn fetuses and as such they do not really seem to be "pro-life". On the other hand, pro-abortionists focus too much on the autonomy of women and seem to ignore the fact that an abortion is the ending of a potential human life. They do not put the value of the fetus into their "pro-choice" views, it is only a choice for a woman to make about her body, not a choice of one person's right over the rights of a potential person. It is this fundamental extremism that the author cites as the source of the furor over abortion. If both sides were more tolerant of each and chose sides. It is this fundamental extremism that must be replaced with persuasion if either side is to truly achieve a victory. The author's personal belief is that abortion on demand must be ended in this country.

  3. GH Replacement Therapy in GH-Deficient Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Luger A

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency represents an indication for substitution therapy not only in children but also in adults. In the last twenty years, numerous studies have shown that GH deficiency in adults is characterized by a clearly defined syndrome which is associated with a doubleincreased mortality rate. GH deficiency in adults can be diagnosed only by dynamic tests. While the insulin tolerance test (ITT) has been the standard test in the past, the combined arginine-GH releasing hormon...

  4. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2011-01-01

    Use Tolerance Analysis Techniques to Avoid Design, Quality, and Manufacturing Problems Before They Happen Often overlooked and misunderstood, tolerance analysis is a critical part of improving products and their design processes. Because all manufactured products are subject to variation, it is crucial that designers predict and understand how these changes can affect form, fit, and function of parts and assemblies--and then communicate their findings effectively. Written by one of the developers of ASME Y14.5 and other geometric dimension and tolerancing (GD&T) standards, Mechanical Tolerance

  5. An Algebra of Fault Tolerance

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Shrisha

    2009-01-01

    Every system of any significant size is created by composition from smaller sub-systems or components. It is thus fruitful to analyze the fault-tolerance of a system as a function of its composition. In this paper, two basic types of system composition are described, and an algebra to describe fault tolerance of composed systems is derived. The set of systems forms monoids under the two composition operators, and a semiring when both are concerned. A partial ordering relation between systems is used to compare their fault-tolerance behaviors.

  6. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija;

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...... clustered as heat-tolerant (cv. '579', cv. '810', cv. '1110', cv. Terice, cv. Taifun and cv. Vinjett) and four as heat-sensitive (cv. '490', cv. '633', cv. '1039' and cv. '1159'). Higher rates of photosynthetic carbon- and light-use were accompanied by lower damage to cell membranes in leaves of tolerant...... compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...

  7. Radiation tolerance in the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster - effects of laboratory culturing and stages in life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced damages are due to direct effect of radiation energy or through free radical generation. Recent studies suggest Drosophila to be a good animal model to study radiation tolerance. The present study on female Drosophila melanogaster was conducted to observe 1. Variations in larval and adult radiation tolerance 2. Variations in laboratory culture and field populations of Drosophila. Third instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation of 6, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy in gamma chamber GC 5000 (BRT, India). Larvae of flies collected from the field were reared for two generations in the lab before irradiation. The laboratory cultured files were from stocks that were maintained for more than 1000 generations. The larvae of field populations had higher survival rate at 51% as compared to 43% in case of cultured flies and thus more resistant. The III instar larval stage (lab culture) had a LD50 of 26 Gy as compared to LD 50 of 928 Gy in case of adult flies have ∼ 160 times higher tolerance compared to humans. Prolonged rearing comparable to 'domestication' might have induced reduction in tolerance. Larval stages have a lower tolerance than adults possibly due to higher metabolic rate. Adults are post-mitotic in nature with very low rate of cell division. This may contribute to higher tolerance. This however is in contradiction to studies of midge (Chironomous) where larvae also have higher tolerance. (author)

  8. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  9. Antibiotic tolerance and microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We study the dynamics of antibiotic action within hydrodynamic flow chamber biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using isogenic mutants and fluorescent gene...... expression reporters and we address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. The dynamics of microbial killing is monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Our work shows that the apparent increased antibiotic tolerance is due to the formation...... of antibiotic tolerant subpopulations within the biofilm. The formation of these subpopulations is highly variable and dependent on the antibiotic used, the biofilm structural organization and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms....

  10. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  11. Tolerance, immunocompetence, and secondary disease in fully allogeneic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which secondary disease and mortality in fully allogeneic chimeras (C57BL leads to CBA) is caused (if at all) by a delayed graft-versus-host reaction. Adult CBA males were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T-lymphocyte-depleted C57BL or CBA bone marrow cells (BMC), followed three weeks after irradiation by implantation under the kidney capsule of thymic lobes from C57BL or CBA fetal or adult donors. These mice were observed for the development of secondary disease for periods in excess of 250 days, and they were examined at 5 weeks or 4 months for T lymphocyte reactivity and tolerance to alloantigens, using the cell-mediated lympholysis assay (CML). The following results were obtained. First, removal of T lymphocytes with anti-Thy 1 antibody and complement from allogeneic bone marrow did not prevent wasting and eventual death, although it prolonged the lifespan of mice substantially. Second, T lymphocytes generated from bone marrow-derived precursor cells became tolerant of the histocompatibility antigens of the thymus donor strain but remained normally reactive to third-party antigens. Third, allogeneic radiation chimeras did not survive as well as animals reconstituted with syngeneic cells, even when they were demonstrably tolerant in CML. Fourth, C57BL BMC maturing in a CBA host equipped with a C57BL thymus graft did not become tolerant of host antigens, indicating that extra-thymic tolerance does not occur in fully allogeneic--as opposed to semiallogeneic--chimeras. It is argued that the function of B lymphocytes and/or accessory cells is impaired in fully allogeneic radiation chimeras, and that the mortality observed was directly related to the resulting immunodeficiency. The relevance of the results described in this paper to clinical bone marrow transplantation is discussed

  12. Children's and Adolescents' Tolerance for Divergent Beliefs: Exploring the Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Moral Conviction in Our Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Moral conviction predicts interpersonal tolerance in adults, but its role in children and adolescents is not as well understood. This study measured moral conviction for a variety of issues along two separate dimensions--cognitive and affective--in children and adolescents (4th-12th grade). Results showed that, like adults, when children and…

  13. Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, S.; Irie, T.; Inoue, M.; Shinmen, K.; Kawahata, H.; Nakamura, T.; Kato, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Sakai, K.; van Woesik, R.

    2013-04-01

    Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2-0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (±5% pCO2), to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently-settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of 100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that (i) primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii) corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e. broadcasting species) will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  14. Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2–0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (±5% pCO2, to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently-settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of 100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that (i primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e. broadcasting species will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  15. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Lamer, Tim J; Twyner, Channing

    2015-06-01

    The hyperalgesic effects of long-term opioid use in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain have not been widely reported. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between opioid use and heat pain (HP) perception in a sample of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain. The study cohort involved 187 adults (85 opioid and 102 nonopioid) with chronic pain consecutively admitted to an outpatient interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Heat pain perception was assessed using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. An effect of opioid use was observed for nonstandardized (P = 0.004) and standardized (P = 0.005) values of HP 5-0.5 in which values of the opioid group were lower (more hyperalgesic) compared with those of the nonopioid group. HP 5-0.5 is a measure of the slope of the line connecting HP 0.5 (HP threshold) and HP 5 (intermediate measure of HP tolerance). In univariable (P = 0.019) and multiple variable (P = 0.003) linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower (more hyperalgesic) nonstandardized values of HP 5-0.5. Similarly, in univariable (P = 0.004) and multiple variable (P = 0.011) linear regression analyses (adjusted for work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower standardized values of HP 5-0.5. In this sample of community-dwelling adults, these observations suggest that long-term opioid use was associated with hyperalgesia independent of other clinical factors known to influence HP perception.

  16. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae): growth and thermal tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Ikeda; Zuanon, J.A.S.; A.L. Salaro; M.B.D. Freitas; M.D. Pontes; Souza, L S; M.V. Santos

    2011-01-01

    The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juveni...

  17. The application of the haploid cell culture system to obtain the variants with tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different genotypes of rape haploid cells /tissue tolerated to the oxalic acid were correlated with the tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the plant level through the researches. And this phenomenon also occurred in the tolerance to NaCl between the different genotypes of rape haploid cells and the diploid cells, but the diploid cells were generally more tolerant to the haploid ones. In addition, there were similar situations in barely on NaCl tolerance, aluminum tolerance and resistance to scab. So the above results indicated that the haploid cells/tissue tolerant to the stresses could reflect the situations in the plant level in the certain degree. The technology of inducing and screening the variants of the tolerance to rape Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by in vitro culture of haploid tissue was established. This technical system includes the in vitro microspore culture, the regeneration from the haploid cells to plants and the expanding propagation of the haploids populations. A set of oxalic acid tolerance variants was screened through the treatments of pingyangmycin and oxalic acid in stem apexes culture of haploid plants. After the field identification, 3 individuals with the improved tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was obtained. The technology of inducing and screening the variants with heat tolerance by in vitro culture of haploid tissue was established in broccoli. A set of variants with the improved heat tolerance was obtained through the treatment of pingyangmycin and the 45 deg C heat treatment and 9 variants with higher stability of cell membrane to heat stress than the original varieties was selected. In addition, the technical systems for inducing and screening barley variants tolerant to aluminum and scab stresses according to the above rules were established. And the relevant resistance variants were obtained. Then 1 aluminum tolerance material and 3 scab resistance materials under the field experiments in the plant level were selected

  18. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  19. Developing herbicide-tolerant crops from mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbicide-tolerant crops in combination with their corresponding herbicides are able to control many weeds that cannot be or are less effectively controlled with other means. Commercial herbicide-tolerant crops developed from herbicide-tolerant mutants include imidazolinone-tolerant maize, rice, wheat, oilseed rape, sunflower, and lentil; sulfonylurea-tolerant soybean and sunflower; cyclohexanedione-tolerant maize; and triazine-tolerant oilseed rape. Most of the herbicide-tolerant mutants were developed through chemical mutagenesis followed by herbicide selection. Several herbicide-tolerant mutants were also discovered through direct herbicide selection of spontaneous mutations. All mutations used in commercial herbicide-tolerant crops are derived from a single nucleotide substitution of genes that encode enzymes or proteins targeted by herbicides. Imidazolinone-tolerant maize, rice, wheat, and oilseed rape have a gene variant encoding an altered acetohydoxyacid synthase (AHAS) with the S653N amino acid substitution. Additionally, imidazolinone-tolerant maize and oilseed rape have an AHAS with the W574L amino acid substitution. Imidazolinone-tolerant sunflower has been developed from the A205V AHAS gene mutation. In contrast, sulfonylurea-tolerant sunflower selected from a farm field has an AHAS enzyme variant with the P197L amino acid substitution. Similarly, sulfonylurea-tolerant soybean has a P197S AHAS gene mutation. Sulfonylurea-tolerant sunflower from seed mutagenesis and imidazolinone-tolerant lentil are also derived from AHAS gene mutations. Cyclohexanedione-tolerant maize has an altered acetyl-CoA carboxylase with the I1781L amino acid substitution. Triazine-tolerant oil seed rape possesses a psbA gene variant that encodes the D1 protein of photosynthesis with the S264G amino acid substitution. The alleles of all commercial herbicide-tolerant mutations are incompletely-dominant and not pleiotropic except for the triazine-tolerant mutation which is

  20. Mathematical model of cylindrical form tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏; 杨将新; 吴昭同

    2004-01-01

    Tolerance is essential for integration of CAD and CAM. Unfortunately, the meaning of tolerances in the national standard is expressed in graphical and language forms and is not adaptable for expression, processing and data transferring with computers. How to interpret its semantics is becoming a focus of relevant studies. This work based on the mathematical definition of form tolerance in ANSI Y 14.5.1 M-1994, established the mathematical model of form tolerance for cylindrical feature. First, each tolerance in the national standard was established by vector equation. Then on the foundation of toler-ance's mathematical definition theory, each tolerance zone's mathematical model was established by inequality based on degrees of feature. At last the variance area of each tolerance zone is derived. This model can interpret the semantics of form tolerance exactly and completely.

  1. Fetal growth and impaired glucose tolerance in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, K; Barker, D J; Hales, C N; Fall, C H; Osmond, C; Clark, P M

    1993-03-01

    A follow-up study was carried out to determine whether reduced fetal growth is associated with the development of impaired glucose tolerance in men and women aged 50 years. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out on 140 men and 126 women born in Preston (Lancashire, UK) between 1935 and 1943, whose size at birth had been measured in detail. Those subjects found to have impaired glucose tolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had lower birthweight, a smaller head circumference and were thinner at birth. They also had a higher ratio of placental weight to birthweight. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes fell from 27% in subjects who weighed 2.50 kg (5.5 pounds) or less at birth to 6% in those who weighed more than 3.41 kg (7.5 pounds) (p body mass index). Plasma glucose concentrations taken at 2-h in the glucose tolerance test fell progressively as birthweight increased (p < 0.004), as did 2-h plasma insulin concentrations (p < 0.001). The trends with birthweight were independent of duration of gestation and must therefore be related to reduced rates of fetal growth. These findings confirm the association between impaired glucose tolerance in adult life and low birthweight previously reported in Hertfordshire (UK), and demonstrate it in women as well as men. It is suggested that the association reflects the long-term effects of reduced growth of the endocrine pancreas and other tissues in utero. This may be a consequence of maternal undernutrition. PMID:8462770

  2. Magnetar heating

    CERN Document Server

    Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2016-01-01

    We examine four candidate mechanisms that could explain the high surface temperatures of magnetars. (1) Heat flux from the liquid core heated by ambipolar diffusion. It could sustain the observed surface luminosity $L_s\\approx 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ if core heating offsets neutrino cooling at a temperature $T_{\\rm core}>6\\times 10^8$ K. This scenario is viable if the core magnetic field exceeds $10^{16}$ G, the magnetar has mass $M10^{16}$ G varying on a 100 meter scale could provide $L_s\\approx 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$. (4) Bombardment of the stellar surface by particles accelerated in the magnetosphere. This mechanism produces hot spots on magnetars. Observations of transient magnetars show evidence for external heating.

  3. The Metabolic Basis of Pollen Thermo-Tolerance: Perspectives for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine J. Paupière

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop production is highly sensitive to elevated temperatures. A rise of a few degrees above the optimum growing temperature can lead to a dramatic yield loss. A predicted increase of 1–3 degrees in the twenty first century urges breeders to develop thermo-tolerant crops which are tolerant to high temperatures. Breeding for thermo-tolerance is a challenge due to the low heritability of this trait. A better understanding of heat stress tolerance and the development of reliable methods to phenotype thermo-tolerance are key factors for a successful breeding approach. Plant reproduction is the most temperature-sensitive process in the plant life cycle. More precisely, pollen quality is strongly affected by heat stress conditions. High temperature leads to a decrease of pollen viability which is directly correlated with a loss of fruit production. The reduction in pollen viability is associated with changes in the level and composition of several (groups of metabolites, which play an important role in pollen development, for example by contributing to pollen nutrition or by providing protection to environmental stresses. This review aims to underline the importance of maintaining metabolite homeostasis during pollen development, in order to produce mature and fertile pollen under high temperature. The review will give an overview of the current state of the art on the role of various pollen metabolites in pollen homeostasis and thermo-tolerance. Their possible use as metabolic markers to assist breeding programs for plant thermo-tolerance will be discussed.

  4. Boolean Logic with Fault Tolerant Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Alagoz, B. Baykant

    2009-01-01

    Error detectable and error correctable coding in Hamming space was researched to discover possible fault tolerant coding constellations, which can implement Boolean logic with fault tolerant property. Basic logic operators of the Boolean algebra were developed to apply fault tolerant coding in the logic circuits. It was shown that application of three-bit fault tolerant codes have provided the digital system skill of auto-recovery without need for designing additional-fault tolerance mechanisms.

  5. Developing Herbicide-Tolerant Crops from Mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several herbicide-tolerant crops have been developed and commercialized from herbicide-tolerant mutants obtained through chemical mutagenesis followed by herbicide selection or direct herbicide selection of spontaneous mutations. All mutations used in commercial herbicide-tolerant crops are derived from a single nucleotide substitution of genes that encode enzymes or proteins targeted by herbicides. The alleles of all commercial herbicide-tolerant mutations are incompletely-dominant except for the triazine-tolerant mutation. (author)

  6. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-28

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances.

  7. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances. PMID:27465120

  8. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  9. Tolerance and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Småland Goth

    2014-03-01

    study shows a varied pattern of use of GP services among the diverse groups of foreign-born residents. Results suggest that immigrants are more likely to use emergency-room services during the first few years after arrival. Results also indicate that information about the patient-list system does not always reach newly arrived immigrants. Contrary to general understanding, non-visible immigrants (when considering factors such as skin color and clothing diverge the most from the pattern of the majority. Immigrants originating from European countries, such as Sweden and Poland, use the emergency room most frequently. From the qualitative aspects of the study, we have also found that primary health care services are not perceived as equitable.Conclusion: Recently arrived immigrants’ utilization of primary health care services shows an unfavorable pattern. The choice of primary health care service providers is dependent on the individual’s preferences, expectations, experiences and/or actual obstacles. The observed utilization of services provided at emergency rooms is one more reason for monitoring and increasing tolerance and cultural sensitivity in primary health care.

  10. Multiperspective analysis of erosion tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparovek Gerd

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Erosion tolerance is the most multidisciplinary field of soil erosion research. Scientists have shown lack in ability to adequately analyze the huge list of variables that influence soil loss tolerance definitions. For these the perspectives of erosion made by farmers, environmentalists, society and politicians have to be considered simultaneously. Partial and biased definitions of erosion tolerance may explain not only the polemic nature of the currently suggested values but also, in part, the nonadoption of the desired levels of erosion control. To move towards a solution, considerable changes would have to occur on how this topic is investigated, especially among scientists, who would have to change methods and strategies and extend the perspective of research out of the boundaries of the physical processes and the frontiers of the academy. A more effective integration and communication with the society and farmers, to learn about their perspective of erosion and a multidisciplinary approach, integrating soil, social, economic and environmental sciences are essential for improved erosion tolerance definitions. In the opinion of the authors, soil erosion research is not moving in this direction and a better understanding of erosion tolerance is not to be expected in the near future.

  11. Immune tolerance in radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of immune tolerance in radiation chimeras and the mechanism of maintaining it were discussed from certain points. Semiallogeneic radiation chimeras are mostly of long-living, and the hematopoietic organ of this individual consists mainly of the cells derived from the marrow donor, i. e., F1-type cells. F1-type lymphocytes can distinguish parental strain cells from themselves. In these chimeras, a F1-skin graft maintains to be fresh as long as the host is alive, showing immune tolerance effective through its life. In establishment and maintenance of this immune tolerance, the suppressing mechanism of host-type or F1-type seems to be involved. The allogeneic radiation chimera has very poor long-survival rate compared with that of the semiallogeneic radiation chimera. To raise this survival rate, efforts are now being made from the immunological point of view. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Neuropilin-1 in Transplantation Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio eCampos-Mora

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the immune system, Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1 is a molecule that plays an important role in establishing the immunological synapse between dendritic cells (DCs and T cells. Recently, Nrp1 has been identified as a marker that seems to distinguish natural T regulatory (nTreg cells, generated in the thymus, from inducible T regulatory (iTreg cells raised in the periphery. Given the crucial role of both nTreg and iTreg cells in the generation and maintenance of immune tolerance, the ability to phenotypically identify each of these cell populations in vivo is needed to elucidate their biological properties. In turn, these properties have the potential to be developed for therapeutic use to promote immune tolerance. Here we describe the nature and functions of Nrp1, including its potential use as a therapeutic target in transplantation tolerance.

  13. Simulation of abuse tolerance of lithium-ion battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, Robert M.; Weaver, James; Yeduvaka, Gowri; Doughty, D. H.; Roth, E. P.

    A simple approach for using accelerating rate calorimetry data to simulate the thermal abuse resistance of battery packs is described. The thermal abuse tolerance of battery packs is estimated based on the exothermic behavior of a single cell and an energy balance than accounts for radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer modes of the pack. For the specific example of a notebook computer pack containing eight 18650-size cells, the effects of cell position, heat of reaction, and heat-transfer coefficient are explored. Thermal runaway of the pack is more likely to be induced by thermal runaway of a single cell when that cell is in good contact with other cells and is close to the pack wall.

  14. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  15. Mathematical model of cylindrical form tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏; 杨将新; 吴昭同

    2004-01-01

    Tolerance is essential for integration of CAD and CAM.Unfortunately,the meaning of tolerances in the national standard is expressed in graphical and language forms and is not adaptable for expression,processing and data transferring with computers.How to interpret its semantics is becoming a focus of relevant studies.This work based on the mathematical definition of form tolerance in ANSI Y 14.5.1 M-1994,established the mathematical model of form tolerance for cylindrical feature.First,each tolerance in the national standard was established by vector equation.Then on the foundation of tolerance's mathematical definition theory,each tolerance zone's mathematical model was established by inequality based on degrees of feature.At last the variance area of each tolerance zone is derived.This model can interpret the semantics of form tolerance exactly and completely.

  16. Building Intrusion Tolerant Software System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Wen-ling; WANG Li-na; ZHANG Huan-guo; CHEN Wei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the hypothesis about intrusion tolerance software system, so that it can provide an intended server capability and deal with the impacts caused by the intruder exploiting the inherent security vulnerabilities. We present some intrusion tolerance technology by exploiting N-version module threshold method in constructing multilevel secure software architecture, by detecting with hash value, by placing an "antigen" word next to the return address on the stack that is similar to human immune system, and by adding "Honey code" nonfunctional code to disturb intruder, so that the security and the availability of the software system are ensured.

  17. Tolerating extremism : to what extent should intolerance be tolerated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiora, Amos Neuser

    2013-01-01

    In discussing extremism, the key questions are: to whom is a duty owed and what are the limits of intolerance that are to be tolerated? Answering these questions requires examining limits and rights; analyzing them in the context of extremism is the ‘core’ of this book. While freedom of speech and f

  18. Genetic improvement of drought tolerance in semi-dwarf wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water stress is one of the main environmental constraints for the wheat crop. Drought stress from anthesis to maturity, especially if accompanied by heat stress, affects every morphological and physiological aspect of wheat plant and significantly reduces final yield. Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in wheat could be possible through conventional and mutation breeding tools. There is a dire need to identify stress tolerant genotypes which can grow and flourish well under harsh environments (low water requirements). Twelve newly evolved bread wheat genotypes alongwith 3 drought-tolerant commercial check varieties, viz., Sarsabz, Khirman and Chakwal-86 were screened under three water stresses (zero, single and two irrigations). Different yield associated traits were studied. At severe water stress (zero irrigation), six genotypes (BWM-3, NIA-8/7, NIA-9/5, NIA-28/4, NIA-25/5, MSH-36) produced significantly higher grain yield (ranged from 1522 to 2022 kg/ha) than check varieties. These genotypes had higher seed index and less spike sterility at severe stress, which indicated that these genotypes were less responsive to water stress and possessed more tolerance to drought stress. (author)

  19. Are Multilingualism, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Attitudes toward Linguistic Variation Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the links between multilingualism, the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA), and attitudes toward linguistic variation among 379 mono-, bi-, and multilingual adults who completed an online questionnaire. A self-reported high level of proficiency in multiple languages, short- and long-term residence abroad, and high…

  20. Motor performance, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life in children on dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsermans, RM; Creemers, DG; Helders, PJ; Schroder, CH

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to the adult population, little is known regarding health-related quality of life and exercise tolerance in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing chronic intermittent hemodialysis. We designed a pilot study to investigate whether research into this area is indicated. Th

  1. Education or Incarceration: Zero Tolerance Policies and the School to Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzeg, Nancy A.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a growing convergence between schools and legal systems. The school to prison pipeline refers to this growing pattern of tracking students out of educational institutions, primarily via "zero tolerance" policies, and, directly and/or indirectly, into the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. The school to…

  2. An audit of the insulin-tolerance test in 255 patients with pituitary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Svendsen, Ole L; Skakkebaek, Niels E;

    2002-01-01

    The insulin-tolerance test (ITT) is currently considered to be the gold standard for evaluating adults suspected of GH deficiency (GHD). The aim of this study was to determine factors that may influence nadir blood glucose (BG) when using a mean insulin dose of 0.1 IU/kg body weight. Furthermore,...

  3. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  4. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, J P

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most popular heat transfer texts, Jack Holman's "Heat Transfer" is noted for its clarity, accessible approach, and inclusion of many examples and problem sets. The new tenth edition retains the straight-forward, to-the-point writing style while covering both analytical and empirical approaches to the subject. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on physical understanding while, at the same time, relying on meaningful experimental data in those situations that do not permit a simple analytical solution. New examples and templates provide students with updated resources for computer-numerical solutions.

  5. Effects of nitrogen on the tolerance of brown planthopper,Nilaparvata Lugens, to adverse environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-XIANLU; KONG-LUENHEONG; XIAO-PINGYU; CUIHU

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen content in rice plants on the tolerance of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal to high temperature, starvation and insecticide, was studied in the laboratory at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. Survival of nymphs and adults, fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly increased by the increase of nitrogen content in host plants at 38℃. Moreover, the survival of nymphs,fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly higher in BPH populations on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen than those on rice plants with a low nitrogen regimen.Meanwhile, the tolerance of female adults to starvation and nymphs to growth regulator buprofezin on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen were slightly increased. This indicates that the tolerances of BPH to adverse environmental stresses were positively increased by the application of nitrogenous fertilizer. The outbreak potential of BPH induced by the excessive application of fertilizer in rice fields was also discussed.

  6. Workshop Oriented Tolerance Synthesis for Spatial PKM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguang Li; Jian Ding; Yingxue Yao; Zhaohong Yi; Huaijing Jing; Honggen Fang

    2015-01-01

    To promote the pose accuracy performance of a spatial parallel kinematic Mechanism ( PKM) in service, a workshop oriented tolerance synthesis method based on design of experiment ( DOE) is proposed, which involves two consecutive stages. In the first stage of DOE, the tolerance factor sensitivities are obtained according to initial tolerance settings with the consideration of the current manufacturing capacity, and the second stage of DOE makes use of them to produce multiple tolerance allocations which can adapt to current manufacturing capacity. A tolerance synthesis procedure is developed and integrated in tolerance design system for PKM. Comparing the results with peer method, the validity and practicability of this method is verified.

  7. Dicamba Tolerant Soybean MON 87708

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Monsanto Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the sale of food derived from Dicamba Tolerant Soybean MON 87708. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this soybean event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits.

  8. Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryoids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteroo, F.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the research performed on the subject "Desiccation tolerance in somatic embryoids". Somatic embryoids are bipolar structures formed in tissue culture, with both a shoot and a root apex, which resemble very much zygotic embryos found in seeds. Through simultaneous development of

  9. Biocatalysts with enhanced inhibitor tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui; Linger, Jeffrey; Franden, Mary Ann; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed herein are biocatalysts for the production of biofuels, including microorganisms that contain genetic modifications conferring tolerance to growth and fermentation inhibitors found in many cellulosic feedstocks. Methods of converting cellulose-containing materials to fuels and chemicals, as well as methods of fermenting sugars to fuels and chemicals, using these biocatalysts are also disclosed.

  10. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  11. [Adult twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  12. Adult Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...

  13. Adult Leukemias

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Lyall K.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past several years, advances have been made in the classification, diagnosis and therapy of the adult leukemias. The overall prognosis and quality of life have improved greatly, especially for patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemias. Some of the advances are described in this article. The importance of the clinical, laboratory and diagnostic tests for acute, chronic granulocytic and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are stressed. The therapy and prognosis for patients with the vari...

  14. Temperature Tolerance of Large Yellow Croaker, Pseudosciaena Crocea ( Richardson ) Associated with Summer Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Quanzhen; ZENG Jiangning; LIAO Yibo; GAO Aigen; YANG Hefu

    2005-01-01

    Lethal temperature tolerance was determined for about 8 cm, age 0 Pseudosciaena crocea using both slow heating and rapid transfer protocol. The acclimatization temperature was 28 ℃ with summer season, lethal temperature ( LT50 value ) of slow heating protocol ( CTMax ) was 35.0 ℃, and the upper and lower incipient lethal temperatures of rapid transfer protocol were 34.2 ℃ and 17.5 ℃ respectively.

  15. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  16. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  17. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ... Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating ...

  18. A Developmental View of Children's Behavioral Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of scores of 469 third to sixth graders on the Children's Tolerance Scale yielded significant grade level differences with older children generally the most tolerant. The more outer-directed behaviors were rated as most disturbing. (CL)

  19. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.

  20. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping tolerances. 750.11 Section... PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.11 Shipping tolerances. (a) Applicability and use of shipping... a shipping tolerance. This section tells you, as the licensee, when you may take advantage of...

  1. 7 CFR 51.886 - Tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances. 51.886 Section 51.886 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Tolerances § 51.886 Tolerances. (a) No... other than the allowances specified in § 51.888 or in the sampling and testing procedures of...

  2. Posttraumatic Stress and Alcohol Use Motives: A Test of the Incremental and Mediating Role of Distress Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Marshall-Berenz, Erin C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation first examined the incremental validity of distress tolerance in terms of alcohol use coping motives within a trauma-exposed community sample of adults, beyond the variance contributed by posttraumatic stress symptom severity, difficulties in emotion regulation, alcohol consumption, and other (noncriterion) alcohol use motives. Secondly, the potential mediating role of distress tolerance in the association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and alcohol use coping...

  3. Physiological and molecular mechanisms associated with cross tolerance between hypoxia and low temperature in Thaumatotibia leucotreta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boardman, Leigh; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Terblanche, John S

    2015-01-01

    correlated with increased membrane fluidity (increased UFA:SFA) and/or alterations in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70); while general mechanical stress (shaking) and heat (2 h at 35 C) do not elicit cross tolerance (no change in survival or molecular responses). We therefore found support for some limited cold......Biochemical adaptations allow insects to withstand exposures to hypoxia and/or hypothermia. Exposure to hypoxia may interact either synergistically or antagonistically with standard low temperature stress responses yet this has not been systematically researched and no clear mechanism has been...... hardening and cross tolerance responses. Given that combined exposure to hypoxia and low temperature is used to sterilize commodities in post-harvest pest management programs, researchers can now exploit these mechanisms involved in cross tolerance to develop more targeted control methods....

  4. Discrepancy between stimulus response and tolerance of pain in Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Jensen, Troels Staehelin;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Affective-motivational and sensory-discriminative aspects of pain were investigated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy elderly controls using the cold pressor test tolerance and repetitive stimuli of warmth and heat stimuli, evaluating the stimulus...

  5. Effects of Drought and Heat on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Discusses effects of drought and heat on peanut plants and crop yield, and offers advice on if and when to irrigate fields, and for drought-tolerant varieties of peanuts to use in fields with a history of drought.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of stress tolerance in entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaari, Mor; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Koltai, Hinanit; Salame, Liora; Glazer, Itamar

    2016-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema are effective biological control agents. The infective stage of these parasites can withstand environmental stresses such as desiccation and heat, but the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in this tolerance are poorly understood. We used 454 pyrosequencing to analyse transcriptome expression in Steinernema spp. that differ in their tolerance to stress. We compared these species, following heat and desiccation treatments, with their non-stressed counterparts. More than 98% of the transcripts found matched homologous sequences in the UniRef90 database, mostly nematode genes (85%). Among those, 60.8% aligned to the vertebrate parasites including Ascaris suum, Loa loa, and Brugia malayi, 23.3% aligned to bacteriovores, mostly from the genus Caenorhabditis, and 1% aligned to EPNs. Analysing gene expression patterns of the stress response showed a large fraction of down-regulated genes in the desiccation-tolerant nematode Steinernema riobrave, whereas a larger fraction of the genes in the susceptible Steinernema feltiae Carmiel and Gvulot strains were up-regulated. We further compared metabolic pathways and the expression of specific stress-related genes. In the more tolerant nematode, more genes were down-regulated whereas in the less tolerant strains, more genes were up-regulated. This phenomenon warrants further exploration of the mechanism governing induction of the down-regulation process. The present study revealed many genes and metabolic cycles that are differentially expressed in the stressed nematodes. Some of those are well known in other nematodes or anhydrobiotic organisms, but several are new and should be further investigated for their involvement in desiccation and heat tolerance. Our data establish a foundation for further exploration of stress tolerance in entomopathogenic nematodes and, in the long term, for improving their ability to withstand suboptimal environmental conditions. PMID

  7. Adult hepatoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Javier A. Cienfuegos; Tania Labiano; Nicolás Pedano; Gabriel N. Zozaya; Pablo Martí-Cruchaga; Ángel Panizo; Fernando Rotellar

    2013-01-01

    Adult hepatoblastoma (AHB) is a very rare tumor, having been described 45 cases up to June 2012. In contrast to HB in infancy (IHB), it has poor prognosis. We present the case of a 37-year-old asymptomatic woman who consulted for a large -12 cm diameter- mass involving segments 5 and 6 of the liver, and alfa-fetoprotein of 1,556,30 UI/mL. A bisegmentectomy was carried out. The microscopic study confirmed the AHB diagnosis, revealing the presence of epithelial cells forming clusters, trabecula...

  8. Transient receptor potential is essential for high temperature tolerance in invasive Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia minor 1 cryptic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Chuang Lü

    Full Text Available Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP is one of the key components of an organism's temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3' and 5' rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1, examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP. The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35°C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global

  9. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  10. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  11. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...

  12. Plasticity in thermal tolerance has limited potential to buffer ectotherms from global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2015-06-01

    Global warming is increasing the overheating risk for many organisms, though the potential for plasticity in thermal tolerance to mitigate this risk is largely unknown. In part, this shortcoming stems from a lack of knowledge about global and taxonomic patterns of variation in tolerance plasticity. To address this critical issue, we test leading hypotheses for broad-scale variation in ectotherm tolerance plasticity using a dataset that includes vertebrate and invertebrate taxa from terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats. Contrary to expectation, plasticity in heat tolerance was unrelated to latitude or thermal seasonality. However, plasticity in cold tolerance is associated with thermal seasonality in some habitat types. In addition, aquatic taxa have approximately twice the plasticity of terrestrial taxa. Based on the observed patterns of variation in tolerance plasticity, we propose that limited potential for behavioural plasticity (i.e. behavioural thermoregulation) favours the evolution of greater plasticity in physiological traits, consistent with the 'Bogert effect'. Finally, we find that all ectotherms have relatively low acclimation in thermal tolerance and demonstrate that overheating risk will be minimally reduced by acclimation in even the most plastic groups. Our analysis indicates that behavioural and evolutionary mechanisms will be critical in allowing ectotherms to buffer themselves from extreme temperatures.

  13. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2015-03-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an OFC for heated milk can consume butter. The milk-specific IgE value indicative of a negative predictive value of over 95% was 17.8 kUA/L, and patients with low milk-specific IgE values may be able to safely consume butter. Including butter in the diets of patients with milk-allergy after a butter challenge may improve quality of life.

  14. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  15. Quantitative transcription dynamic analysis reveals candidate genes and key regulators for ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Menggen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Derived from our lignocellulosic conversion inhibitor-tolerant yeast, we generated an ethanol-tolerant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-50316 by enforced evolutionary adaptation. Using a newly developed robust mRNA reference and a master equation unifying gene expression data analyses, we investigated comparative quantitative transcription dynamics of 175 genes selected from previous studies for an ethanol-tolerant yeast and its closely related parental strain. Results A highly fitted master equation was established and applied for quantitative gene expression analyses using pathway-based qRT-PCR array assays. The ethanol-tolerant Y-50316 displayed significantly enriched background of mRNA abundance for at least 35 genes without ethanol challenge compared with its parental strain Y-50049. Under the ethanol challenge, the tolerant Y-50316 responded in consistent expressions over time for numerous genes belonging to groups of heat shock proteins, trehalose metabolism, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, pleiotropic drug resistance gene family and transcription factors. The parental strain showed repressed expressions for many genes and was unable to withstand the ethanol stress and establish a viable culture and fermentation. The distinct expression dynamics between the two strains and their close association with cell growth, viability and ethanol fermentation profiles distinguished the tolerance-response from the stress-response in yeast under the ethanol challenge. At least 82 genes were identified as candidate and key genes for ethanol-tolerance and subsequent fermentation under the stress. Among which, 36 genes were newly recognized by the present study. Most of the ethanol-tolerance candidate genes were found to share protein binding motifs of transcription factors Msn4p/Msn2p, Yap1p, Hsf1p and Pdr1p/Pdr3p. Conclusion Enriched background of transcription abundance

  16. Main and interactive effects of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance in relation to PTSD symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Berenz, Erin C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The current study investigated the main and interactive effects of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance in relation to PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of 91 adults (62.6% women; M(age)=23.45, SD=9.56) who met DSM-IV criteria for trauma exposure, 53.8% of whom met criteria for a recent (past 2 years) history of nonclinical panic attacks. Results indicated that distress tolerance, as measured by the Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005), was significantly related to all PTSD symptom clusters, and a nonclinical panic attack history was significantly related to PTSD re-experiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. The interaction of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance significantly predicted unique variance in only PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Implications and future directions are discussed for the role of nonclinical panic attacks and distress tolerance in PTSD symptom expression. PMID:20888732

  17. 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160028.html 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States Much of the country to be under ... As a massive "heat dome" stretches across the United States this week, sending temperatures and humidity levels ...

  18. Tolerance bands for functional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Lasitha N; Choudhary, Pankaj K

    2016-06-01

    Often the object of inference in biomedical applications is a range that brackets a given fraction of individual observations in a population. A classical estimate of this range for univariate measurements is a "tolerance interval." This article develops its natural extension for functional measurements, a "tolerance band," and proposes a methodology for constructing its pointwise and simultaneous versions that incorporates both sparse and dense functional data. Assuming that the measurements are observed with noise, the methodology uses functional principal component analysis in a mixed model framework to represent the measurements and employs bootstrapping to approximate the tolerance factors needed for the bands. The proposed bands also account for uncertainty in the principal components decomposition. Simulations show that the methodology has, generally, acceptable performance unless the data are quite sparse and unbalanced, in which case the bands may be somewhat liberal. The methodology is illustrated using two real datasets, a sparse dataset involving CD4 cell counts and a dense dataset involving core body temperatures. PMID:26574904

  19. Noise Tolerance under Risk Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Manwani, Naresh

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the problem of noise tolerant learning of classifiers. We formulate the problem as follows. We assume that there is an ${\\bf unobservable}$ training set which is noise-free. The actual training set given to the learning algorithm is obtained from this ideal data set by corrupting the class label of each example where the probability that the class label on an example is corrupted is a function of the feature vector of the example. This would account for almost all kinds of noisy data one may encounter in practice. We say that a learning method is noise tolerant if the classifiers learnt with the ideal noise-free data and with noisy data have the same classification accuracy on the noise-free data. In this paper we analyze the noise tolerant properties of risk minimization, which is a generic method for learning classifiers. We consider different loss functions such as 0-1 loss, hinge loss, exponential loss, squared error loss etc. We show that the risk minimization under 0-1 loss func...

  20. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia, M. A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different plant developmental stages. In the past 2 decades, biotechnology research has provided considerable insights into the mechanism of biotic stress tolerance in plants at the molecular level. Furthermore, different abiotic stress factors may provoke osmotic stress, oxidative stress and protein denaturation in plants, which lead to similar cellular adaptive responses such as accumulation of compatible solutes, induction of stress proteins, and acceleration of reactive oxygen species scavenging systems. Recently, the authores try to improve plant tolerance to salinity injury through either chemical treatments (plant hormones, minerals, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines and vitamins or biofertilizers treatments (Asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhiza or enhanced a process used naturally by plants to minimise the movement of Na+ to the shoot, using genetic modification to amplify the process, helping plants to do what they already do - but to do it much better."

  1. Soft Computing Approaches To Fault Tolerant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Prakash Srivastava

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper as an introduction to soft computing techniques for fault tolerant systems and the terminology with different ways of achieving fault tolerance. The paper focuses on the problem of fault tolerance using soft computing techniques. The fundamentals of soft computing approaches and its type with introduction of fault tolerance are discussed. The main objective is to show how to implement soft computing approaches for fault detection, isolation and identification. The paper contains details about soft computing application with an application of wireless sensor network as fault tolerant system.

  2. Main and Interactive Effects of a Nonclinical Panic Attack History and Distress Tolerance in Relation to PTSD Symptom Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall-Berenz, Erin C.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the main and interactive effects of a nonclinical panic attack history and distress tolerance in relation to PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of 91 adults (62.6% women; Mage = 23.45, SD = 9.56) who met DSM-IV criteria for trauma exposure, 53.8% of whom met criteria for a recent (past two years) history of nonclinical panic attacks. Results indicated that distress tolerance, as measured by the Distress Tolerance Scale (Simons & Gaher, 2005), was significantly ...

  3. Interactions between nutrition, heat stress, and reproduction in cattle within tropical/subtropical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of approaches are presented to partially alleviate harsh environmental stresses on productivity and fertility of lactating dairy cows. The first area involves the use of various environmental facilities and management to provide heat abatement in order to enhance performance. A second complementary approach is utilisation of classical genetics that also includes introduction of heat tolerant genes into less heat tolerant breeds. A variety of reproductive technologies and their application to manage seasonal periods of infertility associated with heat stress are documented. Lastly, integration of nutritional and reproductive management strategies to improve postpartum immune competence, health and reproductive performance are presented. (author)

  4. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  5. Parallel fault-tolerant robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. L.; Bennett, J. K.; Walker, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    A shared memory multiprocessor architecture is used to develop a parallel fault-tolerant robot controller. Several versions of the robot controller are developed and compared. A robot simulation is also developed for control observation. Comparison of a serial version of the controller and a parallel version without fault tolerance showed the speedup possible with the coarse-grained parallelism currently employed. The performance degradation due to the addition of processor fault tolerance was demonstrated by comparison of these controllers with their fault-tolerant versions. Comparison of the more fault-tolerant controller with the lower-level fault-tolerant controller showed how varying the amount of redundant data affects performance. The results demonstrate the trade-off between speed performance and processor fault tolerance.

  6. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  7. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  8. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  9. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Kubie; Thomas, Grassie

    2012-01-01

    A core task of engineers is to analyse energy related problems. The analytical treatment is usually based on principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but is increasingly being handled computationally.This unique resource presents a practical textbook, written for both undergraduates and professionals, with a series of over 60 computer workbooks on an accompanying CD.The book emphasizes how complex problems can be deconstructed into a series of simple steps. All thermophysical property computations are illustrated using diagrams within text and on the compani

  10. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 159-166

  11. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  12. Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately

  13. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  14. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  15. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  16. Low temperature nuclear heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, J.; Tarjanne, R. (comps.)

    1977-08-01

    The meeting was concerned with the use of low grade nuclear heat for district heating, desalination, process heat, and agriculture and aquaculture. The sessions covered applications and demand, heat sources, and economics.

  17. Adult flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  18. Adult flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified. PMID:25595429

  19. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  20. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of combination therapy with timolol and dorzolamide in glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Ichhpujani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parul Ichhpujani1,2, L Jay Katz11William and Anna Goldberg Glaucoma Service, 1Wills Eye Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigrah, IndiaAbstract: Combination pharmacotherapy has simplified and improved glaucoma medication regimens. This update focuses on the previous and recent studies on efficacy and tolerability profile of dorzolamide–timolol in adult ocular hypertension and open angle glaucoma patients. Dorzolamide–timolol has been shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in clinical trials and the adverse effects reflect those of the individual components.Keywords: glaucoma, ocular hypertension, dorzolamide, timolol

  1. Gross mismatch between thermal tolerances and environmental temperatures in a tropical freshwater snail: climate warming and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, Gianluca; Khang, Tsung Fei; Chua, Teddy; Marshall, David J

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between acute thermal tolerance and habitat temperature in ectotherm animals informs about their thermal adaptation and is used to assess thermal safety margins and sensitivity to climate warming. We studied this relationship in an equatorial freshwater snail (Clea nigricans), belonging to a predominantly marine gastropod lineage (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae). We found that tolerance of heating and cooling exceeded average daily maximum and minimum temperatures, by roughly 20°C in each case. Because habitat temperature is generally assumed to be the main selective factor acting on the fundamental thermal niche, the discordance between thermal tolerance and environmental temperature implies trait conservation following 'in situ' environmental change, or following novel colonisation of a thermally less-variable habitat. Whereas heat tolerance could relate to an historical association with the thermally variable and extreme marine intertidal fringe zone, cold tolerance could associate with either an ancestral life at higher latitudes, or represent adaptation to cooler, higher-altitudinal, tropical lotic systems. The broad upper thermal safety margin (difference between heat tolerance and maximum environmental temperature) observed in this snail is grossly incompatible with the very narrow safety margins typically found in most terrestrial tropical ectotherms (insects and lizards), and hence with the emerging prediction that tropical ectotherms, are especially vulnerable to environmental warming. A more comprehensive understanding of climatic vulnerability of animal ectotherms thus requires greater consideration of taxonomic diversity, ecological transition and evolutionary history.

  2. A double-blind study comparing the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ioversol 320 and iopamidol-300 in cerebral angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, K; Kuehn, J

    1989-06-01

    Ioversol is a new nonionic, triiodinated, water-soluble contrast medium. In a controlled double-blind study, ioversol 320 versus iopamidol-300 was tested on 60 patients in cerebral angiography. The safety of the contrast medium, the general and local tolerance, as well as the contrast quality were tested. In this study, ioversol 320 displayed no differences from iopamidol-300 in terms of contrast quality, neurologic status, and liver and kidney tolerance. In the local tolerance test, patients receiving ioversol 320 perceived significantly less heat than patients receiving iopamidol-300 when all injections were considered.

  3. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  4. Tolerable soil erosion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Frank; Jones, Bob; Rickson, Jane; Smith, Celina

    2010-05-01

    Soil loss by erosion has been identified as an important threat to soils in Europe* and is recognised as a contributing process to soil degradation and associated deterioration, or loss, of soil functioning. From a policy perspective, it is imperative to establish well-defined baseline values to evaluate soil erosion monitoring data against. For this purpose, accurate baseline values - i.e. tolerable soil loss - need to be differentiated at appropriate scales for monitoring and, ideally, should take soil functions and even changing environmental conditions into account. The concept of tolerable soil erosion has been interpreted in the scientific literature in two ways: i) maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of soil quantity, and ii) maintaining biomass production, at a location. The first interpretation ignores soil quality by focusing only on soil quantity. The second approach ignores many soil functions by focusing only on the biomass (particularly crop) production function of soil. Considering recognised soil functions, tolerable soil erosion may be defined as 'any mean annual cumulative (all erosion types combined) soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur'. Assumptions and problems of this definition will be discussed. Soil functions can generally be judged not to deteriorate as long as soil erosion does not exceed soil formation. At present, this assumption remains largely untested, but applying the precautionary principle appears to be a reasonable starting point. Considering soil formation rates by both weathering and dust deposition, it is estimated that for the majority of soil forming factors in most European situations, soil formation rates probably range from ca. 0.3 - 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1. Although the current agreement on these values seems relatively strong, how the variation within the range is spatially distributed across Europe and how this may be affected by climate, land use and land management

  5. Fatty acid composition and extreme temperature tolerance following exposure to fluctuating temperatures in a soil arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Suring, Wouter; Ellers, Jacintha

    2011-09-01

    Ectotherms commonly adjust their lipid composition to ambient temperature to counteract detrimental thermal effects on lipid fluidity. However, the extent of lipid remodeling and the associated fitness consequences under continuous temperature fluctuations are not well-described. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated temperature fluctuations on fatty acid composition and thermal tolerance. We exposed the springtail Orchesella cincta to two constant temperatures of 5 and 20°C, and a continuously fluctuating treatment between 5 and 20°C every 2 days. Fatty acid composition differed significantly between constant low and high temperatures. As expected, animals were most cold tolerant in the low temperature treatment, while heat tolerance was highest under high temperature. Under fluctuating temperatures, fatty acid composition changed with temperature initially, but later in the experiment fatty acid composition stabilized and closely resembled that found under constant warm temperatures. Consistent with this, heat tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was comparable to the constant warm treatment. Cold tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was intermediate compared to animals acclimated to constant cold or warmth, despite the fact that fatty acid composition was adjusted to warm conditions. This unexpected finding suggests that in animals acclimated to fluctuating temperatures an additional underlying mechanism is involved in the cold shock response. Other aspects of homeoviscous adaptation may protect animals during extreme cold. This paper forms a next step to fully understand the functioning of ectotherms in more thermally variable environments. PMID:21704631

  6. Anhydrobiosis and Freezing-Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGill, Lorraine; Shannon, Adam; Pisani, Davide;

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode...... Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth...

  7. Quantifying the dynamics of light tolerance in Arabidopsis plants during ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabricio E L; Ware, Maxwell A; Ruban, Alexander V

    2015-12-01

    The amount of light plants can tolerate during different phases of ontogenesis remains largely unknown. This was addressed here employing a novel methodology that uses the coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) to assess the intactness of photosystem II reaction centres. Fluorescence quenching coefficients, total chlorophyll content and concentration of anthocyanins were determined weekly during the juvenile, adult, reproductive and senescent phases of plant ontogenesis. This enabled quantification of the protective effectiveness of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ) and determination of light tolerance. The light intensity that caused photoinhibition in 50% of leaf population increased from ∼70 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) , for 1-week-old seedlings, to a maximum of 1385 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) for 8-week-old plants. After 8 weeks, the tolerated light intensity started to gradually decline, becoming only 332 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) for 13-week-old plants. The dependency of light tolerance on plant age was well-related to the amplitude of protective NPQ (pNPQ) and the electron transport rates (ETRs). Light tolerance did not, however, show a similar trend to chlorophyll a/b ratios and content of anthocyanins. Our data suggest that pNPQ is crucial in defining the capability of high light tolerance by Arabidopsis plants during ontogenesis. PMID:26012511

  8. Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP as an Indicator of Bleaching Tolerance in Scleractinian Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham B. Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal tolerance tests on Acropora millepora, a common Indo-Pacific hard coral, have shown that adult corals can acquire increased thermal tolerance by shuffling existing type C to type D Symbiodinium zooxanthellae when subjected to increased seawater temperatures. We report here dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP concentrations in A. millepora and examine links between DMSP concentrations, zooxanthellae clade, and bleaching tolerance. DMSP analysis on native and transplanted corals from three locations in the Great Barrier Reef indicated that the lower thermal tolerance in type C zooxanthellae coincided with variable DMSP concentrations, whilst the more thermal tolerant type D zooxanthellae had more stable areal DMSP concentrations as seawater temperatures increased. Our results suggest this increased thermal tolerance in type D zooxanthellae may reflect the ability of these coral symbionts to conserve their antioxidant DMSP levels to relatively constant concentrations, enabling the coral to overcome the build-up of oxygen free radicals in the cytoplasm of A. millepora. A conceptual diagram illustrates how the antioxidants DMS (P participate in the bleaching process by scavenging oxygen free radicals and form DMSO, thus moderating coral bleaching and increasing thermotolerance.

  9. The evolution of acceptance and tolerance in hosts of avian brood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2016-08-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of their hosts, which rear the parasite's progeny. The costs of parasitism have selected for the evolution of defence strategies in many host species. Most research has focused on resistance strategies, where hosts minimize the number of successful parasitism events using defences such as mobbing of adult brood parasites or rejection of parasite eggs. However, many hosts do not exhibit resistance. Here we explore why some hosts accept parasite eggs in their nests and how this is related to the virulence of the parasite. We also explore the extent to which acceptance of parasites can be explained by the evolution of tolerance; a strategy in which the host accepts the parasite but adjusts its life history or other traits to minimize the costs of parasitism. We review examples of tolerance in hosts of brood parasites (such as modifications to clutch size and multi-broodedness), and utilize the literature on host-pathogen interactions and plant herbivory to analyse the prevalence of each type of defence (tolerance or resistance) and their evolution. We conclude that (i) the interactions between brood parasites and their hosts provide a highly tractable system for studying the evolution of tolerance, (ii) studies of host defences against brood parasites should investigate both resistance and tolerance, and (iii) tolerance and resistance can lead to contrasting evolutionary scenarios. PMID:25765722

  10. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  12. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  13. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae: growth and thermal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Ikeda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish using 72 juvenile freshwater angelfish, coming from phase I and maintained in 12 aquaria climatized chamber. The temperature was reduced 1ºC per day, until the observation of 100% fish mortality. Phase III, it was studied the heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish employing an identical procedure to phase II, but with a daily increase of 1ºC. Significant differences (P>0.05 were not observed for any parameters evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that the type of vegetable oil (canola, linseed, olive and soybean used as a diet supplement did not affect the productive performance, nor the tolerance to cold and heat, of juvenile freshwater angelfish.

  14. Transcriptome profiling of genes and pathways associated with arsenic toxicity and tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid found ubiquitously in the environment and widely considered an acute poison and carcinogen. However, the molecular mechanisms of the plant response to As and ensuing tolerance have not been extensively characterized. Here, we report on transcriptional changes with As treatment in two Arabidopsis accessions, Col-0 and Ws-2. Results The root elongation rate was greater for Col-0 than Ws-2 with As exposure. Accumulation of As was lower in the more tolerant accession Col-0 than in Ws-2. We compared the effect of As exposure on genome-wide gene expression in the two accessions by comparative microarray assay. The genes related to heat response and oxidative stresses were common to both accessions, which indicates conserved As stress-associated responses for the two accessions. Most of the specific response genes encoded heat shock proteins, heat shock factors, ubiquitin and aquaporin transporters. Genes coding for ethylene-signalling components were enriched in As-tolerant Col-0 with As exposure. A tolerance-associated gene candidate encoding Leucine-Rich Repeat receptor-like kinase VIII (LRR-RLK VIII) was selected for functional characterization. Genetic loss-of-function analysis of the LRR-RLK VIII gene revealed altered As sensitivity and the metal accumulation in roots. Conclusions Thus, ethylene-related pathways, maintenance of protein structure and LRR-RLK VIII-mediated signalling may be important mechanisms for toxicity and tolerance to As in the species. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of global transcriptional regulation for As and identify stress- and tolerance-associated genes responding to As. PMID:24734953

  15. Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L.L. [Academy of Science, Minsk (Russian Federation). A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} W/m{sup 2} K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01-0.03 K/W, therefore leading to smaller area and mass of heat exchangers. Miniature and micro heat pipes are welcomed for electronic components cooling and space two-phase thermal control systems. Loop heat pipes, pulsating heat pipes and sorption heat pipes are the novelty for modern heat exchangers. Heat pipe air preheaters are used in thermal power plants to preheat the secondary-primary air required for combustion of fuel in the boiler using the energy available in exhaust gases. Heat pipe solar collectors are promising for domestic use. This paper reviews mainly heat pipe developments in the Former Soviet Union Countries. Some new results obtained in USA and Europe are also included. (author)

  16. Mechanism of DNA damage tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; Bi

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage may compromise genome integrity and lead to cell death. Cells have evolved a variety of processes to respond to DNA damage including damage repair and tolerance mechanisms, as well as damage checkpoints. The DNA damage tolerance(DDT) pathway promotes the bypass of single-stranded DNA lesions encountered by DNA polymerases during DNA replication. This prevents the stalling of DNA replication. Two mechanistically distinct DDT branches have been characterized. One is translesion synthesis(TLS) in which a replicative DNA polymerase is temporarily replaced by a specialized TLS polymerase that has the ability to replicate across DNA lesions. TLS is mechanistically simple and straightforward, but it is intrinsically error-prone. The other is the error-free template switching(TS) mechanism in which the stalled nascent strand switches from the damaged template to the undamaged newly synthesized sister strand for extension past the lesion. Error-free TS is a complex but preferable process for bypassing DNA lesions. However, our current understanding of this pathway is sketchy. An increasing number of factors are being found to participate or regulate this important mechanism, which is the focus of this editorial.

  17. Shock-Tolerant Low-Power Generator Design for Landed Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderloos, Carl J.; Decino, Jim; Lock, Jennifer; Miller, Dan D.; Taylor, Robert

    2004-02-01

    A shock-tolerant thermal enclosure has been designed for use in distributed landed missions. Missions such as Pascal and the Mars Long-Lived Landed Network require low power sources capable of surviving an omnidirectional load at impact and delivering reliable power for several Martian years. With the use of a radioisotope heat source and a thermoelectric converter, power can be generated reliably, but the challenge of developing an insulating canister that delivers sufficient power at end of life and is shock tolerant has been elusive. We describe a manufacturable design using conventional materials that meets mission requirements and show preliminary analysis of impact load response.

  18. Genomic and Genetic Approaches to Solvent Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

    2005-06-10

    The proposed research is to understand and exploit the molecular basis that determines tolerance of the industrially important anaerobic clostridia to solvents. Furthermore, we aim to develop general genomic and metabolic engineering strategies for understanding the molecular basis of tolerance to chemicals and for developing tolerant strains. Our hypothesis is that the molecular basis of what makes bacterial cells able to withstand high solvent concentrations can be used to metabolically engineer cells so that they can tolerate higher concentrations of solvents and related chemicals.

  19. Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Kinnaert, Michel; Lunze, Jan;

    that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. Design methods for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers are presented for processes that are described by analytical models, by discrete-event models or that can be dealt with as quantised systems. Four case studies on pilot processes show......The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process......-tolerant control....

  20. Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul;

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of design optimization for fault- tolerant hard real-time systems. In particular, our focus is on the handling of transient faults using both checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication. Fault tolerant schedules are generated based on a conditional...... process graph representation. The formulated system synthesis approaches decide the assignment of fault-tolerance policies to processes, the optimal placement of checkpoints and the mapping of processes to processors, such that multiple transient faults are tolerated, transparency requirements...

  1. Establishing soil loss tolerance: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Di Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss tolerance is a criterion for establishing if a soil is potentially subjected to erosion risk, productivity loss and if a river presents downstream over-sedimentation or other off-site effects are present at basin scale. At first this paper reviews the concept of tolerable soil loss and summarises the available definitions and the knowledge on the recommended values and evaluating criteria. Then a threshold soil loss value, at the annual temporal scale, established for limiting riling was used for defining the classical soil loss tolerance. Finally, some research needs on tolerable soil loss are listed.

  2. Dopamine transporter genotype dependent effects of apomorphine on cold pain tolerance in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roi Treister

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on experimental pain models in healthy subjects and to explore the possible association between these effects and a common polymorphism within the dopamine transporter gene. Healthy volunteers (n = 105 participated in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Heat pain threshold and intensity, cold pain threshold, and the response to tonic cold pain (latency, intensity, and tolerance were evaluated before and for up to 120 min after the administration of 1.5 mg apomorphine/placebo. A polymorphism (3'-UTR 40-bp VNTR within the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3 was investigated. Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in tolerance. An association was found between the enhancing effect of apomorphine on pain tolerance (120 min after its administration and the DAT-1 polymorphism. Subjects with two copies of the 10-allele demonstrated significantly greater tolerance prolongation than the 9-allele homozygote carriers and the heterozygote carriers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.003 in comparison to the placebo, respectively. In conclusion, apomorphine administration produced a decrease followed by a genetically associated increase in cold pain tolerance.

  3. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions.

  4. Thermal tolerance and climate warming sensitivity in tropical snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David J; Rezende, Enrico L; Baharuddin, Nursalwa; Choi, Francis; Helmuth, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ectotherms are predicted to be especially vulnerable to climate change because their thermal tolerance limits generally lie close to current maximum air temperatures. This prediction derives primarily from studies on insects and lizards and remains untested for other taxa with contrasting ecologies. We studied the HCT (heat coma temperatures) and ULT (upper lethal temperatures) of 40 species of tropical eulittoral snails (Littorinidae and Neritidae) inhabiting exposed rocky shores and shaded mangrove forests in Oceania, Africa, Asia and North America. We also estimated extremes in animal body temperature at each site using a simple heat budget model and historical (20 years) air temperature and solar radiation data. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that HCT and ULT exhibit limited adaptive variation across habitats (mangroves vs. rocky shores) or geographic locations despite their contrasting thermal regimes. Instead, the elevated heat tolerance of these species (HCT = 44.5 ± 1.8°C and ULT = 52.1 ± 2.2°C) seems to reflect the extreme temperature variability of intertidal systems. Sensitivity to climate warming, which was quantified as the difference between HCT or ULT and maximum body temperature, differed greatly between snails from sunny (rocky shore; Thermal Safety Margin, TSM = -14.8 ± 3.3°C and -6.2 ± 4.4°C for HCT and ULT, respectively) and shaded (mangrove) habitats (TSM = 5.1 ± 3.6°C and 12.5 ± 3.6°C). Negative TSMs in rocky shore animals suggest that mortality is likely ameliorated during extreme climatic events by behavioral thermoregulation. Given the low variability in heat tolerance across species, habitat and geographic location account for most of the variation in TSM and may adequately predict the vulnerability to climate change. These findings caution against generalizations on the impact of global warming across ectothermic taxa and highlight how the consideration of nonmodel animals, ecological transitions

  5. Thermal tolerance and climate warming sensitivity in tropical snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David J; Rezende, Enrico L; Baharuddin, Nursalwa; Choi, Francis; Helmuth, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ectotherms are predicted to be especially vulnerable to climate change because their thermal tolerance limits generally lie close to current maximum air temperatures. This prediction derives primarily from studies on insects and lizards and remains untested for other taxa with contrasting ecologies. We studied the HCT (heat coma temperatures) and ULT (upper lethal temperatures) of 40 species of tropical eulittoral snails (Littorinidae and Neritidae) inhabiting exposed rocky shores and shaded mangrove forests in Oceania, Africa, Asia and North America. We also estimated extremes in animal body temperature at each site using a simple heat budget model and historical (20 years) air temperature and solar radiation data. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that HCT and ULT exhibit limited adaptive variation across habitats (mangroves vs. rocky shores) or geographic locations despite their contrasting thermal regimes. Instead, the elevated heat tolerance of these species (HCT = 44.5 ± 1.8°C and ULT = 52.1 ± 2.2°C) seems to reflect the extreme temperature variability of intertidal systems. Sensitivity to climate warming, which was quantified as the difference between HCT or ULT and maximum body temperature, differed greatly between snails from sunny (rocky shore; Thermal Safety Margin, TSM = -14.8 ± 3.3°C and -6.2 ± 4.4°C for HCT and ULT, respectively) and shaded (mangrove) habitats (TSM = 5.1 ± 3.6°C and 12.5 ± 3.6°C). Negative TSMs in rocky shore animals suggest that mortality is likely ameliorated during extreme climatic events by behavioral thermoregulation. Given the low variability in heat tolerance across species, habitat and geographic location account for most of the variation in TSM and may adequately predict the vulnerability to climate change. These findings caution against generalizations on the impact of global warming across ectothermic taxa and highlight how the consideration of nonmodel animals, ecological transitions

  6. A Freezable Heat Exchanger for Space Suit Radiator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, James A.; Mason, Georgia R.; Copeland, Robert J.; Trevino, Luis a.

    2008-01-01

    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut s metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to space, thus becoming the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the astronaut during an EVA can reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator. Radiators have no moving parts and are thus highly reliable. Past freezable radiators have been too heavy, but the weight can be greatly reduced by placing a small and freeze tolerant heat exchanger between the astronaut and radiator, instead of making the very large radiator freeze tolerant. Therefore, the key technological innovation to improve space suit radiator performance was the development of a lightweight and freezable heat exchanger that accommodates the variable heat load generated by the astronaut. Herein, we present the heat transfer performance of a newly designed heat exchanger that endured several freeze / thaw cycles without any apparent damage. The heat exchanger was also able to continuously turn down or turn up the heat rejection to follow the variable load.

  7. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  8. Tolerance and cross-tolerance to neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol in heavy cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaekers, Johannes G.; Theunissen, Eef L.; de Brouwer, Marjolein; Toennes, Stefan W.; Moeller, Manfred R; Kauert, Gerhold

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Previous research has shown that heavy cannabis users develop tolerance to the impairing effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on neurocognitive functions. Animal studies suggest that chronic cannabis consumption may also produce cross-tolerance for the impairing effects of alcohol, but supportive data in humans is scarce. Purpose The present study was designed to assess tolerance and cross-tolerance to the neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol in heavy cannabis users. Met...

  9. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects outcome. Successful outcome after radiotherapy requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the selected target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance dose is not exceeded. For many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full prescription dose to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs, which is usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. This course will cover important concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation, and biologically effective dose (BED). Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, size and anatomical locations will be given. Note: I will incorporate examples of interesting, difficult and unusual cases from other practices as time permits, provided slides and descriptive materials are sent to me in advance of the course

  10. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp. has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius and tropical (C. hemipterus bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps. Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ

  11. Diminished heat shock response in the aged myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, Marius; Tanguay, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp72 in particular, has been associated with myocardial protection. Since a decreased Hsp response has been reported to occur with aging, it was of interest to determine if hearts from aged animals also demonstrate an altered heat shock response and subsequent myocardial protection. Adult (6 months old) and aged (22 months old) Fischer 344 rats were heat stressed by raising their rectal temperatures to 41 °C for 10 min. At selected times following hea...

  12. Assessment of the effect of stress-tolerance acquisition on some basic characteristics of specific probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Elloise; Vesterlund, Satu; Gueimonde, Miguel; Salminen, Seppo

    2013-07-01

    The production of viable functional probiotics presupposes stability of strain features in the final product. We evaluated the impact of acquisition of heat-tolerance and subsequent freeze-drying on the adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Bifidobacterium animalis IF20/1 and on their ability to inhibit the adhesion of pathogens in a mucus model. Both fresh and freeze-dried cultures were evaluated. Significant differences were observed between fresh, freeze dried, fresh heat-tolerant and freeze dried heat-tolerant strains, especially in the ability of the freeze dried probiotics to exclude, displace or outcompete pathogens. Based on our study characterizing probiotic properties such as adhesion and competitive exclusion, it seems possible to adapt probiotics to processing stresses, such as heat, without significantly changing the probiotic properties of the strains assessed. This may provide new options for future probiotic production technology. However, our results also emphasize that the properties of the stress-adapted strains, as well as the effect of the production processes should always be assessed as these are strain-specific. PMID:23688551

  13. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  14. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  15. Tolerance of probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Philippe; Seksik, Philippe

    2004-07-01

    The clinical efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics has been proved in several clinical settings. The authors review their proved or potential side effects. Probiotics as living microorganisms may theoretically be responsible for 4 types of side effects in susceptible individuals: infections, deleterious metabolic activities, excessive immune stimulation, and gene transfer. Very few cases of infection have been observed. These occurred mainly in very sick patients who received probiotic drugs because of severe medical conditions. Prebiotics exert an osmotic effect in the intestinal lumen and are fermented in the colon. They may induce gaseousness and bloating. Abdominal pain and diarrhea only occur with large doses. An increase in gastroesophageal reflux has recently been associated with large daily doses. Tolerance depends on the dose and individual sensitivity factors (probably the presence of irritable bowel syndrome or gastroesophageal reflux), and may be an adaptation to chronic consumption. PMID:15220662

  16. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  17. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) : Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila (geno

  18. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila (geno

  19. Metabolomic profiling of heat stress: hardening and recovery of homeostasis in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Overgaard, Johannes; Bundy, Jacob G.;

    2006-01-01

    Frequent exposure of terrestrial insects to temperature variation has led to the evolution of protective biochemical and physiological mechanisms, such as the heat shock response, which markedly increases the tolerance to heat stress. Insight into such mechanisms has, so far, mainly relied...

  20. 40 CFR 180.349 - Fenamiphos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fenamiphos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.349 Fenamiphos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the...