WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult health study

  1. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  2. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  3. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  4. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  5. Transformation through Health Teaching for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht-New, Ginny

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have medical conditions similar to those among the general population but with more complex presentation, a extended life expectancy, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These adults' health education has been inadequate. In this qualitative study, the author describes the…

  6. An Innovative Mixed Methods Approach to Studying the Online Health Information Seeking Experiences of Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

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    Mayoh, Joanne; Bond, Carol S.; Todres, Les

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative sequential mixed methods approach to researching the experiences of U.K. adults with chronic health conditions seeking health information online. The use of multiple methods integrated within a single study ensured that the focus of the research was emergent and relevant and ultimately provided a more complete…

  7. Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study

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    Åstrøm Anne

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. Methods A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women completed postal questionnaires at home. Results Mean ratings of comparative risk judgements differed significantly (p Conclusion Optimism in comparative judgements for health and oral health hazards was evident in young Norwegian adults. When judging their comparative susceptibility for oral health hazards, they consider personal health situation and risk behaviour experience.

  8. Health supplement consumption behavior in older adults population: An exploratory study

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    Mimi M.Y. eTSE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69 and old-old group (age 70 or above. The mean age is 67.93±10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational programme concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young old and old-old groups.

  9. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

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    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  10. Environmental Noise Annoyance and Mental Health in Adults: Findings from the Cross-Sectional German Health Update (GEDA Study 2012

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    Friederike Hammersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The health implications of environmental noise, especially cardiovascular effects, have been studied intensively. Research on associations between noise and mental health, however, has shown contradictory results. The present study examined associations between individual levels of noise annoyance due to noise from various sources in the living environment and mental health of adults in Germany. It evaluated whether these associations persisted after adjusting for potential covariates. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional “German Health Update” study 2012 (GEDA 2012, a national health interview survey among adults in Germany conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 19,294. Noise annoyance questions referred to overall noise and that from road traffic, neighbours, and air traffic. Mental health was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Bivariate analysis showed associations between high levels of noise annoyance and impaired mental health for all noise sources except air traffic. After adjusting for covariates (sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, and social support, both men and women who reported high overall noise annoyance showed more than doubled odds of impaired mental health compared to those who were not annoyed. The odds of impaired mental health in the highest noise annoyance category from road traffic and neighbours were also significantly increased. These findings indicate that high noise annoyance is associated with impaired mental health and that this association can vary with the source of environmental noise. Further research on covariates of this association is necessary. Particularly, longitudinal data are required to establish the direction of associations and to address questions of causality.

  11. Older Adults (and Oral Health)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Sorted by ... > OlderAdults Older Adults and Oral Health Main Content ​ Is dry mouth a natural part ... from fiction by reading this web page about oral health and growing older. Having the right information can ...

  12. Sleep Disturbances and Glucose Metabolism in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Linn Beate; Carnethon, Mercedes; Biggs, Mary Lou; Djoussé, Luc; Kaplan, Robert C.; David S Siscovick; Robbins, John A.; Redline, Susan; Patel, Sanjay R.; Janszky, Imre; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the associations of symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which was defined as loud snoring, stopping breathing for a while during sleep, and daytime sleepiness, and insomnia with glucose metabolism and incident type 2 diabetes in older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1989 and 1993, the Cardiovascular Health Study recruited 5,888 participants ≥65 years of age from four U.S. communities. Participants reported SDB and insomnia symptoms yearly through 19...

  13. Literacy and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 1002 adults with diabetes

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    MacLean Charles D

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inconsistent findings reported in the literature contribute to the lack of complete understanding of the association of literacy with health outcomes. We evaluated the association between literacy, physiologic control and diabetes complications among adults with diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,002 English speaking adults with diabetes, randomly selected from the Vermont Diabetes Information System, a cluster-randomized trial of a diabetes decision support system in a region-wide sample of primary care practices was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005. Literacy was assessed by the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Outcome measures included glycated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, blood pressure and self-reported complications. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, duration of diabetes, diabetes education, depression, alcohol use, and medication use we did not find a significant association between literacy and glycemic control (beta coefficent,+ 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to +0.01; P = .88, systolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, +0.08; 95% CI, -0.10 to +0.26; P = .39, diastolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.12 to +0.07, P = .59, or low density lipoprotein (beta coefficent, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.27 to +0.36, P = .77. We found no association between literacy and report of diabetes complications. Conclusion These findings suggest that literacy, as measured by the S-TOFHLA, is not associated with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, lipid levels or self-reported diabetes complications in a cross-sectional study of older adults with diabetes under relatively good glycemic control. Additional studies to examine the optimal measurement of health literacy and its relationship to health outcomes over time are needed.

  14. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

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    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 158 adults (76 males born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF: Short (≤3 months, Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively, favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  15. Connecting teens to caring adults in a school-based health center: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksin, Beth A; Kelly, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    The traditional medical care system is generally unable to provide the broad health and wellness services needed by many adolescents, especially those from low-income and racial/ethnic minority communities. Using a theoretical framework adapted from Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of multiple influencers, this case study examined how a school-based health center was able to provide a network of connections for adolescents to caring adults within the school and the local community. Contributors to this network were the creation of a student-centered community with access to adolescent-friendly services, providers acting as connectors, and care of the whole adolescent.

  16. A Study of the Psychosocial Profile of the Health Promoting Adult.

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    Bergmann, Barbara L; Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers developed a profile of health promoting adults by surveying 830 health promoting individuals. Results highlighted psychosocial variables most strongly associated with health promoting behavior: total self-concept, physical self, moral-ethical self, self-satisfaction, behavior, and chance health locus of control. Demographic variables…

  17. Diet assessment in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: Development of a food frequency questionnaire

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    Maria del Carmen Bisi Molina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to present the development of the Food Frequency Questionaire used in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil and analyze how diet exposes individuals to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes Mellitus. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil dietary assessment instrument is based on a previously validated Food Frequency Questionaire and the final list of items took into consideration a study done in the six Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil investigation centers. RESULTS: New foods/preparations were included in the Food Frequency Questionaire with their respective portions, totaling 114 items. The perspectives of dietary analysis and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are presented in Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil. CONCLUSION: A new instrument was developed to cover the regional particularities of the study population.

  18. Determinants of adult vaccination at inner-city health centers: A descriptive study

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    Raymund Mahlon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination rates among adults 65 years and older or less than 65 years with high risk medical conditions are still below Healthy People 2010 recommended levels of 90%. This study was designed to: 1 assess self-reported pneumococcal vaccination rates following health center level interventions to increase adult vaccination rates; and 2 determine factors associated with vaccination. Methods Tailored interventions to increase immunizations were implemented at two inner-city health centers. We surveyed 375 patients 50 years of age and older. Multivariate logistic regression examines the predictors of 1 self-reported pneumococcal vaccination and 2 combined self-reported influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. Both of these models were stratified by age group (50–64 years and 65 years and older. Results Pneumococcal vaccination rates were 45% by self-report, 55% by medical record review, 69% for patients 65 years old and older, 32% for patients 50–64 years; they did not differ by race. Receipt of the previous season's influenza vaccine was significantly related to pneumococcal vaccination among both younger and older patients. Receiving both the pneumococcal vaccine and the most recent influenza vaccine compared with receiving neither, among younger patients was related to unemployment, more frequent physician visits, and belief that those who do not receive the flu shot are more susceptible to the flu. For older patients, receipt of both vaccines was related to nonsmoking status, believing that friends/family think the patient should be vaccinated, seeing posters advertising flu shot clinics, and belief that those who do not receive the flu shot are more susceptible to the flu. Conclusion Our findings suggest that improving overall pneumococcal vaccination rates among eligible adults, has the potential to eliminate racial disparities. Interventions delivering vaccination messages specific to older

  19. Feasibility Study of a Mobile Health Intervention for Older Adults on Oral Anticoagulation Therapy

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    Jung-Ah Lee PhD, RN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT such as warfarin therapy is recommended for older adults with atrial fibrillation, heart failure, or who are at risk for venous thromboembolism. Despite its proven benefits, older adults report both dissatisfaction with OAT and reduced quality of life that can potentially lead to low adherence to OAT and decreased treatment efficacy. Objective: To test the feasibility of Mobile Applications for Seniors to enhance Safe anticoagulation therapy (MASS, a mobile-based health technology intervention designed to promote independence and self-care. Methods: This pilot study used a single-arm experimental pre–post design to test the feasibility of a 3-month intervention using MASS in 18 older adults (male: n = 14; White: n = 9; Hispanic: n = 7; Other: n = 2; M age = 67. MASS was available in English or Spanish. Participants completed surveys about their OAT knowledge, attitudes, quality of life with OAT, and adherence at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. Satisfaction with the MASS intervention was also assessed at follow-up. Results: Anticoagulation knowledge significantly improved from baseline to follow-up (Mbase = 12.5 ± 5.51, Mfollow-up = 14.78 ± 3.93, p = .007. Other outcomes were not different, pre- and post-tests. Participants reported they were generally satisfied with MASS, its ease of use and its usefulness. Conclusion: The results showed use of MASS improved older adults’ knowledge of OAT. Using mHealth apps may enhance self-care among older adults with chronic conditions who are also taking oral anticoagulants.

  20. Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study

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    Leon Bilder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs.Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel.Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH, using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson χ2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage.Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044. The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001 and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018. Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001. Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001.

  1. Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown

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    XinQi Dong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+ adults (n=78. We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population.

  2. Serum immunoglobulin levels in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.A.; Milton, R.C.; Hamilton, H.B.

    1973-05-31

    Immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were determined on 2043 individuals in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study population, and levels were compared to disease states and the dose of radiation ATB. Mean levels for both cities and sexes combined were IgG = 1577 mg%, IgA = 312 mg%, and IgM = 127 mg%. Differences between these mean levels and those reported in other studies are thought secondary to racial and environmental factors, and technical differences with the methods used for quantitation. Females had higher IgM levels that tended to go down with advancing age. Of the diseases evaluated, rheumatoid arthritis, cirrhosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis affected immunoglobulin levels the greatest. There was no apparent relationship between radiation dose from the atomic bomb and immunoglobulin levels determined more than 25 years after exposure. (6 tables)

  3. Health Literacy Is Associated With Health Behaviors and Social Factors Among Older Adults : Results from the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geboers, Bas; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Jansen, Carel J M; de Winter, Andrea F

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the associations between health literacy and various health behaviors and social factors among older adults, and whether social factors moderate the other associations. Data from 3,241 participants in the LifeLines Cohort Study were analyzed (mean baseline age = 68.9 years). Data

  4. Social engagement and health in younger, older, and oldest-old adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study.

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    Cherry, Katie E; Walker, Erin Jackson; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Volaufova, Julia; LaMotte, Lynn R; Welsh, David A; Su, L Joseph; Jazwinski, S Michal; Ellis, Rebecca; Wood, Robert H; Frisard, Madlyn I

    2013-02-01

    Social support has been shown to influence health outcomes in later life. In this study, we focus on social engagement as an umbrella construct that covers select social behaviors in a life span sample that included oldest-old adults, a segment of the adult population for whom very little data currently exist. We examined relationships among social engagement, positive health behaviors, and physical health to provide new evidence that addresses gaps in the extant literature concerning social engagement and healthy aging in very old adults. Participants were younger (21-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90-97 years) adults (N = 364) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Linear regression analyses indicated that age, gender, and hours spent outside of the house were significantly associated with self-reported health. The number of clubs and hours outside of home were more important factors in the analyses of objective health status than positive health behaviors, after considering age group and education level. These data strongly suggest that social engagement remains an important determinant of physical health into very late adulthood. The discussion focuses on practical applications of these results including social support interventions to maintain or improve late-life health.

  5. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

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    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  6. A Qualitative Study of Multiple Health Behaviors in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence regarding inflammatory pathways, elevated cardiovascular risk, and negative effects of secondary conditions on disability progression provide a strong rationale for promoting multiple health behaviors in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, many unanswered questions remain about the best ways to design multiple behavior change interventions for adults with MS. We sought to identify facilitators and barriers to engaging in multiple health behaviors (physical activity, nutrition, and sleep) and to gain further insights into how to develop multiple health behavior change interventions based on preferences of adults with MS. Methods: Focus groups and one-on-one interviews were conducted with 17 participants with MS. Results: Five qualitative themes were identified as either facilitating or hindering engagement in multiple health behaviors: 1) roles, priorities, and preferences; 2) sense of duty; 3) the fatigue and mobility problem; 4) taking control; and 5) resiliency. Participants identified advantages and disadvantages of delivery formats (eg, face-to-face group vs. telephone), frequency of contacts, and intervention strategies based on their individual circumstances and obligations. Participants felt that discussing the benefits of engaging in multiple health behaviors, developing action plans, accommodating preferences, and addressing health problems would be helpful strategies to include in a multiple behavior change intervention. Conclusions: These findings indicate that there may be common facilitators and barriers that can be targeted to promote multiple behavior changes. Future research should explore the best ways to tailor multiple behavior change interventions to preferences, symptoms, psychological traits, and social cognitions. PMID:27803640

  7. Adult Health Learning and Transformation: A Case Study of a Canadian Community-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of adult learning in a Canadian multisite Community Cardiovascular Hearts in Motion program. The researcher highlights the informal learning of 40 adult participants in this 12-week community-based cardiac rehabilitation/education program in five rural Nova Scotia communities. The effects of this learning and…

  8. Risk Factors for Incident Carotid Artery Revascularization among Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

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    Parveen K. Garg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based risk factors for carotid artery revascularization are not known. We investigated the association between demographic and clinical characteristics and incident carotid artery revascularization in a cohort of older adults. Methods: Among Cardiovascular Health Study participants, a population-based cohort of 5,888 adults aged 65 years or older enrolled in two waves (1989-1990 and 1992-1993, 5,107 participants without a prior history of carotid endarterectomy (CEA or cerebrovascular disease had a carotid ultrasound at baseline and were included in these analyses. Cox proportional hazards multivariable analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for incident carotid artery revascularization. Results: Over a mean follow-up of 13.5 years, 141 participants underwent carotid artery revascularization, 97% were CEA. Baseline degree of stenosis and incident ischemic cerebral events occurring during follow-up were the strongest predictors of incident revascularization. After adjustment for these, factors independently associated with an increased risk of incident revascularization were: hypertension (HR 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05-2.23, peripheral arterial disease (HR 2.57; 95% CI: 1.34-4.93, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.23 per standard deviation [SD] increment [35.4 mg/dL]; 95% CI: 1.04-1.46. Factors independently associated with a lower risk of incident revascularization were: female gender (HR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34-0.77 and older age (HR 0.69 per SD increment [5.5 years]; 95% CI: 0.56-0.86. Conclusions: Even after accounting for carotid stenosis and incident cerebral ischemic events, carotid revascularization is related to age, gender, and cardiovascular risk factors. Further study of these demographic disparities and the role of risk factor control is warranted.

  9. Recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute inpatient mental health settings in Australia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ireland, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Recovery-oriented care acknowledges the unique journey that consumers lead with the aim of regaining control of their lives in order to live a good life. Recovery has become a dominant policy-directed model of many mental health care organizations, but in older-adult acute mental health inpatient settings, nurses do not have a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which elements of existing nursing practice resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care and provide a baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented mental health care provision. An exploratory, qualitative research design was used to meet the research aims. A purposive sample of mental health nurses (N = 12) participated in focus groups in three older-adult inpatient settings in Australia. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. The mental health nurses in this study readily discussed aspects of their current practice within the recovery domains. They described pragmatic ways to promote a culture of hope, collaborative partnerships, meaningful engagement, autonomy and self-determination, and community participation and citizenship. Nurses also discussed challenges and barriers to recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute mental health settings. This study identified a reasonable baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented older-adult mental healthcare provision. A concerted drive focused on recovery education is required to effectively embed a recovery-orientated paradigm into older-adult mental health settings.

  10. Multimorbidity is Associated with Anxiety in Older Adults in the Health and Retirement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Christine E.; O'Hara, Ruth; Goldstein, Mary K.; Beaudreau, Sherry A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study determined whether the number of medical conditions was associated with increased occurrence of anxiety and whether triads of medical conditions were associated with anxiety in a nationally representative sample of older Americans. We determined whether multimorbidity findings were unique to anxiety as compared with depressive symptoms. Methods 4,219 participants (65 or older) completed anxiety and depression measures in the Health and Retirement Study 2006 wave. The logistic regression models’ outcome was elevated anxiety (≥12 on 5-item Beck Anxiety Inventory) or depressive symptoms (≥ on 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale). The predictor variable was a tally of 7 self-report of doctor-diagnosed conditions: arthritis, cancer, diabetes, heart conditions, high blood pressure, lung disease, and stroke. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and depressive or anxiety symptoms. Associations among elevated anxiety or depressive symptoms and 35 triads of medical conditions were examined using Bonferroni corrected chi-square analyses. Results Three or more medical conditions conferred a 2.30-fold increase in elevated anxiety (95% CI: 1.44-4.01). Twenty triads were associated with elevated anxiety as compared with 13 associated with depressive symptoms. Six of 7 medical conditions, with the exception being stroke, were present in the majority of triads. Conclusion Number of medical conditions and specific conditions are associated with increased occurrence of elevated anxiety. Compared with elevated depressive symptoms, anxiety is associated with greater multimorbidity. Since anxiety and depression cause significant morbidity, it may be beneficial to consider these mental health symptoms when evaluating older adults with multimorbidity. PMID:27441851

  11. Sleep disturbances in adults with eczema are associated with impaired overall health: a US population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Garg, Nitin K; Paller, Amy S; Fishbein, Anna B; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with poor health outcomes in adults. However, little is known about the sleep disturbances that occur in adult eczema. We studied the association between adult eczema and sleep disturbance and their impact on overall health and health care utilization. We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional questionnaire of 34,613 adults. Eczema was associated with higher odds of fatigue (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.97 (2.65-3.34)), regular daytime sleepiness (2.66 (2.34-3.01)), and regular insomnia (2.36 (2.11-2.64)), even after controlling for sleep duration, history of allergic disease, sociodemographics, and body mass index. There were significant interactions between eczema and fatigue, sleepiness, and insomnia as predictors of poorer overall health status, number of sick days, and doctor visits, such that eczema and each of the sleep symptoms were associated with higher odds of poorer outcomes than either eczema or sleep symptoms alone. Latent class analysis was used and identified five classes of fatigue, sleep disturbances, and allergic disorders. Two classes had high probabilities of eczema: one with high probabilities of asthma, hay fever, food allergy, and multiple sleep symptoms and the other with intermediate probability of insomnia alone. Future studies are warranted to better characterize sleep loss in eczema and develop strategies for treatment and prevention.

  12. Oral Health and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults maintaing good oral health habits. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/27/2008.

  13. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or worsening of the health status at an

  14. Associations Between Gender and Obesity Among Adults with Mental Illnesses in a Community Health Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonikas, Jessica A; Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Steigman, Pamela J; Hamilton, Marie M; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Santos, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associations with gender, clinical factors, and medical co-morbidities were examined among 457 adults attending public mental health programs in 4 U.S. states. BMI was measured directly and other information was gathered by interview. Over half (59%, n = 270) were obese including 18% (n = 83) who were morbidly obese. In hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis controlling for demographic, psychiatric, medical, smoking, and health insurance statuses, women were significantly more likely to be obese than men. Obesity also was more likely among those who were younger and not high school graduates, those with diabetes or hypertension, and those who did not smoke tobacco. Interaction effects were found between gender and diabetes, hypertension, tobacco smoking, education, race, and age. The high prevalence of obesity among women, coupled with interactions between gender and other factors, suggest that targeted approaches are needed to promote optimal physical health in this population.

  15. Burden of osteoporosis in adults in Korea: a national health insurance database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Shin, Chan Soo; Ha, Yong-Chan; Jang, Sunmee; Jang, Sun-Mee; Jang, Suhyun; Jang, Su-Hyun; Park, Chanmi; Park, Chan Mi; Yoon, Hyun-Koo; Lee, Seong-Su

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the number of osteoporosis patients under treatment and secular trends in 2005-2008 in South Korea. We investigated nationwide data regarding the number of osteoporosis patients under treatment in South Korea using data from the Health Insurance Review and Assesment Service (HIRA), which includes nationwide information [corrected]. Reimbursement records from the HIRA database between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008 were investigated. Patients aged ≥30 years old with osteoporosis were identified based on a study-defined algorithm using prescription data and diagnostic codes. During the study periods, the number of patients receiving medical treatment related to osteoporosis increased from 1,034,399 to 1,392,189 for women and from 120,496 to 171,902 for men. The calculated proportion of osteoporosis patients under treatment in the general population over 50 years of age was 6.1% for men and 33.3% for women, and in the general population over 30 years of age was 2.7% for men and 16.6% for woman. More than 40% of patients (59.1% for women; 41.2% for men) were treated with medication indicated only for osteoporosis. About 4-7% of osteoporosis patients had a past medical history suggesting a secondary cause of osteoporosis. More than 80% of all osteoporosis patients were women older than 50 years, reflecting the pronounced burden of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. This study demonstrated a substantial increasing trend in medical claims related to osteoporosis in 2005-2008 among adults in Korea and a pronounced burden of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women.

  16. Health Literacy in Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-20

    In this podcast, Dr. Lynda Anderson, former Director of CDC’s Healthy Aging Program, discusses the importance of improving health literacy among older adults.  Created: 9/20/2011 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/20/2011.

  17. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

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    Truong Nhan B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the prevalence of decayed, missing, filled (DMF and sound teeth (St and to determine the relative risk of teeth in different dental regions for D, M, and F, of adults living in urban and rural areas in Southern Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional DMF and St data of 2965 dentate subjects aged 20 to 95 living in urban and rural areas in three provinces were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and an oral examination. The sample was stratified by age, gender, residence and province. Results The percentage of subjects having missing teeth was high for all ages while it was low for subjects with decayed and filled teeth. The mean number of missing teeth increased gradually by age from approximately 1 in each jaw at the age of 20 to 8 at the age of 80. The number of decayed teeth was relative low at all ages, being highest in molars at young ages. The mean number of filled teeth was extremely low at all ages in all dental regions. Every additional year of age gives a significantly lower chance for decay, a higher chance for missing, and a lower chance for filled teeth. Molars had a significantly higher risk for decay, missing and filled than premolars and anterior teeth. Females had significantly higher risk for decayed and filled teeth, and less chance for missing teeth than males. Urban subjects presented lower risk for decay, but approximately 4 times greater chance for having fillings than rural subjects. Low socio-economic status (SES significantly increased the chance for missing anterior and molar teeth; subjects with high SES had more often fillings. Conclusions The majority of adults of Southern Vietnam presented a reduced dentition

  18. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  19. The global financial crisis and psychological health in a sample of Australian older adults: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-10-01

    Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis.

  20. Forms of Attrition in a Longitudinal Study of Religion and Health in Older Adults and Implications for Sample Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2016-02-01

    The use of longitudinal designs in the field of religion and health makes it important to understand how attrition bias may affect findings in this area. This study examines attrition in a 4-wave, 8-year study of older adults. Attrition resulted in a sample biased toward more educated and more religiously involved individuals. Conditional linear growth curve models found that trajectories of change for some variables differed among attrition categories. Ineligibles had worsening depression, declining control, and declining attendance. Mortality was associated with worsening religious coping styles. Refusers experienced worsening depression. Nevertheless, there was no evidence of bias in the key religion and health results.

  1. The impact of lifestyles on the periodontal health of adults in Udupi district: A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Nishu; Acharya, Shashidhar; Prabhakar, Ramprasad Vasthare; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Singhal, Deepak; Singla, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the impact of different lifestyle factors on periodontal health of adults. (2) To assess the impact of overall/combined lifestyle variable (calculated by health practice index [HPI]) on periodontal health of adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a structured questionnaire on HPI, oral health-related behavior, and personal habits as well as sociodemographic variables was conducted on 800 subjects aged 20–50 years attending dental outreach set-ups of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Clinical examination for periodontal status was done by recording loss of attachment scores using community periodontal index (FDI/WHO-1982). Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using Chi-square followed by multivariate analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for all the confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that showed an independent association with periodontitis were age, location, marital status, smoking, hours of sleep per night, physical activity, and overall poor lifestyles. Conclusion: Our results support studying a combined approach using various lifestyle behaviors for controlling chronic periodontitis. Necessary public health action on conditions which determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviors across population is needed which is possible by patient's involvement in self-care by promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:27563209

  2. The impact of lifestyles on the periodontal health of adults in Udupi district: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 To assess the impact of different lifestyle factors on periodontal health of adults. (2 To assess the impact of overall/combined lifestyle variable (calculated by health practice index [HPI] on periodontal health of adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a structured questionnaire on HPI, oral health-related behavior, and personal habits as well as sociodemographic variables was conducted on 800 subjects aged 20–50 years attending dental outreach set-ups of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Clinical examination for periodontal status was done by recording loss of attachment scores using community periodontal index (FDI/WHO-1982. Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using Chi-square followed by multivariate analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for all the confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that showed an independent association with periodontitis were age, location, marital status, smoking, hours of sleep per night, physical activity, and overall poor lifestyles. Conclusion: Our results support studying a combined approach using various lifestyle behaviors for controlling chronic periodontitis. Necessary public health action on conditions which determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviors across population is needed which is possible by patient's involvement in self-care by promoting healthy lifestyles.

  3. Epidemiological studies of the developmental origins of adult health and disease in Japan: a pediatric perspective in present day Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-10-01

    The origins of adult disease are considered to relate to fetal undernutrition, and this concept is termed "developmental origins of adult health and disease" (DOHaD). Here, we describe several epidemiological studies performed in Japan and discuss whether DOHaD is applicable to children in present day Japan. In a study of healthy children and young adults, it was found that systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and adiponectin were associated with birth weight. Hyperinsulinemia, high blood pressure, elevated transaminase levels and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese children were inversely correlated with birth weight and positively correlated with current weight and waist circumference. Birth weight was related to the development of type 2 diabetes in children. DOHaD is therefore considered to be applicable in Japan. The key considerations of DOHaD are the following two mismatches. The first mismatch pertains to growth and development in response to environmental influences, especially those of nutrition. The second mismatch pertains to the prenatal versus postnatal environment. We consider that the chance of children in present day Japan developing adult diseases is determined by the above mismatches. Pediatricians and schoolteachers should therefore understand the concept of DOHaD, so that they can educate both children and their families regarding an appropriate diet to reduce the likelihood of developing adult diseases in later life.

  4. Adult height, nutrition, and population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.

  5. Yoga for Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

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    Marcy McCall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in patient-led uptake of complementary therapies in adult cancer has led to a need for more rigorous study of such interventions and their outcomes. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a yoga intervention in men and women receiving conventional treatment for a cancer diagnosis. Prospective, mixed methods feasibility trial allocated participants to receive one of three yoga interventions over a four-week study period. Data collection was completed through online survey of QOL-CA/CS and customized surveys. Fifteen participants were included (11 female undergoing treatment for breast, prostate, colorectal, brain, and blood and lung cancer. Two participants dropped out and complete qualitative and quantitative data sets were collected from 12 participants and four yoga instructors. Other outcome measures included implementation costs patient-reported preferences for yoga intervention and changes in QOL-CA/CS. Three types of yoga intervention were safely administered in adult cancer. Mixed methods, cost-efficiency, QOL-CA/CS, and evidence-based design of yoga intervention have been used to establish feasibility and patient-preferences for yoga delivery in adult caner. Results suggest that, with some methodological improvements, a large-scale randomized controlled trial is warranted to test the efficacy of yoga for male and female cancer patients. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02309112.

  6. Older Adults and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health in people with conditions like heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. Depression can complicate the treatment of these conditions, including ... an antidepressant was effective in preventing relapse in patients 60 years and older who had had a ... Antipsychotics Use Among Older Adults Increases ...

  7. Health communication in multilingual contexts: a study of reading preferences, practices, and proficiencies among literate adults in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Carol; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth; Macwangi, Mubiana

    2007-06-01

    Comprehension of health materials and messages is a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the development of health literacy; in the case of print materials, reading comprehension is elemental. Assessments of the population's ability to read and comprehend written materials are complex and highly salient in multilingual countries, such as Zambia, particularly when an excolonial language is but one of multiple official languages. Yet no study has contrasted adult Zambians' reading comprehension of health materials in the major Zambian languages with comparable English-language materials. This article reports the results of a survey of 2,009 literate Zambian adults who were tested for reading comprehension of health materials written at fourth- and eighth-grade levels. The analysis found that respondents who had not gone beyond primary school scored significantly higher on Zambian- than on English-language reading comprehension tests. Respondents with at least an eighth-grade education scored equally well or better on English-language compared with Zambian-language tests. Overall, respondents were more likely to pass the grade-four than the grade-eight reading comprehension tests. In the multilingual context of Zambia it is vital to produce health communication print materials written at or near a grade-four readability level in English and, when warranted, in appropriate Zambian languages.

  8. An exploratory study of the personal health records adoption model in the older adult with chronic illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie D Logue

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite international efforts moving toward integrated care using health information technologies and the potential of electronic PHRs to help us better coordinate patient-centered care, PHR adoption in the United States remains low among patients who have been offered free access to them from private-sector companies. If older adult stand to benefit from the use of PHRs for its usefulness in self-managing chronic illness, why have they not been more readily adopted? Since the chronically ill older adult has unique circumstances that impact their decision to participate in self-directed care, a theoretical framework to help understand factors that influence the adoption of PHRs is important. Here we describe the results of an exploratory study that provided an initial test of such a framework.Methods The study used a descriptive survey methodology with 38 older adults. The survey questionnaire asked about the personal barriers and facilitators associated with personal health record adoption and included items measuring each of the PHRAM’s four interacting factors (environmental factors, personal factors, technology factors, and self-management, and the resulting behavioural outcome.Results Younger seniors had a more positive attitude toward computers, knew what health resources were available on the internet, agreed that they had the resources in place to use PHRs, and would be more influenced by a family member than a healthcare provider to use them. Conversely, older seniors reported less confidence in their ability to use Internet-based PHRs and did not perceive that they had the resources in place to use them.Conclusions The results of this study indicated that personal, environmental, technology, chronic illness, and behavioral factors operated concurrently as personal barriers and/or facilitators to the adoption of PHRs among the older adult with chronic illness. These factors cannot be isolated because the person commonly

  9. Investigating Adult Health Literacy in Tuyserkan City

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    Maryam Afshari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health literacy is the capacity of individuals to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make healthy decisions. Therefore, this study was designed to determine health literacy of adults Tuyserkan district. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was performed on 285 subjects aged 20-60 years attending Tuyserkan health centers through convenience sampling method in 2014. Iranian health literacy questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using Stata-11 by Independent T-test and one way ANOVA. Results: Most participants aged 20 to 30 years (52.3% and 53.7 % were males. Most participants had postgraduate diploma level (55.8 % and were students (31.9 %. Participants had a weak level to access information (42.1%, weak level to perceive data (54.4%, moderate in judgment and assessment (64.9% and moderate in use of information (88.8%. Conclusion: Overall, there was a poor health literacy in adults. This indicates the need for more attention to health education and health promotion programs. It seems necessary to design and implement comprehensive plans using media and simple training methods for adults with a low level of health literacy.

  10. Nurse-patient interaction in acute adult inpatient mental health units: a review and synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen

    2012-02-01

    Mental health nurses work with acutely unwell patients, and the busy setting is characterised by unpredictable events. This paper is a report of a review conducted to identify, analyse and synthesize research in adult acute inpatient mental health units, which focused on nurse-patient interaction. Several electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies published from 1999-present. Qualitative studies published in English were included if they specifically investigated nurse-patient interaction in acute inpatient care in adult settings. Eighteen studies were included (23 papers). Findings were grouped into the following six categories: 1) sophisticated communication; 2) subtle discriminations; 3) managing security parameters; 4) ordinary communication; 5) reliance on colleagues; and 6) personal characteristics. These studies of acute inpatient mental health units reveal that nurse communication involves interpersonal approaches and modalities that exemplify highly developed communication and personal skills designed specifically for this challenging setting. Further quality research should focus on the conditions that enable the development of therapeutic interactional skills and the relationship of these skills to the nuanced context in which they are practiced.

  11. Occupational stress and self-perceived oral health in Brazilian adults: a Pro-Saude study

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    Giovana Pereira da Cunha Scalco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to investigate the association between occupational stress and self-perception of oral health. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire filled out in a Pró-Saúde Study by 3253 administrative technical staff from Rio de Janeiro's State University. Occupational stress was measured by means of a questionnaire elaborated in 1970 by Karasek, duly shortened by Thorell in 1988. Ordinal logistic regression was used for data analysis, subsequently adjusted for three blocks of variables. Workers exposed to high occupational demands and little occupational control and to passive work had higher chances of self-perception of worse oral health, when compared with those exposed to low occupational demands, there being no association observed in those exposed to active work. However, in the multiple regression model the following estimates were reduced in magnitude and lost statistical significance, namely high occupational demands and passive work. Workers exposed to high occupational demands revealed worse self-reported oral health, which seems to be partly explained by health behavior patterns, the presence of oral health problems and seeking dental services at longer intervals than once per year.

  12. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women.

  13. A comparison of health outcomes in older versus younger adults following a road traffic crash injury: a cohort study.

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    Bamini Gopinath

    Full Text Available Given the aging demographics of most developed countries, understanding the public health impact of mild/moderate road traffic crash injuries in older adults is important. We aimed to determine whether health outcomes (pain severity and quality of life measures over 24 months differ significantly between older (65+ and younger adults (18-64.Prospective cohort study of 364, 284 and 252 participants with mild/moderate injury following a vehicle collision at baseline, 12 and 24 months, respectively. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre- and post-injury psychological and heath characteristics.At baseline, there were 55 (15.1% and 309 (84.9% participants aged ≥65 and 18-64 years, respectively. At 12- and 24-month follow-up, older compared to younger participants who had sustained a mild/moderate musculoskeletal injury had lower physical functioning (3.9-units lower Short Form-12 Physical Composite Score, multivariable-adjusted p = 0.03 at both examinations. After multivariable adjustment, older (n = 45 versus younger (n = 207 participants had lower self-perceived health status (8.1-units lower European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Visual Acuity Scale scores at 24 months, p = 0.03, 24 months later.Older compared to younger participants who sustained a mild/moderate injury following a road-traffic crash demonstrated poorer physical functioning and general health at 24 months.

  14. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen-Chau, T.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truong, N.B.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the preval

  15. Interactive Influences on Health and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lilian H.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines multiple convergent forces affecting health, relates these to social determinants of health and critical adult health learning, and closes with discussion of opportunities for adult educators to contribute to human health at the individual, community, health provider, policy/regulatory agency, and international levels.

  16. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  17. Psychological and socioeconomic health of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Lin, Mei-Hui; Wang, Yueh-Chin; Li, Chun-Huw; Huang, Hsin-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Different dimensions of health are intertwined. The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate the psychological and socioeconomic health status of community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan, and (2) to compare the psychological and socioeconomic health differences among people of different age groups, gender, marital status, and exercise habits. Using stratified random sampling, 384 Taiwanese community-dwelling older adults were recruited for this survey research. Based on the Health Model of Older Adults, seven constructs were measured: (1) psychological health: sleep quality, emotional health, cognitive functioning, and health promotion behaviors; (2) socioeconomic health: social engagement, social support, and financial status. Results showed that most participants were in a good state of psychological and socioeconomic health, except that 38.02% of them suffered from sleep disruptions, and the majority of them were not involved in any social group, nor engaged in any volunteer work. Young-old older adults had better psychological and socioeconomic health than middle-old and old-old older adults. Male older adults had better psychological health than female older adults; however, they had less social engagement and social support than female older adults. Married older adults and exercisers performed better in most of the psychological and socioeconomic health indicators than single/widowed older adults and non-exercisers.

  18. Transitions of Care from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services to Adult Mental Health Services (TRACK Study: A study of protocols in Greater London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Tamsin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although young people's transition from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS in England is a significant health issue for service users, commissioners and providers, there is little evidence available to guide service development. The TRACK study aims to identify factors which facilitate or impede effective transition from CAHMS to AMHS. This paper presents findings from a survey of transition protocols in Greater London. Methods A questionnaire survey (Jan-April 2005 of Greater London CAMHS to identify transition protocols and collect data on team size, structure, transition protocols, population served and referral rates to AMHS. Identified transition protocols were subjected to content analysis. Results Forty two of the 65 teams contacted (65% responded to the survey. Teams varied in type (generic/targeted/in-patient, catchment area (locality-based, wider or national and transition boundaries with AMHS. Estimated annual average number of cases considered suitable for transfer to AMHS, per CAMHS team (mean 12.3, range 0–70, SD 14.5, n = 37 was greater than the annual average number of cases actually accepted by AMHS (mean 8.3, range 0–50, SD 9.5, n = 33. In April 2005, there were 13 active and 2 draft protocols in Greater London. Protocols were largely similar in stated aims and policies, but differed in key procedural details, such as joint working between CAHMS and AMHS and whether protocols were shared at Trust or locality level. While the centrality of service users' involvement in the transition process was identified, no protocol specified how users should be prepared for transition. A major omission from protocols was procedures to ensure continuity of care for patients not accepted by AMHS. Conclusion At least 13 transition protocols were in operation in Greater London in April 2005. Not all protocols meet all requirements set by government policy. Variation in

  19. Self-rated health and associated factors among older South Africans: evidence from the study on global ageing and adult health

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    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective: To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design: A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE composite health state score. Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II activities of daily living (ADLs, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs, perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL. Results: Overall, more than three quarters (76.8% of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001. Older people (aged 70 years and above reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00–2.30. Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70 and (AOR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.18_0.98; 30 p < 0.045, respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80 and less than primary education (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76 were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57 and medium wealth quintile (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13 were more likely to report poorer

  20. Health status of independently living older adults in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghinescu, Minerva; Olaroiu, Marinela; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Olteanu, Tatiana; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2014-01-01

    AimAging is affecting health care all over Europe, but it is expected to have a much greater impact in Eastern Europe. Reliable data on various indicators of health of older adults in Eastern Europe are lacking. The objectives of the present study were to describe the health of older Romanian adults

  1. Accelerometer-measured sedentary time among Hispanic adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Gina; Buelna, Christina; Castañeda, Sheila F; Arredondo, Elva M; Marshall, Simon J; Strizich, Garrett; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Chambers, Earle C; McMurray, Robert G; Evenson, Kelly R; Stoutenberg, Mark; Hankinson, Arlene L; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) that included adults aged 18-74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415). Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631) of participants had > 10 h/day and > 3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0), or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day), whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day), sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention.

  2. Accelerometer-measured sedentary time among Hispanic adults: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Merchant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL that included adults aged 18–74 years from four metropolitan areas (N = 16,415. Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6 days, 76.9% (n = 12,631 of participants had >10 h/day and >3 days of data. Participants spent 11.9 h/day (SD 3.0, or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6 h/day, whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3 h/day, sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention.

  3. The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study

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    Jolien Plaete

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants’ use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment. Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC intervention of ‘MyPlan’, an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA, fruit intake, or vegetable intake. Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment. Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86, by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5, by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86, and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10. Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59, the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38, selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00 and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54 were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73, whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34. Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into eHealth

  4. The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaete, Jolien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Crombez, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants' use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment. Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC) intervention of 'MyPlan', an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA), fruit intake, or vegetable intake). Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental) and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment. Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86), by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5), by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86), and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10). Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59), the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38), selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00) and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54) were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73), whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34). Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into eHealth interventions. To

  5. Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior among Adults with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hon K. Yuen; Wolf, Bethany J.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Salinas, Carlos F.; London, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine levels of oral health knowledge and factors associated with adequate oral health knowledge in adults with diabetes. A convenience sample of 253 adult US residents with diabetes completed an oral health survey to assess their knowledge. Results showed that only 47% of the participants answered five or more (out of a maximum of seven) oral health knowledge items related to diabetes correctly. Participants who received oral health information related to...

  6. Dipping tobacco and its health risks among young adults - A short study

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    M.I. Glad Mohesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dipping tobacco (DT also known as “moist snuff” is used by the smokeless tobacco users in the form of small pinches of shredded tobacco pieces kept between the lips and gums. Thirty five percent adults in India use tobacco in any form, wherein 9% smoke tobacco, 21% use smokeless tobacco and the remaining 5% use both. Tobacco accelerates the endothelial dysfunction in large arteries, arterioles and small arteries increasing the sclerotic process and thereby causing arterial stiffness. Nitric oxide (NO, the endothelium produced vasodilator regulates the smooth muscle tone which is damaged by this tobacco. The sclerotic damage in arteries can be ruled out using Pulse wave analysis (PWA, a non-invasive diagnostic tool. Method: Dipping tobacco users who scored more than 5 in Fagerstroms nicotine addiction questionnaire were included into the study group (n=30 and they were compared against non tobacco users who served as control subjects. Anthropometric details like age, height and weight were collected. Resting blood pressure using a digital sphygmomanometer (OMRON HEM 501 and finger pulse wave using Digital polyrite (RMS was recorded. Recorded data was stored in the computer and later analysed for statistical significance using Graphpad prism ver.5.0. Results: Results showed a significantly decreased large arterial stiffness in the dipping tobacco users than in the controls (5.16+1.3, 6.82+2.0, p<0.001. A slight change on pulse wave velocity was seen which is suspected to be the preliminary change affecting the arteries due to nicotine use. Conclusion: Nicotine’s action to bring about arterial wall stiffness as reported earlier was contradicted in this study. Limitations in the sample size and inclusion of heavily addicted subjects would probably throw greater light on this issue.

  7. Tertiary education and its association with mental health indicators and educational factors among Arctic young adults: the NAAHS cohort study

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    Elisabeth Valmyr Bania

    2016-09-01

    . Young females with conduct problems choose lower or intermediate education, and males in need of specialist mental health care have half the chance to complete intermediate tertiary education compared with males not in contact with the mental health service. Closer cooperation between low threshold social services, general practitioners, mental health services and higher study institutions can help young male adults complete tertiary education.

  8. Positive effects on life satisfaction following health-promoting interventions for frail older adults: a randomized controlled study

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    Katarina Wilhelmson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Life satisfaction among older adults is known to decrease over time and with deteriorated health. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the health-promoting intervention study Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone on life satisfaction. A randomized, three-armed, single-blind, and controlled trial with follow-ups at 3 months, 1 and 2 years. A total of 459 community-dwelling persons at risk of frailty, 80-years or older were included. The participants were independent of help from others in ADL and cognitively intact. The two interventions were i four weekly multi-professional senior group meetings including a follow-up home visit or ii one preventive home visit. Life satisfaction was measured with eight questions from LiSat-11. Analyses were made in accordance with the intention-to-treat principle. Life satisfaction decreased over time, with a lower decrease in the intervention groups than in the control group. The proportion of satisfied persons was significantly higher in the intervention group of senior group meetings compared to the control group for five of the eight life satisfaction variables at one year and for all variables at the two-year follow-up. For preventive home visits, there was a significant difference compared to the control group at the one-year follow-up for three of the life satisfaction variables, and at the two-year follow-up for seven variables. We can conclude that a health-promoting intervention can delay the decline in life satisfaction among older adults (aged 80 or older who are at risk of becoming frail.

  9. Diet quality of urban older adults age 60 to 99 years: the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Morland, Kimberly B; Scanlin, Kathleen; Wong, Sally; Spark, Arlene

    2014-02-01

    There are few studies that evaluate dietary intakes and predictors of diet quality in older adults. The objectives of this study were to describe nutrient intakes and examine associations between demographic, economic, behavioral, social environment, and health status factors and diet quality. Cross-sectional data were from black, white, and Hispanic adults, age 60 to 99 years, living independently in New York City and participating in the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and the Built Environment Study, 2009-2011 (n=1,306). Multivariable log-linear regression estimated associations between selected factors and good diet quality, defined as a Healthy Eating Index score more than 80 (based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans [HEI-2005]). Dietary intakes were similar for men and women; intakes of energy, fiber, and the majority of micronutrients were less than recommendations, whereas intakes of fats, added sugar, and sodium were within the upper range or exceeded recommendations. Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk [RR]=1.37; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.75), energy intake <∼ 1,500 kcal/day (RR=1.93; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.71), adherence to a special diet (RR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.50), purchasing food at supermarkets at least once/week (RR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.74), and being married/living with a partner (RR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71) were positively associated with HEI-2005 score more than 80. Consuming at least one restaurant meal/day was negatively associated with HEI-2005 score more than 80 (RR=0.69; 95%CI, 0.50-0.94). These findings identify specific groups of older adults, such as blacks or those who live alone, who may benefit from dietary interventions, as well as specific modifiable behaviors among older adults, such as eating restaurant meals or shopping at supermarkets, which may be targeted through interventions.

  10. Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Director Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology Volume 15 · Issue 6 · November/December 2005 Text ... adults who struggle to stand and walk. New technology includes knee units, shock-absorbing pylons, and other ...

  11. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  12. Urinary arsenic levels in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Garnier, Robert; Cirimele, Vincent; Persoons, Renaud; Fréry, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74 years and children aged 3-17 years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3 days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels

  13. Training Older Adults to Access Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.; Bertera, Robert L.; Morgan, Russell; Wuertz, Ellen; Attey, Alfred M. O.

    2007-01-01

    Many older adults do not use health information available on the Internet. Older adults residing in affordable housing were taught to use the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Web site. Participants were predominantly African American women with limited education and income (N = 42). Outcomes included changes in computer and health Web site navigation skills.…

  14. Ageing and health status in adults with intellectual disabilities: results of the European POMONA II study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, M.; Perry, J.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Walsh, P.N.; Kerr, M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M.J. van; Hove, G. van; Berger, D.M.; Azema, B.; Buono, S.; Cara, A.C.; Germanavicius, A.; Linehan, C.; Maatta, T.; Tossebro, J.; Weber, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). METHOD: T

  15. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  16. Maslow and mental health recovery: a comparative study of homeless programs for adults with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Derejko, Katie-Sue; Couture, Julie; Padgett, Deborah K

    2015-03-01

    This mixed-methods study uses Maslow's hierarchy as a theoretical lens to investigate the experiences of 63 newly enrolled clients of housing first and traditional programs for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced homelessness. Quantitative findings suggests that identifying self-actualization goals is associated with not having one's basic needs met rather than from the fulfillment of basic needs. Qualitative findings suggest a more complex relationship between basic needs, goal setting, and the meaning of self-actualization. Transforming mental health care into a recovery-oriented system will require further consideration of person-centered care planning as well as the impact of limited resources especially for those living in poverty.

  17. Heart Rate Variability, Insulin Resistance, and Insulin Sensitivity in Japanese Adults: The Toon Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Saito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although impaired cardiac autonomic function is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, evidence in Asian populations with a lower body mass index is limited. Methods: Between 2009–2012, the Toon Health Study recruited 1899 individuals aged 30–79 years who were not taking medication for diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was used to diagnose type 2 diabetes, and fasting and 2-h-postload glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. We assessed the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and Gutt’s insulin sensitivity index (ISI. Pulse was recorded for 5 min, and time-domain heart rate variability (HRV indices were calculated: the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN and the root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD. Power spectral analysis provided frequency domain measures of HRV: high frequency (HF power, low frequency (LF power, and the LF:HF ratio. Results: Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models showed decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HF, and increased LF:HF ratio were associated significantly with increased HOMA-IR and decreased ISI. When stratified by overweight status, the association of RMSSD, HF, and LF:HF ratio with decreased ISI was also apparent in non-overweight individuals. The interaction between LF:HF ratio and decreased ISI in overweight individuals was significant, with the odds ratio for decreased ISI in the highest quartile of LF:HF ratio in non-overweight individuals being 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.41–3.10. Conclusions: Reduced HRV was associated with insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity. Decreased ISI was linked with parasympathetic dysfunction, primarily in non-overweight individuals.

  18. Comprehension of Health-Related Written Materials by Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults…

  19. Adult Learning, Health and Well-Being--Changing Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly important for adult educators to articulate more clearly their understanding of the benefits and outcomes of adult learning. This paper reviews existing evidence of the impact of participation in education, and particularly explores the relevance of recent studies of how learning has influenced adults' health and well-being.…

  20. Medicaid Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act (Section 1139B) requires the Secretary of HHS to identify and publish a core set of health care quality measures for adult Medicaid...

  1. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  2. Veranderingen in mondgezondheid bij volwassenen. Resultaten van onderzoek uitgevoerd in 1983 en 1995 [Changes in oral health in adults. Results of studies performed in 1983 and 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, H.; Truin, G.J.; Rossum, C.M. van; Rijkom, H.M. van; Poorterman, J.H.; Verrips, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995 a dental survey among adults aged 25-54 years was performed in 's-Hertogenbosch (The Netherlands). Aim was to study trends in oral health after 1983, a year in which a similar study was performed in the same city. Caries data were obtained by clinical examination only. The percentage of eden

  3. An Implementation Study of Two Evidence-Based Exercise and Health Education Programmes for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, O. R. W.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E. C. M. P.; Klazinga, N. S.

    2004-01-01

    Implementation studies are recommended to assess the feasibility and effectiveness in real-life of programmes which have been tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We report on an implementation study of two evidence-based exercise and health education programmes for older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip. Three types of…

  4. Intergenerational educational mobility is associated with cardiovascular disease risk behaviours in a cohort of young Australian adults: The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. Methods In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only] were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group, stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group, stable low (participant and parent in low group, downwardly (lower group than parent and upwardly (higher group than parent mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet. Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent and educational mobility. Results Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years. Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. Conclusions We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.

  5. Determinants of medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Malaysian public health clinics: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik

    2015-01-01

    Medication adherence (MA) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with improved disease control (glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipid profile), lower rates of death and diabetes-related complications, increased quality of life, and decreased health care resource utilization. However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of diabetes-related distress, depression, and health-related quality of life on MA. This study examined factors associated with MA in adults with T2D at the primary care level. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics, where adults with T2D were recruited consecutively in 2013. We used the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) to assess MA as the main dependent variable. In addition to sociodemographic data, we included diabetes-related distress, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life as independent variables. Independent association between the MMAS-8 score and its determinants was done using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and log link function. The participant response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were female (52.8%), Malay (52.9%), and married (79.1%). About 43% of patients were classified as showing low MA (MMAS-8 score <6). Higher income (adjusted odds ratio 0.90) and depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.99) were significant independent determinants of medication non-adherence in young adults with T2D. Low MA in adults with T2D is a prevalent problem. Thus, primary health care providers in public health clinics should focus on MA counselling for adult T2D patients who are younger, have a higher income, and symptoms of depression.

  6. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health.

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    Brett C Haberstick

    Full Text Available The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive.We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724 participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health with follow-up information every six years since 1995.Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment.Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed.

  7. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  8. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions.

  9. An exploratory study of the personal health records adoption model in the older adult with chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    Logue, Melanie D.; Effken, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite international efforts moving toward integrated care using health information technologies and the potential of electronic PHRs to help us better coordinate patient-centered care, PHR adoption in the United States remains low among patients who have been offered free access to them from private-sector companies. If older adult stand to benefit from the use of PHRs for its usefulness in self-managing chronic illness, why have they not been more readily adopted? Since the chro...

  10. Preferences of Young Adults With First-Episode Psychosis for Receiving Specialized Mental Health Services Using Technology: A Survey Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the potential and interest of using technology for delivering specialized psychiatric services to young adults, surprisingly limited attention has been paid to systematically assess their perspectives in this regard. For example, limited knowledge exists on the extent to which young people receiving specialized services for a first-episode psychosis (FEP) are receptive to using new technologies as part of mental health care, and to which types of technology-enabled mental h...

  11. Oral Health Behavior and Lifestyle Factors among Overweight and Non-Overweight Young Adults in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihtila, Annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, Philippe; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stephane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-04-06

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011-2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18-35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, exercise, height, and weight. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m² using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean BMI was 23.2 (SD 3.48) and 24.3% of the study population were overweight. Those who were overweight drank more soft drinks (p = 0.005) and energy drinks (p = 0.006) compared with those who were non-overweight. Brushing once a day (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), emergency treatment as the reason for last dental visit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and having seven or more eating or drinking occasions daily (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.7) were statistically significantly associated with overweight. Associations were found between oral health behavior, lifestyle and overweight. A greater awareness of the detrimental lifestyle factors including inadequate oral health habits among overweight young adults is important for all healthcare providers, including oral health care professionals.

  12. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  13. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Chinese caregivers of the older adults living in the community: a cross-sectional study

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    Yang Xiaoshi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the culture of filial piety and due to the Confucianism spirit in China, family caregivers usually undertake the responsibilities of caring for the older adults. They usually suffer from a heavy burden which is believed to impair their mental and physical health. Thus this study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQOL among Chinese caregivers of the older adults living in the community and explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted through convenience sampling. The study population was composed of 1,144 caregivers of older adults who suffered from one or more types of chronic diseases in 15 communities in 3 eastern cities of China. Family caregivers were interviewed face-to-face using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the ZARIT Caregiver Burden interview (ZBI scales. The Antonovsky's Sense of coherence (SOC scale was also used to measure personal coping capability of the caregivers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR was performed to explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Results The majority of the caregivers were females (60.0% or adult children (66.5%. Mental QOL was significantly lower than physical QOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that Demographic Characteristics of Caregivers, Patients’ Characteristics, and Subjective Caregiver Burden explained most of the total variance of all aspects of HRQOL. While, Objective Caregiving Tasks was only associated with physical QOL. Subjective Caregiver Burden was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental QOL. SOC was also a strong predictor of physical and mental QOL. Conclusions The mental QOL of the caregivers of older adults was disrupted more seriously than physical QOL. Additionally, Subjective Caregiver Burden might decrease caregiver’ health. A decrease in caregiver burden could promote better management of caregiving tasks, and improve

  14. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P young adults.

  15. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Carvalho; H.D. Mestrinho; S. Stevens; A.J. van Wijk

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young

  16. Multilevel analysis of self-perception in oral health and associated factors in Southern Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional study

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    Marilisa Carneiro Leão Gabardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between individual and contextual variables related to self-perception in oral health among residents in the municipality of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The cross-sectional design involved 1,100 adults in 38 census tracts. The self-perception was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14 tool. A logistic multilevel analysis was performed. The multivariate analysis revealed that those who are of the female gender, older, with lower scores of quality of life and less social support, with poor healthy eating habits, smokers and those living in low-income census tracts presented higher odds of reporting worse oral health self-perception (OHIP-1. We concluded that individual and contextual variables are associated with oral health self-perception. This is essential information for planning health services wishing to meet the health needs of the population.

  17. Determinants of medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Malaysian public health clinics: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew BH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Boon-How Chew,1 Noor-Hasliza Hassan,2 Mohd-Sidik Sherina3 1Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2Klinik Kesihatan Dengkil, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Abstract: Medication adherence (MA in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is associated with improved disease control (glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipid profile, lower rates of death and diabetes-related complications, increased quality of life, and decreased health care resource utilization. However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of diabetes-related distress, depression, and health-related quality of life on MA. This study examined factors associated with MA in adults with T2D at the primary care level. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics, where adults with T2D were recruited consecutively in 2013. We used the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 to assess MA as the main dependent variable. In addition to sociodemographic data, we included diabetes-related distress, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life as independent variables. Independent association between the MMAS-8 score and its determinants was done using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and log link function. The participant response rate was 93.1% (700/752. The majority were female (52.8%, Malay (52.9%, and married (79.1%. About 43% of patients were classified as showing low MA (MMAS-8 score <6. Higher income (adjusted odds ratio 0.90 and depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.99 were significant independent determinants of medication non-adherence in young adults with T2D. Low MA in adults with T2D is a prevalent problem. Thus, primary health care providers in public health clinics should focus on MA counselling for adult T2D patients who are

  18. Plasma Free Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid-binding Protein 4, and Mortality in Older Adults (From the Cardiovascular Health Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Michael D.; Maziarz, Marlena; Biggs, Mary L.; Zieman, Susan J.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Ix, Joachim H.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Tracy, Russell P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Siscovick, David S.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Djousse, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are largely derived from adipose tissue. Elevated levels of FFA and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), a key cytoplasmic chaperone of fatty acids, have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes but limited data are available on the relation of these biomarkers with cardiovascular and total mortality. We studied 4,707 participants with a mean age of 75 years who had plasma FFA and FABP4 measured in 1992–1993 as part of the Cardiovascular Health Study, an observational cohort of community dwelling older adults. Over a median follow-up of 11.8 years, 3,555 participants died. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association between FFA, FABP4, and mortality. In fully adjusted models, FFA were associated with dose-dependent significantly higher total mortality (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD): 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.18), but FABP4 levels were not (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98–1.09). In a cause-specific mortality analysis, higher concentrations of FFA were associated with significantly higher risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, dementia, infection, and respiratory causes, but not cancer or trauma. We did not find evidence of an interaction between FFA and FABP4 (p=0.45), but FABP4 appeared to be associated with total mortality differentially among men and women (HR 1.17 (1.08–1.26) for men, HR 1.02 (0.96–1.07) for women, interaction p-value <0.001). In conclusion, in a cohort of community-dwelling older individuals, elevated plasma concentrations of FFA, but not FABP4, were associated with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25073566

  19. Health promotion in young adults at a university in Korea: A cross-sectional study of 625 participants in a university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Young-Oh; Lee, Jae-Young; Cho, BeLong; Lim, Chun Soo; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2017-02-01

    Young adulthood is a critical developmental period for establishing life-long health behaviors. However, too little attention has been paid to young adult health promotion. The purpose of this study was to describe the processes of development and implementation involved in a collaborative university-wide health promotion program and to evaluate the achievements of the program.A 3-day university-wide health promotion program was developed and implemented in the nation's largest public university in South Korea in September 2013. Its objectives were to heighten health awareness, to promote healthy behaviors, especially active lifestyle and healthy diet, and to disseminate health knowledge, skills, and access to health resources among young people. The program comprised 14 health lectures, 12 events, and 25 booths. To monitor and evaluate the program, a cross-sectional postevent survey was conducted. A convenience sample of 625 university members who participated in the program was used. The statistics were analyzed with a general linear model and paired t test.The program evaluation demonstrated that this university-wide program effectively provided opportunities for students to access health information, knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and available health services and resources. Participants positively evaluated most of the processes of the program activities and services. Participants' overall evaluation score (83% rated "excellent" or "good") and reparticipation intention (86%) were high. The majority of participants reported increased awareness of health (80%) and the need for a university health promotion program (87%) after the program. Most of the evaluation scores were similarly high for health lectures and booths/events.In conclusion, the university-wide health promotion program was effective in improving university members' health awareness and providing opportunities for students to access various health information and resources. We believe that our

  20. Effect of Health Comparisons on Functional Health and Depressive Symptoms - Results of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Germany.

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    André Hajek

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of health comparisons on functional health and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal approach. Gender differences were examined.The German Ageing Survey (DEAS is a nationwide, representative longitudinal study of community dwelling individuals living in Germany aged 40 and older. The surveys in 2008 and 2011 were used, with n = 3,983 respondents taking part in both waves. Health comparisons were quantified by the question "How would you rate your health compared with other people your age" (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse. Functional health was assessed by the subscale "physical functioning" of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D.Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-assessed health, social network, self-efficacy and optimism, and morbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that functional health decreased significantly and considerably with negative health comparisons in the total sample (transitions from 'the same' to 'much worse': β = -11.8, predominantly in men. The effects of negative health comparisons (transitions from 'the same' to 'much worse': β = 4.8 on depressive symptoms were comparable (in terms of significance to the effects on functional health, with stronger effects in women. Positive comparisons did not affect functional health and depressive symptoms.Our findings underline the relevance of negative health comparisons on functional health (men and depressive symptoms (women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and mostly upwards.

  1. Association between self-reported general and mental health and adverse outcomes: a retrospective cohort study of 19,625 Scottish adults.

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    Zia Ul-Haq

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Self-reported general health and mental health are independent predictors of all-cause mortality. This study examines whether they are also independent predictors of incident cancer, coronary heart disease and psychiatric hospitalisation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population cohort study by linking the 19 625 Scottish adults who participated in the Scottish Health Surveys 1995-2003, to hospital admissions, cancer registration and death certificate records. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. RESULTS: Poor general health was reported by 1215 (6.2% participants and was associated with cancer registrations (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.55, coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.86, 2.84 and psychiatric hospitalisations (adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.65, 3.56. There was evidence of dose relationships and the associations remained significant after adjustment for mental health. 3172 (16% participants had poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4. After adjustment for general health, the associations between poor mental health and coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13, 1.63 and all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.23, 1.55 became non-significant, but mental health remained associated with psychiatric hospitalisations (fully adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.48, 2.75. CONCLUSION: Self-reported general health is a significant predictor of a range of clinical outcomes independent of mental health. The association between mental health and non-psychiatric outcomes is mediated by general health but it is an independent predictor of psychiatric outcome. Individuals with poor general health or mental health warrant close attention.

  2. Pilot survey of oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

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    Lugo R Iván

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health studies conducted so far in Nigeria have documented prevalence and incidence of dental disease using traditional clinical measures. However none have investigated the use of an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL instrument to document oral health outcomes. The aims of this study are: to describe how oral health affects and impacts quality of life (QoL and to explore the association between these affects and the oral health care seeking behavior of adults in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey recruited 356 adults aged 18–64 years from two large hospital outpatient departments and from members of a university community. Closed-ended oral health questionnaire with "effect and impact" item-questions from OHQoL-UK© instrument was administered by trained interviewers. Collected data included sociodemographic, dental visits, and effects and impact of oral health on QoL. Univariate and bivariable analyses were done and a chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Multivariable analyses using ANOVA examined the association between QoL factors and visits to a dentist. Results Complete data was available for 83% of the participants. About 62% of participants perceived their oral health as affecting their QoL. Overall, 82%, 63%, and 77% of participants perceived that oral health has an effect on their eating or enjoyment of food, sleep or ability to relax, and smiling or laughing, respectively. Some 46%, 36%, and 25% of participants reported that oral health impact their daily activities, social activities, and talking to people, respectively. Dental visits within the last year was significantly associated with eating, speech, and finance (P F = 0.0111. The mean of effects sum score for those with secondary/tertiary education levels (mean = 61.8; 95% CI: 60.6, 62.9 was significantly higher than those with less than secondary level of education (mean = 57.2; 95% CI

  3. Which health care facilities do adult malawian antiretroviral therapy patients utilize during intercurrent illness? a cross sectional study

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    Masangalawe Caroline

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic populations have expanded enormously in the successful Malawi ART scale-up programme. Overcrowding, long waiting times and living far away from the clinic may affect the extent to which patients use their ART clinic for intercurrent illnesses. Methods We interviewed patients of a large urban ART clinic in Blantyre, Malawi, during routine visits about the choice of health care facility during recent illness episodes. Results Out of 346 enrolled adults, mean age 39.8 (range 18-70 years, 54.3% female, 202 (58% reported one or more illness in the past 6 months, during which 85 (42.1%; 95%-confidence interval: 36.9-47.3% did not utilize their own clinic. Long distance to the clinic was the main subjective reason, while low education attainment, rural residence, perceived mild illness and dissatisfaction with the ART service were associated with not using their own clinic in multivariate analyses. Of all participants, 83.6% were satisfied with the service provided; only 6.1% were aware of the full service package of the ART clinic. Conclusions ART patients often seek health care outside their own clinic, which may have detrimental effects, and has consequences for ART counseling content and reporting of ART information in health passports.

  4. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

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    Ahmet Reşit Ersay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD, teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.

  5. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform.

  6. The impact of an unconditional tax credit for families on self-rated health in adults: further evidence from the cohort study of 6900 New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Carter, Kristie; Kawachi, Ichiro; Davis, Peter; Blakely, Tony

    2014-05-01

    It is hypothesized that unconditional (given without obligation) publicly funded financial credits more effectively improve health than conditional financial credits in high-income countries. We previously reported no discernible short-term impact of an employment-conditional tax credit for families on self-rated health (SRH) in adults in New Zealand. This study estimates the effect of an unconditional tax credit for families, called Family Tax Credit (FTC), on SRH in the same study population and setting. A balanced panel of 6900 adults in families was extracted from seven waves (2002-2009) of the Survey of Family, Income and Employment. The exposures, eligibility for and amount of FTC, were derived by applying government eligibility and entitlement criteria. The outcome, SRH, was collected annually. Fixed effects regression analyses eliminated all time-invariant confounding and adjusted for measured time-varying confounders. Becoming eligible for FTC was associated with a small and statistically insignificant change in SRH over the past year [effect estimate: 0.013; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.011 to 0.037], as was an increase in the estimated amount of FTC by $1000 (effect estimate: -0.001; 95% CI -0.006 to 0.004). The unconditional tax credit for families had no discernible short-term impact on SRH in adults in New Zealand. It did not more effectively improve health status than an employment-conditional tax credit for families.

  7. A study to examine the uses of personal strength in relation to mental health recovery in adults with serious mental illnesses: a research protocol

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    Huiting Xie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study will explore the relationships among strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness, stigma experience and mental health recovery in community-dwelling adults with serious mental illnesses. Mental health practices have focued on psychopathphysiology. Stigma heavily plagued clients with mental illnesses and is one of the greatest barriers to mental health recovery. Personal strengths like strengths self-efficacy, people’s confidence in using their personal strengths, and resourcefulness, the ability to carry out daily activities, have been linked to positive mental health. However, the linkage between strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and mental health recovery remains uncharted. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study will be conducted. A funded study by the Sigma Theta Tau, Upsilon Eta Chapter, August 2013, involving a convenience sample of 100 participants is planned. Included are community dwelling adults between 21 to 65 years old having been diagnosed with serious mental illnesses. Clients with current co-occurring substance abuse will be excluded. Participants complete questionnaires and undergo an interview. Correlations among the study variables will be examined. Regression analysis will determine if recovery can be predicted by strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and stigma experience. Interview data will be transcribed and analyzed by thematic analysis. This study will look beyond clients’ disability to focus on their recovery and healing capacities such as strengths self-efficacy and resourcefulness. Findings will expand our knowledge about mental health recovery. Knowledge gained from this study may pave the way for future nursing strategies to aid recovery and inform the development of positive, strengths-based interventions.

  8. A Study to Examine the Uses of Personal Strength in Relation to Mental Health Recovery in Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huiting; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Song Song; Yen, Melissa Sng Siok

    2015-09-30

    This study will explore the relationships among strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness, stigma experience and mental health recovery in community-dwelling adults with serious mental illnesses. Mental health practices have focued on psychopathphysiology. Stigma heavily plagued clients with mental illnesses and is one of the greatest barriers to mental health recovery. Personal strengths like strengths self-efficacy, people's confidence in using their personal strengths, and resourcefulness, the ability to carry out daily activities, have been linked to positive mental health. However, the linkage between strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and mental health recovery remains uncharted. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study will be conducted. A funded study by the Sigma Theta Tau, Upsilon Eta Chapter, August 2013, involving a convenience sample of 100 participants is planned. Included are community dwelling adults between 21 to 65 years old having been diagnosed with serious mental illnesses. Clients with current co-occurring substance abuse will be excluded. Participants complete questionnaires and undergo an interview. Correlations among the study variables will be examined. Regression analysis will determine if recovery can be predicted by strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and stigma experience. Interview data will be transcribed and analyzed by thematic analysis. This study will look beyond clients' disability to focus on their recovery and healing capacities such as strengths self-efficacy and resourcefulness. Findings will expand our knowledge about mental health recovery. Knowledge gained from this study may pave the way for future nursing strategies to aid recovery and inform the development of positive, strengths-based interventions.

  9. Religion and health-promoting behaviors among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Shalonda E B

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest we capitalize upon religion's health benefits to prevent obesity. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine how emerging adults used religion to manage their health. Two focus groups were conducted among White and African American participants. Content analysis of the data revealed categories about their attitudes regarding parental and religious influences, religion's influence on behavior, negative health effects of religion, barriers, obesity prevention, and health promotion programs. Society sends out "easy" solutions for unhealthy behaviors, but we should focus on healthy behavior benefits, remove barriers, and consider religion's part in health promotion (obesity prevention).

  10. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

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    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  11. Unmet Support Service Needs and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The AYA HOPE Study

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    Ashley Wilder Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer for adolescents and young adults (AYA differs from younger and older patients; AYA face medical challenges while navigating social and developmental transitions. Research suggests that these patients are under- or inadequately served by current support services, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL.Methods: We examined unmet service needs and HRQOL in the National Cancer Institute’s Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE study, a population-based cohort (n=484, age 15-39, diagnosed with cancer 6-14 months prior, in 2007-2009. Unmet service needs were psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and financial services where respondents endorsed that they needed, but did not receive, a listed service. Linear regression models tested associations between any or specific unmet service needs and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, medical and health insurance variables.Results: Over one-third of respondents reported at least one unmet service need. The most common were financial (16%, mental health (15%, and support group (14% services. Adjusted models showed that having any unmet service need was associated with worse overall HRQOL, fatigue, physical, emotional, social, and school/work functioning, and mental health (p’s<0.0001. Specific unmet services were related to particular outcomes (e.g., needing pain management was associated with worse overall HRQOL, physical and social functioning (p’s<0.001. Needing mental health services had the strongest associations with worse HRQOL outcomes; needing physical/occupational therapy was most consistently associated with poorer functioning across domains.Discussion: Unmet service needs in AYAs recently diagnosed with cancer are associated with worse HRQOL. Research should examine developmentally appropriate, relevant practices to improve access to services demonstrated to adversely impact HRQOL, particularly physical therapy and mental

  12. Health Care Transition Experiences of Young Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Ellen McLaughlin

    2015-01-01

    Health care transition (HCT) describes the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents from child to adult-orientated care. The purpose of this qualitative study is to uncover the meaning of transition to adult-centered care as experienced by young adults with cerebral palsy (YA-CP) through the research question: What are the lived experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare? Six females and 3 males, aged 19-25 years of age, who identified as carrying the diagnosis of cerebral palsy without cognitive impairment, were interviewed. Giorgi's (1985) method for analysis of phenomenology was the framework for the study and guided the phenomenological reduction. The meaning of the lived experiences of YA-CPs transition to adult health care is expert novices with evidence and experience-based expectations, negotiating new systems interdependently and accepting less than was expected. More information and support is needed for the YA-CP during transition to ensure a well-organized move to appropriate adult-oriented health care that is considerate of the lifelong impact of the disorder. The nurses' role as advocate, mentor and guide can optimize the individual's response to the transition process.

  13. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161

  14. OBAYA (obesity and adverse health outcomes in young adults: feasibility of a population-based multiethnic cohort study using electronic medical records

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    Koebnick Corinna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, we have only limited knowledge of the magnitude of these associations in young adults. A multiethnic cohort of young adults was established to close current knowledge gaps; cohort demographics, cohort retention, and the potential influence of migration bias were investigated. Methods For this population-based cross-sectional study, demographics, and measured weight and height were extracted from electronic medical records of 1,929,470 patients aged 20 to 39 years enrolled in two integrated health plans in California from 2007 to 2009. Results The cohort included about 84.4% of Kaiser Permanente California members in this age group who had a medical encounter during the study period and represented about 18.2% of the underlying population in the same age group in California. The age distribution of the cohort was relatively comparable to the underlying population in California Census 2010 population, but the proportion of women and ethnic/racial minorities was slightly higher. The three-year retention rate was 68.4%. Conclusion These data suggest the feasibility of our study for medium-term follow-up based on sufficient membership retention rates. While nationwide 6% of young adults are extremely obese, we know little to adequately quantify the health burden attributable to obesity, especially extreme obesity, in this age group. This cohort of young adults provides a unique opportunity to investigate associations of obesity-related factors and risk of cancer in a large multiethnic population.

  15. Rates of influenza vaccination in older adults and factors associated with vaccine use: A secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

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    Merry Heather

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza vaccination has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in the older adult population. In Canada, vaccination rates remain suboptimal. We identified factors predictive of influenza vaccination, in order to determine which segments of the older adult population might be targeted to increase coverage in influenza vaccination programs. Methods The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA is a population-based national cohort study of 10263 older adults (≥ 65 conducted in 1991. We used data from the 5007 community-dwelling participants in the CSHA without dementia for whom self-reported influenza vaccination status is known. Results Of 5007 respondents, 2763 (55.2% reported having received an influenza vaccination within the previous 2 years. The largest predictive factors for flu vaccination included: being married (57.4 vs. 52.6%, p = 0.0007, having attained a higher education (11.0 vs. 10.3 years, p While many other differences were statistically significant, most were small (e.g. mean age 75.1 vs. 74.6 years for immunized vs. unimmunized older adults, p = 0.006, higher Modified Mini Mental Status Examination score (89.9 vs. 89.1, p Residents of Ontario were more likely (64.6% to report vaccination (p Conclusions The vaccination rate in this sample, in whom influenza vaccination is indicated, was low (55.2%. Even in a publicly administered health care setting, influenza vaccination did not reach an important proportion of the elderly population. Whether these differences reflect patient preference or access remains to be determined.

  16. Association between Serum Ferritin Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Adults: A Population Study from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study.

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    Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Bin; Yu, Fei; He, Haiyan; Zhang, Qing; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Bao, Xue; Liu, Fangfang; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have become the most important global public health issue. Iron plays an important role in brain function, cognition, and behavior, and its impacts on depressive symptoms may be multifactorial with both positive and negative effects. Previous observational studies focusing on the association between iron status and depressive symptoms showed inconsistent results. Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that can store and release iron and is widely used as a clinical biomarker to evaluate iron status. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between serum ferritin and depressive symptoms among 3,839 subjects who were from the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) cohort. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Chinese version of 20-item self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) with 4 cutoffs (40, 45, 48 and 50) to indicate elevated depressive symptoms (40 was the primary cut-off). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 36.5%, 17.6%, 11.0% and 7.0% for SDS ≥40, ≥45, ≥48 and ≥50, respectively. With the primary cut-off point of 40, multiple potential confounding factors were adjusted and the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having elevated depressive symptoms by quartiles of serum ferritin concentrations were 1.00 (reference), 1.10 (0.91, 1.34), 0.81 (0.66, 1.01) and 1.02 (0.81, 1.28) for the first, second, third and fourth quartile, respectively (P for trend = 0.76). Similar relations were observed with the use of other cut-offs as a definition of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, there is no significant relationship between serum ferritin concentrations and depressive symptoms among Chinese adults.

  17. Association of oral health and cardiovascular disease risk factors "results from a community based study on 5900 adult subjects".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh; Rahim, Foad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Shadkam, Mitra; Afshari, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the association between some oral health status as a risk factor for cardiac diseases and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a sample of Iranian population in 2011. Methods. The study recruited 5900 inhabitants who aged 15-75 years old of Kerman city through a population based cluster sampling. Having collected informed consent, participants were interviewed for CVD risk factors. Some oral health indicators such as DMFT, Gingival Inflammation index, and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. The association between oral health indices and CVD risk factors was tested using multivariate regression models. Results. The mean age of participants was 33.5 years, and 45.1% were male. Moderate gingival inflammation was observed in 67.6% of participants. Presence of sub- or supragingival calculus was more common (90%) in participants. Older age (RR from 2.7 to 3.88), cigarette smoking (RR = 1.49), and high blood glucose (RR = 1.41) showed an increased risk for oral diseases after adjustment for different covariates including established CVD risk factors. Conclusion. The study results showed an increase in periodontal diseases in the presence of some CVD risk factors. Therefore there may be a bilateral but independent association for both conditions and common risk factor approach preventive program is highly recommended.

  18. Inflammation and positive affect: Examining the stress-buffering hypothesis with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Cara L; Sagui, Sara J; Bennett, Jeanette M

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined the influence of positive affect (PA) on levels of inflammation within the context of Pressman and Cohen's (2005) stress-buffering model, which suggests that PA confers protective health benefits through its ability to mitigate the pathogenic influence of stress. We hypothesized that greater PA would buffer against the influence of perceived psychological stress (PPS) on systemic inflammation, operationalized as C-reactive protein (CRP, mg/L). Specifically, we predicted that PA would moderate the relationship between PPS and CRP. Cross-sectional data were drawn from Wave IV (2008-2009) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Participants (n=3093) ranged in age from 25 to 34years old (M=29.0±1.79). Using a moderated hierarchical regression analysis, PPS and PA significantly interacted to predict levels of CRP (pPPS and PA, such that higher PA was protective against elevated CRP levels, but only when individuals also reported greater levels of PPS. Thus, the data partially support the stress-buffering model of PA and extend existing evidence regarding the complexity by which PPS and PA influence health. Findings also provide caution of future assumptions that relationships among PA, PPS, and physical health markers, such as CRP, are always positive (e.g., PA) or negative (e.g., PPS) in nature.

  19. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-04-28

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity.

  20. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults : results from the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Almansa, Josue; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bultmann, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on em

  1. Self and Informant Reports of Mental Health Difficulties among Adults with Autism Findings from a Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Philippa; Howlin, Patricia; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44?years) whom we have followed over four decades. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when…

  2. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

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    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  3. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  5. Risk Factors and Disability Associated with Low Back Pain in Older Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Stewart Williams

    Full Text Available Back pain is a common disabling chronic condition that burdens individuals, families and societies. Epidemiological evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows positive association between back pain prevalence and older age. There is an urgent need for accurate epidemiological data on back pain in adult populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs where populations are ageing rapidly. The objectives of this study are to: measure the prevalence of back pain; identify risk factors and determinants associated with back pain, and describe association between back pain and disability in adults aged 50 years and older, in six LMICs from different regions of the world. The findings provide insights into country-level differences in self-reported back pain and disability in a group of socially, culturally, economically and geographically diverse LMICs.Standardized national survey data collected from adults (50 years and older participating in the World Health Organization (WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE were analysed. The weighted sample (n = 30, 146 comprised respondents in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, South Africa and the Russian Federation. Multivariable regressions describe factors associated with back pain prevalence and intensity, and back pain as a determinant of disability.Prevalence was highest in the Russian Federation (56% and lowest in China (22%. In the pooled multi-country analyses, female sex, lower education, lower wealth and multiple chronic morbidities were significant in association with past-month back pain (p<0.01. About 8% of respondents reported that they experienced intense back pain in the previous month.Evidence on back pain and its impact on disability is needed in developing countries so that governments can invest in cost-effective education and rehabilitation to reduce the growing social and economic burden imposed by this disabling condition.

  6. The impact of time cost of physical exercise on health outcomes by older adults: the DR's EXTRA Study.

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    Kuvaja-Köllner, Virpi; Valtonen, Hannu; Komulainen, Pirjo; Hassinen, Maija; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    When the motivation for exercise is high and people are retired, the cost of time used for physical exercise may be lower and individuals may exercise more compared to individuals with a low motivational level and in working life. The aim was to study the effect of time cost of physical exercise on the amount of physical exercise and on health-related quality of life. We used 2-year data (n = 1,292) from a 4-year randomised controlled trial in a population-based sample of Eastern Finnish men and women, 57-78 years of age at baseline, in 2005-2006. In the statistical analysis, physical exercise and health outcomes were assumed to be endogenous variables explained with a set of exogenous variables. The statistical modelling was done by panel data instrumental variable regressions. Health-related quality of life was evaluated by the RAND 36-item survey and motives for exercise with a questionnaire. Joy as the motivation for physical exercise and retirement increased the amount of physical exercise per week (p exercise was associated with physical (p exercise decreased the metabolic risk factor score (p exercise (p exercise. The results emphasise that motivation and the labour market position are important in determining the cost of physical exercise.

  7. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men.

  8. Bone health and risk factors of cardiovascular disease--a cross-sectional study in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD are diseases that comprise a growing medical and economic burden in ageing populations. They share many risk factors, including ageing, low physical activity, and possibly overweight. We aimed to study associations between individual risk factors for CVD and bone mineral density (BMD and turnover markers (BTMs in apparently healthy cohort. DESIGN: A cross-sectional assessment of 155 healthy 32-year-old adults (74 males was performed for skeletal status, CVD risk factors and lifestyle factors. METHODS: We analysed serum osteocalcin, procollagen I aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP, collagen I carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP and urine collagen I aminoterminal telopeptide (U-NTX, as well as serum insulin, plasma glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels. BMD, fat and lean mass were assessed using DXA scanning. Associations were tested with partial correlations in crude and adjusted models. Bone status was compared between men with or without metabolic syndrome (defined according to the NCEP-ATPIII criteria with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Osteocalcin and P1NP correlated inversely with insulin (R = -0.243, P = 0.003 and R = -0.187, P = 0.021 and glucose (R = -0.213, P = 0.009 and R = -0.190, P = 0.019, but after controlling for fat mass and lifestyle factors, the associations attenuated with insulin (R = -0.162, P = 0.053 and R = -0.093, P = 0.266 and with glucose (R = -0.099, P = 0.240 and R = -0.133, P = 0.110, respectively. Whole body BMD associated inversely only with triglycerides in fully adjusted model. In men with metabolic syndrome, whole body BMD, osteocalcin and P1NP were lower compared to healthy men, but these findings disappeared in fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: In young adults, inverse associations between BTM/BMD and risk factors of CVD appeared in crude models, but after adjusting for fat mass

  9. A pilot study assessing the impact of a fortified supplementary food on the health and well-being of creche children and adult TB patients in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rudolph

    Full Text Available The South African population faces many of the global concerns relating to micronutrient deficiency and the impact this has on health and well-being. Moreover, there is a high prevalence of HIV infection, compounded by a high level of co-infection with TB.This pilot study evaluates the impact of a fortified supplementary food on the health and well-being of a cohort of crèche children, aged 3 to 6, and adult TB patients drawn from the Presidential Node of Alexandra, Johannesburg, South Africa. A further aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and validity of non-invasive indicators of nutritional status in a field-based population sample.The investigational product, e'Pap, is supported by extensive anecdotal evidence that whole grain cereals with food-style nutrients constitute an effective supplementary food for those suffering from the effects of food insecurity, poor health and well-being, and coping with TB and HIV infection.The results indicate a beneficial effect of e'Pap for both study populations, and particularly for adult TB patients, whose baseline data reflected severe food insecurity and malnutrition in the majority of cases. There is evidence to suggest statistically significant improvements in key micronutrient levels, well-being and energy, hand-grip strength, the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA Illness Marker, and certain clinical indicators. Although Body Mass Index (BMI and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC are frequently used as standard measures to evaluate the efficacy of nutritional interventions, these indicators were not sufficiently sensitive in this study. Nor does weight gain necessarily indicate improved nutritional status. Hand-grip strength, lean body mass, and the BIA Illness Marker seem to be more useful indicators of change in nutritional status.

  10. The Health Status of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…

  11. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  12. Are Health Answers Online for Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, Mary K.; Jarosz, Patricia A.; Templin, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has the potential for engaging urban seniors in managing their health. This study examined computer and Internet use among urban seniors and their interest in using the Internet as a health-management tool. Findings indicated that many participants were interested in storing and accessing health-related information using an…

  13. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  14. Health literacy and nutrition behaviors among low-income adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Katherine E; Messina, Lauren A; Munger, Ashley L; Grutzmacher, Stephanie K

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between health literacy and nutrition behaviors using a low-income sample. Face-to-face surveys at 11 social services offices generated a convenience sample of 154 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-eligible adults. We assessed health literacy, fruit and vegetable intake, food label use, consumption of healthy foods, and demographic characteristics. Thirty seven percent of the sample had adequate health literacy as measured by the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Race and parenthood were significantly related to health literacy scores. Adequate health literacy, as measured by the NVS, was associated with frying chicken less often and eating the peels of fresh fruit more often. The findings suggest that health practitioners should ensure nutrition-related messages are accessible to all of their clients, especially those with the lowest health literacy levels.

  15. Case-control study of disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographic characteristics in young adults with and without diet-related chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia M; McWilliams, Rita; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-08-01

    Young adults with diet-related chronic health conditions (DRCHCs; i.e., type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome) face challenges complying with dietary restrictions required to effectively manage their health condition. These restrictions could put them at risk for disturbed eating. The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults with and without DRCHCs differed with regard to disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographics characteristics (i.e., body image attributes, mental disorders, intrapersonal characteristics and sociocultural environment [i.e., media and family]). Each DRCHC participant (cases=166) was matched to 4 healthy participants (controls=664) based on gender and BMI (±0.50 BMI units). Conditional logistic regression analyses indicate cases were twice as likely to have been diagnosed by a healthcare provider with an eating disorder (p=0.08, OR=1.99, CI(90) [1.03-3.83]). Cases were significantly more likely to use Inappropriate Compensatory Behaviors to manage their weight, i.e., excessive exercise (p=0.04, OR=1.41, CI(95) [1.02-1.94]) and misuse medication (p=0.04, OR=1.14, CI(95) [1.00-1.29]) than controls. Depression and anxiety were significantly higher, and health status was significantly poorer in cases compared with controls. DRCHC participants were less likely to report feeling body image pressures from the media, placed a greater value on their health, used social diversion, and recalled a greater emphasis being placed on their mothers' weights and mealtimes being less structured than control participants. Findings indicate that nutrition and other healthcare professionals should incorporate screening DRCHC patients for disturbed eating behaviors and eating disorders in their standards of care.

  16. Chinese older adults' Internet use for health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K M; Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Henry C Y; Tse, Kin-Po; Lam, Chun-Yiu

    2014-04-01

    Technological advancement benefits Internet users with the convenience of social connection and information search. This study aimed at investigating the predictors of Internet use to search for online health information among Chinese older adults. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied to examine the predictiveness of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitudes toward Internet use on behavioral intention to search for health information online. Ninety-eight Chinese older adults were recruited from an academic institute for older people and community centers. Frequency of Internet use and physical and psychological health were also assessed. Results showed that perceived ease of use and attitudes significantly predicted behavioral intention of Internet use. The potential influences of traditional Chinese values and beliefs in health were also discussed.

  17. Factors that impact health-related quality of life in adults with celiac disease: A multicenter study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F Casellas; M Papo; J Gelabert; JR Malagelada; L Rodrigo; J López Vivancos; S Riestra; C Pantiga; JS Baudet; F Junquera; V Puig Diví; C Abadia

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the factors involved in the impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with celiac disease.METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional prospective study was performed in patients with celiac disease who completed two HRQOL questionnaires: the gastrointestinal quality of life index (GIQLI) and the EuroQol-SD (EQ).RESULTS: Three hundred and forty patients (163 controlled with a gluten-free diet, and 177 newly diagnosed with a normal diet) were included. The GIQLI score was significantly better in patients on a gluten- free diet (GFD) than in non-treated patients on their usual diet, both in terms of the overall score (3.3 vs 2.7,respectively; P<0.001), as well as on the individual questionnaire dimensions. Both the preference value of the EQ as the visual analogue scale were significantly better in treated than in non-treated patients (0.93 vs 0.72 P<0.001 and 80 vs 70 P<0.001, respectively). Variables significantly associated with a worse HRQOL score were female gender, failure to adhere to a GFD,and symptomatic status.CONCLUSION: In untreated celiac disease, the most important factors that influence patient perception of health are the presence of symptoms and a normal diet.HRQOL improves to levels similar to those described in the general population in celiac disease patients well controlled with a GFD.

  18. Association between oral health status and type 2 diabetes mellitus among Sudanese adults: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasaan G Mohamed

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and subjective oral health indicators of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM with age and gender matched non-diabetic controls. A second aim was to identify clinical and subjective oral health indicators that discriminate between well-controlled and poorly controlled T2DM patients as well as between patients with long and short duration of the disease. METHODS: A total of 457 individuals participated in the study (154 T2DM cases and 303 non-diabetic controls. The T2DM group was sub-divided according to metabolic control [(well-controlled: glycosylated haemoglobin test 8%, (poorly controlled: glycosylated haemoglobin test > 8%] and according to duration of T2DM [(long duration: >10 years, (short duration: 10 years]. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including socio-demographics, lifestyle and oral health related quality of life factors. The clinical examination comprised full mouth probing depths, plaque index, tooth mobility index, furcation involvement and coronal and root surface caries. RESULTS: The T2DM patients presented with more probing depths 4 mm, furcation involvement, tooth mobility, missing teeth, and oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP. The corresponding adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were 4.07 (1.74-9.49, 2.96 (1.36-6.45, 5.90 (2.26-15.39, 0.23 (0.08-0.63 and 3.46 (1.61-7.42, respectively. Moreover, the odds ratio was 2.60 (1.21-5.55 for the poorly controlled T2DM patients to have high levels of mobility index and 2.94 (1.24-6.94 for those with long duration of T2DM to have high decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT values. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that chronic periodontitis, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and OIDP were more prevalent among T2DM patients compared to their non-diabetic controls.

  19. Determinants of medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Malaysian public health clinics: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Boon-How Chew,1 Noor-Hasliza Hassan,2 Mohd-Sidik Sherina3 1Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2Klinik Kesihatan Dengkil, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Abstract: Medication adherence (MA) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with improved disease control (glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipid pro...

  20. Factors associated with health-related quality of life in adults with asthma. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Barcala Francisco-Javier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL is increasingly recognized as an important endpoint, as a reflection of the effects of the disease from a patient perspective. Our aim was to evaluate the factors determining the HRQoL in patients with asthma, according to the EQ-5D questionnaire. Methods Patients were included using multi-stage sampling, from Primary Care clinics from all the Autonomous Communities in Spain. The patients included were: over 18 years-old, with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma for at least one year, and had visited a Health Centre in the previous 2 years. The characteristics of the asthma disease, the adherence to treatment, the socio-demographic variables, the smoking habits, and the asthma control were collected using a questionnaire. The influence of the different variables included in the study on the EQ-5D was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 2,125 patients were finally included (57.7% females, mean age 48 years. The response rate was 95.4%. Some factors showed a considerable detrimental effect on the HRQoL of asthmatics. Advanced age, lower educational level and poor control of asthma are significantly associated with a worse quality of life in all the dimensions assessed by the EQ-5D scale. The baseline severity of the asthma, and having been admitted to hospital are related to a worse quality of life in 5 of the 6 dimensions analyzed. Conclusion In our study, we could identify some factors related to quality of life in asthma patients. The most important were advanced age, lower education level, and poor control of the asthma.

  1. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication"…

  2. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…

  3. Health and Social Functioning of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lisa; McCarthy, Jane; Tsakanikos, Elias; Howlin, Patricia; Bouras, Nick; Craig, Tom K. J.

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the mental health needs of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Such evidence is much needed for the development of more effective mental health services for this group. The aim of this study is to compare adults with ID and ASD receiving specialist mental health services…

  4. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps sleep disturbance within ADHC participants.

  5. Adopting a Clinical Assessment Framework in Older Adult Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Lillian; Lee, Patience Anne; Au-Yeung, Andy T; Kucherova, Irina; Harrigan, MaryLou

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining new knowledge accepted and used by practitioners remains a slow process. A dearth of knowledge translation research exists that explores how to effectively move knowledge to practice in the field of older adult mental health. The current article reports findings of a knowledge translation study that examined what factors enabled the adoption of a new clinical assessment framework, P.I.E.C.E.S.™, into practice in an older adult tertiary mental health unit. Theoretical insights of appreciative inquiry were used to guide the study. Qualitative methods were used, including focus groups with 20 staff and individual interviews with three leaders. The appreciative inquiry approach helped researchers successfully facilitate knowledge translation. Enabling factors included: (a) fostering positive energy to make continuous improvement, (b) working with team members across disciplines at all levels, and (c) using knowledge translation tools to enable and sustain the new practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (7), 26-31.].

  6. The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmilla M. M. Licht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are interconnected in healthy adults. Data of 277 participants (mean age: 42.4 years of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study on IGF-1 promoter polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum level, spatial working memory (SWM, paired associate learning (PAL, and IQ tests were analyzed. (MANOVAs were applied to confirm the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels and between IGF-1 levels and cognition. Three groups were distinguished based on specific IGF-1 polymorphism alleles: a homozygote 192 bp/192 bp genotype, a heterozygote 192 bp/x genotype, and a noncarrier x/x genotype. Although different IGF-1 levels were found for the three genotypes, performance on all cognitive tasks and IQ measures was similar. Despite the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels, no association was found between cognition and IGF-1 levels. It seems that IGF-1 does not play a role in the cognitive performance of healthy middle-aged adults. Possible, IGF-1 fulfills a more developmental and protective role in cognition which becomes apparent during childhood, old-age, or disease.

  7. Cardio-Respiratory Effects of Air Pollution in a Panel Study of Outdoor Physical Activity and Health in Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, David M.; Shutt, Robin; Kauri, Lisa; Mason, Sarah; Chen, Li; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Dobbin, Nina A.; Rigden, Marc; Jovic, Branka; Mulholland, Marie; Green, Martin S.; Liu, Ling; Pelletier, Guillaume; Weichenthal, Scott A.; Dales, Robert E.; Luginaah, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine cardio-respiratory effects of air pollution in rural older adults exercising outdoors. Methods: Adults 55 and over completed measurements of blood pressure, peak expiratory flow and oximetry daily, and of heart rate variability, endothelial function, spirometry, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide and urinary oxidative stress markers weekly, before and after outdoor exercise, for 10 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Results: Pooled estimates combining 2013 (n = 36 participants) and 2014 (n = 41) indicated that an interquartile increase in the air quality health index (AQHI) was associated with a significant (P air pollution in rural older adults exercising outdoors.

  8. Perceived "out of control" sexual behavior in a cohort of young adults from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired about sexual fantasies, urges or behavior that participants regarded as out of control during the previous year, and defined such experiences as out of control sexual experiences (OCSE). Nearly 13% of men and 7% of women reported OCSE in the past year. Women who reported such experiences were more likely than other women to have reported (elsewhere in the interview) having had high numbers of opposite sex partners, concurrent sexual relationships, or sex with a partner met on the internet, as well as a higher likelihood of same-sex attraction or behavior. Among men reporting OCSE, there was an association with having paid for heterosexual sex and with same-sex attraction and behavior. Few believed that OCSE had interfered with their lives (3.8% of all men and 1.7% of all women in the cohort). Only 0.8% of men and 0.6% of women reported that their actual sexual behavior had interfered with their lives. OCSE were also analyzed in relation to certain personality traits and to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Some evidence of a link with impulsivity (women only) and negative affectivity was found. CSA was associated with OCSE among men. In conclusion, this population-based study has provided the first empirical estimations of the occurrence of OCSE and its relationship to a range of sexual behaviors in a representative sample.

  9. Adversities in childhood and adult psychopathology in the South Africa Stress and Health Study: associations with first-onset DSM-IV disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya; Moomal, Hashim; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J

    2010-11-01

    Extensive epidemiologic research from the United States demonstrates that childhood adversities (CAs) are predictive of several psychiatric outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and externalizing disorders. To date, this has not been explored in a national sample of adults in South Africa. The present study examined the joint predictive effects of 11 retrospectively reported CAs on the first onset of DSM-IV disorders in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH), a nationally representative sample of adults. We utilized substantively plausible regression models of joint CA effects that account for the comorbidity between individual CAs; outcomes included DSM-IV anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and externalizing disorders measured with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The results indicated that experiences of CA varied by race, and many CAs were correlated with one another. The best-fitting model for first onset of any disorder included separate indicators for each type of CA, in addition to indicator variables for the number of other CAs reported. Results disaggregated by class of disorder showed that the majority of CAs with significant odds ratios only predicted anxiety disorder. Results disaggregated by life course stage of first onset showed that significant effects of CAs can be observed at each stage of the life course. This study contributes to a growing body of research on the social determinants of mental health in South Africa. Our findings illustrate the importance of utilizing a model that accounts for the clustering and accumulation of CAs, and suggest that a variety of CAs predict onset of mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders, at several stages of the life course.

  10. Health promotion in young adults at a university in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Young-Oh; Lee, Jae-Young; Cho, BeLong; Lim, Chun Soo; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Young adulthood is a critical developmental period for establishing life-long health behaviors. However, too little attention has been paid to young adult health promotion. The purpose of this study was to describe the processes of development and implementation involved in a collaborative university-wide health promotion program and to evaluate the achievements of the program. A 3-day university-wide health promotion program was developed and implemented in the nation's largest public university in South Korea in September 2013. Its objectives were to heighten health awareness, to promote healthy behaviors, especially active lifestyle and healthy diet, and to disseminate health knowledge, skills, and access to health resources among young people. The program comprised 14 health lectures, 12 events, and 25 booths. To monitor and evaluate the program, a cross-sectional postevent survey was conducted. A convenience sample of 625 university members who participated in the program was used. The statistics were analyzed with a general linear model and paired t test. The program evaluation demonstrated that this university-wide program effectively provided opportunities for students to access health information, knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and available health services and resources. Participants positively evaluated most of the processes of the program activities and services. Participants’ overall evaluation score (83% rated “excellent” or “good”) and reparticipation intention (86%) were high. The majority of participants reported increased awareness of health (80%) and the need for a university health promotion program (87%) after the program. Most of the evaluation scores were similarly high for health lectures and booths/events. In conclusion, the university-wide health promotion program was effective in improving university members’ health awareness and providing opportunities for students to access various health information and

  11. The Association between Antidepressant Medications and Coronary Heart Disease in Brazil: A Cross-sectional Analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eKemp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have highlighted associations between use of antidepressant medications and coronary heart disease (CHD. Tricyclic antidepressants are not recommended in patients with CHD as they may increase morbidity and mortality. However, this class of antidepressants are freely prescribed in public health pharmacies, while access to other classes of antidepressants is restricted in Brazil. Here we examine the associations between antidepressant use and prevalent CHD in a large cohort from Brazil. Methods: Participants included 14,994 civil servants aged 35 to 74 from the baseline assessment of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. CHD (n=710 included stable angina, myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization. Univariate (unadjusted and multivariate (adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: After full adjustment for covariates, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA use (n=156 was associated with a 2-fold increase in prevalent CHD, relative to non-use (n=14,076. Additional sensitivity analysis revealed a three-fold association for myocardial infarction (OR: 2.962, 95% CI: 1.413-6.210 and coronary revascularization (OR: 2.915, 95% CI: 1.275-6.662. There were no significant associations between antidepressant use and stable angina pectoris. Conclusions: Findings highlight a strong association between TCA use and prevalent CHD. While the cross-sectional design is an important limitation of the present study, findings have important implications for the treatment of cardiac patients in Brazil.

  12. Cultural Diversity Among Older Adults: Addressing Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of the older adult population is increasing, and health professionals need to learn new knowledge and skills to improve the adherence of older ethnic clients to their health recommendations. Much of the existing research literature on diversity in gerontology concludes that ethnic older adults are at a health disadvantage. Few if any…

  13. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  14. "Well, it's nobody's responsibility but my own". A qualitative study to explore views about the determinants of health and prevention of knee pain in older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jinks, Clare

    2010-03-22

    Abstract Background Dahlgren and Whitehead\\'s \\'rainbow\\' outlines key determinants of health and has been widely adopted within public health policy and research. Public understanding regarding the determinants of health is, however, relatively unknown, particularly in relation to common chronic joint problems like knee pain. We aimed to explore individual attitudes to the prevention of knee pain, and assess how people make sense of their lives by using the rainbow model to explore social determinants of health. Methods Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews were undertaken with older adults living in the community. The format of the interview enabled individuals to first tell their story, then the rainbow picture was used to further prompt discussion. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcripts were fully transcribed. Qualitative computer software package NVivo 2 was used to manage the data. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Results Individual responsibility for health was a dominant theme although the role of health and statutory services was also recognised. Barriers to uptake of prevention activities included cultural perceptions, attitudes towards work and perceived costs of prevention activities. Participants used the rainbow for locating their personal life within a wider social, economic and policy context. Conclusions People view individual responsibility as key to maintaining health and draw upon the past, present and future expectations when considering social determinants of their health. The rainbow picture does have relevance at the individual level and can help to formulate more dynamic and contextualised approaches to the prevention of health conditions in community living adults.

  15. "Well, it's nobody's responsibility but my own." A qualitative study to explore views about the determinants of health and prevention of knee pain in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neill Tracey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dahlgren and Whitehead's 'rainbow' outlines key determinants of health and has been widely adopted within public health policy and research. Public understanding regarding the determinants of health is, however, relatively unknown, particularly in relation to common chronic joint problems like knee pain. We aimed to explore individual attitudes to the prevention of knee pain, and assess how people make sense of their lives by using the rainbow model to explore social determinants of health. Methods Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews were undertaken with older adults living in the community. The format of the interview enabled individuals to first tell their story, then the rainbow picture was used to further prompt discussion. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcripts were fully transcribed. Qualitative computer software package NVivo 2 was used to manage the data. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Results Individual responsibility for health was a dominant theme although the role of health and statutory services was also recognised. Barriers to uptake of prevention activities included cultural perceptions, attitudes towards work and perceived costs of prevention activities. Participants used the rainbow for locating their personal life within a wider social, economic and policy context. Conclusions People view individual responsibility as key to maintaining health and draw upon the past, present and future expectations when considering social determinants of their health. The rainbow picture does have relevance at the individual level and can help to formulate more dynamic and contextualised approaches to the prevention of health conditions in community living adults.

  16. 'Negotiating the dance of disclosure': a grounded theory study of psychologists’ experiences of childhood sexual abuse disclosures from clients in adult mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Emma Margaret Helen

    2010-01-01

    Hearing disclosures of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a clinical reality for many therapists. Psychologists within mental health services are working increasingly with clients who have traumatic histories, including the presence of CSA. Recently there has been a drive towards improving services for adult survivors of CSA, with an emphasis on asking health and social care service-users about abuse. Recent research has demonstrated that the experience of talking about CSA in psy...

  17. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  18. Disseminating a smoking cessation intervention to childhood and young adult cancer survivors: baseline characteristics and study design of the partnership for health-2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partnership for Health-2 (PFH-2 is a web-based version of Partnership for Health, an evidence-based smoking cessation intervention for childhood cancer survivors. This paper describes the PFH-2 intervention and baseline data collection. Methods 374 childhood and young adult cancer survivors were recruited from five cancer centers and participated in the baseline assessment. At baseline, participants completed measures of their smoking behavior, self-efficacy and stage of change for quitting smoking as well as psychological and environmental factors that could impact their smoking behavior. Results At baseline, 93% of survivors smoked in the past seven days; however, 89% smoked a pack or less during this period. Forty-seven percent were nicotine dependent, and 55% had made at least one quit attempt in the previous year. Twenty-two percent of survivors were in contemplation for quitting smoking; of those 45% were somewhat or very confident that they could quit within six months. Sixty-three percent were in preparation for quitting smoking; however, they had relatively low levels of confidence that they could quit smoking in the next month. In multivariate analyses, stage of change, self-efficacy, social support for smoking cessation, smoking policy at work and home, fear of cancer recurrence, perceived vulnerability, depression, BMI, and contact with the healthcare system were associated with survivors' smoking behavior. Discussions/Conclusions A large proportion of the sample was nicotine dependent, yet motivated to quit. Individual- interpersonal- and environmental-level factors were associated with survivors' smoking behavior. Smoking is particularly dangerous for childhood and young adult cancer survivors. This population may benefit from a smoking cessation intervention designed to build self-efficacy and address other known predictors of smoking behavior.

  19. The role of individual characteristics and physical frailty on health related quality of life (HRQOL): a cross sectional study of Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between individual characteristics and HRQOL, and to identify which components of physical frailty measured according to Fried's criteria provided a better explanation of HRQOL. Two hundred and fifty-nine older adults (age 74±6 years; 69% were women) living in Piemonte Region were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and medical characteristics were captured by self-reported questionnaires. Physical frailty was assessed using the five criteria of Fried: shrinking, weakness, poor endurance and energy, slowness, and low physical activity level. HRQOL was measured with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), using both the mental (MCS) and the Physical Component Summary (PCS). Among individual characteristics, gender was the best predictor for SF-36, the MCS, and the PCS, with values of R(2) of 12.7%, 12.1%, and 8.8%, respectively. Among the five Fried's criteria, poor endurance and energy had the largest effect on HRQOL with values of ΔR(2) of 13.9% for SF-36, 13.4% for the MCS, and 9.4% for the PCS. Results highlighted the role of the individual characteristics and the single weight of the five components of physical frailty on HRQOL. This knowledge may give new insights about the relations between individual functioning and self-rated health, allowing the development of individualized and more effective preventive interventions for a healthy aging.

  20. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, Linda S.; Fall, Caroline HD; Osmond, Clive; Aryeh D. Stein; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. Methods We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guate...

  1. Association of malocclusion and functional occlusion with subjective symptoms of TMD in adults: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Mack, Florian; John, Ulrich; Kocher, Thomas; Alte, Dietrich

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of exclusively representative population-based studies on adults has shown that only few and inconsistent associations could be detected between malocclusions and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD)--and none for functional occlusion factors (occlusal interferences, non-working side contacts, etc). The aim of this study was to analyze associations between morphologic occlusion as well as factors of functional occlusion and subjectively perceived symptoms of TMD--again on the basis of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), providing a sample of 4310 subjects (out of 7008 subjects yielding a response rate of 68.8%) aged 20 to 81 years, and other international representative studies from the systematic review. Besides occlusal factors also parafunctions and socioeconomic status (SES) were taken into account (including age and sex). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used--adjusted for SES. In this study, none of the occlusal factors were significantly associated with the indication of more frequent subjective TMD symptoms. However, the parafunction "frequent clenching" was connected with subjective TMD symptoms (odds ratio = 3.4). Compared with other population-based studies few and (across studies) inconsistent associations between malocclusions and subjective TMD symptoms could be ascertained. No significant associations of factors of functional occlusion with TMD symptoms were identifiable.

  2. The Digital Health Divide: Evaluating Online Health Information Access and Use among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…

  3. An examination of electronic health information privacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the quickest growing demographic group and are key consumers of health services. As the United States health system transitions to electronic health records, it is important to understand older adult perceptions of privacy and security. We performed a secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012, Cycle 1), to examine differences in perceptions of electronic health information privacy between older adults and the general population. We found differences in the level of importance placed on access to electronic health information (older adults placed greater emphasis on provider as opposed to personal access) and tendency to withhold information out of concerns for privacy and security (older adults were less likely to withhold information). We provide recommendations to alleviate some of these privacy concerns. This may facilitate greater use of electronic health communication between patient and provider, while promoting shared decision making.

  4. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  5. Use of Mobile Health Applications for Health-Seeking Behavior Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Lu, Ning; Chandak, Aastha; Kim, Hyunmin; Wyant, David; Bhatt, Jay; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the use of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) on smartphones or tablets for health-seeking behavior among US adults. Data was obtained from cycle 4 of the 4th edition of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4). Weighted multivariate logistic regression models examined predictors of 1) having mHealth apps, 2) usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 3) helpfulness in medical care decision-making, and 4) asking a physician new questions or seeking a second opinion. Using the Andersen Model of health services utilization, independent variables of interest were grouped under predisposing factors (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and marital status), enabling factors (education, employment, income, regular provider, health insurance, and rural/urban location of residence), and need factors (general health, confidence in their ability to take care of health, Body Mass Index, smoking status, and number of comorbidities). In a national sample of adults who had smartphones or tablets, 36 % had mHealth apps on their devices. Among those with apps, 60 % reported the usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 35 % reported their helpfulness for medical care decision-making, and 38 % reported their usefulness in asking their physicians new questions or seeking a second opinion. The multivariate models revealed that respondents were more likely to have mHealth apps if they had more education, health insurance, were confident in their ability to take good care of themselves, or had comorbidities, and were less likely to have them if they were older, had higher income, or lived in rural areas. In terms of usefulness of mHealth apps, those who were older and had higher income were less likely to report their usefulness in achieving health behavior goals. Those who were older, African American, and had confidence in their ability to take care of their health were more likely to respond that the mHealth

  6. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine M. McLeod; Johnson, C. Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES) evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and heal...

  7. Self-rated health: Importance of use in elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauricio Ocampo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The concept of self-rated health (SRH was conceived during the first half of the twentieth century. Since then, numerous studies have documented the validity of its measurement and it has been widely accepted as a reliable measurement of overall health. SRH is considered a subjective measurement integrating the biological, mental, social, and functional aspects of an individual.Objective: To review the literature to determine theoretical determinants, related outcomes, and utility of SRH in elderly adults (EAs.Methods: The databases reviewed were Medline, SciELO, EMBASE, Science Direct, Proquest, and Ovid, along with information available in websites from international health agencies.Results: SRH is considered a sensitive measurement of overall health in EAs. It is influenced by physical function, the presence of disease, the existence of disabilities, functional limitations, and by the rate of aging. Many studies suggest it may be modified by demographics, as well as by social and mental factors. Thus, the perception of health is the result of multiple and complex interactions of variables determining it at any given time. SRH is based on systems theory and the bio-psychosocial health model. It has proven to be a significant independent predictor for development of morbidity, mortality, and disability in basic physical and instrumental daily life activities among elderly adults.Conclusion: In addition to reflecting the overall health status of EAs, SRH can provide information to aid health personnel and decision makers in the development and implementation of health promotion and disease prevention programs, as well as the adequacy and planning of different levels of care for this population.

  8. Living with Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Managing Multiple Health Problems Nutrition Osteoporosis Stroke Related Documents PDF Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources ...

  9. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine H Yu,1,2 Giuliana Guarna,1 Pamela Tsao,3 Jude R Jesuthasan,1 Adrian NC Lau,3,4 Ferhan S Siddiqi,1 Julie Anne Gilmour,3 Danyal Ladha,1 Henry Halapy,5 Andrew Advani1–3 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 5Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases.Methods: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included.Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated.Conclusion: While the majority of

  10. Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status and Cancer-Related Risk Factors: Analysis of the WHO study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Ogunsina, Kemi; Okwali, Michelle; Sakhuja, Swati; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined cancer-related risk factors in relation to SES across the lifecourse in low to middle income countries. This analysis focuses on adult women in India, China, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, and examines the association between individual, parental and lifecourse SES with smoking, alcohol, BMI, nutrition and physical activity. Data on 22,283 women aged 18 years and older were obtained from the 2007 WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE). Overall, 34% of women had no formal education, 73% had mothers with no formal education and 73% of women had low lifecourse SES. Low SES women were almost 4 times more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.23–12.10), and 68% more likely to smoke (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.01–2.80) compared with higher SES. Women with low SES mothers and fathers were more likely to have poor nutrition (Mothers OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17–2.16; Fathers OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11–1.59) and more likely to smoke (Mothers OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15–1.87; Fathers OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.80–2.63) compared with those with high SES parents. Women with stable low lifecourse SES were more likely to smoke (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.47–4.43), while those with declining lifecourse SES were more likely to exceed alcohol use guidelines (OR: 3.63, 95% CI: 1.07–12.34). Cancer-related risk factors varied significantly by lifecourse SES, suggesting that cancer prevention strategies will need to be tailored to specific subgroups in order to be most effective. PMID:27813060

  11. Association of arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency with physical disability in Mexican older adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama-Hinds, Luis M; Al Snih, Soham; Rodriguez, Martin A; Wong, Rebeca

    2017-04-01

    Arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency are prevalent in older adults and are risk factors for disability. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of co-occurring arthritis and vitamin D deficiency on upper-lower extremity functional limitations and disability in older adults. We examined 1533 participants aged ≥50 years from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographics, body mass index, comorbid conditions, falls, physical activity, physical function tests, functional limitations, activities of daily living (ADL), and vitamin D. Participants were categorized into four groups according to arthritis and vitamin D status: no vitamin D insufficiency and no arthritis (58.80%), vitamin D insufficiency only (27.49%), arthritis only (8.47%), and arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency (5.24%). Fourteen percent reported arthritis, and 31.2% had vitamin D insufficiency. The arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency group was associated with upper-lower extremity functional limitations [odds ratio (OR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-3.15, and OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.00-3.62, respectively] and ADL disability (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.63-5.51) when compared with the no vitamin D insufficiency and no arthritis group (reference group). The arthritis only group was three times more likely to report upper-lower extremity functional limitations and ADL disability. The vitamin D insufficiency only group was not significantly associated with functional limitations nor ADL disability. Arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency increased the risk of ADL disability in this population. However, the effect of arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency on upper-lower extremity functional limitations was not higher than the effect of arthritis only, but higher than the effect on vitamin D insufficiency alone.

  12. Older Adults' Perceptions of Physical Activity and Cognitive Health: Implications for Health Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E.; Corwin, Sara J.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Montgomery, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    Messages promoting physical activity (PA) to maintain cognitive health (CH) may increase PA and enhance CH among older persons. This study examined older adults' perceptions of PA and CH. We conducted 10 focus groups with irregularly active older Black and White women and men (N = 55), ages 65 to 74 in South Carolina. Constant comparison methods…

  13. Serum immunoglobulin M concentration is positively related to metabolic syndrome in an adult population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Song

    Full Text Available Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation has been increasingly recognized as a common pathological process, and an important contributing factor to cardiovascular diseases and its risk factor, metabolic syndrome. Immunoglobulin M is reactive to multiple autoantigens and is inferred to be important for autoimmunity, implying that immunoglobulin M may be a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few epidemiological studies are available which are related to this potential link. Therefore, we designed a cross-sectional study of 9,379 subjects to evaluate the relationship between immunoglobulin M and metabolic syndrome in an adult population. Subjects who received health examinations were recruited from the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Center in Tianjin, China. Immunoglobulin M was determined with an immunonephelometric technique. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statements of 2009. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between the quartiles of immunoglobulin M and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, the odds ratio of having metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile compared with the first quartile of immunoglobulin M was 1.19 times for males (95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.41 and 1.39 times for females (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.80. Immunoglobulin M levels also showed positive relationships with the ratio of elevated triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in males. The study is the first to show that immunoglobulin M is independently related to metabolic syndrome and its individual components (elevated triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in males, whereas immunoglobulin M is independently related to metabolic syndrome in females but not to its individual components. Further studies are needed to

  14. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Is Positively Related to Metabolic Syndrome in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chongjin; Guo, Yinting; Wu, Hongmei; Liu, Li; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Xing; Shi, Hongbin; Sun, Shaomei; Niu, Kaijun

    2014-01-01

    Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation has been increasingly recognized as a common pathological process, and an important contributing factor to cardiovascular diseases and its risk factor, metabolic syndrome. Immunoglobulin M is reactive to multiple autoantigens and is inferred to be important for autoimmunity, implying that immunoglobulin M may be a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few epidemiological studies are available which are related to this potential link. Therefore, we designed a cross-sectional study of 9,379 subjects to evaluate the relationship between immunoglobulin M and metabolic syndrome in an adult population. Subjects who received health examinations were recruited from the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Center in Tianjin, China. Immunoglobulin M was determined with an immunonephelometric technique. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statements of 2009. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between the quartiles of immunoglobulin M and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, the odds ratio of having metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile compared with the first quartile of immunoglobulin M was 1.19 times for males (95% confidence interval, 1.002–1.41) and 1.39 times for females (95% confidence interval, 1.07–1.80). Immunoglobulin M levels also showed positive relationships with the ratio of elevated triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in males. The study is the first to show that immunoglobulin M is independently related to metabolic syndrome and its individual components (elevated triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in males, whereas immunoglobulin M is independently related to metabolic syndrome in females but not to its individual components. Further studies are needed to explore the

  15. A estrutura da auto-avaliação da saúde entre idosos: projeto Bambuí The structure of self-rated health among older adults: the Bambuí health and ageing study (BHAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2004-12-01

    in the study. Information was obtained by means of standardized interviews and physical and laboratory exams. RESULTS: Self-rated health as good/very good, reasonable, and poor/very poor was reported by 24.7%, 49.2%, and 26.1% of subjects, respectively. The following characteristics showed independent positive associations with worse self-rated health: social ties (dissatisfaction with social network, attendance to clubs and associations, health status (symptoms of depression/anxiety in the last two weeks, sleeplessness in the last 30 days, greater number of prescribed medications used in the last 30 days, and access to/use of healthcare services (complaints when seeking medical care, greater number of medical appointments in the last 12 months, greater number of hospital admissions in the last 12 months. An independent negative association was found with monthly family income (4 minimum wages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that self-rated health among older adults is multidimensional in structure, being influenced by socioeconomic conditions, social support, health status (with emphasis on mental health, and access to/use of healthcare services. This structure resembles the definition of health adopted by the World Health Organization (an individual's "physical, mental and social well-being".

  16. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  17. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, T.; Baars, M.A.; Qin, L.; Lange, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition

  18. Using an eHealth intervention to stimulate health behavior for the prevention of cognitive decline in Dutch adults: A study protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, T.; Baars, M.A.E.; Qin, L.; Lange, A.H. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition

  19. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Boon-How Chew,1 Mohd-Sidik Sherina,2 Noor-Hasliza Hassan3 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang; 3Klinik Kesihatan Dengkil, Jalan Dengkil, Malaysia Abstract: This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with ...

  20. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  1. Association of malocclusion and functional occlusion with signs of temporomandibular disorders in adults: results of the population-based study of health in Pomerania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kocher, Thomas; John, Ulrich; Hensel, Elke; Alte, Dietrich

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether associations exist between occlusal factors and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in adults using the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), Germany. A representative sample of 4310 men and women aged 20 to 81 years (response 68.8%) was investigated for TMD signs, malocclusions, functional occlusion factors, and sociodemographic parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic status, was used. The results were compared with other population-based studies identified by a systematic review. Few malocclusions and no factors of functional occlusion except socioeconomic parameters were associated with TMD signs, and these associations were mostly weak. Only bilateral open bite up to three mm appeared to be clinically relevant and was associated with TMD signs (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0). This malocclusion, however, was of rare occurrence, with a prevalence of 0.3% (n = 9), and this finding was not confirmed by other representative studies. Occlusal factors examined in this study explained only a small part of the differences between normal subjects and those with TMD signs. This and other population-based studies indicate that malocclusions and factors of functional occlusion surveyed should be seen as merely cofactors in the sense of one piece of the mosaic in the multifactorial problem of temporomandibular dysfunction. Single occlusal factors that showed significant effects throughout several studies could not be detected. In view of the large number of occlusal variables already investigated, other variables including nonocclusal ones probably also play a role and should be looked at more intensely.

  2. Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO) : monitoring patient characteristics and outcome in Dutch mental health services for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Marjolein; Voshaar, Richard Oude; Depla, Marja; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Information on which older adults attend mental health care and whether they profit from the care they receive is important for policy-makers. To assess this information in daily practice, the Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO) was developed in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is t

  3. Household Air Pollution Exposure and Influence of Lifestyle on Respiratory Health and Lung Function in Belizean Adults and Children: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie P. Kurti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution (HAP contributes to the global burden of disease. Our primary purpose was to determine whether HAP exposure was associated with reduced lung function and respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in Belizean adults and children. Our secondary purpose was to investigate whether lifestyle (physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable consumption (FV is associated with reported symptoms. Belizean adults (n = 67, 19 Male and children (n = 23, 6 Male from San Ignacio Belize and surrounding areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection took place at free walk-in clinics. Investigators performed initial screenings and administered questionnaires on (1 sources of HAP exposure; (2 reported respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms and (3 validated lifestyle questionnaires. Participants then performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs and exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO. There were no significant associations between HAP exposure and pulmonary function in adults. Increased exhaled CO was associated with a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1-s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC in children. Exposed adults experienced headaches, burning eyes, wheezing and phlegm production more frequently than unexposed adults. Adults who met PA guidelines were less likely to experience tightness and pressure in the chest compared to those not meeting guidelines. In conclusion, adults exposed to HAP experienced greater respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms, which may be attenuated by lifestyle modifications.

  4. Non-sedentary Lifestyle Can Reduce Hip Fracture Risk among Older Caucasians Adults: The Adventist Health Study-2

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    Lousuebsakul-Matthews, Vichuda; Thorpe, Donna; Knutsen, Raymond; Beeson, W. Larry; Fraser, Gary E.; Knutsen, Synnove F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The beneficial effect of physical activity on reducing hip fracture risk has been supported in many previous studies. The present cohort study explores the relationship between total daily physical activity expressed as MET-hour/day and hip fracture risk among men over 50 years of age and postmenopausal women (n=22,836). Methodology Associations between self-reported hip fracture incidence and total daily physical activity and selected lifestyle factors were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression. Results In gender-specific multivariable models, total activity above average (≥ 51 MET-hours per day for men, ≥ 48 MET-hours per day for women) compared to those with sedentary lifestyle (< 40 MET-hours per day) reduced the risk of hip fracture by 60% among men (HR=0.40, 95%CI: 0.23–0.70) (Ptrend=0.002) and 48% among women (HR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.32–0.84) (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusion Our findings suggest that a moderate level of physical activity and avoiding a sedentary lifestyle can reduce the risk of hip fracture among the elderly.

  5. Health Worry, Physical Activity Participation, and Walking Difficulty among Older Adults: A Mediation Analysis

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    Li, Kin-Kit; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of health worry (i.e., cognitive aspect of anxiety resulting from concern for health) on walking difficulty in a nationally representative sample (N = 7,527) of older adults (M age = 76.83 years). The study further tested whether physical activity mediates the effect of health worry on walking difficulty in a 6-year…

  6. Relationship between massage therapy usage and health outcomes in older adults.

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    Munk, Niki; Zanjani, Faika

    2011-04-01

    Physical and emotional decline in older adults is a serious issue affecting not only quality of life but also susceptibility to injury. Non-pharmacological interventions addressing the needs of older adults are important for reducing medication burden and possible drug interactions. This study (N=144) examines the potential of massage therapy as such an intervention for older adults by comparing self-reported health outcome scores among adults 60 and older who have and have not utilized massage therapy in the past year. When controlling for age and cumulative morbidities, older adults who reported massage therapy usage in the past year had significantly better health outcome scores in the following domains: 1) emotional well-being, 2) limitations due to physical issues, and 3) limitations due to emotional issues. Because previous massage therapy research has not included or focused on older adults, studies examining massage therapy and emotional health, specifically among this population, are warranted.

  7. Is meeting the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein related to body composition among older adults?: Results from the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study

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    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Deierlein, Andrea; Morland, Kimberly; Granieri, Evelyn; Spark, Arlene

    2017-01-01

    Objective Studies suggest protein intake may be associated with lower body weight, but protein has also been associated with preservation of lean body mass. Understanding the role of protein in maintaining health for older adults is important for disease prevention among this population. Design Cross-sectional study of the relationship of dietary protein on body composition. Setting New York City community centers Participants 1,011 Black, White, and Latino urban men and women 60-99 years of age Measurements Protein intake was assessed using two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls, and body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) of fat mass (kg) (FM), fat free mass (kg) (FFM), and impedance resistance (Ohms). Statistical Analysis Indices of FM and FFM were calculated by dividing BIA measurements by height squared (m2), and percent FFM was calculated by dividing FFM by the sum of FM and FFM. Log linear models adjusting for age (continuous), race/ethnicity, education, physical activity (dichotomized at the median), hypertension, diabetes, and total calories (continuous). Results Just 33% of women and 50% of men reported meeting the RDA for protein. Both fat free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were negatively associated with meeting the RDA for protein (Women: FFMI -1.78 95%CI [-2.24, -1.33], FMI -4.12 95% CI[-4.82, -3.42] Men: FFMI -1.62 95% CI [-2.32, -0.93] FMI -1.80 95% CI [-2.70, -0.89]).After accounting for confounders, women and men consuming at least 0.8 g/kg/day had a 6.2% (95% CI: 5.0%, 7.4%) and a 3.2% (95% CI 1.1%, 5.3%) higher percent fat free mass, respectively. Conclusions FFM, FFMI, FM, and FMI were inversely related to meeting the RDA for protein. Meeting the RDA for protein of at least 0.8g/kg/day was associated with a higher percentage of fat free mass among older adults. These results suggest meeting the protein recommendations of at least 0.8 g/kg/day may help to promote lower overall body mass

  8. Early life-course socioeconomic position, adult work-related factors and oral health disparities: cross-sectional analysis of the J-SHINE study

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    Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Katase, Kazuo; Osaka, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and oral health, and the associations of economic difficulties in childhood and workplace-related factors on these parameters. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: A total of 3201 workers aged 25–50 years, living in and around Tokyo, Japan, from the J-SHINE (Japanese study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood) study. The response rate was 31.6%. Outcome measures Self-rated oral health (SROH)—A ...

  9. Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye in Korean Adults: A Study Based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Yun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeoup; Lee, Jeong-Gyu; Jeong, Dong-Wook; Kim, Yun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a common disease. Many patients continue to experience residual symptoms despite optimal treatment. Thus, new treatment options are required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and dry eye. Methods This study was performed using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which is a cross-sectional study of the Korean population that was conducted from 2010 to 2011. We included adults aged >19 years who underwent ophthalmologic interviews and examinations. We excluded subjects who had comorbid conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, chronic kidney disease, or depression) that are associated with dry eye. The subjects were divided into normal and dry eye groups. The dry eye group consisted of those who had clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome or symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and dry eye. Results In the univariate model, the 25(OH)D levels were lower in the dry eye group than in the normal group (P=0.01). A significant association was found between severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) and dry eye (P=0.04). However, after multivariate adjustment, the statistical significance of the association disappeared (P-values= 0.49, vitamin D insufficiency; P=0.33, vitamin D deficiency; P=0.18, severe vitamin D deficiency). Conclusion Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with dry eye in an unadjusted model, but the association was not statistically significant after adjustment. PMID:28360983

  10. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth Cohort Study.

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    Hongbin Shi

    Full Text Available Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808 and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615 were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P <0.05. There was no significant difference between the four quartiles in females (P = 0.91. In follow-up analysis, a multiple linear regression model showed a significant and positive correlation between changes in IgM levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard β coefficient = 0.882. This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration.

  11. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wei, Dianjun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG) is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808) and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615) were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between the four quartiles in females (P = 0.91). In follow-up analysis, a multiple linear regression model showed a significant and positive correlation between changes in IgM levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard β coefficient = 0.882). This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration.

  12. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

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    Gunvi Johansson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.

  13. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunvi; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21-29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme "Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective" consisting of three categories: "Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects." The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.

  14. Does poor health predict moving, move quality, and desire to move?: A study examining neighborhood selection in US adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Winning, Ashley; Zaika, Natalya; Subramanian, S V

    2014-11-01

    To date, research has rarely considered the role of health in shaping characteristics of the neighborhood, including mobility patterns. We explored whether individual health status shapes and constrains where individuals live. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, we examined whether 16 health indicators predicted moving, move quality, and desire to move. 3.8% of adolescents (n=490) reported a move in the past year. In the unadjusted models, 10 health indicators were associated with moving; the magnitude of association for these health indicators was similar to socio-demographic characteristics. 7 of these health-moving associations persisted after adjusting for covariates. Health was also associated with moving quality, with a greater number of past year health problems in the child being associated with moving to a lower income neighborhood and parent disability or poor health being associated with moving to a higher income neighborhood. Almost every poor health status indicator was associated with a greater desire to move. Findings suggest that health status influences moving, and a reciprocal framework is more appropriate for examining health-neighborhood linkages.

  15. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

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    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258 completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction.

  16. Older adult social participation and its relationship with health: Rural-urban differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, Eric M

    2016-11-01

    In an aging world, there is increased need to identify places and characteristics of places that promote health among older adults. This study examines whether there are rural-urban differences in older adult social participation and its relationship with health. Using the 2003 and 2011 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n=3006), I find that older adults living in rural counties are less socially active than their counterparts in more-urban counties. I also find that relationships between social participation and health vary by the type of activity and rural-urban context.

  17. Usefulness of Left Ventricular Mass and Geometry for Determining 10-Year Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults Aged >65 Years (from the Cardiovascular Health Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chintan S; Bartz, Traci M; Gottdiener, John S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Gardin, Julius M

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to determine whether LV mass and geometry contribute to risk prediction for CVD in adults aged ≥65 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We indexed LV mass to body size, denoted as LV mass index (echo-LVMI), and we defined LV geometry as normal, concentric remodeling, and eccentric or concentric LV hypertrophy. We added echo-LVMI and LV geometry to separate 10-year risk prediction models containing traditional risk factors and determined the net reclassification improvement (NRI) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD (CHD, heart failure [HF], and stroke), and HF alone. Over 10 years of follow-up in 2,577 participants (64% women, 15% black, mean age 72 years) for CHD and CVD, the adjusted hazards ratios for a 1-SD higher echo-LVMI were 1.25 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.37), 1.24 (1.15 to 1.33), and 1.51 (1.40 to 1.62), respectively. Addition of echo-LVMI to the standard model for CHD resulted in an event NRI of -0.011 (95% CI -0.037 to 0.028) and nonevent NRI of 0.034 (95% CI 0.008 to 0.076). Addition of echo-LVMI and LV geometry to the standard model for CVD resulted in an event NRI of 0.013 (95% CI -0.0335 to 0.0311) and a nonevent NRI of 0.043 (95% CI 0.011 to 0.09). The nonevent NRI was also significant with addition of echo-LVMI for HF risk prediction (0.10, 95% CI 0.057 to 0.16). In conclusion, in adults aged ≥65 years, echo-LVMI improved risk prediction for CHD, CVD, and HF, driven primarily by improved reclassification of nonevents.

  18. Combined Impact of Traditional and Non-Traditional Healthy Behaviors on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Prospective Study in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayán-Bravo, Ana; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Martínez-Gómez, David; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Combined exposure to several healthy behaviors (HB) is associated with reduced mortality in older adults but its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) is uncertain. This is a cohort study of 2,388 individuals aged ≥60 recruited in 2000–2001, whose data were updated in 2003 and 2009. At baseline, participants reported both traditional HB (non-smoking, being very or moderately active, healthy diet) and non-traditional HB (sleeping 7–8 h/d, being seated <8 h/d, and seeing friends every day). HRQL was measured with the SF-36 questionnaire at baseline, in 2003 (short-term) and in 2009 (long-term); a higher score on the SF-36 represents better HRQL. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between HB at baseline and HRQL in 2003 and 2009, with adjustment for the main confounders including baseline HRQL. In the short-term, being physically active, sleeping 7–8 h/d, and being seated <8 h/d was associated with better HRQL. Compared to having ≤1 of these HB, the β (95% confidence interval) for the score on the physical component summary of the SF-36 in 2003 was 1.42 (0.52–2.33) for 2 HB, and 2.06 (1.09–3.03) for 3 HB, p-trend <0.001. Corresponding figures for the mental component summary score were 1.89 (0.58–3.21) for 2 HB and 3.35 (1.95–4.76) for 3 HB, p-trend <0.001. Non-smoking, a healthy diet or seeing friends did not show an association with HRQL. In the long-term, being physically active was the only HB associated with better physical HRQL. As a conclusion, a greater number of HB, particularly more physical activity, adequate sleep duration, and sitting less, were associated with better short-term HRQL in older adults. However, in the long-term, being physically active was the only HB associated with better physical HRQL. PMID:28122033

  19. Plasma-free fatty acids, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and mortality in older adults (from the Cardiovascular Health Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Michael D; Maziarz, Marlena; Biggs, Mary L; Zieman, Susan J; Kizer, Jorge R; Ix, Joachim H; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Tracy, Russell P; Psaty, Bruce M; Siscovick, David S; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Djousse, Luc

    2014-09-15

    Plasma-free fatty acids (FFAs) are largely derived from adipose tissue. Elevated levels of FFA and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), a key cytoplasmic chaperone of fatty acids, have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but limited data are available on the relation of these biomarkers with cardiovascular and total mortality. We studied 4,707 participants with a mean age of 75 years who had plasma FFA and FABP4 measured in 1992 to 1993 as part of the Cardiovascular Health Study, an observational cohort of community-dwelling older adults. Over a median follow-up of 11.8 years, 3,555 participants died. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association between FFA, FABP4, and mortality. In fully adjusted models, FFA were associated with dose-dependent significantly higher total mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD: 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.18), but FABP4 levels were not (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.09). In a cause-specific mortality analysis, higher concentrations of FFA were associated with significantly higher risk of death because of cardiovascular disease, dementia, infection, and respiratory causes but not cancer or trauma. We did not find evidence of an interaction between FFA and FABP4 (p = 0.45), but FABP4 appeared to be associated with total mortality differentially in men and women (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.26 for men; HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.07 for women, interaction p value <0.001). In conclusion, in a cohort of community-dwelling older subjects, elevated plasma concentrations of FFA, but not FABP4, were associated with cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality.

  20. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-12-01

    Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers' responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior.

  1. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  2. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Olmos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH, and free thyroxine (FT4 if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11. Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49 and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23. Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  3. Health-care-seeking patterns in the emerging private sector in Burkina Faso: a population-based study of urban adult residents in Ouagadougou.

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    Idrissa Beogo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. However, people's health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. METHOD: We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. RESULTS: Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.28, and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39. Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers

  4. Associations between fruit and vegetable intake, leisure-time physical activity, sitting time and self-rated health among older adults: cross-sectional data from the WELL study

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    Södergren Marita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle behaviours, such as healthy diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, are key elements of healthy ageing and important modifiable risk factors in the prevention of chronic diseases. Little is known about the relationship between these behaviours in older adults. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V intake, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and sitting time (ST, and their association with self-rated health in older adults. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 3,644 older adults (48% men aged 55–65 years, who participated in the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (“WELL” study. Respondents completed a postal survey about their health and their eating and physical activity behaviours in 2010 (38% response rate. Spearman’s coefficient (rho was used to evaluate the relationship between F&V intake, LTPA and ST. Their individual and shared associations with self-rated health were examined using ordinal logistic regression models, stratified by sex and adjusted for confounders (BMI, smoking, long-term illness and socio-demographic characteristics. Results The correlations between F&V intake, LTPA and ST were low. F&V intake and LTPA were positively associated with self-rated health. Each additional serving of F&V or MET-hour of LTPA were associated with approximately 10% higher likelihood of reporting health as good or better among women and men. The association between ST and self-rated health was not significant in the multivariate analysis. A significant interaction was found (ST*F&V intake. The effect of F&V intake on self-rated health increased with increasing ST in women, whereas the effect decreased with increasing ST in men. Conclusions This study contributes to the scarce literature related to lifestyle behaviours and their association with health indicators among older adults. The findings suggest that a modest increase

  5. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  6. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described.

  7. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  8. Setting Overweight adults in motion: the role of health beliefs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Nunen, Annemieke van; Vingerhoets, Ad; Geenen, Rinie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Health beliefs of overweight adults who did and did not enter an exercise program were compared to identify possible factors that hamper people to increase physical exercise. Method: Participants (n = 116, 78 women and 38 men) were overweight adults without comorbidities. Self-report inst

  9. Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

  10. An occupational health programme for adults and children in the carpet weaving industry, Mirzapur, India: a case study in the informal sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P K; Shukla, K P; Ory, F G

    1992-11-01

    The Indo-Dutch Environmental and Sanitary Engineering Project under Ganga action Plan in Kanpur and Mirzapur is being executed within the framework of Indo-Dutch bilateral development cooperation. The project aims to integrate technological, social and health related improvements. It is expected that the development approach and methodology can be replicated in other urban settlements in India. The project is being supplemented by a training and institutional strengthening programme, which will facilitate the transfer of new technologies and improvements in operation and maintenance of these new technologies. One of the project's goals is to improve living conditions in the targeted areas by installing drinking water and drainage systems. A socio-economic unit (SEU) in the project supports these technical interventions by encouraging the community to participate in project activities. The Occupational Health Programme in Mirzapur was conceived by the SEU to improve the health and living conditions of child and adult weavers. At the start of the programme, 200 weavers and 60 non-weaver workers from Mirzapur city, matched for age and socio-economic status, were interviewed and underwent a physical examination. The mean age of the weavers is 27 years, reflecting the relatively large percentage of child labour (13.5%). Illiteracy among them is 73%, whereas 14% have had only a primary education. 64.5% of the carpet weavers are Muslims and 35.6% are Hindus. 61% own a loom or work in a family owned loom shed. 95% of the weavers have a monthly income of less than 600 Rs. Complaints of a persistent cough and cough with expectoration, backache, the common cold and joint pains occurred more often in the weaver population than in the comparison group and have been identified as 'occupational hazards'. An intervention programme has been implemented based on the results of the occupational health survey. These interventions include awareness camps, installment of plexiglass

  11. DETECTING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN YOUNG-ADULTS - THE YOUNG-ADULT SELF REPORT, THE GENERAL HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE AND THE SYMPTOM CHECKLIST AS SCREENING INSTRUMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIZNITZER, M; VERHULST, FC; VANDENBRINK, W; KOETER, M; VANDERENDE, J; GIEL, R; KOOT, HM

    1992-01-01

    This study compares the screening capacity of an age-adjusted child-oriented questionnaire, the Young Adult Self Report (YASR) with two adult-oriented questionnaires, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) in a sample of young adults (18-25 years). The YASR pe

  12. Stress on health-related quality of life in older adults: the protective nature of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Whyne, Erum

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of sel...

  13. A path analysis of Internet health information seeking behaviors among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as an innovative tool that older adults can use to obtain health-related information. However, the relationships among predictors of Internet health information seeking behaviors (IHISB) in this population are not well understood. To fill this gap, this study examined the direct and indirect pathways of potential predictors of IHISB among older South Korean adults, using the modified Technology Acceptance Model 3. Participants were 300 older South Korean adults who had used the Internet to obtain health information within the past month. Data were collected via a self-report questionnaire and were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Two variables-prior experience and behavioral intention to use-had positive direct effects on IHISB. These findings imply that health care providers promoting IHISB among older adults should consider these individuals' prior experience with the Internet and their willingness to use the Internet as a source of health information.

  14. Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... the Agricultural Health Study (1994–2007). Environmental Health Perspectives 2011; online May 27, doi:10.1289/ehp. ...

  15. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk.

  16. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  17. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups.

  18. Prosthetic crowns and other clinical risk indicators of caries among old-old Swedish adults: findings from the KEOHS Project. Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Holm-Pedersen, Jytte;

    2002-01-01

    The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, Sweden. This paper explored possible clinical risk indicators of coronal and root caries among the KEOHS subjects....

  19. Using Electronic Health Records Data for Substance Use Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Design of a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T.; Spratt, Susan E.; Dunham, Ashley A.; Heidenfelder, Brooke; Batch, Bryan C.; Lindblad, Robert; VanVeldhuisen, Paul; Rusincovitch, Shelley A.; Killeen, Therese K.; Ghitza, Udi E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Affordable Care Act encourages healthcare systems to integrate behavioral and medical healthcare, as well as to employ electronic health records (EHRs) for health information exchange and quality improvement. Pragmatic research paradigms that employ EHRs in research are needed to produce clinical evidence in real-world medical settings for informing learning healthcare systems. Adults with comorbid diabetes and substance use disorders (SUDs) tend to use costly inpatient treatments; however, there is a lack of empirical data on implementing behavioral healthcare to reduce health risk in adults with high-risk diabetes. Given the complexity of high-risk patients' medical problems and the cost of conducting randomized trials, a feasibility project is warranted to guide practical study designs. Methods We describe the study design, which explores the feasibility of implementing substance use Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) among adults with high-risk type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within a home-based primary care setting. Our study includes the development of an integrated EHR datamart to identify eligible patients and collect diabetes healthcare data, and the use of a geographic health information system to understand the social context in patients' communities. Analysis will examine recruitment, proportion of patients receiving brief intervention and/or referrals, substance use, SUD treatment use, diabetes outcomes, and retention. Discussion By capitalizing on an existing T2DM project that uses home-based primary care, our study results will provide timely clinical information to inform the designs and implementation of future SBIRT studies among adults with multiple medical conditions. PMID:26563446

  20. Food Insecurity and Health Care Utilization Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Vibha; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between food insecurity and utilization of four health services among older Americans: office visits, inpatient hospital nights, emergency department visits, and home health care. Nationally representative data from the 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey were used (N = 13,589). Nearly 83.0% of the sample had two or more office visits, 17.0% reported at least one hospital night, 23.0% had at least one emergency room visit, and 8.1% used home health care during the past 12 months. Adjusting for confounders, food-insecure older adults had higher odds of using more office visits, inpatient hospital nights, and emergency department visits than food-secure older adults, but similar odds of home health care utilization. The findings of this study suggest that programs and policies aimed at reducing food insecurity among older adults may have a potential to reduce utilization of health care services.

  1. Early life-course socioeconomic position, adult work-related factors and oral health disparities: cross-sectional analysis of the J-SHINE study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Katase, Kazuo; Osaka, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and oral health, and the associations of economic difficulties in childhood and workplace-related factors on these parameters. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 3201 workers aged 25–50 years, living in and around Tokyo, Japan, from the J-SHINE (Japanese study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood) study. The response rate was 31.6%. Outcome measures Self-rated oral health (SROH)—A log...

  2. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

  3. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  4. Oral health changes in an adult Norwegian population : a cohort analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to study temporal variation in oral health in an adult population. The cohort analysis comprised 1) estimation of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and time-lag differences in caries and treatment experience of the adult population in Trøndelag from 1973 to

  5. Psychological Distress and Health Insurance Coverage among Formerly Incarcerated Young Adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrell L. Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States incarcerates more people per capita than any other nation. Studies have consistently demonstrated higher prevalence of serious mental illness among the incarcerated. Although health care may be available to individuals while incarcerated, research is needed to understand the context of health care coverage and mental health after incarceration. The purpose of this study is to estimate the point prevalence of psychological distress (PD among young adults with incarceration experience, while comparing the prevalence to that of young adults in the general population. Additionally, this study characterizes the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, while also examining this association given an individual's health insurance coverage status among young adults. Lastly, we examine if other individual, contextual, and behavioral factors influences the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, in addition to their health insurance coverage status. This study utilizes data from the 2008 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97, a population based survey dataset from the U.S. Department of Labor. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use provided the conceptual framework for the study. The Mental Health Index 5 (MHI-5 was used to determine PD or normal mental health. Chi-square testing and multivariate logistic regression were performed to examine incarceration experience in association to PD. The sample with incarceration experience reported almost double the proportion of PD (21% compared to those without an incarceration experience (11%. Young adults who have been incarcerated reported greater odds of PD than those with no incarceration experience (COR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.68-2.83 and the association was diminished in the presence of health insurance status and model covariates. Future health prevention and health management efforts should consider the impact of health insurance coverage

  6. An Efficacy Trial of "Steps to Your Health", a Health Promotion Programme for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Suzanne; Whitner, Wendy; Thomas-Koger, Marlo; Mann, Joshua R.; Clarkson, John; Barnes, Timothy L.; Bao, Haikun; Meriwether, Rebecca A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although there are evaluation and effectiveness studies of health promotion interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), randomized efficacy trials of such interventions are lacking. Design: A randomized active control intervention trial. Setting: The participants attended the health promotion classes in local…

  7. Systemwide Initiative Documents Robust Health Screening for Adults With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marisa; Jacobstein, Diane; Yoon, Irene Seyoung; Anthony, Bruno; Bullock, Kim

    2016-10-01

    It is well documented that adults with intellectual disability (ID) experience higher rates of a series of health conditions compared to their peers without disability. These health conditions include cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, and psychiatric and behavioral disorders. With life expectancy approximating the general population, adults with ID are also now experiencing health conditions related to aging, further increasing their risk for diminished function and well-being. This increased morbidity poses new challenges in geriatric healthcare planning for this population. Relatively simple health prevention practices, such as the implementation of a health screening tool, can substantially increase disease detection and clinical activities directed toward improved health outcomes for people with ID. This study examines data collected from the District of Columbia Developmental Disabilities Administration's (DC DDA's) health screening component of its Health and Wellness Standards. Findings are presented, along with recommendations and implications for improving preventive health screening practices in the ID population.

  8. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and adiponectin in participants without diabetes or cardiovascular disease of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra Rg

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the association of adiponectin concentration with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in middle-aged participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods A sample of 687 individuals (35-54 years old) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease was stratified into two categories according to CIMT (< or ≥ 75th percentile). Traditional risk factors, C-reactive protein and adiponectin values were compared between categories by Student's t-test and frequencies by chi-square test. In linear regression models, associations of CIMT with adiponectin, adjusted for adiposity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were tested. Mean CIMT values were compared across quartiles of adiponectin concentrations using analysis of variance. Results Three hundred and forty-one individuals (49.6%) were women and 130 (19.0%) had three traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Those with elevated CIMT (21.8%) had greater mean values of body mass index (26.2(3.8) vs. 27.7(4.0)kg/m(2), p < 0.001), waist circumference (86.9(10.1) vs. 90.1(10.8) cm, p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (116.2(13.6) vs.121.2(16.1) mmHg, p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (1.4(0.9-2.4) vs. 1.8(1.1-2.9), p = 0.011), C-reactive protein (1.2 (0.6-2.6) vs. 1.4(0.8-3.2) mg/l, p = 0.054) and adiponectin (9.9 (6.0-14.7) vs. 8.9 (5.3-13.8) µg/ml, p = 0.002) levels than the counterpart, while plasma glucose and lipids were not different between groups. In the adjusted model, blood pressure (directly) and adiponectin (inversely) persisted associated with high CIMT. Mean CIMT was greater in the first quartile of adiponectin when compared with the other three quartiles ( p = 0.019). Conclusions Lower adiponectin levels together with higher blood pressure were independently associated with

  9. Health-Care-Seeking Patterns in the Emerging Private Sector in Burkina Faso: A Population-Based Study of Urban Adult Residents in Ouagadougou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beogo, Idrissa; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, people’s health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. Method We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. Results Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP) providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04–1.28), and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07–1.39). Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP) provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. Conclusion The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers in

  10. Becoming Adult from the Perspective of Psychological Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Pekel Uludagli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the transition from adolescence to adulthood, individuals are expected to undertake a variety of role transitions. The adult roles and their contents have begun to change for both genders as a part of social, economic and cultural changes in the world. As women began to join to the work force more, men’s involvement in family life and childcare increased. Although having multiple roles causes conflict between the roles for both genders nowadays, being married and having children still seem to be related to better psychological health for today’s early adults. However, these positive effects of marriage disappear in conflicting and unhappy marriages; and these marriages, on the contrary, damage the health of individuals. In addition to the content, the timing of the roles is also related to the psychological health of individuals. As adults who undertake the roles early have a disadvantaged position in terms of psychological health, marital and family relations, on the other hand, adults who undertake these roles on-time and lately have better psychological health and life conditions. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of undertaking adult roles and its timing on individuals’ psychological health in today’s societies. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 263-283

  11. Meditation for older adults: a new look at an ancient intervention for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2015-05-01

    New research is providing health care professionals with evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation as an intervention for older adults. Recent studies have provided evidence that meditation results in observable changes in brain structure related to memory, sense of self, empathy, and stress. Health care professionals should consider mindfulness training as a helpful intervention for older adults with problems such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, loneliness, and caregiver burden.

  12. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  13. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.

  14. Studying health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...... to that of the industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions...... in Denmark and Greenland have conducted health research in Greenland for many years in cooperation with, among others, researchers in Canada and Alaska. National and international cooperation is supported by the Danish/Greenlandic Society for Circumpolar Health, the International Union for Circumpolar Health...

  15. Private religious practice, spiritual coping, social support, and health status among older Korean adult immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hwang, Myung Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the role of spiritual factors and social support on the health status of 246 older Korean adult immigrants age 65 years or older. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that private religious practice, spiritual coping, and social support were significantly associated with improved health status. However, stressors such as the lack of English proficiency and transportation, longer residency in the United States, and financial problems were significantly associated with lower health status. Social workers need to consider providing appropriate spiritual interventions and social support programs for older Korean adult immigrants so that they may better handle their stressors and health problems.

  16. Prevalence of Frailty Indicators and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in a Swiss Region with Universal Health Insurance Coverage: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Guessous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty prevalence in older adults has been reported but is largely unknown in middle-aged adults. We determined the prevalence of frailty indicators among middle-aged and older adults from a general Swiss population characterized by universal health insurance coverage and assessed the determinants of frailty with a special focus on socioeconomic status. Participants aged 50 and more from the population-based 2006–2010 Bus Santé study were included (N = 2,930. Four frailty indicators (weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, and low activity were measured according to standard definitions. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations. Overall, 63.5%, 28.7%, and 7.8% participants presented no frailty indicators, one frailty indicator, and two or more frailty indicators, respectively. Among middle-aged participants (50–65 years, 75.1%, 22.2%, and 2.7% presented 0, 1, and 2 or more frailty indicators. The number of frailty indicators was positively associated with age, hypertension, and current smoking and negatively associated with male gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and serum total cholesterol level. Lower income level but not education was associated with higher number of frailty indicators. Frailty indicators are frequently encountered in both older and middle-aged adults from the Swiss general population. Despite universal health insurance coverage, household income is independently associated with frailty.

  17. Comparing Young Adults to Older Adults in E-Cigarette Perceptions and Motivations for Use: Implications for Health Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" is rapidly rising, and is especially prevalent among young adults. A better understanding of e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use is needed to inform health communication and educational efforts. This study aims to explore these aspects of use with a focus on comparing…

  18. Collaborative Learning is an Effective Method for Improving the E-health Literacy of Older Adults in the Community. A Review of: Xie, B. (2011. Older adults, e-health literacy, and collaborative learning: An experimental study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(5, 933-946. doi: 10.1002/asi.21507

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S. Arndt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether collaborative learning strategies in an informal class setting can improve electronic health literacy skills of older adults.Design – Pre- and post-test instruments used to measure effects of an educational intervention.Setting – Small group classes offered at two branches of a large, publicly funded, urban public library in Maryland.Subjects – A total of 111 adults aged 52 to 91, mean age 70.4 (SD 8.0, completed the study. The majority of participants were from minority populations (66% African American, 3% Latino, 3% Asian. Thirty three percent of participants reported an annual household income below $20,000. Eight percent were non-native English speakers. The majority of participants had low-level or no computer/Internet experience prior to the study.Methods – Collaborative learning strategies were used in small group hands-on computer classes to deliver a standardized curriculum (Helping Older Adults Search for Health Information Online: A Toolkit for Trainers from the National Institute on Aging. Strategies employed were: explicit statement of group/participatory nature of class, periodic peer shared reflection times during class, active encouragement of discussion between peers, hands-on work with partners, group discussion of real-life questions from participants, and structured shared reflection time at the close of each session. Participants were recruited through local advertisements. No incentive other than the free classes was offered. Groups met for two hours, twice a week for four weeks. Assessment was via pre and post-tests. General computing knowledge/skills were measured using objective tests of abilities. Questions from several established scales were adapted for additional assessment. E-health literacy was measured using questions of perceived skill and comfort in finding health information online; perceived usefulness of the Internet for help making health decisions; and perceived

  19. Health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Walid; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Geny, Bernard; Vogel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to increase worldwide, more attention is being paid to geriatric health care needs, and successful ageing is becoming an important topic in the medical literature. A preventive approach to the care of older adults is thus a priority in our aging societies. The purpose of this study was to update evidence for the health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70. We searched online electronic databases up to September 2014 for original observational and intervention studies on the relationship between cycle ergometer training and health among older patients over 70. Twenty-five studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling for older adults over 70. These studies reported a positive effect on the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and a significant improvement in metabolic responses. Improving functional status, muscle strength and cognitive performance are also well established. Overall, this review demonstrates a positive effect of cycle ergometer training with functional benefits and positive health outcomes for older adults over 70. Based on this evidence, clinicians can now encourage older adults to profit from the health benefits of cycle ergometer training to be able to pursue their daily activities independently.

  20. Journey to Healthy Aging: Impact of Community Based Education Programs on Knowledge and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarry, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if community based health education programs increased knowledge and health behavior in older adults. The study was a pretest-posttest design with a convenience sample of 111 independent community dwelling older adults. Participants received two disease prevention education presentations: type 2…

  1. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (pnarcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  2. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores.

  3. Elderly parent health and the migration decisions of adult children: evidence from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, John; Mu, Ren

    2007-05-01

    Recent research has shown that participation in migrant labor markets has led to substantial increases in income for families in rural China. This article addresses the question of how participation is affected by elderly parent health. We find that younger adults are less likely to work as migrants when a parent is ill. Poor health of an elderly parent has less impact on the probability of employment as a migrant when an adult child has siblings who may be available to provide care. We also highlight the potential importance of including information on nonresident family members when studying how parent illness and elder care requirements influence the labor supply decisions of adult children.

  4. Behavioral Health Services Utilization among Older Adults Identified within a State Abuse Hotline Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Larsen, Rebecca G.; Stiles, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which older adults identified in a statewide abuse hotline registry utilized behavioral health services. This is important as mental health issues have been identified as a high priority for filling gaps in services for victims of mistreatment. Design and Methods: We compared Medicaid and Medicare claims…

  5. The Impact of Repeated Health Checks for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felce, David; Baxter, Helen; Lowe, Kathy; Dunstan, Frank; Houston, Helen; Jones, Glyn; Felce, Janet; Kerr, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: An earlier study (Baxter "et al." 2006) found that a structured health check conducted in primary care identified clinically significant previously unrecognized morbidity among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim here was to examine whether follow-up health checks would identify equally significant newly identified morbidity…

  6. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  7. An exploration of search patterns and credibility issues among older adults seeking online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-Lang, Laura; Major, Sonya; Hemming, Heather

    2011-12-01

    The Internet is an important resource for health information, among younger and older people alike. Unfortunately, there are limitations associated with online health information. Research is needed on the quality of information found online and on whether users are being critical consumers of the information they find. Also, there is a need for research investigating online use among adults aged 65 and over - a rapidly growing demographic of Internet users. The current study presents important descriptive data about the search patterns of older adults seeking online health information, the types of health topics they research, and whether they consider credibility issues when retrieving online health information. A comparison is also made between search strategies used in printed text and hypertext environments. The results, which have implications with respect to credibility issues, highlight the need to increase awareness about critical searching skills among older adult Internet users.

  8. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Exa...

  9. Linguistic adaptation and psychometric evaluation of original oral health literacy-adult questionnaire (OHL-AQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHALEEN VYAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguistically adapted oral health literacy tools are helpful to assess oral health literacy among local population with clarity and understandability. The original oral health literacy adult questionnaire, Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire, was given in English (2013, consisting of 17 items under 4 domains. The present study rationalizes to culturally adapt and validate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi language. Thus, we objectified to translate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi and test its psychometric properties like reliability and validity among primary school teachers. Methods: The Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire was translated into Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version using the World Health Organization recommended translation backtranslation protocol. During pre-testing, an expert panel assessed content validity of the questionnaire. Face validity was assessed on a small sample of 10 individuals. A cross-sectional study was conducted (June-July 2015 and OHL-AQ-H was administered on a convenient sample of 170 primary school teachers. Internal consistency and testretest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, respectively, with 2 weeks interval to ascertain adherence to the questionnaire response. Predictive validity was tested by comparing OHL-AQ-H scores with clinical indicators like oral hygiene scores and dental caries scores. The concurrent and discriminant validity was assessed through self-reported oral health and through negative association with sociodemographic variables. The data was analyzed by descriptive tests using chi-square and bivariate logistic regression in SPSS software, version 20 and p<0.05 was considered as the significance level. Results: The mean OHL-AQ-H score was 13.58±2.82. ICC and Cronbach’s alpha for Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version

  10. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  11. The Silence of Our Science: Nursing Research on LGBT Older Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin G

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults have been largely invisible within health and aging services research, despite being disproportionately burdened by poor health and aging outcomes. The current study examines the prevalence of LGBT aging and older adult health-related studies in the 2010-2014 nursing literature, and how this topic is being addressed. Systematic CINAHL and PubMed searches were conducted and compared to (a) quantify the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related scholarship in nursing research; (b) document the appearance of relevant publications in top nursing journals; (c) identify the focus of articles with a substantive focus on LGBT older adult health or aging; and (d) compare the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related literature in nursing, gerontology, medicine, and social work. Findings indicate that research explicitly including LGBT older adults is lacking across the health sciences, particularly in nursing (where it has been largely absent). Implications for nursing research, practice, and education are discussed.

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in older adults and its associated factors: a cross-sectional analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vega, María Fernanda; García-Peña, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency was common in older adults from a country with adequate sun exposure. The variables associated with this deficiency provide insight into the next steps needed to characterize older adults with this deficiency and to treat it accordingly.

  13. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models.

  14. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  15. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines.

  16. Perspectives of Constraining and Enabling Factors for Health-Promoting Physical Activity by Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.; Walkley, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity influences health in individuals and within populations. This study explored factors perceived as enabling or inhibiting participation in physical activity by adults with intellectual disability from a health promotion perspective. Method: Six focus group interviews were conducted: adults with intellectual disability…

  17. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... : Program Director 200 Assistant administrator 150 Medical officer, director of nursing or equivalent 150... facility, States must meet the requirements of this section. (a) Each adult day health care program, when it is co-located in a nursing home, domiciliary, or other care facility, must have its own...

  18. Potential for intensive volunteering to promote the health of older adults in fair health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Jeremy S; Tan, Erwin J; Yu, Qilu; Song, Meilin; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P

    2009-07-01

    Volunteer service opportunities for older adults may soon be expanded. Although volunteering is thought to provide health benefits for healthier older adults, it is not known whether older adults in less than very good health are suitable candidates for high-intensity volunteering and can derive health benefits. This manuscript presents a prospective analysis of 174 older adult volunteers serving in Experience Corps Baltimore, a high-intensity senior volunteer program in Baltimore, Maryland. Volunteers served > or =15 h per week, for a full school year, in elementary schools helping children with reading and other skills between 1999 and 2002. Volunteers were assessed with standardized questionnaires and performance-based testing including grip strength, walking speed, chair stand speed, and stair-climbing speed prior to school volunteering and at the end of the school year. Results were stratified by health status. Among 174 volunteers, 55% initially reported "good" and 12% "fair" or "poor" health status. At baseline, those in fair health reported higher frequencies of disease and disability than volunteers in excellent or very good health. After volunteering, a majority of volunteers in every baseline health status category described increased strength and energy. Those in fair health were significantly more likely to display improved stair-climbing speed than those in good or excellent/very good health (100.0% vs. 53.4% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.05), and many showed clinically significant increases in walking speed of >0.5 m/s. Satisfaction and retention rates were high for all health status groups. Clinicians should consider whether their patients in fair or good health, as well as those in better health, might benefit from high-intensity volunteer programs. Productive activity such as volunteering may be an effective community-based approach to health promotion for older adults.

  19. Cognitive health among older adults in the United States and in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Robert B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive function is a key determinant of independence and quality of life among older adults. Compared to adults in England, US adults have a greater prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease that may lead to poorer cognitive function. We compared cognitive performance of older adults in the US and England, and sought to identify sociodemographic and medical factors associated with differences in cognitive function between the two countries. Methods Data were from the 2002 waves of the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS (n = 8,299 and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA (n = 5,276, nationally representative population-based studies designed to facilitate direct comparisons of health, wealth, and well-being. There were differences in the administration of the HRS and ELSA surveys, including use of both telephone and in-person administration of the HRS compared to only in-person administration of the ELSA, and a significantly higher response rate for the HRS (87% for the HRS vs. 67% for the ELSA. In each country, we assessed cognitive performance in non-hispanic whites aged 65 and over using the same tests of memory and orientation (0 to 24 point scale. Results US adults scored significantly better than English adults on the 24-point cognitive scale (unadjusted mean: 12.8 vs. 11.4, P Conclusion Despite methodological differences in the administration of the surveys in the two countries, US adults aged ≥ 65 appeared to be cognitively healthier than English adults, even though they had a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors and disease. Given the growing number of older adults worldwide, future cross-national studies aimed at identifying the medical and social factors that might prevent or delay cognitive decline in older adults would make important and valuable contributions to public health.

  20. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  1. Multi-Morbidity, Functional Limitations, and Self-Rated Health Among Older Adults in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perianayagam Arokiasamy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the prevalence of multi-morbidity and its association with self-rated and functional health using Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI, Pilot survey, 2010 data, on 1,683 older adults aged 45+. The prevalence of multi-morbidity is assessed as count of self-reported chronic diseases for an older adult. Limitations in activities of daily living (ADL are used as a measure of functional health. Zero-inflated Poisson regression is estimated to examine the covariates of multi-morbidity. Moreover, logit models are used to assess the association of multi-morbidity with functional health and self-rated health. Results depict a large prevalence of multi-morbidity, limitations in ADL and poor self-rated health with pronounced state variations. Prevalence of multimorbidity was higher at higher level of education, wealth, and caste. However, educational status of older adults is seen to be negatively associated with prevalence of ADL limitations and poor self-rated health. Household wealth and caste showed no clear association with limitations in ADL and poor self-rated health. Multi-morbid older adults were found with substantially high risk of ADL limitations and poor self-rated health.

  2. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Kapella

    Full Text Available Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35 with narcolepsy (N = 122 and without narcolepsy (N = 93 were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ, Fife Stigma Scale (FSS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01. Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  3. Self-perceived health and clinical characteristics in young adult students from the brazilian northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the association between socioeconomic situation, clinical characteristics referred and the family history of cardiovascular disease, with the Self-perceived health of young adults education and their implications for clinical characteristics observed. Method Analytical study conducted with 501 young adults who are students in countryside city in the Brazilian Northeast. We used binary logistic regression. Results The final model explained 83.3% of the self-perceived positive health, confirming the association of Self-perceived health with male, residence in the community, have excellent/very good lifestyle and does not have or do not know that there are cases of stroke in the family. Conclusion Health perception was often optimistic, being important to identify devices to be worked closer to their perception of their actual health condition, increasing the effectiveness of health promotion activities undertaken by professionals.

  4. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  5. Music and Public Health: Music in the everyday life of adult Danes and its relationship with health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states...

  6. The association between health enhancing physical activity and neighbourhood environment among Swedish adults – a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallis James F

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the relationship of neighbourhood environment factors with walking and total health enhancing physical activity. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study. The short self-administered version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was used to assess health enhancing physical activity including walking. The neighbourhood environment was assessed using a 17-item environmental module. A principal component analysis among the environmental variables was conducted. The factor scores were divided into tertiles and independent associations between factor tertiles and physical activity categories and walking were studied by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for confounders. Results In adjusted models, a lower odds ratio (OR for reaching the middle, OR: 0.66 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.47–0.98, and upper, OR: 0.65 (0.45–0.95, tertile of walking was observed among those in the lowest tertile of the degree of urbanisation. A higher OR for reaching the middle, OR: 1.84 (1.28–1.64, and upper tertile, OR: 1.64 (1.14–2.36, of walking was observed among those in the lowest tertile of fear of crime. A higher OR for reaching the high category of total health enhancing physical activity was observed among those in the lowest, OR: 2.01 (1.32–3.05, and middle tertile, OR: 1.52 (1.02–2.25, of the factor degree of urbanisation. Conclusion The findings suggest that the environment is differentially related to walking and total health enhancing physical activity. This should be explored in future research to disentangle the complex relationship between different levels and aspects of physical activity and their relationship with the environment.

  7. Physical activity and optimal self-rated health of adults with and without diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balluz Lina S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity can improve people's overall health and contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of many chronic diseases and conditions including diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between levels of physical activity and optimal self-rated health (SRH of U.S. adults with and without diabetes in all 50 states and territories of the Unites States. Methods We estimated the prevalence of optimal SRH by diabetes status of 430,912 adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2007 state-based survey of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Prevalence ratios were produced with multivariate Cox regression models using levels of physical activity as a predictor and status of optimal SRH as an outcome variable while controlling for sociodemographic and behavioral health risk factors. Results The prevalence of reporting optimal SRH was 53.3%, 52.2%, and 86.2% for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and without diabetes, respectively. Also in the aforementioned order, adults who reported being active had an increased likelihood of 81%, 32%, and 18% for reporting optimal SRH, when compared with adults who reported being inactive. Conclusions Regular physical activity of adults, particularly adults with diabetes, is associated with optimal SRH. The findings of this study underscore the importance of advising and motivating adults with diabetes so that physical activity can be integrated into their lifestyle for diabetes care. Additionally, a population-based effort to promote physical activity in communities may benefit adults in general by improving their overall health and well-being.

  8. Mental health in young adult intercountry adoptees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Tieman (Wendy)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the present study was to extend the knowledge on the development of intercountry adoptees, by examining outcomes in adulthood. In chapter 1, the background and the main aims of the current study were presented. Nowadays, the first generation of intercountry adoptees h

  9. Early-life conditions and older adult health in low- and middle-income countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, M

    2013-02-01

    Population aging and subsequent projected large increases in chronic conditions will be important health concerns in low- and middle-income countries. Although evidence is accumulating, little is known regarding the impact of poor early-life conditions on older adult (50 years and older) health in these settings. A systematic review of 1141 empirical studies was conducted to identify population-based and community studies in low- and middle-income countries, which examined associations between early-life conditions and older adult health. The resulting review of 20 studies revealed strong associations between (1) in utero/early infancy exposures (independent of other early life and adult conditions) and adult heart disease and diabetes; (2) poor nutrition during childhood and difficulties in adult cognition and diabetes; (3) specific childhood illnesses such as rheumatic fever and malaria and adult heart disease and mortality; (4) poor childhood health and adult functionality/disability and chronic diseases; (5) poor childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult mortality, functionality/disability and cognition; and (6) parental survival during childhood and adult functionality/disability and cognition. In several instances, associations remained strong even after controlling for adult SES and lifestyle. Although exact mechanisms cannot be identified, these studies reinforce to some extent the importance of early-life environment on health at older ages. Given the paucity of cohort data from the developing world to examine hypotheses of early-life conditions and older adult health, population-based studies are relevant in providing a broad perspective on the origins of adult health.

  10. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness.

  11. Short- and long-term reliability of adult recall of vegetarian dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Martins, Marcia C; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Past dietary patterns may be more important than recent dietary patterns in the aetiology of chronic diseases because of the long latency in their development. We developed an instrument to recall vegetarian dietary patterns during the lifetime and examined its reliability of recall over 5·3 and 32·6 years on average. The short-term/5-year recall ability study (5-RAS) was done using 24 690 participants from the cohort of the Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 62·2 years). The long-term/33-year recall ability study (33-RAS) included an overlap population of 1721 individuals who joined the Adventist Health Study-1 and Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 72·5 years). Spearman correlation coefficients for recall of vegetarian status were 0·78 and 0·72 for the 5-RAS and 33-RAS, respectively, when compared with 'reference' data. For both time periods sensitivity and positive predictive values were highest for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian patterns (vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians). In the 5-RAS analyses, male, non-black, younger, and more educated participants, lifetime Adventists, and those with more stability of consumption of animal products generally showed higher recall ability. Somewhat similar tendencies were shown for the 33-RAS analyses. Our findings show that the instrument has higher reliability for recalled lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian than for vegan, semi- and pesco-vegetarian dietary patterns in both short- and long-term recalls. This is in part because these last dietary patterns were greatly contaminated by recalls that correctly would have belonged in the adjoining category that consumed more animal products.

  12. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children1

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jason R.; Högnäs, Robin S.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family’s socioeconomic status, parental involve...

  13. Feasibility, reliability and validity of health-related quality of life questionnaire among adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients in urban Uganda: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babikako Harriet M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of standard instruments for evaluating health-related quality life (HRQoL, the feasibility, reliability, and validity of such instruments among tuberculosis (TB patients in different populations of sub-Saharan Africa where TB burden is of concern, is still lacking. Objective We established the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Medical Outcomes Survey (MOS in assessing HRQoL among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 133 patients with known HIV status and confirmed pulmonary TB disease were recruited from one public and one private hospital. Participants were enrolled based on duration of TB treatment according to the following categories: starting therapy, two months of therapy, and eight completed months of therapy. A translated and culturally adapted standardized 35-item MOS instrument was administered by trained interviewers. The visual analogue scale (VAS was used to cross-validate the MOS. Results The MOS instrument was highly acceptable and easily administered. All subscales of the MOS demonstrated acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha above 0.70 except for role function that had 0.65. Each dimension of the MOS was highly correlated with the dimension measured concurrently using the VAS providing evidence of validity. Construct validity demonstrated remarkable differences in the functioning status and well-being among TB patients at different stages of treatment, between patients attending public and private hospitals, and between men and women of older age. Patients who were enrolled from public hospital had significantly lower HRQoL scores (0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI; 0.64-0.95 for perceived health but significantly higher HRQoL scores (1.15 (95% CI; 1.06-1.26 for health distress relative to patients from private hospital. Patients who completed an 8 months course of TB therapy had significantly higher

  14. Does health insurance continuity among low-income adults impact their children's insurance coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Melissa; Carlson, Matthew J; Wright, Bill J; Angier, Heather; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-02-01

    Parent's insurance coverage is associated with children's insurance status, but little is known about whether a parent's coverage continuity affects a child's coverage. This study assesses the association between an adult's insurance continuity and the coverage status of their children. We used data from a subgroup of participants in the Oregon Health Care Survey, a three-wave, 30-month prospective cohort study (n = 559). We examined the relationship between the length of time an adult had health insurance coverage and whether or not all children in the same household were insured at the end of the study. We used a series of univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify significant associations and the rho correlation coefficient to assess collinearity. A dose response relationship was observed between continuity of adult coverage and the odds that all children in the household were insured. Among adults with continuous coverage, 91.4% reported that all children were insured at the end of the study period, compared to 83.7% of adults insured for 19-27 months, 74.3% of adults insured for 10-18 months, and 70.8% of adults insured for fewer than 9 months. This stepwise pattern persisted in logistic regression models: adults with the fewest months of coverage, as compared to those continuously insured, reported the highest odds of having uninsured children (adjusted odds ratio 7.26, 95% confidence interval 2.75, 19.17). Parental health insurance continuity is integral to maintaining children's insurance coverage. Policies to promote continuous coverage for adults will indirectly benefit children.

  15. Childhood Predictors of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara, Carmen; Fayyad, John; de Graaf, Ron; Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Angermeyer, Matthias; Demytteneare, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Elie G.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied. Methods: Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health Or

  16. Childhood Predictors of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara, C.; Fayyad, J.; de Graaf, R.; Kessler, R.C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Demytteneare, K.; De Girolamo, G.; Haro, J.M.; Jin, R.; Karam, E.G.; Lepine, J.P.; Mora, M.E.M.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sampson, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although it is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, childhood predictors of this persistence have not been widely studied. Methods: Childhood history of ADHD and adult ADHD were assessed in 10 countries in the World Health Or

  17. [Special Report: Adult Education and Primary Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, T.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A series of five case studies examines (1) literacy, health, and conscientization in the Mandar region of India; (2) the training of community health workers in Indonesia; (3) the Chinese strategy combining health, political will, and participation; (4) British community-based health education programs, and (5) participatory methodology for…

  18. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, Mary

    2011-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual IMR at the municipality (municipio) level from the late 1920s to early 1940s with individual birth year and place using a representative sample of older Puerto Rican adults (n = 1447) from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) study. We estimated the effects of season of birth on adult heart disease and diabetes for all respondents and then for respondents according to whether they were born when IMR was lower or higher, controlling for age, gender, obesity, respondent's educational level, adult behavior (smoking and exercise) and other early life exposures (childhood health, knee height and childhood socioeconomic status (SES)). The pattern of effects suggests that season of birth reflects endogenous causes: (1) odds of heart disease and diabetes were strong and significant for those born during the lean season in years when IMR was lower; (2) effects remained consistent even after controlling for other childhood conditions and adult behavior; but (3) no seasonality effects on adult health for adults born when IMR was higher. We conclude that in this population of older Puerto Rican adults there is continued support that the timing of adverse endogenous (in utero) conditions such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases is associated with adult heart disease and diabetes. It will be important to test the validity of these findings in other similar populations in the developing world.

  19. Health, Quality of Care and Quality of Life: A Case of Frail Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…

  20. Adult Education and the Elderly. Case Studies from Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Background Materials. The Literacy Debate. General Discussion. Literacy and Women. Literacy and Health-Programmes. Adult Education and Development. Number 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Education and Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This journal issue contains 18 solicited articles on two major topics: adult education and the elderly, and the literacy debate. The articles on adult education and the elderly include "A Ripe Old Age," republished from a newsletter of the British aid organization OXFAM; "Special Programme for Retirees: A Model Project in Cali, Colombia," by…

  1. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  2. Factors influencing perceived oral health of Japanese middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Ohara, Satoko; Wright, Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between subjective oral health symptoms and clinical oral health conditions on the perceived oral health of 1799 Japanese middle-aged adults. A self-administered questionnaire together with dental examinations was administered. A structural equation modeling analysis with Bayesian estimation was used to examine the factors influencing perceived oral health as a latent variable with 4 other latent variables: subjective oral health symptoms, clinical tooth conditions, clinical periodontal conditions, and other clinical oral conditions. For perceived oral health as the endogenous variable, only subjective oral health symptoms and clinical tooth conditions showed significant relationship. Clinical periodontal conditions and other clinical oral conditions did not show significant effects on the perceived oral health.

  3. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  4. [Developmental origins of adult health and disease: an important concept for social inequalities in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M-A

    2013-08-01

    According to the theory of the developmental origins of adult health and disease, development in utero and in the first years of life are critical phases during which susceptibility to many chronic diseases is set. Diseases eventually occur only if the environment and lifestyle in later life is favorable. Exposure to chemicals (environmental or drug), to infectious agents, unbalanced nutrition, or psychosocial stress prenatally or in the first months/years of life are all factors which have been shown to impact long-term health of individuals. The consequences, however, are not limited to health. A demonstrative example was provided by the study of the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919 in the United States. Nationwide, it was estimated that the loss of income over a lifetime for individuals exposed during fetal life to this epidemic amounted to 14 billion dollars. This example demonstrates that an exposure during fetal life, which is not socially differentiated, may affect the social situation of individuals in adulthood. In many situations, it is much more difficult to separate the specific effect of a given exposure from the overall effect of the social environment. Indeed, it has been shown that socioeconomic status in childhood is associated with increased risk of mortality in adulthood, even after accounting for the socioeconomic status and risky behaviors in adulthood. Among the explanations, the theory of developmental origins of health credits of biological plausibility the model of critical periods early in which the individual is particularly vulnerable to certain exposures. Thus, ensuring the best conditions for the biological, physical, emotional and cognitive development of children in early life will enable them to reach their potential in terms of health and socioeconomic return to society. Investment in this period also brings the hope of reducing the perpetuation of social inequalities and health from generation to generation.

  5. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  6. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001. Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  7. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1 the experience of psychological benefits, 2 the creation of social support, and 3 the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  8. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  9. Association between Complement C3 and Prevalence of Fatty Liver Disease in an Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wu, Yuntang; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system plays a key role in the development of fatty liver disease (FLD). The complement system is a major humoral component of the innate immune response and complement C3 plays a central role, implying that C3 may be a powerful predictor or therapeutic target for FLD. However, few studies have assessed the association between C3 and FLD in a large population. Here we use a cross-sectional study to investigate the link between serum C3 levels and FLD. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University’s General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Serum C3 was measured using immunoturbidimetry method and FLD was diagnosed by liver ultrasonography. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of C3 and FLD prevalence. The overall prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) were 37.3% and 10.1%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of having NAFLD or AFLD (only in males) in the fourth quartile of C3 compared with the first quartile was 4.13 times greater (95% confidence interval, 2.97-5.77) (trend P values < 0.0001) and 2.09 times greater (95% confidence interval, 1.08-4.18) (trend P values = 0.02). This is the first study to demonstrate that serum C3 levels are independently associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD and AFLD (only in males) in an adult population. Further studies are needed to establish a causal link and determine the precise role of C3 in FLD. PMID:25856141

  10. Association between complement C3 and prevalence of fatty liver disease in an adult population: a cross-sectional study from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyu Jia

    Full Text Available Activation of the innate immune system plays a key role in the development of fatty liver disease (FLD. The complement system is a major humoral component of the innate immune response and complement C3 plays a central role, implying that C3 may be a powerful predictor or therapeutic target for FLD. However, few studies have assessed the association between C3 and FLD in a large population. Here we use a cross-sectional study to investigate the link between serum C3 levels and FLD. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University's General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Serum C3 was measured using immunoturbidimetry method and FLD was diagnosed by liver ultrasonography. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of C3 and FLD prevalence. The overall prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD were 37.3% and 10.1%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of having NAFLD or AFLD (only in males in the fourth quartile of C3 compared with the first quartile was 4.13 times greater (95% confidence interval, 2.97-5.77 (trend P values < 0.0001 and 2.09 times greater (95% confidence interval, 1.08-4.18 (trend P values = 0.02. This is the first study to demonstrate that serum C3 levels are independently associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD and AFLD (only in males in an adult population. Further studies are needed to establish a causal link and determine the precise role of C3 in FLD.

  11. The Health Status and Unique Health Challenges or Rural Older Adults in California

    OpenAIRE

    Durazo, Eva; Jones, Melissa; Wallace,Steven; Van Arsdale, Jessica; Aydin, May; Stewart, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Despite living in the countryside where open space is plentiful and there is often significant agricultural production, rural older adults have higher rates of overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and food insecurity than older adults living in suburban areas. All three conditions are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and repeated falls. This policy brief examines the health of rural elders and, by contrast, their urban counterparts, and finds that both groups lmost one in five Cali...

  12. Self-Management Behaviors among Older Adults with Asthma: Associations with Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Alex D.; Wolf, Michael S.; Sofianou, Anastasia; Martynenko, Melissa; O’Connor, Rachel; Halm, Ethan A.; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Older adults asthmatics experience high rates of morbidity and mortality yet little is known about their self-management behaviors. We examined self-management behaviors, including medication adherence and inhaler technique, among older adults and their association with health literacy. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: Primary care and pulmonary specialty practices in two tertiary academic medical centers and three Federally Qualified Health Centers in New York City, NY and Chicago, IL. Participants: Adults with moderate or severe persistent asthma, ages 60 years and older (n=433). Measurements: Outcomes were adherence to asthma controller medications, metered dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) techniques, having a usual asthma physician, and avoidance of four common triggers. Health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Results: The mean age was 67 years and 36% had marginal or low health literacy. Adherence was low (38%) overall and worse among individuals with low health literacy (22% vs. 47%, p<0.0001) and after adjusting for demographic factors and health status (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence [CI] 0.31-0.73). Similarly, inhaler technique was poor: only 38% and 54% had good MDI and DPI technique, respectively. Technique was worse among those with low health literacy (MDI technique: OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38-0.85; DPI technique: OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.71). Asthma self-monitoring and avoidance of triggers occurred infrequently but were less consistently associated with low health literacy. Conclusion: Adherence to medications and inhaler technique are poor among older asthmatics, and worse among those with low health literacy. Clinicians should routinely assess controller medication adherence and inhaler technique, and use low-literacy communication strategies to support self-management in older asthmatics. PMID:24779482

  13. Fundamental resource dis/advantages, youth health and adult educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Cheryl; Wray, Linda A; Xi, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies find lasting effects of poor youth health on educational attainment but use young samples and narrow life course windows of observation to explore outcomes. We apply a life course framework to three sets of Health and Retirement Study birth cohorts to examine early health status effects on education and skills attainment measured late in life. The older cohorts that we study were the earliest recipients of U.S. policies promoting continuing education through the GI Bill, community college expansions and new credentials such as the GED. We examine a wide range of outcomes but focus on GEDs, postsecondary school entry and adult human capital as job-related training. We find that older U.S. cohorts had considerable exposure to these forms of attainment and that the effects of youth health on them vary by outcome: health selection and ascription group effects are weak or fade, respectively, in outcomes associated with delayed or adult attainment. However, poorer health and social disadvantage in youth and barriers associated with ascription carry forward to limit attainment of key credentials such as diplomas and college degrees. We find that the human capital - health gradient is dynamic and that narrow windows of observation in existing studies miss much of it. National context also matters for studying health-education linkages over the life course.

  14. Emotional health, support, and self‐efficacy in young adults with a history of language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, N.; Durkin, K.; Toseeb, U.; A R Pickles; Conti-Ramsden, G

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with language impairment (LI) are at risk of emotional health difficulties. However, less is known about whether these difficulties continue into adulthood for this group, or about the potential role of environmental resources (e.g., social support) or internal resources (e.g., self‐efficacy). This study investigates emotional health in 81 adults with a history of developmental LI (aged 24) compared with 87 age‐matched peers (AMPs) using Beck Inventories. Social suppo...

  15. Consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life in the adult population

    OpenAIRE

    LANA, A.; Lopez-Garcia, E.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the accumulated evidence on the health risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), the industry has funded mass communication strategies promoting the idea that soft drinks, including SSB, may represent a source of well-being. This study assessed the association between consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life (HRQL), as a proxy of well-being, in the adult population of Spain. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The cohort was established ...

  16. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R.; Goldman, N; Pebley, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by ho...

  17. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  18. Material interaction and art product in art therapy assessment in adult mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penzé s, I.; Hooren, S. van; Dokter, D.; Smeijsters, H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Art materials have a central role in art therapy. The way a client interacts with art materials - material interaction - is an important source of information in art therapy assessment in adult mental health. The aim of this study was to develop the categories of material interaction and

  19. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  20. Acute effects of air pollution on respiratory health of 50-70 yr old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, S C; Hoek, G; Boezen, Hendrika; Schouten, J P; van Wijnen, J H; Brunekreef, B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between daily changes in respiratory health and air pollution in 489 adults, aged 50-70 yrs, with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and nonurban areas in the Netherlands. Subjects were selected from the general populati

  1. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  2. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  3. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  4. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  5. Gender Differences in Views about Cognitive Health and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…

  6. Lifestyle, participation, and health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffart, L.M.; Berg-Emons, van den R.J.; Meeteren, van J.; Stam, H.; Roebroeck, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to describe participation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to explore their relationships with lifestyle-related factors. Fifty-one individuals with a mean age of 21 years 1 month (SD 4y 6mo) years participated (26

  7. Knowledge and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Regarding the Health and Nutrition of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Roschelle A.; Stanczak, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…

  8. Highly active antiretroviral treatment and health related quality of life in South African adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A cross-sectional analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairall Lara R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is an important outcome in times of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART. We compared the HRQoL of HIV positive patients receiving HAART with those awaiting treatment in public sector facilities in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods A stratified random sample of 371 patients receiving or awaiting HAART were interviewed and the EuroQol-profile, EuroQol-index and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS were compared. Independent associations between these outcomes and HAART, socio-demographic, clinical and health service variables were estimated using linear and ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for intra-clinic clustering of outcomes. Results Patients receiving HAART reported better HRQoL for 3 of the 5 EuroQol-dimensions, for the VAS score and for the EuroQol index in bivariable analysis. They had a higher mean EuroQol index (0.11 difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04; 0.23, and were more likely to have a higher index (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1; 1.3, compared to those awaiting HAART, in multivariate analysis. Higher mean VAS scores were reported for patients who were receiving HAART (6.5 difference, 95% CI 1.3; 11.7, were employed (9.1, 95% CI 4.3; 13.7 or were female (4.7, 95% CI 0.79; 8.5. Conclusion HAART was associated with improved HRQoL in patients enrolled in a public sector treatment program in South Africa. Our finding that the EuroQol instrument was sensitive to HAART supports its use in future evaluation of HIV/AIDS care in South Africa. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate changes in individuals' HRQoL.

  9. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason R; Högnäs, Robin S

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family's socioeconomic status, parental involvement, cognitive test scores, behavioural problems, smoking, and the offspring's own experience with divorce. The analyses use data from the National Child Development Study, which includes nine waves of data beginning at birth in 1958 and continuing through age 50. Results from a structural equation model suggest that a parental divorce experienced before age 7 does influence adult health by operating primarily through family socioeconomic status and smoking in adulthood.

  10. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew BH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Boon-How Chew,1 Mohd-Sidik Sherina,2 Noor-Hasliza Hassan3 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang; 3Klinik Kesihatan Dengkil, Jalan Dengkil, Malaysia Abstract: This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD, depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP, and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012–2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752. The majority were females (52.8%, Malay (52.4%, and married (78.7%. DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= -0.16; depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12 and total cholesterol (r=0.13; medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= -0.14 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.11; and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= -0.11, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.13, and total cholesterol (r= -0.08. Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.024; DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= -0.08, P=0.066; depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061, and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= -0.11, P=0.082 and total cholesterol (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.086. There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with

  11. Attributing heart attack and stroke to "Old Age": Implications for subsequent health outcomes among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which older adults attribute a recent heart attack/stroke to "old age," and examined consequences for subsequent lifestyle behavior and health-care service utilization. Community-dwelling adults (N = 57, ages 73-98 years) were interviewed about their heart attack/stroke, and an objective health registry provided data on health-care utilization over a 3-year period. Endorsement of "old age" as a cause of heart attack/stroke negatively predicted lifestyle behavior change, and positively predicted frequency of physician visits and likelihood of hospitalization over the subsequent 3 years. Findings suggest the importance of considering "old age" attributions in the context of cardiovascular health events.

  12. Association of Plasma SDF-1 with Bone Mineral Density, Body Composition, and Hip Fractures in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Laura D; Bůžková, Petra; Fink, Howard A; Robbins, John A; Bethel, Monique; Hamrick, Mark W; Hill, William D

    2017-02-28

    Aging is associated with an increase in circulating inflammatory factors. One, the cytokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12), is critical to stem cell mobilization, migration, and homing as well as to bone marrow stem cell (BMSC), osteoblast, and osteoclast function. SDF-1 has pleiotropic roles in bone formation and BMSC differentiation into osteoblasts/osteocytes, and in osteoprogenitor cell survival. The objective of this study was to examine the association of plasma SDF-1 in participants in the cardiovascular health study (CHS) with bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and incident hip fractures. In 1536 CHS participants, SDF-1 plasma levels were significantly associated with increasing age (p SDF-1 levels were associated with lower total hip BMD (p = 0.02). However, there was no significant association of SDF-1 with hip fractures (p = 0.53). In summary, circulating plasma levels of SDF-1 are associated with increasing age and independently associated with lower total hip BMD in both men and women. These findings suggest that SDF-1 levels are linked to bone homeostasis.

  13. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = .01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = .005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < .001. Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  14. Suicidal Ideation in Underweight Adults Who Attempt to Lose Weight: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinho; Shin, Jinyoung; Kim, Yun A; Lee, Jungkwon

    2015-01-01

    Background Being underweight has been related to health risks. However, little is known about the relationship between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight. This study was conducted to examine if there is an association between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight among underweight adults. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,122 underweight adults (range, 19 to 69 years) was conducted based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012. We exa...

  15. Commentary: Assessing the Health Effects of Medicare Coverage for Previously Uninsured Adults: A Matter of Life and Death?

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, J. Michael; Meara, Ellen; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Ayanian, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to a previous study we conducted and other evidence, a recent study found no significant effects of Medicare coverage after age 65 on overall health for previously uninsured adults and significant adverse effects on survival for some of these adults. We discuss explanations for these inconsistent findings, particularly the different ways in which deaths were handled, a key methodological challenge in longitudinal analyses of health. We demonstrate that analytic approaches suitable...

  16. An oral health literacy intervention for Indigenous adults in a rural setting in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Eleanor J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians suffer substantially poorer oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts and new approaches are needed to address these disparities. Previous work in Port Augusta, South Australia, a regional town with a large Indigenous community, revealed associations between low oral health literacy scores and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study aims to determine if implementation of a functional, context-specific oral health literacy intervention improves oral health literacy-related outcomes measured by use of dental services, and assessment of oral health knowledge, oral health self-care and oral health- related self-efficacy. Methods/design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT that utilises a delayed intervention design. Participants are Indigenous adults, aged 18 years and older, who plan to reside in Port Augusta or a nearby community for the next two years. The intervention group will receive the intervention from the outset of the study while the control group will be offered the intervention 12 months following their enrolment in the study. The intervention consists of a series of five culturally sensitive, oral health education workshops delivered over a 12 month period by Indigenous project officers. Workshops consist of presentations, hands-on activities, interactive displays, group discussions and role plays. The themes addressed in the workshops are underpinned by oral health literacy concepts, and incorporate oral health-related self-efficacy, oral health-related fatalism, oral health knowledge, access to dental care and rights and entitlements as a patient. Data will be collected through a self-report questionnaire at baseline, at 12 months and at 24 months. The primary outcome measure is oral health literacy. Secondary outcome measures include oral health knowledge, oral health self-care, use of dental services, oral health-related self-efficacy and oral health-related fatalism

  17. Musculoskeletal Pain as a Marker of Health Quality. Findings from the Epidemiological Sleep Study among the Adult Population of Sao Paulo City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Roizenblatt

    Full Text Available We are witnessing the growth of urban populations, particularly in the developing world. São Paulo, the largest city in South America, continues to grow, and this growth is dramatically effecting the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the point prevalence of chronic pain in São Paulo city dwellers and to explore the influence of aspects related to urbanicity.A two-stage cluster randomized sample included 1100 individuals of the city of Sao Paulo, representing the population proportionally in terms of gender, age and social classes in 2007. For this observational cross-sectional study, the household sample was interviewed using validated questionnaires for sociodemographic aspects, the Beck inventories for anxiety and depression, the WHOQoL-REF for quality of life, the Chalder Fatigue Scale. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as diffuse pain or pain located in the back, joints or limbs. Data regarding sleep complaints and polysomnography were obtained from the Epidemiologic Sleep Study conducted in São Paulo city in 2007.The prevalence estimate of chronic musculoskeletal pain was approximately 27%, with a female/male ratio of approximately 2.6/1. The predictors were being in the age-range of 30-39 years, low socioeconomic and schooling levels, obesity, sedentarism, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, poor life quality, anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychological wellbeing was the main discriminator between responders with chronic musculoskeletal pain and the controls, followed by depression for the participants with poor psychological wellbeing, and fatigue, for the remaining ones. Insomnia syndrome was the third-level discriminator for those with fatigue, whereas sleep quality for those without fatigue.Musculoskeletal pain was frequently reported by São Paulo city dwellers and its correlates with psychological and sleep aspects are suggestive of a response to urbanicity

  18. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.

  19. Poster: Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    Objectives Identify and analyze determinants for oral-health-related quality of life among adults admitted to a Danish research program on general health and lifestyle (DANHES 2007-2008) Materials and methods Study population: 4402 volunteers invited among participants of main study (n=18065) in 12...... Danish cities. Age 18-96 years (average 54) Structured interviews (from main study and dental study) and clinical oral examination Oral-health-related quality of life measured by a 10 item index Non-parametric statistical methods, chi-square, simple and multivariate logistic regression Conclusions...... Regular dental visits and high number of natural teeth are determinants for high level of oral-health-related quality of life Untreated caries, wearing dentures and high caries experience are determinants for reduced oral-health-related quality of life Results 33 persons were edentulous, 7 % wore dentures...

  20. Associations between health-related quality of life and mortality in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derek S; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; Arnold, Sarah E; Barile, John P

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the use and relative importance of different measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as predictors of mortality in a large sample of older US adults. We used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the association between general self-reported health and three "healthy days" (HDs) measures of HRQOL and mortality at short-term (90-day) and long-term (2.5 years) follow-up. The data were from Cohorts 6 through 8 of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey, a national sample of older adults who completed baseline surveys in 2003-2005. At the long term, reduced HRQOL in general health and all categories of the HDs were separately and significantly associated with greater mortality (P mortality, at least one HD category remained significant for each measure, but the associations between mental health and mortality were inconsistent. For short-term mortality, the physical health measures had larger hazard ratios, but fewer categories were significant. Hazard ratios decreased over time for all measures of HRQOL except mental health. In conclusion, HRQOL measures were shown to be significant predictors of short- and long-term mortality, further supporting their value in health surveillance and as markers of risk for targeted prevention efforts. Although all four measures of HRQOL significantly predicted mortality, general self-rated health and age were more important predictors than the HDs.

  1. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aims of the oral part of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) were (1) to establish an oral health database for adult Danes and (2) to explore the influence of general diseases and lifestyle on oral health. This paper presents the study population, exami...

  2. Education for Older Adults with Early-Stage Dementia: Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Nancy E.; Boyne, Sarah; Brady, E. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 13-week adult education class for older adults with early-stage dementia titled Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit. The mixed method research design (N = 14) used a quasiexperimental one-group pretest/posttest and the qualitative methods of focus group and phone interview with…

  3. The Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on the Mental Health of Young Adults: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects on young adults (23 years) of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence using data from Britain's longitudinal National Child Development study. Found that divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on young adults' mental health; the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of…

  4. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  5. Joint Effect of Education and Main Lifetime Occupation on Late Life Health: A Cross-Sectional Study of Older Adults in Xiamen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Manqiong Yuan; Wei Chen; Cheng-I Chu; Ya Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of education and occupation on health have been well documented individually, but little is known about their joint effect, especially their cumulative joint effect on late life health. Methods We enrolled 14,292 participants aged 60+ years by multistage sampling across 173 communities in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Heath status was assessed by the ability to perform six basic activities of daily life. Education was classified in four categories: ‘Illiterate’, ‘Primary’, ‘J...

  6. Health service use in adults 20-64 years with traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or pelvic fracture. A cohort study with 9-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the health service use over 9 years after the injury year for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI) and pelvic fracture (PF), and compare with non-injured.......To estimate the health service use over 9 years after the injury year for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI) and pelvic fracture (PF), and compare with non-injured....

  7. The CINDI Health Monitor Survey. Health behaviour among the Italian adult population, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Tenconi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance to the WHO-CINDI (Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Programme, in 2001-2002 Italy participated in the Health Monitor Survey (HMS along with all the other CINDI member countries.

    The survey aimed to investigate, by the use of a standard questionnaire, the self-reported health status, life-habits, social and health conditions, use of health services and other features of the study population.

    Following the international CINDI protocol, the adult population (25-64 years of age from six Italian demonstration areas were chosen: Bassiano-Lenola (LT, Brisighella (RA, Rovescala (PV, Sardinia (CA, SS, Udine (UD; Valle dell’Irno (SA. A total number of 4095 subjects, including both males and females were enrolled, with a participation rate of 53%, equal to 2202 subjects [45.7% males (M and 54.3% females (F]. All age groups were equally represented. From the analysis of the age-standardised rates, the following results were obtained. Self-reported “good state of health”: M 71%, F 56.9%; Hypertension: M 15.6%, F 17.5%; Diabetes: M 6.1%, F 4.2%; Back-illness: M 18%, F 22%; Gastritis: M 12.8%, F 12.6%; Headache: M 31.7%, F 54.6%; Insomnia: M 15.9%, F 28.5%; Daily smokers: M 35.7%, F 23.5%; Daily consumption of wine: M 40.2%, F 15.7%; BMI ≥ 30: M 12.3%, F 13.5%; Regular leisure physical activity: M 27.6%, F 23.1%; Hard physical activity: M 40.5%, F 24%. The results demonstrate how rural areas (Rovescala and Valle dell’Irno experience worse health conditions. Thanks to the HMS, the population’s health needs have been focused and compared to those of other CINDI countries, in order to plan specific interventions aimed at the improvement of lifestyle and health conditions.

  8. Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Among US Adults With and Without Jail Experience: Implications for Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michael J

    2016-04-29

    Contact with correctional facilities adversely affects midlife health status and contributes to health disparities in the United States. Sexual health of correctional populations has become a focus for public health research and health promotion programs. Relying on the Health Belief Model, most research has focused almost exclusively on case studies of inmates' disease risk, perceptions of disease susceptibility, and condom use. There is a dearth of research on attitudes and behaviors beyond disease risk perceptions and condom use, particularly within a nationally representative sample of adults. Utilizing social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action, and related theories, this study examines four alternative sexual attitudes and behaviors among a nationally representative sample of adults with and without jail experience. Results show that jail experience is associated with attitudes concerning sexual exclusivity and intimacy, as well as group sex participation and number of partners. Results also demonstrate that alcohol consumption is strongly associated with jail experience and all four outcomes. Findings offer implications for health promotion within correctional populations. Community-based programs focused on correctional populations could be a fruitful line of public health practice, and programs should take into account social contexts, broad attitudes, and risk factors such as substance abuse.

  9. Stereotypes of Aging: Their Effects on the Health of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylee A. Dionigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present findings on the effects of stereotypes of aging on health outcomes related to older adults, such as physical and mental functioning (specifically and overall well-being and perceived quality of life (more broadly. This review shows that both positive and negative stereotypes of aging can have enabling and constraining effects on the actions, performance, decisions, attitudes, and, consequently, holistic health of an older adult. This review further highlights a variety of limitations in stereotype research in aging contexts, including a lack of qualitative studies focusing on older adult perspectives and the fluctuating definition of what constitutes “good health” during older age.

  10. Uptake of health monitoring and disease self-management in Australian adults with neurofibromatosis type 1: strategies to improve care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H A; Barton, B; Wilson, M J; Berman, Y; McKelvey-Martin, V J; Morrison, P J; North, K N

    2016-03-01

    Lifelong health monitoring is recommended in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) because of the progressive and unpredictable range of disabling and potentially life-threatening symptoms that arise. In Australia, strategies for NF1 health surveillance are less well developed for adults than they are for children, resulting in inequalities between pediatric and adult care. The aims of this study were to determine the uptake of health monitoring and capacity of adults with NF1 to self-manage their health. Australian adults with NF1 (n = 94, 18-40 years) participated in a semi-structured interview. Almost half reported no regular health monitoring. Thematic analysis of interviews identified four main themes as to why: (i) did not know where to seek care, (ii) unaware of the need for regular monitoring, (iii) futility of health monitoring as nothing can be done for NF1, and (iv) feeling healthy, therefore monitoring unnecessary. Overall, there were low levels of patient activation, indicating that adults with NF1 lacked knowledge and confidence to manage their health and health care. Findings are discussed in the context of service provision for adults with NF1 in New South Wales, Australia.

  11. Joint effect of education and main lifetime occupation on late life health: a cross-sectional study of older adults in Xiamen, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manqiong Yuan

    Full Text Available The effects of education and occupation on health have been well documented individually, but little is known about their joint effect, especially their cumulative joint effect on late life health.We enrolled 14,292 participants aged 60+ years by multistage sampling across 173 communities in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Heath status was assessed by the ability to perform six basic activities of daily life. Education was classified in four categories: 'Illiterate', 'Primary', 'Junior high school' and 'Senior high school and beyond'. Main lifetime occupation was also four categorized: 'Employed', 'Farmer', 'Jobless' and 'Others'. Odds ratios (ORs were estimated by random-intercept multilevel models regressing health status on education and main lifetime occupation with or without their interactions, adjusting by some covariates.Totally, 13,880 participants had complete data, of whom 12.5% suffered from disability, and 'Illiterate' and 'Farmer' took up the greatest proportion (33.01% and 42.72%, respectively. Participants who were higher educated had better health status (ORs = 0.62, 0.46, and 0.44 for the 'Primary', 'Junior high school', and 'Senior high school and beyond', respectively, in comparison with 'Illiterate'. Those who were long term jobless in early life had poorest heath (ORs = 1.88, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.40. Unexpectedly, for the farmers, the risk of poor health gradually increased in relation to higher education level (ORs = 1.26, 1.28, 1.40 and 2.24, respectively. For the 'Employed', similar ORs were obtained for the 'Junior high school' and 'Senior high school and beyond' educated (both ORs = 1.01. For the 'Farmer' and 'Jobless', participants who were 'Illiterate' and 'Primary' educated also showed similar ORs.Both education and main lifetime occupation were associated with late life health. Higher education was observed to be associated with better health, but such educational advantage was mediated by main lifetime occupation.

  12. Factors related to unmet oral health needs in older adults living in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Giacaman, Rodrigo A

    2014-01-01

    To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of an ambulant population of older adults, living in the Maule Region, Chile, and provide descriptive information on its distribution by selected socio-demographic characteristics. The source of primary data was the Regional Oral Health Survey. A stratified random sample of 438 older adults, aged 65-74 years, living independently in the community was orally examined, and underwent an oral health interview. The sample was largely a dentate one (74.9%); with a mean DMFT score of 25.7 (s.d. 6.5) and an average number of missing teeth of 22.4 (s.d. 5.8). Dentate participants had 41% of their restorative care needs unmet, and 68.4% needed oral hygiene instruction plus removal of calculus on their teeth. Almost 30.1% required complex periodontal therapy. 21% of those fully edentulous were in need of full dentures. Comparing these findings with existing data on the oral health of older adults in Chile, participants in this study appear to have lower missing teeth scores and less need for complex periodontal treatment. Inequities were apparent in the proportion of unmet restorative and prosthetics needs. Community-based preventive care programs specifically tailored to older adults are needed to address this challenge.

  13. Association of diabetes-related distress, depression, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipids in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012-2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years) with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were females (52.8%), Malay (52.4%), and married (78.7%). DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= -0.16); depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12) and total cholesterol (r=0.13); medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= -0.14) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.11); and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= -0.11), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.13), and total cholesterol (r= -0.08). Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.024); DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= -0.08, P=0.066); depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061), and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= -0.11, P=0.082) and total cholesterol (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.086). There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, BP, and lipid biomarkers. Unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects of DRD on BP require further study. A multidisciplinary approach may be needed for risk management in adults with T2D at the primary care level.

  14. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Rásky, Éva; Großschädl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  15. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Burkert

    Full Text Available The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  16. Work participation in adults with Marfan syndrome: Demographic characteristics, MFS related health symptoms, chronic pain, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun

    2015-12-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a severe autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that might influence peoples work ability. This cross sectional study aims to investigate work participation in adults with verified MFS diagnosis and to explore how the health related consequences of MFS and other factors might influence work participation. The prevalence of health problems in young adults compared to older adults with MFS was examined in association to work participation. A postal questionnaire including questions about work participation, demographic characteristics, MFS related health problems, chronic pain, and fatigue was sent to 117 adults with verified MFS (Ghent 1), and 62% answered. Fifty-nine percent were employed or students, significantly lower work participation than the General Norwegian Population (GNP), but higher than the Norwegian population of people with disability. Most young adults worked full-time despite extensive health problems, but the average age for leaving work was low. Few had received any work adaptations prior to retiring from work. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only age, lower educational level and severe fatigue were significantly associated with low work participation; not MFS related health problems or chronic pain. Fatigue appears to be the most challenging health problem to deal with in work, but the covariance is complex. Focus on vocational guidance early in life, more appropriate work adaptations, and psychosocial support might improve the possibility for sustaining in work for adults with MFS. More research about work challenges in adults with MFS is needed.

  17. "Willing but unwilling": attitudinal barriers to adoption of home-based health information technology among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Willis, Erin; Cameron, Glen; Geana, Mugur

    2014-06-01

    While much research focuses on adoption of electronic health-care records and other information technology among health-care providers, less research explores patient attitudes. This qualitative study examines barriers to adoption of home-based health information technology, particularly personal electronic health records, among older adults. We conducted in-depth interviews (30-90 min duration) with 35 American adults, aged 46-72 years, to determine their perceptions of and attitudes toward home-based health information technology. Analysis of interview data revealed that most barriers to adoption fell under four themes: technological discomfort, privacy or security concerns, lack of relative advantage, and perceived distance from the user representation. Based on our findings, systems to promote home-based health information technology should incorporate familiar computer applications, alleviate privacy and security concerns, and align with older adults' active and engaged self-image.

  18. Relationship Between Health Service Use and Health Information Technology Use Among Older Adults: Analysis of the US National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Older adults are the most frequent and heaviest users of health services in the United States; however, previous research on older adults’ use of health information technology (HIT) has not examined the possible association of HIT use among older adults with their use of health services. Objective This study examined the relationship between US older adults’ use of health services and their use of the Internet for health-related activities, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and aging-related limitations in sensory and cognitive function. It also examined gender differences in the pattern of association between the types of health services used and HIT use. Methods The data for this study were drawn from the 2009 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which was the first nationally representative household survey to collect data on HIT (Internet) use. First, the rates of lifetime and 12-month HIT use among sample adults (n = 27,731) by age group (18-29 to 85 and over) were analyzed. Second, bivariate analysis of sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and health service use by HIT use status among those aged 65 or older (n = 5294) was conducted. Finally, multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to test the study hypotheses with 12-month HIT use as the dependent variable and 12-month health service uses among the age group 65 or older as possible correlates. Results The rates of HIT use were significantly lower among the age groups 65 or older compared with the younger age groups, although the age group 55 to 64 was not different from those younger. The rates of HIT use decreased from 32.2% in the age group 65 to 74 to 14.5% in the age group 75 to 84 and 4.9% in the 85 and older age group. For both genders, having seen or talked to a general practitioner increased the odds of HIT use. However, having seen or talked to a medical specialist, eye doctor, or physical therapist/occupational therapist (PT/OT) were

  19. "Love" and the mental health professions: toward understanding adult love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S B

    1996-01-01

    This essay explores three aspects of the normal processes of adult-adult love: falling in love, being in love, and staying in love. It describes the emotions, defenses, and challenges inherent in each phase. Love is an ordinary but immensely powerful adult aspiration. As a term it is impossible to define in any singular sense. The attainment of its lofty purposes requires profound intrapsychic adjustments involving creative acts of imagination, the integration of ideals with reality, evolving adaptations to the partner, the maintenance of a positive internal image of the partner, and ongoing struggles to overcome self-interest. These adjustments have not been well characterized by the mental health professions. This is ironic since a large portion of our work involves caring for love's casualties--that is, people whose miseries relate to their inability to successfully negotiate the phases of love or whose happiness is limited by their partners who cannot. Six arguments for ending professional avoidance of the topic are offered, the most compelling of which are love's relevance to both the pathogenesis of mental suffering and to the art of psychotherapeutic healing.

  20. Poster Determinants for Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    Objectives To identify and analyze determinants for oral-health-related quality of life among adults admitted to a Danish research program on general health and lifestyle (DANHES 2007-2008) Materials and methods Study population of the present (dental) study: 4402 volunteers invited among...... participants of main study (n18065) covering 12 different Danish cities. Age 18-96 years (average 54) Structured interviews (from main study and dental study) and clinical oral examination Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life measured by a 10 item index Non-parametric statistical methods, chi-square, simple...... and multivariate logistic regression Data are not representative to the Danish population, however, associations between outcome and independent variables are considered valid. Regular dental visits and high number of natural teeth are determinants for a high level of Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life Untreated...

  1. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Razzaque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods: This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories, health state (eight domains, quality of life (eight items and disability level (12 items. Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results: After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions: To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in

  2. Traditional and commercial herb use in health self- management among rural multiethnic older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Kathryn P; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Bell, Ronny A; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes the role of traditional and commercial herbs in older adults’ health self-management based on Leventhal’s Self-Regulatory Model conceptual framework. Sixty-two African American and White adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing the forms of herbs currently being used, sources of information about them, interpretations of health (acute symptoms or chronic conditions) that led to their use, and the initiation and suspension of use. Traditional herbs are native to the region or have been traditionally cultivated, usually taken raw or boiled to produce tea, and used for treating mild symptoms. Commercial herbs are prepared as pills, extracts, or teas; they are purchased at local stores or ordered by catalog or Internet and used for health promotion, illness prevention, or treatment of chronic conditions. Herbs are widely used among older adults; this analysis differentiates the types of herbs they use and their reasons for herbs use.

  3. Poverty and mental health: how do low-income adults and children fare in psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Kaltman, Stacey; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-02-01

    Poverty is associated with an increased risk for psychological problems. Even with this increased risk for mental health problems and need for care, many low-income adults and families do not receive treatment because of logistical, attitudinal, and systemic barriers. Despite significant barriers to obtaining care, research suggests that low-income individuals show significant benefit from evidence-based mental healthcare. In this article, we review the link between poverty and mental health, common barriers to obtaining mental health services, and treatment studies that have been conducted with low-income groups. Finally, we discuss the implications of the research reviewed and offer recommendations for clinicians working with low-income children or adults, highlighting the importance of evidence-based care, extensive outreach, and empathic respect.

  4. Perception of adult men on their preventive practices and health support networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to know the preventive practices adopted by adult men in daily life and to identify health support networks. Methods: a descriptive qualitative study, made during the months of November and December 2012, at two emergency units, along with 32 men aged between 20 and 59 years. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and subjected to content analysis with thematic modality. Results: men highlighted different preventive practices such as sanitizing hands, eating properly, having screening tests, avoiding psychoactive substance abuse, using personal protective equipment at work and condoms during sex. Most of the participants had nuclear family and its members were their primary support network regarding the health-disease process. Conclusion: it is for health team members to try to leverage the adoption of preventive practices by adult men from the support networks they consider significant.

  5. Brain Health Knowledge in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carolyn S.; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging and its effects on a person's quality of life are a growing health concern and burden for many Americans. Recently, studies have shown that adopting certain healthy behaviors may help maintain and or prevent age-related health issues such as cognitive decline. However, many people are unaware of these newfound facts. Furthermore, there is…

  6. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  7. Health-related quality of life in French adolescents and adults: norms for the DUKE Health Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continual monitoring of population health-related quality of life (HRQoL with validated instruments helps public health agencies assess, protect, and promote population health. This study aimed to determine norms for the French adolescent and adult general population for the Duke Health Profile (DUKE questionnaire in a large representative community sample. Methods We randomly selected 17,733 French people aged 12 to 75 years old in 2 steps, by households and individuals, from the National Health Barometer 2005, a periodic population study by the French National Institute for Prevention and Health Education. Quality of life and other data were collected by computer-assisted telephone interview. Results Normative data for the French population were analyzed by age, gender and self-reported chronic disease. Globally, function scores (best HRQoL=100 for physical, mental, social, and general health, as well as perceived health and self-esteem, were 72.3 (SEM 0.2, 74.6 (0.2, 66.8 (0.1, 71.3 (0.1, 71.3 (0.3, 76.5 (0.1, respectively. Dysfunction scores (worst HRQoL=100 for anxiety, depression, pain and disability domains were 30.9 (0.1, 27.6 (0.2, 34.3 (0.3, 3.1 (0.1, respectively. Conclusion The French norms for adolescents and adults for the DUKE could be used as a reference for other studies assessing HRQoL, for specific illnesses, in France and for international comparisons.

  8. Does school health and home economics education influence adults' food knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, A; Wang, W C; Yeatman, H; Byrne, S; Wijayaratne, P

    2016-12-01

    Home economics and health teachers are to be found in many parts of the world. They teach students about food in relation to its nutritional, safety and environmental properties. The effects of such teaching might be expected to be reflected in the food knowledge of adults who have undertaken school education in these areas. This study examined the food knowledge associations of school home economics and health education among Australian adults. Two separate online surveys were conducted nationwide among 2022 (November 2011) and 2146 Australian adults (November-December 2012). True/false and multiple choice questions in both surveys were used to assess nutrition, food safety and environmental knowledge. Knowledge scores were constructed and compared against respondents' experience of school health or home economics education via multiple regression analyses. The results from both studies showed that home economics (and similar) education was associated with higher levels of food knowledge among several age groups. The associations of home economics education with food knowledge differed across several Australian states and recall of home economics themes differed across the age groups. These findings suggest that home economics education may bring about long-lasting learning of food knowledge. Further research is required, however, to confirm the findings and to test the causal influence of home economics education on adults' food knowledge.

  9. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  10. The Need for Health Promotion for Adults Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella-McDonnall, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion interventions for adults who are visually impaired have received little attention. This article reports what is currently known about the health, overweight and obesity, and levels of physical activity reported by these adults. Conclusions about the need for health promotion activities based on this information are provided, and…

  11. The Impact of Checking the Health of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities on Primary Care Consultation Rates, Health Promotion and Contact with Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felce, David; Baxter, Helen; Lowe, Kathy; Dunstan, Frank; Houston, Helen; Jones, Glyn; Grey, Jill; Felce, Janet; Kerr, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies have found that health checking in primary care led to the identification of previously unrecognized morbidity among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim here was to evaluate whether health checking stimulated increased consultation with the general practitioner or another member of the primary care team, increased…

  12. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  13. Polypharmacy and Polymorbidity in Older Adults in Brazil: a public health challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze variations in the prevalence of chronic use of medicines by older adults in Brazil according to its possible association with the most prevalent chronic diseases and demographic and health factors, and to identify risk factors for polypharmacy. METHODS A study based on data from the National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (PNAUM), a cross-sectional, population-based survey with probability sampling in Brazilian urban areas. The independent variable was the number of chronic-use medicines taken by older adults, linked to eight chronic diseases investigated. The intervening variables were gender, age group, marital status, level of education, socioeconomic status, Brazilian region, body mass index, smoking, self-perceived health, hospitalization in the previous year and having health insurance, besides the investigated chronic diseases. A multivariable analysis identified risk factors for polypharmacy. RESULTS Prevalence of at least one chronic-use medicines among older adults was 93.0%. Of the total number of older adults, 18.0% used at least five medications (polypharmacy). Polypharmacy was higher among the oldest individuals (20.0%), in the South region (25.0%), in those with poor self-perceived health (35.0%), in obese individuals (26.0%), in those with reported health insurance (23.0%) or hospitalization in the previous year (31.0%), and among those who reported any of the investigated diseases, particularly diabetes (36.0%) and heart diseases (43.0%). The variables remaining in the final risk model for polypharmacy were age, region, perceived health, health insurance, hospitalization in the previous year and all investigated diseases except stroke. CONCLUSIONS Older adults with specific diseases have risk factors for polypharmacy modifiable by actions aimed at the rational use of medicines. With the current population aging and successful drug access policy, the trend is an increase in drug use by

  14. Self-perceived health status in older adults: regional and sociodemographic inequalities in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fernandez-Martinez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess regional and sociodemographic differences in self-perceived health status among older adults. METHODS: A face-to-face quality of life survey was conducted in a representative sample of the Spanish population comprising 1,106 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 or more in 2008. Logistic regression models were used to explain self-perceived health status according to the EuroQol Group Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS. Independent variables included sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics level 1 (NUTS1: group of autonomous regions and level 2 (NUTS 2: autonomous regions. RESULTS: Younger and better off respondents were more likely to have a positive self-perceived health status. Having no chronic conditions, independence in performing daily living activities and lower level of depression were also associated with positive self-perceived health status. People living in the south of Spain showed a more negative self-perceived health status than those living in other regions. CONCLUSION: The study results point to health inequality among Spanish older adults of lower socioeconomic condition and living in the south of Spain. The analysis by geographic units allows for international cross-regional comparisons.

  15. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  16. Life Course Trajectories of Labour Market Participation among Young Adults Who Experienced Severe Alcohol-Related Health Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Paljärvi

    Full Text Available Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood.We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18-34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969-1982. Beginning from the year of each subject's 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7-16 years. We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking.Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population.These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers.

  17. Emotional health across the transition to first and second unions among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernitz, Sara E; Dush, Claire Kamp

    2016-03-01

    The link between romantic relationships and emotional health has been extensively examined and suggests that marriage provides more emotional health benefits than cohabiting or dating relationships. However, the contemporary context of intimate relationships has changed and these associations warrant reexamination among emerging adults in the 2000s. We examined the change in emotional health across the entrance into first and second unions, including cohabiting unions, direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation), and marriage preceded by cohabitation. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, a nationally representative panel study of youth born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States, pooled fixed-effects regression models indicated that entrance into first cohabiting unions and direct marriages, and all second unions, were significantly associated with reduced emotional distress. Gender differences were found for first unions only; for men, only direct marriage was associated with an emotional health benefit, while both direct marriage and cohabitation benefited women's emotional health.

  18. Social networks and health-related quality of life: a population based study among older adults Redes sociales y calidad de vida relacionada a la salud: un estudio de base poblacional en adultos mayores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gallegos-Carrillo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between components of social networks and health-related quality of life (HRQL in older adults with and without depressive symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative cross-sectional study with data from the cohort study "Integral Study of Depression", carried out in Mexico City during 2004. The sample was selected through a multi-stage probability design. HRQL was measured with the SF-36. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST determined depressive symptoms and anxiety. T-test and multiple linear regressions were conducted. RESULTS: Older adults with depressive symptoms had the lowest scores in all HRQL scales. A larger network of close relatives and friends was associated with better HRQL on several scales. Living alone did not significantly affect HRQL level, in either the study or comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between some components of social networks and good HRQL exists even in older adults with depressive symptoms.OBJETIVO: Examinar la relación entre componentes de redes sociales y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS de adultos mayores con o sin síntomas depresivos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal comparativo con datos de la cohorte "Estudio Integral de Depresión", realizado en la Ciudad de México en 2004. La muestra fue seleccionada por diseño probabilístico multietápico. La CVRS se midió con SF-36, mientras que Geriatric Depression Scale y Short Anxiety Screening Test determinaron síntomas de depresión y ansiedad. El análisis consistió de prueba T y regresiones lineales múltiples. RESULTADOS: Ancianos con síntomas de depresión reportaron puntuaciones más bajas en todas las escalas de CVRS; una red más grande de familiares y amigos se asoció con mejor CVRS en varias escalas. Vivir solo no afectó la CVRS en grupos de estudio y comparación. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una asociación positiva de algunos

  19. Modeling indoor TV/screen viewing and adult physical and mental health: Health Survey for England, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to model indoor TV/screen viewing and a series of adult health conditions and cognitive performance in a country-wide, population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from Health Survey for England, 2012. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, and TV and/or screen watching hours in adults was collected by household interviews. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal modeling were performed. Of 8114 English adults aged 18-98, 4138 people (51.1 %) watched TV and/or screen daily for 2 h or more on average. Two thousand five-hundred people (30.9 %) watched for 3 h or more. TV and/or screening watching for 2+ hours was associated with endocrine or metabolic disorders, diabetes, mental disorders (including poor scores in General Health Questionnaire and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), nervous system disorders, eye complaints, circulatory system disorders, respiratory system disorders, musculoskeletal system disorders, and self-rated health. TV and/or screen watching for 3+ hours was associated with digestive disorders and clotting disorder. TV and/or screen watching for 5+ hours was associated with cancer. TV and/or screen watching for 6+, 8+, or 11+ hours was associated with bladder disease, genito-urinary system disorders or bowel disease, respectively. There were no risk associations (within 20 h) found with ear complaints, infectious disease, and blood system disorders. Future educational and public health programs minimizing TV and/or screen viewing in order to protect from physical inactivity and X-radiation might be needed while research on the combined effect of physical inactivity and X-radiation should be explored.

  20. Rural-to-Urban Migration and Changes in Health Among Young Adults in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Elizabeth; VanLandingham, Mark; Anglewicz, Philip; Patthavanit, Umaporn; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the impacts of rural-to-urban migration on the health of young adult migrants. A key methodological challenge involves the potentially confounding effects of selection on the relationship between migration and health. Our study addresses this challenge in two ways. To control for potential effects of prior health status on post-migration health outcomes, we employ a longitudinal approach. To control for static unobserved characteristics that can affect migration propensity as well as health outcomes, we use fixed-effects analyses. Data were collected in 2005 and 2007 for a cohort of young adults in rural Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand. The migrant sample includes individuals who subsequently moved to urban destinations where they were reinterviewed in 2007. Return migrants were interviewed in rural Kanchanaburi in both years but moved to an urban area and returned in the meantime. A rural comparison group comprises respondents who remained in the origin villages. An urban comparison sample includes longer-term residents of the urban destination communities. Physical and mental health measures are based on the SF-36 health survey. Findings support the "healthy migrant hypothesis." Migrants are physically healthier than their nonmigrant counterparts both before and after moving to the city. We did not find an effect of migration on physical health. Rural-to-urban migrants who stayed at destination experienced a significant improvement in mental health status. Fixed-effects analyses indicate that rural-to-urban migration positively affects mental health. Return migrants do not fare as well as migrants who stayed at destination on both physical and mental health status--evidence of selective return migration.

  1. The Relationship between Outdoor Activity and Health in Older Adults Using GPS

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    David Buchner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity.

  2. Applying the Health Belief Model in Explaining the Stages of Exercise Change in Older Adults

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    Sas-Nowosielski Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The benefits of physical activity (PA have been so well documented that there is no doubt about the significance of PA for personal and social health. Several theoretical models have been proposed with a view to understanding the phenomenon of PA and other health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if and how the variables suggested in the Health Belief Model (HBM determine physical activity stages of change in older adults. Material and methods. A total of 172 students of Universities of the Third Age aged 54 to 75 (mean = 62.89 ± 4.83 years agreed to participate in the study, filling out an anonymous survey measuring their stage of exercise change and determinants of health behaviours proposed by the HBM, including: perceived benefits of physical activity, perceived barriers to physical activity, perceived severity of diseases associated with sedentary lifestyle, perceived susceptibility to these diseases, and self-efficacy. Results. The results only partially support the hypothesis that the HBM predicts intentions and behaviours related to the physical activity of older adults. Only two variables were moderately-to-strongly related to stages of exercise change, namely perceived barriers and self-efficacy. Conclusion. Interventions aimed at informing older adults about the benefits of physical activity and the threats associated with sedentary lifestyle can be expected to have rather a weak influence on their readiness for physical activity.

  3. Variation in quality of preventive care for well adults in Indigenous community health centres in Australia

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    Hains Jenny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset and high prevalence of chronic disease among Indigenous Australians call for action on prevention. However, there is deficiency of information on the extent to which preventive services are delivered in Indigenous communities. This study examined the variation in quality of preventive care for well adults attending Indigenous community health centres in Australia. Methods During 2005-2009, clinical audits were conducted on a random sample (stratified by age and sex of records of adults with no known chronic disease in 62 Indigenous community health centres in four Australian States/Territories (sample size 1839. Main outcome measures: i adherence to delivery of guideline-scheduled services within the previous 24 months, including basic measurements, laboratory investigations, oral health checks, and brief intervention on lifestyle modification; and ii follow-up of abnormal findings. Results Overall delivery of guideline-scheduled preventive services varied widely between health centres (range 5-74%. Documentation of abnormal blood pressure reading ([greater than or equal to]140/90 mmHg, proteinuria and abnormal blood glucose ([greater than or equal to]5.5 mmol/L was found to range between 0 and > 90% at the health centre level. A similarly wide range was found between health centres for documented follow up check/test or management plan for people documented to have an abnormal clinical finding. Health centre level characteristics explained 13-47% of variation in documented preventive care, and the remaining variation was explained by client level characteristics. Conclusions There is substantial room to improve preventive care for well adults in Indigenous primary care settings. Understanding of health centre and client level factors affecting variation in the care should assist clinicians, managers and policy makers to develop strategies to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous communities.

  4. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults

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    Alberto Dionigi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia, observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1 clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient’s well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2 clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3 few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research.

  5. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-08-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient's well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research.

  6. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient’s well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research. PMID:27547261

  7. Access to health insurance and the use of inpatient medical care: evidence from the Affordable Care Act young adult mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali I

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 expanded coverage to young adults by allowing them to remain on their parent's private health insurance until they turn 26 years old. While there is evidence on insurance effects, we know very little about use of general or specific forms of medical care. We study the implications of the expansion on inpatient hospitalizations. Given the prevalence of mental health needs for young adults, we also specifically study mental health related inpatient care. We find evidence that compared to those aged 27-29 years, treated young adults aged 19-25 years increased their inpatient visits by 3.5 percent while mental illness visits increased 9.0 percent. The prevalence of uninsurance among hospitalized young adults decreased by 12.5 percent; however, it does not appear that the intensity of inpatient treatment changed despite the change in reimbursement composition of patients.

  8. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

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    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  9. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed.

  10. What prompts young adults in Ireland to attend health services for STI testing?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Balfe, Myles

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In-depth understanding of the factors that prompt young adults to attend health services for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are needed to underpin sexual health programes. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore why young adults (18-29 years) in Ireland attended specialist and community health services for STI testing; the factors that supported\\/undermined their decisions to seek STI testing; and any factors that led to delay in seeking STI testing. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men). Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP) practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services for men who have sex with men (MSM). Interview questions examined why respondents decided to go for STI testing, whether they acted upon this desire immediately or decided to wait, and what they felt were important barriers\\/enablers to their health-seeking attempts. Interviews were thematically analyzed using standard qualitative techniques. RESULTS: Respondents sought STI testing for one of four reasons: they had reached a transitional moment in their lives (they were either about to stop using condoms with their sexual partner or were emerging from a period of their lives where they had a series of risky sexual relationships); they had had unprotected sex with a casual partner; they had symptoms of infection; and\\/or they were required to do so by their employer. Catalytic factors included media and government health promotion campaigns and knowing someone with an STI. However, many respondents delayed seeking testing. Reasons included respondents\\' concerns about stigma and that they would be judged by healthcare professionals, and feelings of invulnerability. Importantly, several respondents who waited up to four weeks to make an appointment after their initial decision to seek STI testing did not view this as delay. CONCLUSION: Sexual

  11. Health-related quality of life among older adults with arthritis

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    Gold Carol H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is a key outcome in arthritis, but few population-based studies have examined the relationship of specific arthritic conditions, such as osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA with HRQOL. Methods Older adults in Pennsylvania completed a mail version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC HRQOL modules. Medicare data were used to identify subjects with OA, RA, and no arthritis diagnosis. We compared HRQOL responses among these groups, and we also examined relationships of demographic characteristics to HRQOL among subjects with arthritis. Results In analyses controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbidity, subjects with OA and RA had poorer scores than those without arthritis on all HRQOL items, including general health, physical health, mental health, activity limitation, pain, sleep, and feeling healthy and full of energy. HRQOL scores were also lower for those with RA compared to OA. Among individuals with arthritis, all subject characteristics (including age, race, sex, nursing home residence, marital status, income, and comorbid illnesses were significantly related to at least one HRQOL item. Older age, nursing home residence, and greater comorbidity were the most consistently associated with poorer HRQOL. Conclusions Results of this study show that both OA and RA have a significant impact on multiple dimensions of HRQOL among older adults. Results also suggest the CDC HRQOL items are suitable for use among older adults and in mail surveys. Due to the rising number of older adults in many countries, the public health burden of arthritis is expected to increase dramatically. Efforts are needed to enhance access to medical care and disseminate self-management interventions for arthritis.

  12. Investigating the myth of the "model minority": a participatory community health assessment of Chinese and Vietnamese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shalini Ahuja; Hamilton, Renée Cammarata; Chu, Chieh; Arsenault, Lisa; Duffy, Kevin; Huynh, Van; Hung, Mei; Lee, Eric; Jane, Shwuling; Friedman, Elisa

    2012-10-01

    Despite the persistent belief that Asians are the "model minority" there is accumulating evidence of health concerns within Asian subgroups. In this study, we implemented a cross-sectional participatory community health assessment in an urban city in Massachusetts, to understand differences and similarities in demographics, health and healthcare access in Chinese and Vietnamese adults. We gathered qualitative data from community stakeholders to inform the development of a community health assessment tool. The tool elicited information on healthcare access, health status, behavioral health and chronic disease history and treatment. Healthcare access issues and poor health status, particularly among Chinese participants and mental health symptomotology in both groups were areas of concern. These findings revealed important health concerns in two Asian ethnic groups. Studies are needed to better understand these concerns and inform programs and policies to improve health outcomes in these Asian ethnic groups.

  13. Educational technologies designed to promote cardiovascular health in adults: integrative review

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    Ana Célia Caetano de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Investigating the educational technologies developed for promoting cardiovascular health in adults. Method Integrative review carried out in the databases of PubMed, SciELO and LILACS, with 15 articles selected. Results Over half (60% of the studies were randomized clinical trials. The developed educational technologies were programs involving three strategies, with duration of one year, use of playful technologies with storytelling, computer programs or software for smartphones, and electronic brochure. These technologies resulted in reduction of blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, decreased hospitalizations and increased years of life. Conclusion The studies with better impact on the cardiovascular health of adults were those who brought the technology in the form of program and duration of one year.

  14. The association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in older adults, and its social cognitive mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F; Luten, Karla A; Jansen, Carel J M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate health literacy is a common problem among older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes. Insight into the association between health literacy and health behaviors may support interventions to mitigate the effects of inadequate health literacy. The authors assessed the association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in community-dwelling older adults. The authors also assessed whether the associations between health literacy and health behaviors are mediated by social cognitive factors. Data from a study among community-dwelling older adults (55 years and older) in a relatively deprived area in The Netherlands were used (baseline n=643, response: 43%). The authors obtained data on health literacy, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and potential social cognitive mediators (attitude, self-efficacy, and risk perception). After adjustment for confounders, inadequate health literacy was marginally significantly associated with poor compliance with guidelines for physical activity (OR=1.52, p=.053) but not with poor compliance with guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.20, p=.46). Self-efficacy explained 32% of the association between health literacy and compliance with physical activity guidelines. Further research may focus on self-efficacy as a target for interventions to mitigate the negative effects of inadequate health literacy.

  15. Low Birth Weight Is Associated with a Decreased Overall Adult Health Status and Reproductive Capability – Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Primary Infertile Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeri, Luca; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Capogrosso, Paolo; Ippolito, Silvia; Pecoraro, Angela; Paciotti, Marco; Scano, Roberta; Galdini, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Luca; Papaleo, Enrico; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) risk cardiometabolic complications later in life. However the impact of LBW on general health status and male reproductive function has been scantly analysed. We investigated the clinical and seminal impact of different birth weights (BW) in white-European men presenting for primary couple’s infertility. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 827 primary infertile men were compared with those of 373 consecutive fertile men. Patients with BW ≤2500, 2500–4200, and ≥4200gr were classified as having LBW, normal (NBW), and high BW (HBW), respectively. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Testicular volume was assessed with a Prader orchidometer. Semen analysis values were assessed based on 2010 WHO reference criteria. Descriptive statistics and regression models tested associations between semen parameters, clinical characteristics and BW categories. LBW, NBW and HBW were found in 71 (8.6%), 651 (78.7%) and 105 (12.7%) infertile men, respectively. LBW was more frequent in infertile patients than fertile men (p = 0.002). Infertile patients with LBW had a higher rate of comorbidities (p = 0.003), lower mean testicular volume (p = 0.007), higher FSH (p = 0.02) and lower tT levels (p = 0.04) compared to other BW groups. Higher rates of asthenozoospermia (p = 0.02) and teratozoospermia (p = 0.03) were also found in LBW men. At logistic regression models, LBW was univariably associated with pathologic progressive motility (p≤0.02) and pathologic sperm morphology (p<0.005). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, LBW achieved independent predictor status for both lower sperm motility and pathologic sperm morphology (all p≤0.04). Only LBW independently predicted higher CCI values (p<0.001). In conclusion, we found that LBW was more frequent in infertile than in fertile men. Infertile individuals with LBW showed a higher rate of comorbidities and

  16. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

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    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  17. Comparing the effectiveness of an internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT intervention with a wait list control on health related quality of life among adults with multimorbidity: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Slattery

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity is defined as the coexistence of two or more conditions within one person, where no one condition is primary. Chronic Pain (CP is found to be one of the most frequent conditions represented amongst multimorbidities. CP and in particular MM, can have significant debilitating effects on a persons’ Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. There is a dearth of research however, targeting and improving HRQoL for people living with MM, were CP is a feature. Aim of Investigation: This study will compare the clinical- effectiveness of an online ACT intervention with a waitlist control condition in terms of increasing health related quality of life among people with multimorbidities, were chronic pain is a feature. Methods: Adult participants with non-malignant pain that persists for at least three months and at least one other condition as diagnosed by a doctor will be randomised to one of two study conditions. The experimental group will undergo an 8-session internet-delivered ACT-programme over an 8-week period. A wait-list group will be offered the ACT intervention after the 3-month follow-up period. Results: Participants will be assessed pre-intervention, post-intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. HRQoL will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes will include: pain intensity; depression; acceptance of chronic pain and symptoms of other morbidities. Conclusions: At present, we are in the early stages of participant recruitment. As a result, the focus of this poster will be on describing the methodological and recruitment processes for the current study.

  18. Serum Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balluz Lina S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C measures all atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and predicts risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The association of non-HDL-C with risk of death from CVD in diabetes is not well understood. This study assessed the hypothesis that, among adults with diabetes, non-HDL-C may be related to the risk of death from CVD. Methods We analyzed data from 1,122 adults aged 20 years and older with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study (299 deaths from CVD according to underlying cause of death; median follow-up length, 12.4 years. Results Compared to participants with serum non-HDL-C concentrations of 35 to 129 mg/dL, those with higher serum levels had a higher risk of death from total CVD: the RRs were 1.34 (95% CI: 0.75-2.39 and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.30-3.91 for non-HDL-C concentrations of 130-189 mg/dL and 190-403 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend after adjustment for demographic characteristics and selected risk factors. In subgroup analyses, significant linear trends were identified for the risk of death from ischemic heart disease: the RRs were 1.59 (95% CI: 0.76-3.32 and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.28-4.89 (P = 0.006 for linear trend, and stroke: the RRs were 3.37 (95% CI: 0.95-11.90 and 5.81 (95% CI: 1.96-17.25 (P = 0.001 for linear trend. Conclusions In diabetics, higher serum non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of death from CVD. Our prospective data support the notion that reducing serum non-HDL-C concentrations may be beneficial in the prevention of excess death from CVD among affected adults.

  19. Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A. Mwanyangala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. Design: A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Results: Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15–1.50. Conclusions: Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.

  20. Factors associated to smoking habit among older adults (The Bambuí Health and Aging Study Fatores associados ao hábito de fumar entre idosos (Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Viana Peixoto

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and associated factors of the smoking habit among older adults. METHODS: A population-based study was carried out comprising 1,606 (92.2% older adults (>60 years old living in the Bambuí town, Southeastern Brazil in 1997. Data was obtained by means of interview and socio-demographic factors, health status, physical functioning, use of healthcare services and medication were considered. The multiple multinomial logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between smoking habits (current and former smokers and the exploratory variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of current and past smoking was 31.4% and 40.2% among men, and 10.3% and 11.2% among women, respectively (p80 years and schooling (>8 years and positive association with poor health perception and not being married. Among women, independent and negative associations with current smoking were observed for age (75-79 and >80 years and schooling (4-7 and >8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was a public health concern among older adults in the studied community, particularly for men. Yet, in a low schooling population, a slightly higher level was a protective factor against smoking for both men and women. Programs for reducing smoking in the elderly population should take these findings into consideration.OBJETIVO: Descrever as características e fatores associados ao hábito de fumar em uma população idosa. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional realizado com 1.606 (92,2% idosos (>60 anos residentes na cidade de Bambuí, Estado de Minas Gerais, em 1997. As variáveis estudadas foram: fatores sociodemográficos, condições de saúde, função física, uso de serviço de saúde e de medicamentos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista. A regressão logística multinomial foi utilizada para avaliar associações independentes entre o hábito de fumar (atual e passado e as variáveis exploratórias. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de

  1. The association between IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum levels, and cognitive functions in healthy adults: the Amsterdam Growth and Health longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, C.M.M.; Turenhout, L.C. van; Deijen, J.B.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Twisk, J.W.R.; Drent, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether

  2. The association between IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum levels, and cognitive functions in healthy adults: The amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, C.M.M.; Turenhout, L.C. van; Deijen, J.B.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Twisk, J.W.R.; Drent, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether

  3. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  4. Gratitude and longing: Meanings of health in aging for Puerto Rican adults in the mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L G; Guzzardo, Mariana T; Adams, Wallis E; Falcón, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Rican adults in the United States mainland live with socioeconomic and health disparities. To understand their contextual experience of aging, we interviewed participants in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Through a Thematic Analysis we identify themes and tensions: normalization and acceptance of aging; gratitude; the importance of aging within social networks; longing to return to Puerto Rico at older age. We address the tensions between 'acceptance' and fatalismo as a cultural belief, and a function of structural barriers. The experience of aging is discussed in the context of Puerto Rico's history and continued dependence on the United States.

  5. Self-care behaviors and health indicators in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compeán Ortiz, Lidia Guadalupe; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther Carlota; González González, José Gerardo; Gómez Meza, Marco Vinicio

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study aimed to analyze self-care behaviors and their relationship with health indicators represented by glycemic control, lipid profile, Body Mass Index [BMI], waist circumference and body fat percentage in a sample of 98 adults with type 2 diabetes in an area of Nuevo Leon, Mexico (August 2005/May 2006). The results showed a low self-care behaviors index (X = 36.94, SD=15.14). A significant relationship was found between self-care behaviors and glycosilated hemoglobin [HbA1c] (r s=-.379, pdiet was the most predictive for health indicators, moderated by gender and understanding of diabetes contents (p< .05).

  6. Health-seeking behaviour among adults in the context of the epidemiological transition in Southeastern Tanzania : A focus on malaria and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metta, Emmy Onifasi

    2016-01-01

    Health-seeking behaviour among adults in the context of epidemiological transition in Southeastern Tanzania: a focus on malaria and diabetes This study set out to assess cultural aspects shaping health-seeking behaviour for malaria and diabetes among adults in Tanzania, a country undergoing the epid

  7. Health profile for Danish adults with activity limitation and/or physical disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Davidsen, Michael; Juel, Knud

    proportion of Danish adults with activity limitation and/or physical disabilities experiences a good health and well-being, a larger proportion has an unhealthy lifestyle, poor social relations and uses the health care system frequently, as compared to adults without activity limitation and/or physical...... limitation and/or disabilities have a poor health and social contact. Availability and flexibility of health care services and prevention programs should be prioritized....

  8. Health Beliefs About Tobacco With Betel Nut Use Among Adults in Yap, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareg, Aileen Rosogmar Castaritas; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Santos, Hildemar Dos

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is high among Pacific Islanders in general and little tobacco research has been done in Yap, Micronesia. This study aimed to explore perceptions of tobacco use coupled with chewing of betel (areca) nut among adults in Yap using self-administered questionnaires based on the health belief model. A Likert scale (ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree or very unlikely to very likely) was used to measure susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy among individuals aged 18 and older. Older adults felt quitting tobacco or betel nut use would be significantly more difficult because of social reasons and withdrawal problems. Most participants felt susceptible to tobacco-related diseases. These findings possibly indicate a receptive attitude toward any future tobacco use prevention and intervention program. Older Yapese population would need to be especially targeted. Health promotion programs should target smoking behaviors and risk reduction.

  9. Usability testing by older adults of a computer-mediated health communication program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carolyn A; Neafsey, Patricia J; Strickler, Zoe

    2009-03-01

    Failure to adhere to an antihypertensive regimen and interactions between antihypertensives and other medicines represent serious health threats to older adults. This study tested the usability of a touch-screen-enabled personal education program (PEP). Findings showed that older adults rated the PEP system usability, system usefulness, and system-use satisfaction at a moderately high level for prototype-1 and at an exceptionally high level for prototype-2. A 201.91% reduction in interface errors and a 31.08% decrease in interface time also were found between the two trials. This participatory usability design was highly successful in tailoring its program interface design to accommodate older users to enhance their health communication and technology use efficacy.

  10. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Odell-Miller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client group. To support these points of view, the article includes a case study showing a psychoanalytically informed approach in music therapy. This paper was given as a keynote address at the 1994 Australian Conference of Music Therapy.

  11. Education plays a greater role than age in cognitive test performance among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M. de Azeredo Passos (Valéria Maria); L. Giatti (Luana); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); R.C. de Figueiredo (Roberta Carvalho); D. Chor (Dora); M.I. Schmidt (Maria Inês); S.M. Barreto (Sandhi Maria)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Brazil has gone through fast demographic, epidemiologic and nutritional transitions and, despite recent improvements in wealth distribution, continues to present a high level of social and economic inequality. The ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study, aimed at investigating cardiovasc

  12. Living with muscular dystrophy: health related quality of life consequences for children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boone Judith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscular dystrophies are chronic diseases manifesting with progressive muscle weakness leading to decreasing activities and participation. To understand the impact on daily life, it is important to determine patients' quality of life. Objective To investigate Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL of children and adults with muscular dystrophy (MD, and to study the influence of type and severity of MD on HRQoL in adult patients. Methods Age-related HRQoL questionnaires were administered to 40 children (8–17 years, and 67 adult patients with muscular dystrophies. Results Significant differences in HRQoL were found in children and adults with MD compared to healthy controls. Patients with Becker muscular dystrophy reported a better HRQoL on the several scales compared to patients with other MDs. Severity was associated with worse fine motor functioning and social functioning in adult patients. Conclusion This is one of the first studies describing HRQoL of patients with MD using validated instruments in different age groups. The results indicate that having MD negatively influences the HRQoL on several domains.

  13. Screening for depressive symptoms in older adults in the Family Health Strategy, Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Rubin, Leonardo Librelotto; Giacobbo, Sara de Souza; Gomes, Irenio; Cataldo, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of depression in older adults and associated factors. METHODS Cross-sectional study using a stratified random sample of 621 individuals aged ≥ 60 from 27 family health teams in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2010 and 2012. Community health agents measured depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Scores of ≥ 6 were considered as depression and between 11 and 15 as severe depression. Poisson regression was used to search for independent associations of sociodemographic and self-perceived health with both depression and its severity. RESULTS The prevalence of depression was 30.6% and was significantly higher in women (35.9% women versus 20.9% men, p < 0.001). The variables independently associated with depression were: female gender (PR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.1;1.8); low education, especially illiteracy (PR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2;2 6); regular self-rated health (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.6;3.0); and poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 4.0, 95%CI 2.9;5.5). Except for education, the strength of association of these factors increases significantly in severe depression. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depression was observed in the evaluations conducted by community health agents, professionals who are not highly specialized. The findings identified using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in this way are similar to those in the literature, with depression more associated with low education, female gender and worse self-rated health. From a primary health care strategic point of view, the findings become still more relevant, indicating that community health agents could play an important role in identifying depression in older adults. PMID:25119932

  14. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. METHOD: Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. RESULTS: 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. CONCLUSION: We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  15. Communication inequalities and public health implications of adult social networking site use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

    2010-01-01

    Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of U.S. adults and to examine the association between SNS use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS use within the past 12 months, and there were no significant differences in SNS use by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic position. Younger age (p = .00) was the most significant predictor of SNS use, while being married (p = .02) and having a history of cancer (p = .02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS use. SNS use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p = .00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. The absence of inequalities in adult SNS use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting digital divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS use on psychological well-being need to be addressed.

  16. Happiness, health, and religiosity among Lebanese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the associations between, and sex-related differences in happiness, health, and religiosity. A sample (N = 476 of Lebanese undergraduates took part in the study (215 men and 261 women. They answered Arabic versions of the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the Love of Life Scale, as well as five self-generated rating scales. Men obtained a significantly higher mean score on happiness and mental health than did their female counterparts, whereas women obtained a significantly higher mean score on religiosity. All the Pearson correlations between the study scales were significant and positive but one (between the self-rating scales of physical health and religiosity among men. Principal components analysis yielded one salient component separately in men and women, and labeled “Happiness, health, and religiosity.” The predictors of happiness as assessed with the OHI were love of life and SWLS, and happiness self-rating scale. Based on the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as felt happiness, reported higher mental and physical health, and being more religious.

  17. Older adult mental health: Teaching senior-level baccalaureate nursing students what they need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, William J; Bradway, Christine K; Aselage, Melissa

    2010-07-01

    Within the older adult population, certain idiosyncratic aspects of mental illness add to the challenges of helping clients manage these disorders. Older adults are more likely than younger populations to experience physiologically based comorbidities, a dynamic that further strains coping capacities. Barriers to the provision of comprehensive mental health nursing care for older adults include myths and stigmas about aging and mental health. Nurse educators are challenged to move students toward a more positive, empirically based approach to the care of older adults' mental health. In this article, background information supporting the importance of working to improve students' knowledge of and attitudes toward mental illness in older adults is provided. Specific teaching strategies in the areas of older adult mental health, dementia, and delirium are discussed. Resources to support the incorporation of these strategies into nursing curricula are described.

  18. Health care utilization and health-related quality of life perception in older adults: a study of the Mexican Social Security Institute Utilización de servicios de salud y percepción de calidad de vida relacionada a la salud en adultos mayores: un estudio en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gallegos-Carrillo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish how health care service utilization patterns are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL perception in older adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study in adults aged 60 years or more was conducted in a random sample of 1150 beneficiaries of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS in Mexico City during 2003. Health care services utilization was categorized as preventive or curative, which generated six usage profiles. HRQL was measured by means of the SF-36 questionnaire. Analyses of variance and multiple linear regressions were conducted to evaluate the relationship between health care services utilization and HRQL. RESULTS: The use of preventive and curative services has a positive association with HRQL levels. Usage profiles with a prevalence of preventive services have a stronger positive association with HRQL scales. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a positive association between use patterns for primarily preventive health care services and a better HRQL perception among older adults.OBJETIVO: Determinar cómo distintos patrones de utilización de servicios están asociados con calidad de vida relacionada a la salud (CVRS de adultos mayores. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en adultos de 60 años y mayores con muestra aleatoria de 1150 derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en la Ciudad de México en 2003. El uso de los servicios se clasificó en preventivos y curativos, lo que generó seis perfiles de utilización de servicios. La CVRS se midió con el SF-36. Para evaluar la asociación del uso de servicios con CVRS se realizaron análisis de varianza y regresión lineal múltiple. RESULTADOS: La utilización de servicios preventivos y curativos muestra una asociación positiva con CVRS. Los perfiles en que predominan servicios preventivos tienen una asociación positiva más fuerte con escalas de CVRS. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio sugiere una asociaci

  19. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; PActive older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  20. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines.

  1. Implementation of Health Promotion in the Older Adults in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assantachai, Prasert; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Piya-Anant, Manee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2006-01-01

    Effective strategies that bring health promotion messages to older adults in a developing country are needed. To evaluate the impact of various education media upon changes in knowledge and health behavior, a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 1,268 older adults in a southwest Bangkok suburb. Group teaching…

  2. Health-related quality of life in adult survivors of childhood sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Hoffmann, Anne Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes......AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes...

  3. General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the benefits and harms of general health checks in adults with an emphasis on patient-relevant outcomes such as morbidity and mortality rather than on surrogate outcomes.......To quantify the benefits and harms of general health checks in adults with an emphasis on patient-relevant outcomes such as morbidity and mortality rather than on surrogate outcomes....

  4. Referral Trends in Mental Health Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Sturmey, Peter; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have paid increasing attention to mental health issues in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the last decades. However, little is known about how rates of clinical referrals, types of mental health diagnoses and treatment in adults with ASDs and intellectual disability have changed. We examined patterns of change in…

  5. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  6. Segmenting by risk perceptions: predicting young adults' genetic-belief profiles with health and opinion-leader covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Greenberg, Marisa; Parrott, Roxanne L

    2014-01-01

    With a growing interest in using genetic information to motivate young adults' health behaviors, audience segmentation is needed for effective campaign design. Using latent class analysis, this study identifies segments based on young adults' (N = 327) beliefs about genetic threats to their health and personal efficacy over genetic influences on their health. A four-class model was identified. The model indicators fit the risk perception attitude framework (Rimal & Real, 2003), but the covariates (e.g., current health behaviors) did not. In addition, opinion leader qualities covaried with one profile: Those in this profile engaged in fewer preventative behaviors and more dangerous treatment options, and also liked to persuade others, making them a particularly salient group for campaign efforts. The implications for adult-onset disorders, like alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, are discussed.

  7. The association between health literacy and self-management abilities in adults aged 75 and older, and its moderators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F.; Spoorenberg, Sophie L. W.; Wynia, Klaske; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy is an important predictor of poor health outcomes and well-being among older adults. A reason may be that low health literacy decreases older adults' self-management abilities. We therefore assessed the association between health literacy and self-management abilities among adult

  8. Thermal and health outcomes of energy efficiency retrofits of homes of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrentzen, S; Erickson, J; Fonseca, E

    2016-08-01

    Mitigation of thermal stress and adverse indoor climatic conditions is important to older low-income populations whose age, health, and economic circumstances make them vulnerable to indoor environmental conditions. This research examines whether energy retrofits in affordable housing for older adults can also improve indoor climatic (i.e., temperature, humidity, air infiltration) conditions and whether such improvements correspond with improved health and comfort of residents. An apartment complex for low-income older adults in Phoenix was the study site. In 2010, renovations were undertaken to make it more energy efficient and to replace interior cabinetry, flooring, and paint with materials that had low or no volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Fifty-seven residents from 53 apartment units participated in both baseline (pre-renovation) and 1 year post-renovation data collection trials. Environmental measures included temperature, relative humidity, and air infiltration. Health measures included general health, emotional distress, and sleep. Four questions addressed residents' perceptions of temperature quality. Results demonstrated a 19% reduction in energy consumption following the retrofit. In addition, fixed effects statistical models of the panel data showed significant stabilization of unit temperature from pre-retrofit to 1 year post-retrofit. Reductions in an apartment's temperature extremes of 27.2°C (81°F) and above also corresponded with improvement in occupant's reported health over the same time period, although not with occupant's perceptions of thermal comfort.

  9. Investing in the health and well-being of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices.

  10. The persuasive power of oral health promotion messages: a theory of planned behavior approach to dental checkups among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christina N; Noar, Seth M; Rogers, Brandi D

    2013-01-01

    Although routine dental checkups are important for both oral and overall health, several factors influence young adults' use or nonuse of dental services. The two studies included in this report tested the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and an expanded TPB model in predicting young adults' routine dental checkups. Additionally, the study tested the perceived message effectiveness of TPB-based messages. Results support the use of an expanded TPB model (particularly adding satisfaction with the dentist and environmental constraints to the traditional model) for an understanding of routine dental checkup intention and behavior, and, most notably, provide support for the use of subjective norm-based messages to prompt dental checkups. This study lays the groundwork for a health communication campaign encouraging routine dental checkups among young adults. The use of targeting and tailoring to design effective oral health media campaign messages is discussed.

  11. Using social learning theory to assess the exercise related health education needs of post-retirement adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, C; Petosa, R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the exercise related health education needs of post-retirement adults. Social Learning Theory (SLT) was used as the conceptual framework. The target population for this study was post-retirement adults aged sixty years and over living in Columbus, Ohio. Results revealed a serious lack of knowledge regarding the benefits and attributes of exercise. Overall it appeared that few older adults received social support for exercise. Approximately one-half of the sample reported high levels of exercise self-efficacy. Over 50 percent of the sample reported to exercise for health-related benefits. Based on the results, specific recommendations for the promotion of exercise in post-retirement adults are offered.

  12. Do childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence health and physical function in middle-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Madsen, Mia; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2009-01-01

    , respectively and health in midlife, measured as limitations in running 100 m, poor dental status, poor self-rated health, and fatigue. In both datasets, men with low childhood or adult social class had a higher risk of being unable to run 100 m, having poor dental status, having poor self-rated health...... effects on the estimates for childhood social class, but attenuated the effect of adult social class somewhat. Among male twin pairs discordant on adult social class, the twin in the lowest class seemed to be unable to run 100 m, rate own health poorer and being fatigued more often than the high class co...

  13. Relationship between Abuse Experience and General Health among Older Adults in Yazd City- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rezaeipandari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elder abuse may increase the vulnerability of ageing people to disease and decrease their general health status, so addressing the issue is essential for promoting elderly quality of life. The study aimed to examine the relation between abuse experience and general health among elderly people in Yazd city- Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study carried out on 250 community-dwelling seniors in the city of Yazd who were selected with cluster random sampling. Data collection tools included, Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire and Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire 28. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: Mean scores of abuse experience and general health among the elders were 11.84±12.70 (range 0-100 and 21.82±10.84 (range 0-84 respectively. General health status was more undesirable among elders who had experienced abuse than those who had not. Elder abuse subscales accounted for 17.2 % changes in general health, which had only care neglect and physical abuse subscales with significant prediction effect. Conclusion: Abuse experience has negative effects on older adults' general health. care neglect and physical abuse play a more important role.

  14. Canadian prediction equations of spirometric lung function for Caucasian adults 20 to 90 years of age: Results from the Canadian Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) study and the Lung Health Canadian Environment (LHCE) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Wan C; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, no reference or normative values for spirometry based on a randomly selected Canadian population exist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present analysis was to construct spirometric reference values for Canadian adults 20 to 90 years of age by combining data collected from healthy...... normative reference values for spirometry. Multiple regression models were constructed separately for Caucasian men and women for the following spirometric parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1⁄FVC ratio, with covariates of height, sex and age. Comparison......-corrected FEV1, FVC and FEV1⁄FVC ratio were compared with other spirometry reference studies, mean values were similar, with the closest being derived from population-based studies. CONCLUSION: These spirometry reference equations, derived from randomly selected population-based cohorts with stringently...

  15. Attitudes towards personal genomics among older Swiss adults: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mählmann

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates a relatively positive overall attitude towards personal genomic testing among older Swiss adults, a group not typically represented in surveys about personal genomics. Genomic data of older adults can be highly relevant to late life health and maintenance of quality of life. In addition they can be an invaluable source for better understanding of longevity, health and disease. Understanding the attitudes of this population towards genomic analyses, although important, remains under-examined.

  16. Neurotological Findings at a Health Unit for Adults with Cervicalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The cervical spine is a flexible link between the sensory platform of the skull and torso. The fundamental principle of its operation is due to the balance between muscle strength and flexibility, and any dysfunction of this balance causes neck pain, known as cervicalgia. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze the most prevalent neurotological findings in adults with neck pain. Method A cross-sectional study in which 33 adults from 50 to 83 years of age with neck pain were evaluated and underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, as well as ENT, audiological, and vestibular exams. Results The most evident neurotological symptoms were dizziness (75.7%, tinnitus, neck cracking, tingling in the extremities, and auditory problems (36.3% for each. The most frequently reported clinical symptoms were related to cardiovascular (69.7%, endocrine-metabolic (48.5%, and rheumatic (30.3% systems. In the audiological assessment, 30 subjects (91.0% presented hearing impairment in at least one ear, with sensorineural impairment being the most prevalent (88.0%. In the vestibular assessment, there were alterations in 13 subjects (39.0% found in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alterations in the peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Conclusion Neurotological complaints were frequent in this population, verifying the importance of these tests in the dysfunctions of the cervical region or the craniocervical junction.

  17. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Olugbenga-Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9+7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents’ knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.

  18. The Impact of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 on the Health and Wellbeing of Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Hilda A; Barton, Belinda; Wilson, Meredith J; Berman, Yemima; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J; Morrison, Patrick J; North, Kathryn N

    2015-12-01

    The complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are widespread, unpredictable and variable and each person's experience of this disorder is unique. However, few studies have addressed the impact of NF1 from an individual's perspective. This qualitative study aims to identify the ways in which NF1 impacts upon affected Australian adults. Sixty adults with NF1, with a range of disease severity and visibility participated in a semi-structured interview about the ways in which NF1 impacted upon their life and health. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Results indicated that NF1 impacts upon affected adults in five major ways: 1) cosmetic burden of disease 2) learning difficulties 3) concerns about the risk of passing NF1 to offspring 4) uncertain disease progression, and 5) pain. Participants identified the aspects of NF1 that bothered them the most, creating a hierarchy of NF1 concerns within the cohort. Importantly, mildly affected adults shared many of the same concerns as those more severely affected. This study enhances our current understanding of the impact of NF1 in adulthood, and augments existing recommendations for the care of these patients.

  19. Commentary: Assessing the Health Effects of Medicare Coverage for Previously Uninsured Adults: A Matter of Life and Death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J Michael; Meara, Ellen; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ayanian, John Z

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to a previous study we conducted and other evidence, a recent study found no significant effects of Medicare coverage after age 65 on overall health for previously uninsured adults and significant adverse effects on survival for some of these adults. We discuss explanations for these inconsistent findings, particularly the different ways in which deaths were handled, a key methodological challenge in longitudinal analyses of health. We demonstrate that analytic approaches suitable for examining effects of coverage on health measures may not be suitable for effects on mortality. Thus, estimates may be misleading when these different outcomes are jointly modeled. We also present new survival analyses that suggest Medicare coverage significantly attenuated the rising risk of death for previously uninsured adults. PMID:20337735

  20. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health of Korean older adults with hypertension: effect of an empowerment intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week empowerment intervention on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Using a quasi-experimental design, older adults participated in either an experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 21). The experimental group received an empowerment intervention including lifestyle modification education, group discussion, and exercise training for 8 weeks, and the control group received standard hypertension education. After 8 weeks, participants in the experimental group had significantly decreased sedentary behavior, increased physical activity, increased self-efficacy for physical activity, and increased perceived health (p < 0.05). However, no significant group difference was found for depression. Findings from this study suggest that empowerment interventions may be more effective than standard education in decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and perceived health in Korean older adults with hypertension.

  1. Associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Keitaro; Ihira, Hikaru; MIZUMOTO, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kotaro; Ishida, Toyoaki; Furuna, Taketo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects] A total of 304 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (70.3 ± 4.1 years; 113 males and 191 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, exercise habits, and health-related outcomes were assessed by face-to-face interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Older...

  2. Promoting advance planning for health care and research among older adults: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Gina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family members are often required to act as substitute decision-makers when health care or research participation decisions must be made for an incapacitated relative. Yet most families are unable to accurately predict older adult preferences regarding future health care and willingness to engage in research studies. Discussion and documentation of preferences could improve proxies' abilities to decide for their loved ones. This trial assesses the efficacy of an advance planning intervention in improving the accuracy of substitute decision-making and increasing the frequency of documented preferences for health care and research. It also investigates the financial impact on the healthcare system of improving substitute decision-making. Methods/Design Dyads (n = 240 comprising an older adult and his/her self-selected proxy are randomly allocated to the experimental or control group, after stratification for type of designated proxy and self-report of prior documentation of healthcare preferences. At baseline, clinical and research vignettes are used to elicit older adult preferences and assess the ability of their proxy to predict those preferences. Responses are elicited under four health states, ranging from the subject's current health state to severe dementia. For each state, we estimated the public costs of the healthcare services that would typically be provided to a patient under these scenarios. Experimental dyads are visited at home, twice, by a specially trained facilitator who communicates the dyad-specific results of the concordance assessment, helps older adults convey their wishes to their proxies, and offers assistance in completing a guide entitled My Preferences that we designed specifically for that purpose. In between these meetings, experimental dyads attend a group information session about My Preferences. Control dyads attend three monthly workshops aimed at promoting healthy behaviors. Concordance

  3. Fatigue, General Health, and Ischemic Heart Disease in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Petersen, Inge; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds.Fatigue has been shown to predict ischemic heart disease (IHD) and mortality in nonsmoking middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of fatigue for IHD and general health in nondisabled individuals free...... of cardiovascular disease and older than 70 years. METHODS: The study population was drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. In total, 1,696 participants were followed up for 2-10 years by questionnaires and 10-16 years through registries. Kaplan Meier, Cox Proportional Hazard and logistic......-related diagnoses, no use of heart medication, sustained good mobility, and participation at follow-up. IHD was defined as first hospitalization due to IHD (ICD10: I20-I25) or death due to IHD as primary cause. RESULTS: Participants without fatigue had higher chances of a sustained good general health at 2 (odds...

  4. Understanding the Health Literacy of America Results of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...

  5. e-Health technologies for adult hearing screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stenfelt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hearing diagnosis methods and hearing screening methods are not isolated phenomena: they are intimately related to changes in the cultural background and to advances in fields of medicine and engineering. In the recent years, there has been a rapid evolution in the development of fast, easy and reliable techniques for lowcost hearing screening initiatives. Since adults and elderly people typically experience a reduced hearing ability in challenging listening situations [e.g., in background noise, in reverberation, or with competing speech (Pichora‑Fuller & Souza, 2003], these newly developed screening tests mainly rely on the recognition of speech stimuli in noise, so that the real experienced listening difficulties can be effectively targeted (Killion & Niquette, 2000. New tests based on the recognition of speech in noise are being developed on portable, battery- operated devices (see, for example, Paglialonga et al., 2011, or distributed diffusely using information and communication technologies. The evolutions of e-Health and telemedicine have shifted focus from patients coming to the hearing clinic for hearing health evaluation towards the possibility of evaluating the hearing status remotely at home. So far, two ways of distributing the hearing test have primarily been used: ordinary telephone networks (excluding mobile networks and the internet. When using the telephone network for hearing screening, the predominantly test is a speech-in-noise test often referred to as the digit triplet test where the subjects hearing status is evaluated as the speech-to-noise threshold for spoken digits. This test is today available in some ten countries in Europe, North America and Australia. The use of internet as testing platform allows several different types of hearing assessment tests such as questionnaires, different types of speech in noise tests, temporal gap detection, sound localization (minimum audible angle, and spectral

  6. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  7. A review of primary care interventions to improve health outcomes in adult survivors of adverse childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotana, Laurel M; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis; Josephson, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between the experience of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health conditions, including mental and physical health problems. While a focus on the prevention or mitigation of adversity in childhood is an important direction of many programs, many individuals do not access support services until adulthood, when health problems may be fairly engrained. It is not clear which interventions have the strongest evidence base to support the many adults who present to services with a history of ACEs. The current review examines the evidence base for psychosocial interventions for adults with a history of ACEs. The review focuses on interventions that may be provided in primary care, as that is the setting where most patients will first present and are most likely to receive treatment. A systematic review of the literature was completed using PsycInfo and PubMed databases, with 99 studies identified that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. These studies evaluated a range of interventions with varying levels of supportive evidence. Overall, cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have the most evidence for improving health problems - in particular, improving mental health and reducing health-risk behaviors - in adults with a history of ACEs. Expressive writing and mindfulness-based therapies also show promise, whereas other treatments have less supportive evidence. Limitations of the current literature base are discussed and research directions for the field are provided.

  8. Patterns of salivary analytes provide diagnostic capacity for distinguishing chronic adult periodontitis from health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Schuster, Julie L; Stevens, Jason; Dawson, Dolph; Kryscio, Richard J; Lin, Yushin; Thomas, Mark V; Miller, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary biomarker discovery requires identification of analytes with high discriminatory capacity to distinguish disease from health, including day-to-day variations that occur in analyte levels. In this study, seven biomarkers associated with inflammatory and tissue destructive processes of periodontal disease were investigated. In a prospective cohort study design, analyte expression levels were determined in unstimulated whole saliva samples collected on multiple occasions from 30 healthy adults (i.e., orally and systemically) and 50 chronic adult periodontitis patients. Salivary levels of IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-8, and albumin were significantly elevated (5.4 to 12.6X) and levels of IFNα were consistently lower (8.7X) in periodontitis patients compared with the daily variation observed in healthy adults. ROC analyses of IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-8 yielded areas under the curves of 0.963-0.984 for discriminating periodontitis from health. These results demonstrate that levels of salivary bioanalytes of patients who have periodontitis are uniquely different from normal levels found in healthy subjects, and a panel consisting of IL-1β, MMP-8 and IL-6 shows particular diagnostic potential.

  9. Exploring Relationships among Strengths Use, Spirituality, Religion and Positive Mental Health of College-Attending Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among strengths use, spirituality, religion, and positive mental health of 109 traditional undergraduate, college-attending emerging adults in a public university in the southern region of the United States, often referred to as the Bible-Belt. Constructs of the study were guided by a student…

  10. Survey mode matters: adults' self-reported statistical confidence, ability to obtain health information, and perceptions of patient-health-care provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine S; Chisolm, Deena J; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-08-01

    This study examined adults' self-reported understanding and formatting preferences of medical statistics, confidence in self-care and ability to obtain health advice or information, and perceptions of patient-health-care provider communication measured through dual survey modes (random digital dial and mail). Even while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, significant differences in regard to adults' responses to survey variables emerged as a function of survey mode. While the analyses do not allow us to pinpoint the underlying causes of the differences observed, they do suggest that mode of administration should be carefully adjusted for and considered.

  11. Early-life conditions and older adult health in low- and middle-income countries: a review

    OpenAIRE

    McEniry, M.

    2013-01-01

    Population aging and subsequent projected large increases in chronic conditions will be important health concerns in low- and middle-income countries. Although evidence is accumulating, little is known regarding the impact of poor early-life conditions on older adult (50 years and older) health in these settings. A systematic review of 1141 empirical studies was conducted to identify population-based and community studies in low- and middle-income countries, which examined associations betwee...

  12. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M

    2009-09-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54-89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities.

  13. Oral health behaviour of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2006-01-01

    differences were found in oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices according to location and gender. At age 12, important factors of high caries experience were location (urban), and consumption of soft drinks and fresh fruits. In 35-44-year-olds, gender (female), high education level, dental visit......OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of dental knowledge and attitudes among 12 year-old children and 35-44 year-olds in Burkina Faso; to evaluate the pattern of oral health behaviour among these cohorts in relation to location, gender and social characteristics and; to evaluate the relative effect....... The final study population covered two age groups: 12 years (n = 505) and 35-44 years (n = 493). RESULTS: For both children and adults, levels of oral health knowledge, attitudes and self-care were low; 36% of 12-year-olds and 57% of 35-44-year-olds carried out toothcleaning on a daily basis. Pain...

  14. Mental health inpatient experiences of adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taua, Chris; Neville, Christine; Scott, Theresa

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents findings from a study exploring the mental health inpatient care of people with a dual disability of intellectual disability and mental health issues from the perspective of those people with the dual disability. A mixture of semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews were carried out with nine participants who had been admitted to an inpatient unit for mental health care exploring their experience of care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using open coding and Leximancer (an online data mining tool) analysis to identify dominant themes in the discourse. Analysis revealed themes around 'Therapeutic and Meaningful Activity', 'Emotion Focussed Care', and 'Feeling Safe?' Participants were able to identify the aspects of inpatient care that worked for them in terms of coping with time in hospital. This research suggests that there are several factors that should be considered in providing effective mental health inpatient care for people with dual disability. A number of strategies and recommendations for responding to their needs are identified and discussed.

  15. Health risks and changes in self-efficacy following community health screening of adults with serious mental illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Cook

    Full Text Available Physical health screenings were conducted by researchers and peer wellness specialists for adults attending publicly-funded community mental health programs. A total of 457 adults with serious mental illnesses attended health fairs in 4 U.S. states and were screened for 8 common medical co-morbidities and health risk factors. Also assessed were self-reported health competencies, medical conditions, and health service utilization. Compared to non-institutionalized U.S. adults, markedly higher proportions screened positive for obesity (60%, hypertension (32%, diabetes (14%, smoking (44%, nicotine dependence (62%, alcohol abuse (17%, drug abuse (11%, and coronary heart disease (10%. A lower proportion screened positive for hyperlipidemia (7%. Multivariable random regression analysis found significant pre- to post-screening increases in participants' self-rated abilities for health practices, competence for health maintenance, and health locus of control. Screening identified 82 instances of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and 76 instances where these disorders were treated but uncontrolled. These results are discussed in the context of how this global public health approach holds promise for furthering the goal of integrating health and mental health care.

  16. Evaluation of the health status in adult celiacs of the Valencian Community (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelegrí Calvo, C.; Soriano del Castillo; J. M., Mañes Vinuesa, J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In adult patients, the diagnostic process for coeliac disease (CD is usually very late (eleven years on average, which leads to health complications that could be avoided with earlier diagnosis.Therefore, we have studied some aspects about thehealth status of the celiac patients interviewed. Objectives: The objective of this study is to quantify the prevalence of health-related issues, such as reproductive problems, other associated diseases, possible triggers of CD, bone health, anemia and otherautoimmune diseases or tumors, and the presence ofCD in first grade relatives.Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study in 98adult celiac through a validated questionnaire specificfor coeliac patients. Results: The 23% of women had reproductive problems, most of the coeliac patients showed associatedconditions and 51% of CD cases was triggered after aphysical or psychological event. Conclusions: High prevalence of celiac disease inindividuals concomitant diseases as iron deficiency anemia, depression, hypothyroidism, lactose intolerance,IgA deficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest theneed of diagnostic tests to determine or rule out CD. The presence of one or more symptoms or conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, lactose intolerance, osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes or IgA deficiency in first-degree relatives of a celiac should raise suspicions abouta non-diagnosed EC.

  17. Personal factors predictive of health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Catipon, Terry; Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2011-01-01

    We explored personal factors that can predict health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of 253 older adults was recruited to complete the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a comprehensive measure of health-promoting behaviors. Data were analyzed through univariate correlational/comparative statistics followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine significant predictor variables for different aspects of health-related lifestyle. Personal health conditions, including the number of chronic diseases or impairments and self-rated health, were two strong predictors for the HELP (R2 = .571, p Leisure). When developing individualized plans for older adults in community settings, occupational therapists should consider the clients' strengths and vulnerabilities potentially derived from personal health factors and demographic attributes to yield more effective lifestyle interventions.

  18. Beliefs about God and mental health among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen; Ellison, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the association between beliefs about God and psychiatric symptoms in the context of Evolutionary Threat Assessment System Theory, using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey of US Adults (N = 1,426). Three beliefs about God were tested separately in ordinary least squares regression models to predict five classes of psychiatric symptoms: general anxiety, social anxiety, paranoia, obsession, and compulsion. Belief in a punitive God was positively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, while belief in a benevolent God was negatively associated with four psychiatric symptoms, controlling for demographic characteristics, religiousness, and strength of belief in God. Belief in a deistic God and one's overall belief in God were not significantly related to any psychiatric symptoms.

  19. Effectiveness of Qigong in promoting the health of wheelchair-bound older adults in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Shu-Chien; Chen, Kuei-Min; Wang, Chi

    2012-04-01

    Institutional wheelchair-bound older adults often do not get regular exercise and are prone to health problems. The aim of this study was to test the effects of a 12-week qigong exercise program on the physiological and psychological health of wheelchair-bound older adults in long-term care facilities. Study design was quasi-experimental, pre-post test, nonequivalent control group. Participants comprised a convenience sample of 72 wheelchair-bound older adults (qigong = 34; control = 38). The qigong group exercised 35 min/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Measures for physical health (blood pressure, heart rate variability, and distal skin temperature) and psychological health (Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5) were collected before and during study Weeks 4, 8, and 12. The qigong group participants' blood pressure, distal skin temperature, and psychological health were significantly improved (all p qigong exercise is a suitable daily activity for elderly residents in long-term care facilities and may help in the control of blood pressure among older adults.

  20. Cost Estimation of a Health-Check Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Morrison, J.; Melville, C.; Allan, L.; Finlayson, J.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: High rates of health needs among adults with intellectual disabilities flag the need for information about the economic consequences of strategies to identify and address unmet needs. Health-check interventions are one such strategy, and have been demonstrated to effect health gains over the following 12-month period. However, little…

  1. Development of a Scale to Measure Adults' Perceptions of Health: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James J.; Becker, Julie A.; Arenson, Christine A.; Chambers, Christopher V.; Rosenthal, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Given the national agenda on chronic disease self-management, the goal of the project described in this brief report was to develop a scale that measured adult perceptions about health but did not focus on a specific condition. The Perception of Health Scale (PHS) is based on earlier work that used the Health Belief Model as a focus. The 15-item…

  2. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  3. Suicide Ideation in Older Adults: Relationship to Mental Health Problems and Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…

  4. Socio-demographic, economic and health profile of adults with sickle-cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Lamese Amaral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe socio-demographic and economic characteristics, lifestyle, clinical manifestations, use of medications and monitoring of adults with sickle-cell disease. Methods: a descriptive study with quantitative approach, made with 20 adults, registered in a Hematology and Hemotherapy Center, using, for data collection, interviews in the participant’s home and medical records. In order to have the database, the EpiDatae analysis software through statistical program was used. Results: most of the population consisted of women, married, with complete high school, which used exclusively the Unified Health System. The average age was 30.6 years, and 90.0% (95% CI 68.3-98.8 were black. All of them reported painful crises and fatigue. They used folic acid daily 35.0% (95% CI 15.4-59.2. Conclusion: the implications of sickle-cell disease could be mitigated through primary, secondary and tertiary health care, according to the needs of those adults.

  5. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  6. Family Violence Among Older Adult Patients Consulting in Primary Care Clinics: Results From the ESA (Enquête sur la santé des aînés) Services Study on Mental Health and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Mathieu, Véronique; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To document the reliability and construct validity of the Family Violence Scale (FVS) in the older adult population aged 65 years and older. Method: Data came from a cross-sectional survey, the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study), conducted in 2011–2013 using a probabilistic sample of older adults waiting for medical services in primary care clinics (n = 1765). Family violence was defined as a latent variable, coming from a spou...

  7. Emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in institutionalised Spanish older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of Spanish older adults who are institutionalised in long-term care (LTC) facilities. One hundred fifteen institutionalised individuals (47.82% women; 88.3 ± 7.9 years) from southern Spain completed a set of questionnaires that included measures of EI, health and personality. Data were analysed via hierarchical regression. After controlling for personality and sociodemographic variables, the EI dimensions, emotional comprehension and emotional facilitation, accounted for part of the variance in several HRQoL facets. These dimensions could have an important role in the HRQoL of residents in LTC. Moreover, the use of a performance measure addresses the limitations of previous studies that have relied on self-report measures. These aspects underscore the importance of the results of this study.

  8. Health status and treatment–seeking stigma in older adults with trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Pless Kaiser, PhD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared health status across four trauma/posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD groups of older adults with depression, anxiety, and/or at-risk drinking who attended primary care appointments (N = 1,199; mean age = 73.5 yr, mostly at Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals. The trauma and PTSD categories were PTSD (n = 81, partial PTSD (n = 127, trauma only (n = 323, and no trauma (n = 668. Physical and mental health-related quality of life (HQL, indices of social and economic impairment and stigma regarding treatment-seeking were compared among groups. Group differences were found for several indicators of functional impairment; the PTSD group had fewer close friends and higher treatment-seeking stigma beliefs related to having a disorder. Linear mixed modeling examined associations between trauma/PTSD group and HQL. After accounting for covariates, the trauma/PTSD groups differed across the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 scales and component scores (indicated by significant group by scale interaction. Differences among groups were confined to mental health measures; those with PTSD had worse HQL. Post hoc analyses examined the number of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses by trauma/PTSD group. Overall, findings indicate that mental HQL varies among older adults with trauma and PTSD and that although treatment-related stigma does not differ among groups, it does affect HQL.

  9. Association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease among Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed to assess the association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease using nationally representative data. This study involved a cross-sectional analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis models using the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontal disease. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the toothbrushing after lunch group and the toothbrushing before bedtime group were 0.842 (0.758, 0.936) and 0.814 (0.728, 0.911), respectively, after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, drinking, exercise, education, income, white blood cell count, and metabolic syndrome. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the floss group and the powered toothbrush group after adjustment were 0.678 (0.588, 0.781) and 0.771 (0.610, 0.974), respectively. The association between oral health behavior and periodontitis was proven by multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding factors among Korean adults. Brushing after lunch and before bedtime as well as the use of floss and a powered toothbrush may be considered independent risk indicators of periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:28207558

  10. Health-related quality of life in adult dermatitis patients stratified by filaggrin genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Nina G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Thuesen, Betina H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information concerning health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and comorbidities of adult dermatitis patients stratified by loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) is limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate HRQoL, skin symptoms and comorbidities in adult FLG mutation carriers......, as measured by use of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), no association with self-reported anxiety or depression was identified. Notably, the highest median DLQI score, reflecting greater impairment, was reported by patients with both FLG mutations and atopic dermatitis. Overall, 19.7% of patients....... METHODS: This cross-sectional study included patients diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and/or hand eczema (n = 520). Patients completed questionnaires about dermatitis, skin symptoms, HRQoL, and comorbidities, including actinic keratosis, and atopic and mental disorders. RESULTS: FLG mutations (R501X...

  11. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  12. Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan G; Tish Doyle-Baker, P K

    2008-04-01

    The overall purpose of the study was to examine if individuals with low motor competence achieve age-adequate fitness and health. A group of 149 children, adolescents, and adults with low or high motor competence participated in motor, fitness, and health assessments. Individuals with low motor competence did not differ on their basic physiological health parameters, but they had less optimal levels of overall health and fitness indices than those with high motor competence. As a function of age, musculoskeletal fitness was significantly compromised for the low motor competence group. The metabolic indices suggested that the low motor competence group had significantly higher BMI's compared to the high motor competence group. Motor skills and static balance were significant predictors of the BMI. Exercise intensity differed between children in the low and high motor competence group. The findings suggest that individuals with low motor competence have compromised health-related fitness. In order to discriminate between individuals with high and low motor competence, fitness assessment should include at least back extension, curl ups, and sit and reach. In addition, health-related fitness measurements such as BMI, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and bone mineral density are also recommended.

  13. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  14. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten;

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... may thus have a health effect beyond the parity effect. A possible design for studying this is to compare health effects for women with or without multiple partners but with the same parity. We compared total and cause specific mortality in these two groups in order to estimate their comparability...... one partner had a higher relative mortality rate, which was even higher if she had more than two partners. This finding persisted after excluding unnatural deaths and did not depend on time from exposure. Although some of the findings were adjusted for parity, age and social factors, it is highly...

  15. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes N. Pedersen; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of ...

  16. Access to oral health care services among adults with learning disabilities: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Mustafa; Shah, Altaf H; Khiyani, Muhammad Faheem; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Gulzar, Shabnam; AlJameel, AlBandary H.; Khalil, Hesham S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of oral diseases including dental caries and periodontal conditions is remarkably higher in people with disabilities. The provision of accessible oral health services for people with learning disabilities may be challenging. Objectives The objectives of the review were to identify barriers in accessing oral health care that persists within society, enabling or disabling people with learning disabilities. Methods Using the Arksey O’Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted on PubMed/Medline, OVIDSP, and EMBASE. Studies were evaluated and short-listed based on the inclusion criteria, which consisted of: (1) study participants or population with learning disabilities, (2) aged 16 years or over, (3) reporting on access to oral health services, (4) published in the English language. Those that justified the inclusion criteria were carefully chosen after a blind peer-reviewed process when relevance and quality were debated. Results Nine studies were eventually included from searches. Tabulation of data was done under the heading of study type, outcomes, the year of publication and patient selection. The majority of studies provided a biomedical overview of access for adults with learning disabilities. Conclusions The concept of access for people with disability is still ill-defined and obscure. Access to oral health care and needs of people with learning disabilities are complex and multi-facet. PMID:28149451

  17. [Effects of social mobility on adult mental health:a systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Lenice de Castro Muniz; Laura, Helen Castillo; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2016-02-01

    The scope of this study was to identify longitudinal studies evaluating the relationship between social mobility and mental disorders in adults. An electronic review of the literature was conducted in the PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO databases. The bibliographic references of the articles selected for analysis were also examined for eligibility. Cohort studies were selected taking social mobility as exposure category and mental health-related disorders as the outcome. Seven studies were reviewed and their definition and categorization of exposure and outcome were found to be heterogeneous, thus rendering analysis and comparison of the results found in the various studies difficult. Mental health-related disorders were more common in individuals belonging to lower socio-economic classes, regardless of having upward, stable or downward social mobility. Moreover, the influence of individual socio-economic conditions, assessed in adulthood, appears to be greater than the effect of parental economic status on the mental health of individuals. This review indicates that it is possible to find a relationship between socio-economic status during the course of life and mental health in adulthood. However, the direction taken by this relationship remains unclear.

  18. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  19. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  20. Changes in the oral health of adults from Trøndelag, Norway, 1973-1983-1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A; Holst, D

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the changes in the oral health of adults from Trøndelag, Norway, over two decades (1973-1983-1994), from both a quasi-longitudinal and a time-lag perspective. Study participants were selected by random sampling in 1973, 1983 and 1994 (n=1759, n=3195, n=2341).

  1. Longitudinal effects of GALM on physical activity, health and fitness of older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Johan de; Lemmink, Koen; Stevens, Martin

    2010-01-01

    To determine the longitudinal effects of participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) on physical activity, health and fitness of sedentary and underactive older adults aged 55-65 (pag 35-36 abstract book).

  2. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Aiko; Ueno, Takeji

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants' previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them.

  3. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested.

  4. Consumer Health Information Behavior in Public Libraries: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yong Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicated inadequate health literacy of American adults as one of the biggest challenges for consumer health information services provided in public libraries. Little attention, however, has been paid to public users' health literacy and health information behaviors. In order to bridge the research gap, the study aims to…

  5. Perspectives of Young Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions on Vocational Peer Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…

  6. Mental Health Problems and Barriers to Service Use in Dutch Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Vanheusden (Kathleen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnly up to one-third of young adults with a mental disorder seek professional help. The reasons for this low help-seeking rate are largely unclear. The first aim of this thesis is to explain why young adults are unlikely to seek professional help when facing mental health problems. The s

  7. Older Adult Participation in Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Facility Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.

    2011-01-01

    Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…

  8. Social and physical environmental correlates of adults' weekend sitting time and moderating effects of retirement status and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; McNaughton, Sarah A; Teychenne, Megan; Timperio, Anna; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2014-09-19

    Emerging research suggests that prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is detrimental to health. Changes in SB patterns are likely to occur during particular life stages, for example at retirement age (55-65-year-old). Evidence on socio-ecological SB correlates is scarce and inconsistent in this age group. Moreover, the influence of socio-ecological correlates may vary depending on health and retirement status. This study examined social and environment correlates of overall weekend day sitting among adults at or approaching retirement age, and moderating effects of perceived physical health and retirement status. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in 2839 Australian adults (55-65-year-old) were analysed. Participants self-reported proximal social factors, neighbourhood social and physical environment, physical health and retirement status. MLwiN multilevel regression analyses were conducted. In the multivariable model, only social support from friends/colleagues to discourage sitting (B = -0.891; p = 0.036) was associated with overall weekend day sitting. No moderation of retirement status, nor physical health were found in the multivariable results. Results from this study suggest the importance of social factors in relation to weekend day sitting among 55-65-year-old adults. Health promotion initiatives in this age group should pay special attention to enhancing social interaction opportunities. Moreover, findings suggest that SB-specific correlates may need to be examined in future research.

  9. “It’s Killing Us!” Narratives of Black Adults About Microaggression Experiences and Related Health Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Hall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceived racism contributes to persistent health stress leading to health disparities. African American/Black persons (BPs believe subtle, rather than overt, interpersonal racism is increasing. Sue and colleagues describe interpersonal racism as racial microaggressions: “routine” marginalizing indignities by White persons (WPs toward BPs that contribute to health stress. In this narrative, exploratory study, Black adults (n = 10 were asked about specific racial microaggressions; they all experienced multiple types. Categorical and narrative analysis captured interpretations, strategies, and health stress attributions. Six iconic narratives contextualized health stress responses. Diverse mental and physical symptoms were attributed to racial microaggressions. Few strategies in response had positive outcomes. Future research includes development of coping strategies for BPs in these interactions, exploration of WPs awareness of their behaviors, and preventing racial microaggressions in health encounters that exacerbate health disparities.

  10. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  11. Incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications among Saudi adult patients at primary health care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsenany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed type 2 diabetes and its role in complications among adult Saudi patients. [Subjects] Patients attending four primary health care centers in Jeddah were enrolled. [Methods] A cross-sectional design study among Saudi patients attending Ministry of Health primary health care centers in Jeddah was selected for use by the Primary Health Care administration. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires to determine the presence of diabetes and risk factors using questions about the history of any disease. [Results] Diabetes mellitus was present in 234 subjects during the data collection period (March-June 2014). Mean patient age was 58 years; diabetes prevalence was 42% in males and 58% in females. The mean age for diabetes onset in males and females was 34 and 39 years, respectively. There was a higher incidence of obesity (75%) associated with a sedentary lifestyle (body mass index ≥25) in females (N= 96; 40%) compared with males (N= 87; 36%). In this study, >44% of individuals aged 55 or older had severe to uncontrolled diabetes with long-term complications. The age-adjusted incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease was 38% and 24%, respectively, showing a clear incidence of diabetes associated with cardiovascular disease in Saudi Arabia. [Conclusion] This study found that a multifactorial approach to managing diabetes complication risks is needed.

  12. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding sexual health among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Most of the male adults had inadequate knowledge and none had adequate knowledge regarding sexual health. The STP was highly effective in increasing the knowledge score among young males. Educational intervention programs must be given due importance, which will help the adult males to take care of their own health and protect themselves from the risk of STDs etc. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1119-1123

  13. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Odell-Miller

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client ...

  14. Where Do U.S. Adults Who Do Not Use the Internet Get Health Information? Examining Digital Health Information Disparities From 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    With more people turning to the Internet for health information, a few questions remain: Which populations represent the remaining few who have never used the Internet, and where do they go for health information? The purpose of this study is to describe population characteristics and sources of health information among U.S. adults who do not use the Internet. Data from 3 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 1,722) are used to examine trends in health information sources. Weighted predicted probabilities demonstrate changes in information source over time. Older adults, minority populations, and individuals with low educational attainment represent a growing percentage of respondents who have looked for health information but have never used the Internet, highlighting trends in digital information disparities. However, 1 in 10 respondents who have never used the Internet also indicate that the Internet was their first source of health information, presumably through surrogates. Findings highlight digital disparities in information seeking and the complex nature of online information seeking. Future research should examine how individuals conceptualize information sources, measure skills related to evaluating information and sources, and investigate the social nature of information seeking. Health care organizations and public health agencies can leverage the multifaceted nature of information seeking to better develop information resources to increase information access by vulnerable populations.

  15. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luípa Michele Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes.METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults.RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%. Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6% and alterations in routine activities (9.6%. In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses.CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults.

  16. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  17. Most Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancers Enjoy Good Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163439.html Most Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancers Enjoy Good Sexual ... toxic treatments were tied to later issues, but most rated sex lives as positive To use the ...

  18. [Influence of child nutrition on health status during adult years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazyk, J

    2000-01-01

    The problem of safety of child's nutrition should be considered from the moment of his conception because intrauterine growth may be related to the diseases in adult life: atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Strict vegetarian diets are not appropriate for children. The task of proper nutrition in childhood is to prevent adult life diseases and to promote potentially highest quality of life and development of cognitive and intellectual functions, and proper growth. The role of microelements - iron and zinc - is also discussed.

  19. Immunizing Adults (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-21

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.  Created: 2/21/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/21/2013.

  20. Older Adults' Use of Online and Offline Sources of Health Information and Constructs of Reliance and Self-Efficacy for Medical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Bernhardt, Jay M; Dodd, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    We know little about older adults' use of online and offline health information sources for medical decision making despite increasing numbers of older adults who report using the Internet for health information to aid in patient-provider communication and medical decision making. Therefore we investigated older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and factors related to medical decision making. Survey research was conducted using random digit dialing of Florida residents' landline telephones. The Decision Self-Efficacy Scale and the Reliance Scale were used to measure relationships between users and nonusers of online health information. Study respondents were 225 older adults (age range = 50-92 years, M = 68.9, SD = 10.4), which included users (n = 105) and nonusers (n = 119) of online health information. Users and nonusers differed in frequency and types of health sources sought. Users of online health information preferred a self-reliant approach and nonusers of online health information preferred a physician-reliant approach to involvement in medical decisions on the Reliance Scale. This study found significant differences between older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and examined factors related to online health information engagement for medical decision making.

  1. Communication skills training for health care professionals improves the adult orthopaedic patient's experience of quality of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Birgitte; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012; Communication skills training for health care professionals improves the adult orthopaedic patient's experience of quality of care Rationale:  Despite the fact that communication has become a core topic in health care, patients still experience the information provided...... as insufficient or incorrect and a lack of involvement. Objective:  To investigate whether adult orthopaedic patients' evaluation of the quality of care had improved after a communication skills training course for healthcare professionals. Design and methods:  The study was designed as an intervention study...... limitation. Response rates were comparable to those of other studies. Conclusion:  Patients show increased satisfaction with the quality of health care after professionals have attended a communication skills training course, even when implemented in an entire department. Practice implications:  We recommend...

  2. Introduction: Studying Health and Health Care in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Krause, K.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction delineates and discusses the field of social, cultural, and historical studies of health and health care in Ghana. Health and health care are viewed as significant nexuses of social and cultural processes. This overview of studies, mainly from Anglophone medical anthropology, focus

  3. La salud de las personas adultas Adult health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Artazcoz

    2004-05-01

    salud sensibles a las desigualdades sociales.The objective of this study is to analyse the social inequalities in health status, health related behaviours and mortality among the 25-64 years Spanish population. Data come from the 1997 Spanish National Health Survey, the 1999 Spanish National Survey on Working Conditions, the 2001 Yearbook of Labour and Social Affairs Statistics and the 1998 Mortality Statistics. Most health-related behaviours are more unfavourable for men (smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight and for less privileged social classes. Among women, entrance into the labour market is associated with more unhealthy behaviours except for overweight. Low weight, however, is more frequent among employed females. Self-perceived health status is better among men, more privileged social class persons and among workers. Whereas classical physical job hazards and work injuries mostly affect men, the impact of psychosocial job hazards and of exposures derived from the domestic work is higher for women. As in other developed countries, the paradox exists that whereas women have a poorer self-perceived health status, mortality is higher among men. The male excess in mortality is related to health-related behaviours that to a great extent are determined by traditional values assigned to masculinity, with higher consumption of tobacco (lung cancer, alcohol (cirrhosis, drugs (HIV and AIDS and risky behaviours related to injuries. Health policies should take into account social inequalities in health determined by gender, social class and employment status. For doing so, it is important to increase the development of research on social inequalities and of health information systems sensitive to social inequalities.

  4. Health literacy of Dutch adults: a cross sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Rademakers, J.; Schipper, M.; Droomers, M.; Sorensen, K.; Uiters, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Relatively little knowledge is available to date about health literacy among the general population in Europe. It is important to gain insights into health literacy competences among the general population, as this might contribute to more effective health promotion and help clarify soci

  5. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adults in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-beh...

  6. Benefits of Health and Wellness Education in the Adult Population in México, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Hernández Vázquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents advances in understanding the influence of Mexican education on the perceptions of the adult population regarding their health. The analysis forms part of the oecd conceptual model for understanding the connections between education and social—but not economic—outcomes. Data from the 2006 National Survey on Health and Nutrition is employed to build a logistic model. The study confirmed the idea that people tend to feel healthier as their educational level rises, regardless of their economic condition, ethnicity, age, gender or whether they reside in a rural or urban area. The findings also showed that education is the single most positive influence on the perception of feeling healthy, more so even than economic situation.

  7. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415. Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities, and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04, 1.29. Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden.

  8. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  9. Romantic relationships and health among African American young adults: linking patterns of relationship quality over time to changes in physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B; Culatta, Elizabeth; Simons, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    With trends in delayed marriage, scholars have begun to explore how a wide range of romantic relationships contribute to health. Although a welcome shift, this largely cross-sectional work ignores potential (in)stability in relationship supports and stressors thought to affect health. Using Family and Community Health Study data on 634 African American young adults, we extend this work by demonstrating the value of a holistic, multidimensional assessment of relationship quality for understanding the link between relationships and health. In addition, however, we also show that there is substantial instability in both the presence and quality of romantic relationships during the transition to adulthood. Importantly, particular patterns of instability are uniquely associated with changes in mental and physical health. Given persistent racial inequalities across both relationships and health, such findings prove theoretically and practically important. In particular, they highlight the need for more contextualized, life course-sensitive approaches in future work.

  10. Training meals on wheels volunteers as health literacy coaches for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Donald L; Freimuth, Vicki S; Johnson, Sharon D; Kaley, Terry; Parmer, John

    2014-05-01

    Homebound older adults constitute a "hardly reached" population with respect to health communication. Older adults also typically suffer from health literacy challenges, which put them at increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Suboptimal interactions with providers are one such challenge. Interventions to improve interactive health literacy focus on training consumers/patients in question preparation and asking. Meals on Wheels volunteers are uniquely suited to coach their clients in such interaction strategies. Seventy-three Meals on Wheels volunteers participated in workshops to train as health literacy coaches. The 3- to 4-hour workshops included units on communicating with older adults, on the nature of health literacy, and on the process of interactive health literacy coaching. Participants viewed and discussed videos that modeled the targeted communication behaviors for older adult patients interacting with physicians. They role-played the coaching process. After 9 months, coaches participated in a "booster" session that included videos of ideal coaching practices. Evaluation questionnaires revealed that participants had favorable reactions to the workshops with respect to utility and interest. They especially appreciated learning communication skills and seeing realistic videos. A measure of knowledge about the workshop material revealed a significant increment at posttest. Fidelity of coaching practices with respect to workshop curriculum was confirmed. This training in interactive health literacy for community-based lay volunteers constitutes one way to implement the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy for one "hardly reached" population. An online tool kit containing all workshop materials is available.

  11. Predictors of a health-promoting life-style among well ad