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Sample records for adult growth hormone

  1. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth...

  2. Growth hormone treatment in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Binnerts, Arjen

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWrth the development of recombinant DNA technology a practically limitless amount of GH became available for clinical use. Against the background of the sizable literature, aims of the work in this thesis were to further investigate: a) optimal dose regimens regarding beneficial and harmful effects of the administration of pharmacological doses of GH in catabolic elderly adults. b) the possible role of GH as a stimulator of cancer growth or in the treatment of cancer induced cache...

  3. Growth Hormone Therapy in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Vogt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is characterized by hyperphagia, obesity if food intake is not strictly controlled, abnormal body composition with decreased lean body mass and increased fat mass, decreased basal metabolic rate, short stature, low muscle tone, cognitive disability, and hypogonadism. In addition to improvements in linear growth, the benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition and motor function in children with PWS are well established. Evidence is now emerging on the benefits of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. This review summarizes the current literature on growth hormone status and the use of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. The benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition, muscle strength, exercise capacity, certain measures of sleep-disordered breathing, metabolic parameters, quality of life, and cognition are covered in detail along with potential adverse effects and guidelines for initiating and monitoring therapy.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Sustained-Release Recombinant Human Growth Hormone in Korean Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngsook; Hong, Jae Won; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Sung-Woon; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jin Hwa; Kim, Byung-Joon; Lee, Eun Jig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The administration of recombinant human growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency has been known to improve metabolic impairment and quality of life. Patients, however, have to tolerate daily injections of growth hormone. The efficacy, safety, and compliance of weekly administered sustained-release recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH, Declage™) supplement in patients with growth hormone deficiency were evaluated. Materials and Methods This trial is 12-week prospect...

  5. Growth hormone replacement therapy in adults with growth hormone deficiency; thrice weekly low dose administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Y.S. Chung; Lee, H C; S.K. Hwang; Paik, I. K.; Lee, J.H.; Huh, K. B.

    1994-01-01

    Recent reports on growth hormone (GH) therapy have shown that GH has various beneficial effects in GH deficient adults. In most of these studies, GH was administered daily. Because GH is still expensive and has to be delivered by subcutaneous injection, we studied the 6-month therapeutic effects of thrice weekly GH injection therapy and compared it with daily therapy. Twenty eight adult patients with GH deficiency were randomly assigned into group 1 (ten cases, thrice weekly injections of GH)...

  6. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth Hormone ... I should know? How is it used? Growth hormone (GH) testing is primarily used to identify growth hormone ...

  7. Growth hormone effects on cortical bone dimensions in young adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, L; Conway, G S; Racz, K;

    2012-01-01

    . INTRODUCTION: In young adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO GHD), GH treatment after final height is reached has been shown to have beneficial effects on spine and hip bone mineral density. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of GH on cortical bone dimensions. METHODS......Growth hormone (GH) treatment in young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency has beneficial effects on bone mass. The present study shows that cortical bone dimensions also benefit from GH treatment, with endosteal expansion and increased cortical thickness leading to improved bone strength...

  8. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy in growth hormone-deficient adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated water compartment assessment by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) by Xitron 4000B in 164 growth hormone-deficient adults on growth hormone replacement therapy, examined the assumed constant body density and gender-specific resistivities in BIS methodology and evaluated a published BMI-adjusted BIS equation. Body composition was measured by BIS, total body potassium (TBK), tritium dilution and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Tritium dilution and TBK were combined to a reference method for water compartments. Average difference for total body water (TBW) by tritium dilution and by BIS was 0.6 l in women (p > 0.05) and −0.2 l in men (p > 0.05). Average extracellular water (ECW) by the reference method and by BIS differed 1.5 l in women (p < 0.05) and 1.2 l in men (p < 0.05). Average intracellular water (ICW) by the reference method and by BIS differed −0.9 l in women (p < 0.05) and −1.3 l in men (p < 0.05). However, average ECW and ICW could be successfully estimated by BIS with use of unisex resistivity constants that were derived from this population, although with large individual variation. Average individual body density was lower than assumed. Application of individual body density did not improve agreement between methods. BMI-adjusted equations were not fully accurate in this population

  9. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M;

    1991-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0.......0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio...... of u-GH excretion (pg/h) was significantly higher in females than in males (p less than 0.01). In Tanner stages 1-4, u-GH excretion during the day was lower than that at night, whereas the opposite was true in late puberty and in adult women. The interindividual variation of u-GH excretion within the...

  10. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Majumdar, Neena; List, Edward O; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Frank, Stuart J; Manzano, Anna; Bartrons, Ramon; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kopchick, John J; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2015-09-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients. PMID:26015548

  11. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh;

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  12. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; El Nahas, Meguid; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD.......The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  13. Metabolic effects of growth hormone administered subcutaneously once or twice daily to growth hormone deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    1994-01-01

    -term metabolic effects in GH deficient patients. An improved growth response is obtained in GH deficient children when a fixed weekly GH dose is administered by daily subcutaneous injections instead of twice or thrice-weekly intramuscular injections. A more pulsatile pattern and serum GH levels above zero might...... MEASUREMENTS: In a cross-over study, 8 GH deficient patients (age 16-43 years) were treated with 3 IU/m2/24 h of human GH. The dose was injected in the evening for 4 weeks and for another 4 weeks two-thirds was injected in the evening and one-third in the morning. At the end of each period the patients were...

  14. Should we start and continue growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults has been described as a clinical syndrome. Central features of this entity include increased fat mass, reduced muscle and bone mass, as well as impaired exercise capacity and quality of life. GH replacement therapy has been initiated

  15. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Rosenfalck, A M; Frandsen, E;

    1999-01-01

    Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH...... persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults....

  16. No Improvement of Adult Height in Non-growth Hormone (GH) Deficient Short Children with GH Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Fujieda, Kenji; Yokoya, Susumu; Shimatsu, Akira; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tanizawa, Takakuni; Teramoto, Akira; Nagai, Toshiro; Nishi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Hanew, Kunihiko; Fujita, Keinosuke; Horikawa, Reiko; Takada, Goro

    2006-01-01

    It is still in doubt whether the standard-dose growth hormone (GH) used in Japan (0.5 IU/kg/week, 0.167 mg/kg/week) for growth hormone deficiency is effective for achieving significant adult height improvement in non-growth hormone deficient (non-GHD) short children. We compared the growth of GH-treated non-GHD short children with that of untreated short children to examine the effect of standard-dose GH treatment on non-GHD short children. GH treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (...

  17. Impaired thermoregulation in adults with growth hormone deficiency during heat exposure and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Behrenscheer, A; Tims, T;

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been shown that patients with growth hormone deficiency have a reduced sweating capacity. We hypothesize that reduced sweating might affect thermoregulation in growth hormone deficiency patients. In the present study we have examined thermoregulation in growth hormone deficiency...

  18. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  19. Improved adipose tissue metabolism after 5-year growth hormone replacement therapy in growth hormone deficient adults: The role of zinc-α2-glycoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Balaž, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Vlcek, Miroslav; Surova, Martina; Krumpolec, Patrik; Vanuga, Peter; Gašperíková, Daniela; Klimeš, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) supplementation therapy to adults with GH deficiency has beneficial effects on adipose tissue lipid metabolism, improving thus adipocyte functional morphology and insulin sensitivity. However, molecular nature of these effects remains unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that lipid-mobilizing adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein is causally linked to GH effects on adipose tissue lipid metabolism. Seventeen patients with severe GH deficiency examined before and after the 5...

  20. Detection of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreber, Lisa A; Griesbach, Grace S; Ashley, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during the post-acute phase of recovery and whether GHD was associated with increased disability, decreased independence, and depression. A secondary objective was to determine the accuracy of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in predicting GHD in patients with TBI. Anterior pituitary function was assessed in 235 adult patients with TBI through evaluation of fasting morning hormone levels. GH levels were assessed through provocative testing, specifically the glucagon stimulation test. GHD was diagnosed in a significant number of patients, with 45% falling into the severe GHD (≤3 μg/L) category. IGF-1 levels were not predictive of GHD. Patients with GHD were more disabled and less independent compared with those patients who were not GHD. Those patients with more severe GHD also showed decreased levels of cortisol and testosterone. Symptoms of depression were also more prevalent in this group. In addition, patients with severe GHD had delayed admission to post-acute rehabilitation. This study confirms the high prevalence of GHD in patients with TBI and the necessity to monitor clinical symptoms and perform provocative testing to definitively diagnose GHD. PMID:26414093

  1. Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being in adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell-Jones David L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being were evaluated for adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD: the General Well-being Index, (GWBI – British version of the Psychological General Well-being Index, and the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ12. Methods Reliability, structure and other aspects of validity were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 157 adults with treated or untreated GHD, and sensitivity to change in a randomised placebo-controlled study of three months' growth hormone (GH withdrawal from 12 of 21 GH-treated adults. Results Very high completion rates were evidence that both questionnaires were acceptable to respondents. Factor analyses did not indicate the existence of useful GWBI subscales, but confirmed the validity of calculating a GWBI Total score. However, very high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96, N = 152, probably indicated some item redundancy in the 22-item GWBI. On the other hand, factor analyses confirmed the validity of the three W-BQ12 subscales of Negative Well-being, Energy, and Positive Well-being, each having excellent internal reliability (alphas of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.88, respectively, N from 152 to 154. There was no sign of item redundancy in the highly acceptable Cronbach's alpha of 0.93 (N = 148 for the whole W-BQ12 scale. Whilst neither questionnaire found significant differences between GH-treated and non-GH-treated patients, there were correlations (for GH-treated patients with duration of GH treatment for GWBI Total (r = -0.36, p = 0.001, N = 85, W-BQ12 Total (r = 0.35, p = 0.001, N = 88 and for all W-BQ12 subscales: thus the longer the duration of GH treatment (ranging from 0.5 to 10 years, the better the well-being. Both questionnaires found that men had significantly better overall well-being than women. The W-BQ12 was more sensitive to change than the GWBI in the GH-Withdrawal study. A significant between

  2. Growth hormone dose regimens in adult GH deficiency: effects on biochemical growth markers and metabolic parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Laursen, Torben;

    1993-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of different doses of GH on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), body composition, energy expenditure, and various metabolites in GH deficient adults, in order to approach a metabolically appropriate GH dosage in young GH...... deficient adults. DESIGN: Ten GH deficient patients (age 21-43) were studied after 4 weeks without GH followed by three consecutive 4-week periods, where the patients received in a fixed order GH 1, 2 and 4 IU/m2 s.c. per day. At the end of each period the patients were hospitalized for a 24-hour...... examination. RESULTS: Mean 24-hour levels of GH (mIU/l) were 2.7 +/- 0.3 (0 GH), 7.2 +/- 0.9 (1), 10.8 +/- 1.5 (2) and 18.9 +/- 2.7 (4 IU/m2) (mean +/- SEM) (P < 0.01). Likewise, IGF-I levels increased dose dependently from 61 +/- 21 to 206 +/- 65, 260 +/- 70 and 468 +/- 171 micrograms/l (P < 0.05); serum IGF...

  3. Association of the exon 3 deleted/full-length GHR polymorphism with recombinant growth hormone dose in growth hormone-deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meyer; W.J. Weise (Wolfgang); A. Pfützner (Andreas); P. Kann (P.); S. Schaefer (Stephan); L. Stolk (Lisette); P.P. Arp (Pascal); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); U. Plöckinger (Ursula); G.K. Stalla (Günter); U. Tuschy (Ulrich); M.M. Weber (Matthias)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAims: Contradictory reports exist regarding the influence of the exon 3 deleted (d3)/full-length (fl) growth hormone receptor (GHR) polymorphism on responsiveness to recombinant human growth-hormone therapy in idiopathic short stature, small for gestational age and GH-deficient children,

  4. Effects of Long-term Growth Hormone Replacement in Adults With Growth Hormone Deficiency Following Cure of Acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Korbonits, Márta;

    2014-01-01

    /expected = 0.58 [0.48-0.70]) in comparison with the general population. There was no difference in incidence of all cancers, benign or malignant brain tumors, or diabetes mellitus between acroGHD and NFPA. CONCLUSIONS: GH replacement has comparable effects on quality of life and lipids in acroGHD and NFPA......CONTEXT: GH deficiency (GHD) may occur in adults with cured acromegaly (acroGHD). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the effectiveness and safety of GH replacement in acroGHD. DESIGN: This study was a retrospective analysis of data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database). SETTING......: Data were extracted from a pharmaco-epidemiological survey of >16 000 GHD adults from 31 countries. PATIENTS: The effectiveness population included 115 adults with acroGHD and 142 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched GHD adults with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) followed up to 5 years...

  5. Adult growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients demonstrate heterogeneity between childhood onset and adult onset before and during human GH treatment. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attanasio, A F; Lamberts, S W; Matranga, A M;

    1997-01-01

    The onset of adult GH deficiency may be during either adulthood (AO) or childhood (CO), but potential differences have not previously been examined. In this study the baseline and GH therapy (12.5 micrograms/kg per day) data from CO (n = 74; mean age 29 yr) and AO (n = 99; mean age 44 yr) GH......-deficient adult patients have been compared. The first 6 months comprised randomized, double-blind treatment with GH or placebo, then all patients were GH-treated for a further 12 months. At baseline the height, body weight, body mass index, lean body mass, and waist/hip ratio of AO patients were significantly (P...

  6. Growth Hormone Safety Workshop Position Paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, David B; Backeljauw, Philippe; Bidlingmaier, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society......Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the...... statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to...

  7. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done include: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein ... themselves the shot. Treatment with growth hormone is long-term, often lasting for several years. During this ...

  8. Growth hormone dose in growth hormone-deficient adults is not associated with IGF-1 gene polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meyer; S. Schaefer (Stephan); D. Ivan (Diana); L. Stolk (Lisette); P.P. Arp (Pascal); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.P. Nawroth (Peter); U. Plöckinger (Ursula); G.K. Stalla (Günter); U. Tuschy (Ulrich); M.M. Weber (Matthias); W.J. Weise (Wolfgang); A. Pfützner (Andreas); P. Kann (P.)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAims: Several SNPs and a microsatellite cytosine-adenine repeat promoter polymorphisms of the IGF-1 gene have been reported to be associated with circulating IGF-1 serum concentrations. Variance in IGF-1 concentrations due to genetic variations may affect different response to growth hor

  9. Adult-Onset Deficiency in Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Alters Oligodendrocyte Turnover in the Corpus Callosum

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Kun; Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Lichtenwalner, Robin J.; Sonntag, William E.; Riddle, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) provide trophic support during development and also appear to influence cell structure, function and replacement in the adult brain. Recent studies demonstrated effects of the GH/IGF-I axis on adult neurogenesis, but it is unclear whether the GH/IGF-I axis influences glial turnover in the normal adult brain. In the current study we used a selective model of adult-onset GH and IGF-I deficiency to evaluate the role of GH and IGF-I in ...

  10. Growth hormone and its disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuk, J.; Sheppard, M C

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is synthesised and secreted by the somatotroph cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Its actions involve multiple organs and systems, affecting postnatal longitudinal growth as well as protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. GH hypersecretion results in gigantism or acromegaly, a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality, while GH deficiency results in growth retardation in children and the GH deficiency syndrome in adults. This articl...

  11. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... killing medicine (antiseptic). The first sample is drawn early in the morning. Medicine is given through the ...

  12. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  13. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activities in growth hormone-deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2000-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), factors involved in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, We unknown. We carried out a 6 mouths study in 24

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life of Young Adults Treated with Recombinant Human Growth Hormone during Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Sommer

    Full Text Available Since recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH became available in 1985, the spectrum of indications has broadened and the number of treated patients increased. However, long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL after childhood rhGH treatment has rarely been documented. We assessed HRQoL and its determinants in young adults treated with rhGH during childhood.For this study, we retrospectively identified former rhGH patients in 11 centers of paediatric endocrinology, including university hospitals and private practices. We sent a questionnaire to all patients treated with rhGH for any diagnosis, who were older than 18 years, and who resided in Switzerland at time of the survey. Three hundred participants (58% of 514 eligible returned the questionnaire. Mean age was 23 years; 56% were women; 43% had isolated growth hormone deficiency, or idiopathic short stature; 43% had associated diseases or syndromes, and 14% had growth hormone deficiency after childhood cancer. Swiss siblings of childhood cancer survivors and the German norm population served as comparison groups. HRQoL was assessed using the Short Form-36. We found that the Physical Component Summary of healthy patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency or idiopathic short stature resembled that of the control group (53.8 vs. 54.9. Patients with associated diseases or syndromes scored slightly lower (52.5, and former cancer patients scored lowest (42.6. The Mental Component Summary was similar for all groups. Lower Physical Component Summary was associated with lower educational level (coeff. -1.9. Final height was not associated with HRQoL.In conclusion, HRQoL after treatment with rhGH in childhood depended mainly on the underlying indication for rhGH treatment. Patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency/idiopathic short stature or patients with associated diseases or syndromes had HRQoL comparable to peers. Patients with growth hormone deficiency after childhood cancer were

  15. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  16. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  17. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is huma n gr owth hormone? Human growth hormone (GH) is a substance that controls your body’s growth. ... prescribed for the FDA-approved conditions. In children, GH is used to treat • Growth hormone deficiency • Conditions that cause short stature (being shorter ...

  18. Bone turnover and mineral density in adult thalassemic patients: relationships with growth hormone secretory status and circulating somatomedins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Massimo; Danesi, Leila; Cattaneo, Agnese; Sciortino, Giovanna; Radin, Raffaella; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Vitale, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Mirra, Nadia; Zanaboni, Laura; Arvigo, Marica; Boschetti, Mara; Ferone, Diego; Marzullo, Paolo; Baldini, Marina; Cassinerio, Elena; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Persani, Luca; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Previous evidence supports a role for growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I deficiency in the pathophysiology of osteopenia/osteoporosis in adult thalassemia. Moreover, serum IGF-II has never been studied in this clinical condition. Thus, we elected to study the GH secretory status and the levels of circulating somatomedins, correlating these parameters with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. A hundred and thirty-nine normal weight adult thalassemic patients (72 men and 67 women) were studied. Lumbar and femoral neck BMD were measured in 106/139 patients. Sixty-eight patients underwent growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine testing. Measurement of baseline IGF-I and IGF-II was performed in all patients, while osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) were assayed in 95 of them. Femoral and lumbar osteoporosis/Z score below the expected range for age were documented in 61.3 and in 56.6 % of patients, respectively. Severe GH deficiency (GHD) was demonstrated in 27.9 % of cases, whereas IGF-I SDS was low in 86.3 %. No thalassemic patients displayed circulating levels of IGF-II below the reference range. GH peaks were positively correlated with femoral, but not lumbar, Z score. No correlations were found between GH peaks and osteocalcin, CTx and NTx. GH peaks were positively correlated with IGF-I values, which in their turn displayed a positive correlation with osteocalcin, CTx, and NTx. No correlations emerged between IGF-I values and either femoral or lumbar Z scores. No correlations were found between IGF-II and any of the following parameters: GH peaks, osteocalcin, CTx, NTx, femoral Z score, and lumbar Z score. Our study, besides providing for the first time evidence of a normal IGF-II production in thalassemia, contributes to a better understanding of the involvement of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in the

  19. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse tr...

  20. Adaptation of the QoL-AGHDA scale for adults with growth hormone deficiency in four Slavic languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenna Stephen P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The Quality of Life in Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency Assessment (QoL-AGHDA is a disease-specific quality of life measure specific to individuals who are growth hormone deficient. The present study describes the adaptation of the QoL-AGHDA for use in the following four Slavic languages; Czech, Polish, Serbian and Slovakian. Methods The study involved three stages in each language; translation, cognitive debriefing and validation. The validation stage assessed internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, reproducibility (test-retest reliability using Spearman's rank correlations, convergent and divergent validity (Correlations with the NHP and known group validity. Results The QoL-AGHDA was successfully translated into the target languages with minimal problems. Cognitive debriefing interviewees (n = 15-18 found the measures easy to complete and identified few problems with the content. Internal consistency (Czech Republic = 0.91, Poland = 0.91, Serbia = 0.91 and Slovakia = 0.89 and reproducibility (Czech Republic = 0.91, Poland = 0.91, Serbia = 0.88 and Slovakia = 0.93 were good in all adaptations. Convergent and divergent validity and known group validity data were not available for Slovakia. The QoL-AGHDA correlated as expected with the NHP scales most relevant to GHD. The QoL-AGHDA was able to distinguish between participants based on a range of variables. Conclusions The QoL-AGHDA was successfully adapted for use in the Czech Republic, Poland, Serbia and Slovakia. Further validation of the Slovakian version would be beneficial. The addition of these new lanaguage versions will prove valuable to multinational clinical trials and to clinical practice in the respective countries.

  1. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary gland, a ... blood test checks levels of IGF-1, a hormone that reflects GH levels. • GH stimulation test. The child is given ...

  2. Growth hormone and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  3. 生长激素替代治疗成人生长激素缺乏症的有效性与安全性%Effectiveness and safety of growth hormone replacement therapy in adults with growth hormone deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晨红; 宋筱筱; 徐小红

    2015-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency causes a series of abnormities including abnormal body composition,impaired glucose and lipid metabolism,abnormal bone metabolism,as well as increased cardiovascular risk and decreased living quality.Growth hormone replacement therapy can effectively improve those abnormalities.However,the safety of growth hormone is controversial since growth hormone has extensively physiological functions.In recent years,most of the studies revealed that the incidence of diabetes mellitus,tumor recurrence,second neoplasms and cardiovascular events in growth hormone replacement therapy did not increase,although large randomized controlled studies are needed to reach the conclusion.Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 level,serum lipids,blood pressure,plasma glucose,bone mineral density,cancer biomarkers and living quality should be closely monitored during the period of growth hormone replacement therapy.%成人生长激素缺乏症可致机体组分改变、糖、脂代谢紊乱、骨代谢异常、心血管疾病风险增加及生活质量下降等,生长激素替代治疗可有效改善以上情况.但生长激素广泛的生理作用使其安全性备受争议,近几年大部分文献提示生长激素替代治疗不增加糖尿病的发生、肿瘤复发、新发恶性肿瘤及心血管事件等,但仍缺乏大量随机、对照研究,故在生长激素治疗时应严密监测血清胰岛素样生长因子-1水平、血脂、血压、血糖、骨密度、肿瘤标志物及生活质量等指标.

  4. Extracellular water and blood pressure in adults with growth hormone (GH deficiency: a genotype-phenotype association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna J L Barbosa

    Full Text Available Growth hormone deficiency (GHD in adults is associated with decreased extracellular water volume (ECW. In response to GH replacement therapy (GHRT, ECW increases and blood pressure (BP reduces or remains unchanged. Our primary aim was to study the association between polymorphisms in genes related to renal tubular function with ECW and BP before and 1 year after GHRT. The ECW measures using bioimpedance analysis (BIA and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS were validated against a reference method, the sodium bromide dilution method (Br(-.Using a candidate gene approach, fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in nine genes with known impact on renal tubular function (AGT, SCNN1A, SCNN1G, SLC12A1, SLC12A3, KCNJ1, STK39, WNK1 and CASR were genotyped and analyzed for associations with ECW and BP at baseline and with their changes after 1 year of GHRT in 311 adult GHD patients. ECW was measured with the Br(-, BIA, and BIS.Both BIA and BIS measurements demonstrated similar ECW results as the reference method. At baseline, after adjustment for sex and BMI, SNP rs2291340 in the SLC12A1 gene was associated with ECW volume in GHD patients (p = 0.039. None of the SNPs influenced the ECW response to GHRT. One SNP in the SLC12A3 gene (rs11643718; p = 0.024 and three SNPs in the SCNN1G gene [rs5723 (p = 0.02, rs5729 (p = 0.016 and rs13331086 (p = 0.035] were associated with the inter-individual differences in BP levels at baseline. A polymorphism in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR gene (rs1965357 was associated with changes in systolic BP after GHRT (p = 0.036. None of these associations remained statistically significant when corrected for multiple testing.The BIA and BIS are as accurate as Br(- to measure ECW in GHD adults before and during GHRT. Our study provides the first evidence that individual polymorphisms may have clinically relevant effects on ECW and BP in GHD adults.

  5. Glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones transcriptionally regulate growth hormone gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, R M; Birnberg, N C; Rosenfeld, M G

    1982-01-01

    In order to define the molecular mechanisms by which glucocorticoids and thyroid hormone act to regulate growth hormone gene expression, the sites at which they exert their effects on growth hormone biosynthesis were examined in vivo and in a pituitary cell line. Glucocorticoids were shown to rapidly increase accumulation of growth hormone mRNA and nuclear RNA precursors. Glucocorticoids and thyroid hormone were shown to rapidly and independently increase growth hormone gene transcription. Th...

  6. Growth hormone deficiency predicts cardiovascular risk in young adults treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Katarina; Moëll, Christian; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Cavallin-Ståhl, Eva; Björk, Jonas; Thilén, Ulf; Ahrén, Bo; Erfurth, Eva Marie

    2004-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy, and until recently prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (CRT) was important for achieving long-term survival. Hypothalamic-pituitary hormone insufficiency is a well-recognized consequence of CRT for childhood cancer. Another problem is increased cardiovascular risk, which has been shown in long-term survivors of other childhood cancers. In the only previously reported study on cardiovascular risk after childhood ALL, obesity and dyslipidemia were recorded in a small subgroup treated with CRT, compared with patients treated with chemotherapy. The mechanisms behind the increase in cardiovascular risk in survivors of childhood cancer are not clarified. The aim of the present study was to elucidate mechanisms of increased cardiovascular risk in former childhood ALL patients. A group of 44 ALL survivors (23 males, median age 25 yr, range 19-32 yr at the time of study) treated with CRT (median 24 Gy, 18-30 Gy) at a median age of 5 yr (1-18 yr) and chemotherapy were investigated for prevalence of GH deficiency and cardiovascular risk factors. Comparison was made with controls randomly selected from the general population and individually matched for sex, age, smoking habits, and residence. All patients and controls underwent a GHRH-arginine test, and patients with a peak GH 3.9 microg/liter or greater were further investigated with an additional insulin tolerance test. Significantly higher plasma levels of insulin (P = 0.002), blood glucose (P = 0.01), and serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and leptin (all P childhood ALL patients, a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors was recorded. We suggest that GH deficiency, induced by CRT, is a primary cause for this because strong correlations between the stimulated GH peak and several of the cardiovascular risk factors were observed. PMID:15472198

  7. Detecting growth hormone misuse in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Richard I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Athletes have been misusing growth hormone (GH) for its anabolic and metabolic effects since the early 1980s, at least a decade before endocrinologists began to treat adults with GH deficiency. Although there is an ongoing debate about whether GH is performance enhancing, recent studies suggest that GH improves strength and sprint capacity, particularly when combined with anabolic steroids. The detection of GH misuse is challenging because it is an endogenous hormone. Two approaches have been...

  8. Cognitive, Emotional, Physical and Social Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoybye, C; Thoren, M.; Bohm, B.

    2005-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multisystem genetic disorder characterized by short stature, muscular hypotonia, hyperphagia, obesity, maladaptive behaviour, hypogonadism and partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD). Severe GHD of other aetiologies has been shown to affect mood and quality of life negatively, and there are reports of…

  9. Impact of Growth Hormone on Adult Bone Quality in Turner Syndrome: A HR-pQCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Munier A; Burt, Lauren A; Perry, Rebecca J; Stephure, David K; Hanley, David A; Boyd, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Women with Turner syndrome (TS) are known to be at risk of osteoporosis. While childhood growth hormone (GH) treatment is common in TS, the impact of this therapy on bone health has been poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of childhood GH treatment on adult bone quality in women with TS. 28 women aged 17-45 with confirmed TS (12 GH-treated) agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of lumbar spine, hip, and radius and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans of the radius and tibia were used to determine standard morphological and micro-architectural parameters of bone health. Finite element (FE) analysis and polar moment of inertia (pMOI) were used to estimate bone strength. GH-treated subjects were +7.4 cm taller (95% CI 2.5-12.3 cm, p = 0.005). DXA-determined areal BMD of hip, spine, and radius was similar between treatment groups. Both tibial and radial total bone areas were greater among GH-treated subjects (+20.4 and +21.2% respectively, p < 0.05), while other micro-architectural results were not different between groups. pMOI was significantly greater among GH-treated subjects (radius +35.0%, tibia +34.0%, p < 0.05). Childhood GH treatment compared to no treatment in TS was associated with an increased height, larger bones, and greater pMOI, while no significant difference in DXA-derived BMD, HR-pQCT micro-architectural parameters, or FE-estimated bone strength was detected. The higher pMOI and greater bone size may confer benefit for fracture reduction in these GH-treated patients. PMID:26439721

  10. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGrowth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis, morbid o

  11. Pre-weaning growth hormone treatment reverses hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in adult male offspring of mothers undernourished during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal undernutrition results in elevated blood pressure (BP and endothelial dysfunction in adult offspring. However, few studies have investigated interventions during early life to ameliorate the programming of hypertension and vascular disorders. We have utilised a model of maternal undernutrition to examine the effects of pre-weaning growth hormone (GH treatment on BP and vascular function in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard control diet (CON or 50% of CON intake throughout pregnancy (UN. From neonatal day 3 until weaning (day 21, CON and UN pups received either saline (CON-S, UN-S or GH (2.5 ug/g/day(CON-GH, UN-GH. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Male offspring were fed a standard diet until the end of the study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 150 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 160, intact mesenteric vessels mounted on a pressure myograph. Responses to pressure, agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated to determine vascular function. SBP was increased in UN-S groups and normalised in UN-GH groups (CON-S 121±2 mmHg, CON-GH 115±3, UN-S 146±3, UN-GH 127±2. Pressure mediated dilation was reduced in UN-S offspring and normalised in UN-GH groups. Vessels from UN-S offspring demonstrated a reduced constrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, UN-S offspring vessels displayed a reduced vasodilator response in the presence of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, carbenoxolone (CBX, L-NAME and CBX, Tram-34 and Apamin. UN-GH vessels showed little difference in responses when compared to CON and significantly increased vasodilator responses when compared to UN-S offspring. Pre-weaning GH treatment reverses the negative effects of maternal UN on SBP and vasomotor function in adult offspring. These data suggest that developmental cardiovascular programming is

  12. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency dwarfism isolated GH deficiency isolated HGH deficiency isolated human growth hormone deficiency isolated somatotropin deficiency isolated somatotropin deficiency disorder ...

  13. Pegylated Long-Acting Human Growth Hormone Possesses a Promising Once-Weekly Treatment Profile, and Multiple Dosing Is Well Tolerated in Adult Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Klose, Marianne; Hansen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement therapy in children and adults currently requires daily sc injections for several years or lifelong, which may be both inconvenient and distressing for patients. NNC126-0083 is a pegylated rhGH developed for once-weekly administration. Objectives...

  14. Body fluids, circadian blood pressure and plasma renin during growth hormone administration: a placebo-controlled study with two growth hormone doses in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Frandsen, Erik;

    1995-01-01

    two different dosages in healthy adults. Eight healthy male subjects aged 24-32 years were examined during three 2-week study periods in a double-blind placebo controlled study. They received, in random order, GH (3 or 6 IU m-2 daily) or placebo during 2 weeks. Bio-impedance was measured every 2nd day...

  15. Metabolic profile in growth hormone-deficient (GHD) adults after long-term recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, K.M.; Appelman-Dijkstra, N.M.; Adoptie, D.M.; Roelfsema, F.; Smit, J.W.A.; Biermasz, N.R.; Pereira, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy in adults are well-documented in the short term. The effects of long-term rhGH therapy beyond 5 yr on metabolic parameters are presently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of rhGH tre

  16. Growth hormone deficiency short stature in a third world adult endocrine clinic: Usefulness of clonidine test in its diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ruhaily Atallah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Short stature (SS can be treatable; yet the diagnostic value of a simple test in correctly identifying the two common etiologies in developing countries, viz., growth hormone deficiency (GHD and normal variant short stature (NVSS, has not been reported in a typical third world population. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of clonidine test in differentiating short stature caused by GHD from NVSS. Settings and Design: Data of subjects evaluated for growth hormone deficiency SS at a Saudi Arabian university hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Materials and Methods: Clonidine and insulin tolerance tests (ITT were conducted on 60 subjects aged 12 years and above with SS, while peak stimulated growth hormone cut off value of < 10 µg/l was used to diagnose GHD. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity and specificity for clonidine test and ITT were computed, while receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves were constructed from the results in order to assess the diagnostic usefulness of the two tests. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine level of significance. RESULTS: Clonidine test showed superior sensitivity and specificity, viz., 81% and 82%, as against 65% and 59% for ITT respectively. Overall, the efficiency of clonidine test in correctly differentiating short stature caused by GHD from NVSS was higher, viz., 90%, compared to ITT′s 77%. Conclusions: Clonidine test proved to be an excellent test for initial assessment of GHD and may be used as a screening test for short stature in third world countries.

  17. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  18. History of growth hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Vageesh S Ayyar

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of the pituitary gland for growth was recognized in late 19 th century, Growth hormone (GH) therapy was made available for severely GH-deficient children and adolescents only in late 1950s. Use of GH for other conditions was limited because of the limited supply of human pituitary-derived hormone. With unlimited availability of recombinant human GH (rhGH), the scenario of GH treatment has been changed enormously. Currently there is ever increasing list of indications o...

  19. Effects of growth hormone therapy on thyroid function of growth hormone-deficient adults with and without concomitant thyroxine-substituted central hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J O; Pedersen, S A; Laurberg, P; Weeke, J; Skakkebaek, N E; Christiansen, J S

    1989-01-01

    Administration of human GH to GH-deficient patients has yielded conflicting results concerning its impact on thyroid function, ranging from increased resting metabolic rate to induction of hypothyroidism. However, most studies have been casuistic or uncontrolled and have used pituitary-derived GH...... of varying purity, often contaminated with TSH. Therefore, we conducted a double blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of the effect of 4 months of biosynthetic human GH therapy (Norditropin; 2 IU/m2.day) on thyroid function in GH-deficient adults (8 females and 14 males; mean +/- SE age, 23...

  20. The effect of the deterioration of insulin sensitivity on beta-cell function in growth-hormone-deficient adults following 4-month growth hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Fisker, S; Hilsted, J;

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the combined effect of GH treatment on body composition and glucose metabolism, with special focus on beta-cell function in adult GHD patients. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 24 GHD adults (18M/6F), were randomized to 4 months treatment...... with biosynthetic GH 2 IU/m2s.c. daily (n =13) or placebo (n =11). At inclusion and 4 months later an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scanning were performed. During the study.......7 kg (P<0.01) in the GH-treated group. Treatment with GH for 4 months resulted in a significant increase in fasting blood glucose (before GH 5.0 +/- 0.3 and after 5.4 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, P<0.05), fasting plasma insulin (before GH 38.4 +/- 30.2 and after 55.3 +/- 34.7 pmol/l, P<0.02) and fasting proinsulin...

  1. Short Stature and Growth Hormone Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Matemi, Sezer

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the importance of measurements of height and weight in normal children and emphasizes the role of growth increments for the diagnosis of short stature Causes of short stature methods for diagnosis of GH hormone deficiency actions of growth hormone treatment of growth hormone deficiency and doses for biosynthetic GH treatment are described Key words: Short Stature Growth Hormone

  2. 成人生长激素缺乏症的诊断和治疗%The diagnosis and treatment of adult growth hormone deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红燕; 王卫庆

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is a syndrome with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations,such as impairment in body composition,abnormality in glucose,lipid,and bone metabolism,increasing risks of cardiovascular disease and fracture,as well as decreased quality of life and so on.The diagnosis of AGHD is based on the correct identification of baseline characteristics and definite biochemical tests of growth hormone(GH) provocative tests.Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy will improve body composition,abnormalities of metabolism,decrease cardiovascular risk factors,and enhance the quality of life.%成人生长激素缺乏症(AGHD)是一组临床表现多样的综合征,可表现为身体组分的改变,糖、脂、骨代谢异常,心血管疾病及骨折风险增加,生活质量下降等.诊断主要依据临床病史特征以及生长激素激发试验.重组人生长激素( rhGH)替代治疗可以明显改善患者的身体组分、异常代谢状态,降低心血管风险因素,提高其生活质量.

  3. Investigation of suspected growth hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, R. D. G.; Burns, E C

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes views of the Health Services Human Growth Hormone Committee on how a child suspected of growth hormone deficiency should be investigated in a district general hospital or in a regional growth centre.

  4. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone

    OpenAIRE

    van der Lely, A J

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis, morbid obesity, cardiac failure, and various catabolic conditions. However, the available placebo controlled studies have not reported many significant beneficial effects, and it might even be dangerous to use excessive GH dosages in c...

  5. Prediction model for adult height of small for gestational age children at the start of growth hormone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ridder, Maria; Stijnen, Theo; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2008-01-01

    textabstractContext: GH treatment is approved for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). The optimal dose is not yet established. Objective: Our objective was to develop a model for prediction of height at the onset of puberty and of adult height (AH). Design and Setting: Two GH studies were performed in short SGA children. Patients/Intervention: A total of 150 SGA children with height SD scores (SDS) less than -2, age 3 yr or older, no signs of catch-up growth, available height...

  6. Growth hormone state after completion of treatment with growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, P E; Price, D. A.; Shalet, S M

    1987-01-01

    After completion of treatment with growth hormone (GH) 19 patients with isolated 'idiopathic' GH deficiency and 15 with post-irradiation GH deficiency underwent retesting of GH secretion with an insulin tolerance test or an arginine stimulation test, or both. Patients with post-irradiation GH deficiency comprised 13 patients with central nervous system tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and two with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, who had received cranial or craniospinal irrad...

  7. Growth hormone doping: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sonksen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic...

  8. Optimization of production of recombinant human growth hormone in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Marzieh; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human growth hormone (hGH) is a single-chain polypeptide that participates in a wide range of biological functions such as metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids as well as in growth, development and immunity. Growth hormone deficiency in human occurs both in children and adults. The routine treatment for this condition is administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) made by prokaryotes. Since nonglycosylated human growth hormone is a biologically active pro...

  9. Health-related quality of life of young adults with Turner syndrome following a long-term randomized controlled trial of recombinant human growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Vliet Guy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited long-term randomized controlled trials of growth hormone (GH supplementation to adult height and few published reports of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL following treatment. The present follow-up study of young adults from a long-term controlled trial of GH treatment in patients with Turner syndrome (TS yielded data to examine whether GH supplementation resulted in a higher HRQOL (either due to taller stature or from the knowledge that active treatment and not placebo had been received or alternatively a lower HRQOL (due to medicalization from years of injections. Methods The original trial randomized 154 Canadian girls with TS aged 7-13 years from 13 centres to receive either long-term GH injections at the pharmacologic dose of 0.3 mg/kg/week or to receive no injections; estrogen prescription for induction of puberty was standardized. Patients were eligible for the follow-up study if they were at least 16 years old at the time of follow-up. The instrument used to study HRQOL was the SF-36, summarized into physical and mental component scales (PCS and MCS; higher scores indicate better HRQOL. Results Thirty-four of the 48 eligible participants (71% consented to participate; data were missing for one patient. Both groups (GH and no treatment had normal HRQOL at this post-treatment assessment. The GH group had a (mean ± SD PCS score of 56 ± 5; the untreated group 58 ± 4; mean score for 16-24 year old females in the general population 53.5 ± 6.9. The GH group had a mean MCS score of 52 ± 6; the untreated group 49 ± 13; mean score for 16-24 year old females in the general population 49.6 ± 9.8. Secondary analyses showed no relationship between HRQOL and height. Conclusions We found no benefit or adverse effect on HRQOL either from receiving or not receiving growth hormone injections in a long-term randomized controlled trial, confirming larger observational studies. We suggest that it remains

  10. Similar clinical features among patients with severe adult growth hormone deficiency diagnosed with insulin tolerance test or arginine or glucagon stimulation tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toogood, Andrew; Brabant, Georg; Maiter, Dominique;

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether insulin tolerance tests (ITTs), arginine stimulation tests (ASTs), and glucagon stimulation tests (GST) identify patients who have similar clinical features of growth hormone (GH) deficiency when a diagnostic GH threshold of 3 μg/L is used.......To determine whether insulin tolerance tests (ITTs), arginine stimulation tests (ASTs), and glucagon stimulation tests (GST) identify patients who have similar clinical features of growth hormone (GH) deficiency when a diagnostic GH threshold of 3 μg/L is used....

  11. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W;

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening of GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed...... childhood with a peak in puberty, whereafter free IGF-I levels return to prepubertal levels. Three percent of healthy prepubertal children had unmeasurable free IGF-I levels using this assay. We found that determination of the free IGF-I serum concentration may predict the outcome of a GH provocative test...

  12. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen; Sjögren, I; Laursen, Torben

    Abstract Growth hormone (GH) treatment is a successful medical therapy for children and adults with GH deficiency as well as for growth retardation due to chronic renal disease, Turner syndrome and in children born small for gestational age. For all of these conditions, treatment is long term and...... patients receive daily subcutaneous injections of GH for many years. Patient compliance is therefore of critical importance to ensure treatment benefit. One of the major factors influencing compliance is injection pain. Besides the injection device used, pain perception and local tissue reaction following...... injection are dependent on the preservative used in the formulation and the concentration of GH. Injection pain may also be related to the buffer substance and injection volume. A liquid formulation of GH, Norditropi SimpleXx, has been developed that dispenses with the need for reconstitution before...

  13. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Backeljauw, Philippe F; Bidlingmaier, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). PARTICIPANTS: A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including...... pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry. EVIDENCE: Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues. CONSENSUS...... day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors. CONCLUSIONS: LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential...

  14. Sequential growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly.

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the case of a patient with a pituitary tumour presenting initially with growth hormone deficiency and requiring treatment with human growth hormone. Eight years later he represented with acromegaly. This sequence of events has not to my knowledge been reported previously.

  15. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A;

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  16. Single dose and pulsatile treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P J; Pringle, P J; Brook, C G

    1987-01-01

    The growth and growth hormone profiles in four children receiving three different regimens of treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) were compared. There was no significant difference in the rate of growth between the regimens; the rate of growth fell dramatically after treatment. Pulsatile administration of hGH was no better than conventional treatment.

  17. The usefulness of growth hormone treatment for psychological status in young adult survivors of childhood leukaemia: an open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Coeverden Silvia CCM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the risk of brain damage children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL are nowadays mainly treated with intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC instead of central nervous system (CNS radiation therapy (CRT to prevent CNS relapse. However, chemotherapy may also lead to cognitive deficits. As growth hormone deficiency (GHD or impaired growth hormone secretion are frequently found in ALL patients treated with cranial radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy, we hypothesized that GH therapy may reduce cognitive deficits in these patients. Methods Twenty young adult survivors of childhood ALL with reduced bone mineral density ( IQ and neuropsychological performance were assessed at pre-treatment (T1 and after one (T2 and two (T3 years. ANOVA was performed with assessment at T1, T2 and T3 as repeated measurements factor. Relations between test score changes and changes of IGF-I levels were determined by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Scores on the cognitive tests were in the normal range. Verbal short- and long-term memory performance decreased between T1 and T2, and increased between T2 and T3. Performance at T3 was not significantly different from that at T1. Performance for sustained attention improved from T1 to T2 and from T1 to T3. Visual-spatial memory was improved after one year of GH treatment. A significant positive correlation was found for Δ IGF-I (T2-T1 with difference scores of visual-spatial memory (T2-T1 and T3-T1, indicating that IGF-I increase after one year of GH treatment is associated with increase in cognitive-perceptual performance at month 12 and 24. Conclusion Since the level of intellectual functioning of our patient cohort was in the normal range the present finding that GH treatment has negative effects on verbal memory and positive on attention and visual-spatial memory warrants similar studies in other groups of ALL survivors. Also, a lower dose of GH should be determined

  18. [News options and preparations in growth hormone therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H; Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael A; Nascimento-Junior, Adão C

    2008-07-01

    In the last twenty years, recombinant human Growth hormone (hrGH) has been available for the treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) in children and more recently in adults. However, the necessity of daily injections compromises the patient's compliance. Attempts to improve this compliance includes the use of pens and needle free devices, once the infusion pumps, not always physiologic, are of restricted use. When growth is the purpose of treatment, daily subcutaneous hrGH is still the most indicated. Nevertheless the expansion of GH replacement to new uses and especially in adults will need new preparations. Nowadays, the oral secretagogues have not proved efficacy to be used in clinical practice and the slow- release preparations of GH and GH releasing hormone that could improve the patient's compliance will need to be studied considering long term efficacy and safety. PMID:18797599

  19. Growth and somatomedin responses to growth hormone in Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Annerén, G.; Sara, V R; Hall, K.; Tuvemo, T

    1986-01-01

    Five growth retarded children with Down's syndrome, three girls and two boys aged between 3 1/2 and 6 1/2 years with trisomy 21, were treated with human growth hormone for six months. Before treatment the growth hormone response to sleep and insulin-arginine load, as well as serum concentrations of insulin, thyroid hormones, and cortisol was found to be in the normal range. During the treatment with human growth hormone the growth velocity increased in all the children with Down's syndrome fr...

  20. Reversible Albumin-Binding GH Possesses a Potential Once-Weekly Treatment Profile in Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Janukonyté, Jurgita; Klose, Marianne;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: NNC0195-0092 is a reversible, albumin-binding GH derivative, developed for once-weekly administration. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate safety, local tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of multiple, once-weekly doses of NNC0195-0092, compared with...... daily GH. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a phase 1, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, multiple-dose, dose-escalation trial. PATIENTS: Thirty-four GH-treated adult subjects (male, n = 25) with GH deficiency participated in the study. INTERVENTIONS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects were...... assessment was performed prior to initiating treatment at the next dose level of NNC0195-0092. Daily GH treatment was discontinued 14 days before the trial start. Blood samples were drawn for assessment of safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3) profiles, and...

  1. Medium and long term outcome of growth hormone therapy in growth hormone deficient adults Resultados en el mediano y largo plazo del tratamiento con hormona de crecimiento en adultos deficitarios de dicha hormona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo L. Fideleff

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated long-term replacement therapy outcomes in various subsets of patients with adult growth hormone (GH deficiency (AGHD as well as the patients' susceptibility to adverse events. Fifty-nine patients with AGHD were evaluated, 27 with childhood onset (CO (18-44 years old, 12 females and 32 with adult onset (AO (27-70 years, 18 females. A significant improvement in HDL-cholesterol was observed in AGHD-AO males (basal: 41.3 ± 12.9 mg/dl, intratreatment: 47.5 ± 13.2 mg/dl, p= 0.009. However, individual analyses showed that total cholesterol decreased below 240 mg/dl in 33% of AGHD-CO patients and in 50% of AGHD-AO patients, and below 200 mg/dl in 67% of AGHD-CO patients and in 29% of AGHD-AO patients; in the AGHD-AO group, normalization of LDL-cholesterol (£ 160 mg/dl and triglycerides (£ 200 mg/dl was found in 100% and 50% of patients, respectively; the total cholesterol/HDL ratio decreased below 4.5 in 20% of AGHD-CO patients and in 25% of AGHD-AO patients. The cardiological evaluation showed a significant intra- and interindividual heterogeneity, but cardiac mass improved in patients with a baseline cardiac mass index below 60 g/m². Markers of bone apposition increased significantly, while bone resorption markers were found to remain unchanged during treatment. A correlation was found between increased bone mineral content and lean body mass (p= 0.0009. Susceptibility to adverse events was not found to be dependent on gender or on the time of onset of the deficiency. Our findings would appear to confirm that a more severe metabolic impairment is correlated with a better therapeutic outcome.Evaluamos resultados terapéuticos a largo plazo en subgrupos de pacientes con deficiencia de hormona de crecimiento (GH del adulto (AGHD y la susceptibilidad para desarrollar eventos adversos. Estudiamos 59 pacientes con AGHD, 27 de inicio en la infancia (CO (18-44 años, 12 mujeres y 32 de inicio en la adultez (AO (27-70 años, 18 mujeres. El

  2. Oxandrolone in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Leonie Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a disorder in females that is caused by the complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome. The main characteristics are gonadal dysgenesis and short stature, with adult patients being on average 20 cm shorter than healthy women. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increase

  3. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  4. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indication...

  5. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Saenger Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs) have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone) in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 years for pediatric indicatio...

  6. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. PMID:26775014

  7. Human growth hormone (HGH), ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay method for the human growth hormone (HGH) is described. The requirements are discussed in detail and a scheme for the preparation of incubation mixtures is given. HGH is labelled with 125I by the chloramine T method and purified by gel filtration or electrophoresis. Separation of bound and free-labelled hormones is performed by absorption of the free hormone, using talc or charcoal

  8. Developments in administration of growth hormone treatment: focus on Norditropin® Flexpro®

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin CJ Yuen; Rakesh Amin

    2011-01-01

    Kevin CJ Yuen1, Rakesh Amin21Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA; 2Barts and The London Children’s Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Recombinant human growth hormone is used for the treatment of growth failure in children and metabolic dysfunction in adults with growth hormone deficiency. However, conventional growth hormone therapy requires daily subcutaneous injections that may ...

  9. Effect of long-term growth hormone treatment on bone mass and bone metabolism in growth hormone-deficient men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, N; Holzmann, PJ; ter Maaten, JC; Stuurman, LM; Roos, JC; Lips, P

    2005-01-01

    Long-term GH treatment in GH-deficient men resulted in a continuous increase in bone turnover as shown by histomorphometry. BMD continuously increased in all regions of interest, but more in the regions with predominantly cortical bone. Introduction: Adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency have r

  10. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  11. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses curr

  12. Intermittent versus continuous administration of growth hormone treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeem, V; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment given by daily injection was compared with growth hormone given for three weeks of every four. All children had received recombinant human growth hormone for two years before randomisation. Growth velocity decreased in both groups in years one and two of the study but the effect was significantly greater in the group receiving intermittent growth hormone.

  13. Links between growth hormone and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bartke, Andrzej; Westbrook, Reyhan; Sun, Liou; Ratajczak, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    Studies in mutant, gene knock-out and transgenic mice demonstrated that growth hormone (GH) signaling has major impact on aging and longevity. Growth hormone-resistant and GH-deficient animals live much longer than their normal siblings, while transgenic mice overexpressing GH are short lived. Actions of GH in juvenile animals appear to be particularly important for life extension and responsible for various phenotypic characteristics of long-lived hypopituitary mutants.

  14. Growth hormone treatment in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Binnerts (Arjen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWrth the development of recombinant DNA technology a practically limitless amount of GH became available for clinical use. Against the background of the sizable literature, aims of the work in this thesis were to further investigate: a) optimal dose regimens regarding beneficial and harm

  15. Dynamic, Sex-Differential STAT5 and BCL6 Binding to Sex-Biased, Growth Hormone-Regulated Genes in Adult Mouse Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yijing; Laz, Ekaterina V.; Waxman, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex-dependent pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns determine the sex-biased expression of >1,000 genes in mouse and rat liver, affecting lipid and drug metabolism, inflammation, and disease. A fundamental biological question is how robust differential expression can be achieved for hundreds of sex-biased genes simply based on the GH input signal pattern: pulsatile GH stimulation in males versus near-continuous GH exposure in females. STAT5 is an essential transcriptional mediator ...

  16. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Frederik J; Tolle, Virginie; Chen, Chen; Epelbaum, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the main findings that emerged in the intervening years since the previous volume on hormonal control of growth in the section on the endocrine system of the Handbook of Physiology concerning the intra- and extrahypothalamic neuronal networks connecting growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin hypophysiotropic neurons and the integration between regulators of food intake/metabolism and GH release. Among these findings, the discovery of ghrelin still raises many unanswered questions. One important event was the application of deconvolution analysis to the pulsatile patterns of GH secretion in different mammalian species, including Man, according to gender, hormonal environment and ageing. Concerning this last phenomenon, a great body of evidence now supports the role of an attenuation of the GHRH/GH/Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in the control of mammalian aging. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:687-735, 2016. PMID:27065166

  17. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S; Winkler, K; Jørgensen, J O; Christiansen, J S; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset....../l after 4 months of GH treatment (p <0.0001). In addition, the molar ratio between IGF-I and IGFBP-3 increased significantlyfrom 0.22 to 0.33 after GH treatment (p <0.0001). Bone alkaline phosphatase increased significantly from 38.6 to 92.9 U/l during GH therapy in male patients (p <0.0001), whereas...... liver-derived alkaline phosphatase was unaltered by GH. In the females, the increase in bone alkaline phosphatase did not reach statistical significance (19.1 vs 40.0 U/l, p = 0.06). The GH-induced increase in bone alkaline phosphatase correlated significantly with the increase in serum IGFBP-3 (r = 0...

  18. Growth hormone (GH-releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging: Fountain of Youth or Pool of Tantalus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, George R MerriamVA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington School of Medicine, Tacoma and Seattle, Washington USAAbstract: Although growth hormone (GH is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. Adult GH deficiency (AGHD is a distinct clinical entity, and GH replacement in AGHD can improve body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, and mood, and may reduce vascular disease risk. While there are some hormone-related side effects, the balance of benefits and risks is generally favorable, and several countries have approved GH for clinical use in AGHD. GH secretion declines progressively and markedly with aging, and many age-related changes resemble those of partial AGHD. This suggests that replacing GH, or stimulating GH with GH-releasing hormone or a GH secretagogue could confer benefits in normal aging similar to those observed in AGHD – in particular, could reduce the loss of muscle mass, strength, and exercise capacity leading to frailty, thereby prolonging the ability to live independently. However, while most GH studies have shown body composition effects similar to those in AGHD, functional changes have been much less inconsistent, and older adults are more sensitive to GH side effects. Preliminary reports of improved cognition are encouraging, but the overall balance of benefits and risks of GH supplementation in normal aging remains uncertain.Keywords: growth hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, growth hormone secretagogues, aging, sarcopenia, frailty

  19. Exogenous growth hormone inhibits growth hormone-releasing factor-induced growth hormone secretion in normal men.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, S M; Hulse, J A; Kaplan, S L; Grumbach, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory and by others in rats, monkeys, and humans support the concept that growth hormone (GH) can regulate its own secretion through an autofeedback mechanism. With the availability of human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), the possible existence of such a mechanism was reexplored by examining the effect of exogenous GH on the GH response induced by GRF-44-NH2 in six normal men (mean age, 32.4 yr). In all subjects the plasma GH response evoked by GRF-44-N...

  20. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Baki ÇİFTCİ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-α due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  1. Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Holt, Richard I G

    2016-01-01

    Human growth hormone (GH) was first isolated from the human pituitary gland in 1945 and found to promote the growth of children with hypopituitarism. Since the formation of the World Anti-Doping Association, human GH has appeared on the list of forbidden substances. There is a significant amount of anecdotal evidence that human GH is misused by athletes to enhance performance, and there have been a number of high-profile cases of GH use in professional sport. GH secretagogues (GH-Ss), which increase GH secretion, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which mediates many of the effects of GH, are also misused, although there is less evidence for this. The effectiveness of GH, IGF-1, and GH-Ss as performance-enhancing drugs remains unclear. Evidence from studies of GH use in people with hypopituitarism show several desirable outcomes, including increased lean body mass, increased strength, and increased exercise capacity. These anabolic and metabolic properties, coupled with the difficulty in detecting them, make them attractive as agents of misuse. Studies in healthy young adults have also demonstrated a performance benefit with GH and IGF-1. PMID:27347885

  2. Growth hormone responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone in Hand-Schüller-Christian Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelato, M C; Loriaux, D L; Merriam, G R

    1989-09-01

    Bolus doses of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), 1 microgram/kg i.v., were given to two groups of adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD): 9 with Hand-Schüller-Christian disease (HSCD, presumed hypothalamic GHD) and 9 with idiopathic GHD (IGHD, etiology unknown). Six patients in each group were then given further GHRH doses daily for 5 days, and the GH responses to GHRH were measured over 3 h on day 1 and day 5. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were measured twice daily on days 1 and 5 during GHRH treatment. All patients with HSCD had measurable GH responses to the first dose of GHRH, with a mean peak response of 6.4 +/- 2.1 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Only 5 of 9 patients with IGHD had GH responses above the detection limits of the assay; their mean peak response, 1.3 +/- 0.2 ng/ml, was significantly lower than the GH responses of the HSCD patients (p less than 0.05). Responses in both groups of patients were lower than those previously observed in normal adult men (35 +/- 8 ng/ml; p less than 0.01). Five days of daily stimulation with GHRH significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the GH response in both groups of patients. The rise was greater in patients with HSCD than with IGHD (HSCD, 5.1 +/- 2.5 ng/ml on day 1, vs. 12.0 +/- 6.8 ng/ml on day 5; IGHD, 1.4 +/- 0.3 ng/ml vs. 2.9 +/- 0.6 ng/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2507952

  3. The physiology of growth hormone and sport.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Widdowson, W Matthew

    2012-02-01

    The growth hormone (GH)\\/ insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis exerts short-and long-term metabolic effects that are potentially important during exercise. Exercise is a potent stimulus to GH release and there is some evidence that the acute increase in GH is important in regulating substrate metabolism post-exercise. Regular exercise also increases 24-hour GH secretion rates, which potentially contributes to the physiologic changes induced by training. The effects of GH replacement in GH-deficient adults provide a useful model with which to study the effects of the more long-term effects of the GH\\/ IGF-I axis. There is convincing evidence that GH replacement increases exercise capacity. Measures of exercise performance including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and ventilatory threshold (VeT) are impaired in GH deficiency and improved by GH replacement, probably through some combination of increased oxygen delivery to exercising muscle, increased fatty acid availability with glycogen sparing, increased muscle strength, improved body composition and improved thermoregulation. Administration of supraphysiologic doses of GH to athletes increases fatty acid availability and reduces oxidative protein loss particularly during exercise, and increases lean body mass. It is not known whether these effects translate to improved athletic performance, although recombinant human GH is known to be widely abused in sport. The model of acromegaly provides evidence that long-term GH excess does not result in improved performance but it is possible that a "window" exists in which the protein anabolic effects of supraphysiologic GH might be advantageous.

  4. Recombinant human growth hormone in the treatment of Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessie E Spiliotis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bessie E SpiliotisDivision of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, University of Patras, School of Medicine, Patras, GreeceAbstract: Turner syndrome (TS is a common chromosomal disorder in women that is associated with the absence of one of the X chromosomes. Severe short stature and a lack of pubertal development characterize TS girls, causing psychosocial problems and reduced bone mass. The growth impairment in TS seems to be due to multiple factors including an abnormal growth hormone (GH – insulin-like growth factor (IGF – IGF binding protein axis and haploinsufficiency of the short stature homeobox-containing gene. Growth hormone and sex steroid replacement therapy has enhanced growth, pubertal development, bone mass, and the quality of life of TS girls. Recombinant human GH (hGH has improved the height potential of TS girls with varied results though, depending upon the dose of hGH and the age of induction of puberty. The best final adult height and peak bone mass achievement results seem to be achieved when hGH therapy is started early and puberty is induced at the normal age of puberty in a regimen mimicking physiologic puberty. The initiation of estradiol therapy at an age-appropriate time may also help the TS patients avoid osteoporosis during adulthood. Recombinant hGH therapy in TS seems to be safe. Studies so far show no adverse effects on cardiac function, glucose metabolism or any association with neoplasms but research is still in progress to provide conclusive data on long-term safety.Keywords: Turner syndrome, recombinant growth hormone, growth hormone deficiency, SHOX gene, hormonal replacement therapy

  5. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  6. Growth Hormone Deficiency, Brain Development, and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610. In order to determine what effect, if any, growth hormone (GH) has on human brain development, 29 patients (mean age 11.7 years) with GH deficiency were selected according to the following criteria: no evidence of reversible GH deficiency, onset of…

  7. Growth hormone deficiency in a girl with the Cohen syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, G.; Dooms, L.; Vanderschueren-Lodeweyckx, M

    1991-01-01

    A girl with the Cohen syndrome and isolated growth hormone deficiency is described. Treatment with biosynthetic human growth hormone resulted in marked catch up growth to normal stature. It is concluded that growth hormone deficiency should be ruled out in patients with the Cohen syndrome and small stature.

  8. Growth hormone (GH)–releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging: Fountain of Youth or Pool of Tantalus?

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth C Hersch; Merriam, George R.

    2008-01-01

    Elizabeth C Hersch, George R MerriamVA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington School of Medicine, Tacoma and Seattle, Washington USAAbstract: Although growth hormone (GH) is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. Adult GH deficiency (AGHD) is a distinct clinical entity, and GH replacement in AGHD can improve body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, and mood, and may reduce vascular disea...

  9. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging: Fountain of Youth or Pool of Tantalus?

    OpenAIRE

    Macario, Everly

    2008-01-01

    Elizabeth C Hersch, George R MerriamVA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington School of Medicine, Tacoma and Seattle, Washington USAAbstract: Although growth hormone (GH) is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. Adult GH deficiency (AGHD) is a distinct clinical entity, and GH replacement in AGHD can improve body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, and mood, and may reduce vascular disea...

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonism reduces the insulin-stimulated increase in circulating interleukin-6 in growth hormone (GH) replaced GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Morten B; Rasmussen, Lars M; Hansen, Troels K;

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Context: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists modify cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Growth hormone (GH) treatment in GH-deficient (GHD) patients may cause insulin resistance and exerts ambiguous effects...... on inflammatory markers. Objective: To investigate circulating markers of inflammation and endothelial function in GH replaced GHD patients before and after 12 weeks administration of either pioglitazone 30 mg/day (N=10) or placebo (N=10) in a randomized double-blind parallel design. Methods...... significantly abrogated this insulin-stimulated increment in IL-6 levels compared to placebo (P = 0.01). Furthermore PPARgamma agonist treatment significantly lowered basal IL-4 levels (P<0.05). Conclusions: 1) IL-6 levels increase during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in GH replaced patients, 2) This increase in IL...

  11. Growth hormone treatment in non-growth hormone-deficient children

    OpenAIRE

    Loche, Sandro; Carta, Luisanna; Ibba, Anastasia; Guzzetti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Until 1985 growth hormone (GH) was obtained from pituitary extracts, and was available in limited amounts only to treat severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD). With the availability of unlimited quantities of GH obtained from recombinant DNA technology, researchers started to explore new modalities to treat GHD children, as well as to treat a number of other non-GHD conditions. Although with some differences between different countries, GH treatment is indicated in children with Turner syndro...

  12. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  13. Growth hormone releasing factor: comparison of two analogues and demonstration of hypothalamic defect in growth hormone release after radiotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, A; Lytras, N; Savage, M O; Wass, J. A.; Coy, D H; Rees, L. H.; Jones, A. E.; Besser, G M

    1984-01-01

    Human pancreatic growth hormone releasing factor (hpGHRF(1-40] stimulates the release of growth hormone in normal subjects and some patients with growth hormone deficiency. A study comparing the shorter chain amidated analogue hpGHRF(1-29) with an equivalent dose of hpGHRF(1-40) in seven normal subjects showed no significant difference in growth hormone response between the two preparations. Six patients with prolactinomas were also tested; these patients had received megavoltage radiotherapy...

  14. Growth hormone and aging: A challenging controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Bartke

    2008-01-01

    Andrzej BartkeGeriatrics Research, Departments of Internal Medicine and Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Although advanced age or symptoms of aging are not among approved indications for growth hormone (GH) therapy, recombinant human GH (rhGH) and various GH-related products are aggressively promoted as anti-aging therapies. Well-controlled studies of the effects of rhGH treatment in endocrinologically normal elderly subjects report so...

  15. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of growth failure. Therapy includes optimization of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities. Failure to achieve adequate height despite 3-6 months of optimal medical measures mandates the use of recombinant GH (rGH therapy, which has shown to result in catch-up growth, anywhere from 2 cm to 10 cm with satisfactory liner, somatic and psychological development.

  16. Growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Devesa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jesús Devesa1,2, Nerea Casteleiro2, Cristina Rodicio2, Natalia López2, Pedro Reimunde1,21Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2Medical Center Proyecto Foltra, 15886 Teo, SpainAbstract: Cerebral palsy (CP is a catastrophic acquired disease, occurring during development of the fetal or infant brain. It mainly affects the motor control centres of the developing brain, but can also affect cognitive functions, and is usually accompanied by a cohort of symptoms including lack of communication, epilepsy, and alterations in behavior. Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit a short stature, progressively declining from birth to puberty. We tested here whether this lack of normal growth might be due to an impaired or deficient growth hormone (GH secretion. Our study sample comprised 46 CP children, of which 28 were male and 18 were female, aged between 3 and 11. Data obtained show that 70% of these children lack normal GH secretion. We conclude that GH replacement therapy should be implemented early for CP children, not only to allow them to achieve a normal height, but also because of the known neurotrophic effects of the hormone, perhaps allowing for the correction of some of the common disabilities experienced by CP children.Keywords: growth hormone, IGF-I, cerebral palsy, short stature

  17. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M;

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly of...... different activity by comparing it to serum GH, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and clinical activity. There were highly significant, positive correlations between urinary GH and serum GH, serum IGF-I as well as clinical activity score (p < 0.00005), although some overlap between the groups was...

  18. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L;

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic m...

  19. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, Philippe; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, Guy

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cell...

  20. Aging and immune function: a possible role for growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelato, M C

    1996-01-01

    Elderly individuals have four to five times the case rate of cancer, tuberculosis and herpes zoster and six to seven times the fatality rate from pneumonia compared to young adults. This may be causally related to two changes that occur with aging, i.e. decreased growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production and decreased immune function. Data from our laboratory as well as others have shown that, based on either GH secretory dynamics or IGF-1 levels, approximately 40% of adults aged 60 and older are GH deficient. In the same population of subjects, immune function decreases such that there is a decline in cell-mediated and humoral immune responsiveness. Some of these immune deficits have been shown to be reversed in humans and primates by GH and/or IGF-1 treatment. This paper will review some of these data. PMID:8742118

  1. Dimerization of Human Growth Hormone by Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Brian C.; Mulkerrin, Michael G.; Wells, James A.

    1991-08-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography and sedimentation equilibrium studies demonstrated that zinc ion (Zn2+) induced the dimerization of human growth hormone (hGH). Scatchard analysis of 65Zn2+ binding to hGH showed that two Zn2+ ions associate per dimer of hGH in a cooperative fashion. Cobalt (II) can substitute for Zn2+ in the hormone dimer and gives a visible spectrum characteristic of cobalt coordinated in a tetrahedral fashion by oxygen- and nitrogen-containing ligands. Replacement of potential Zn2+ ligands (His18, His21, and Glu174) in hGH with alanine weakened both Zn2+ binding and hGH dimer formation. The Zn2+-hGH dimer was more stable than monomeric hGH to denaturation in guanidine-HCl. Formation of a Zn2+-hGH dimeric complex may be important for storage of hGH in secretory granules.

  2. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  3. Growth hormone treatment during pregnancy in a growth hormone-deficient woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Starup, J; Christiansen, J S;

    1995-01-01

    Information on the course and outcome of pregnancies in growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients is sparse, and GH treatment during pregnancy in such women has not been described previously. We have studied fetal growth and serum levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding...... protein 3 (IGFBP-3) during pregnancy, as well as birth weight and hormone levels after delivery in a 25-year-old woman with idiopathic, isolated GH deficiency diagnosed at the age of 7 years. As part of a clinical trial, the patient was treated with 2 IU/M2 GH for a period of 5 years. At this time she...... became pregnant after donor insemination. The GH treatment was continued until variant GH production from the placenta was evident. Serum levels of GH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured monthly during pregnancy after 3 days off GH therapy. Abdominal ultrasound was performed five times. Hormonal levels were...

  4. Height in Turner syndrome: Does Growth Hormone Therapy Have Impact?

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Edna

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Short stature is a cardinal feature of Turner syndrome. We examined height outcome and its relation to growth hormone therapy in Irish girls with Turner syndrome. In those with Turner syndrome (TS), the adult stature is an average 20 cm shorter than the general population1. By 15 years of age, the average height of an untreated girl with TS is equivalent to that of only a 9.5-year-old girl in the general population2. We therefore set out to describe height outcome in Irish girls ...

  5. Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma with admixed gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Alistair; Allan, Rodney; Rawson, Robert; Buckland, Michael E

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas are the most common tumours found in the sellar region and, when both functioning and non-functioning adenomas are combined, account for 7-15% of primary brain tumours in adults. Rarely, admixed or discrete groups of cells comprising two or more tumour subtypes are seen; the so-called 'collision tumour'. We present a case of a 54-year-old-woman with a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma admixed with both ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma. The possible mechanisms by which this may occur include a pre-existing gangliocytoma promoting the development of pituitary adenoma by hypersecretion of releasing hormones or aberrant migration of hypothalamic neurons in early embryogenesis. PMID:27068013

  6. EFFECTS OF CHINA-MADE RECOMBINANT HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE ON THE TREATMENT OF GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jiang; Wei Wang; Wen-xin Sun; Xiu-min Wang; Ji-hong Ni; Feng-sheng Chen; De-fen Wang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of China-made recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and to investigate the utilities of various biochemical parameters in GHD diagnosis and treatment.Methods Our study comprises of 30 normal children and 71 GHD children treated with China-made r-hGH substitution 3 (IGFBP-3), bone turnover markers (Ost, ICTP), and anti-growth hormone antibody (GHAb) were detected before and after r-hGH treatment.Results After the first 3 and 6 months of treatment, growth velocities of GHD children were significantly increased (13.1 + 3.7 and 12.6 ± 3.6 cm/year) compared with pretreatment values (2.9 ± 0.8 cm/year, P < 0.01). GHD Children had obviously reduced serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and bone turnover markers (Ost, ICTP) compared with normal controls(P < 0.01), and these biochemical parameters improved significantly after treatment (P < 0.01). Growth hormone antibodies were positive in 17 of 45 cases after treatment by binding capacity detection. The binding percentage of growth hormone antibody which was increased more than 30% after the treatment showed a negative correlation with growth velocity (P < 0.01).Conclusions (1) The growth stimulating effect and safety were confirmed in using China-made r-hGH in the treatment of GHD children for 6 months. (2) The measurements of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 may serve as useful parameters in the diagnosis of GHD. (3) Serum Ost and ICTP are useful laboratory criteria for evaluating the effect of r-hGH therapy in the early stage. (4) It is necessary to monitor serum levels of GHAb during r-hGH therapy.

  7. Analysis of human growth hormone gene 5' sequences in isolated growth hormone deficiency patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Yu, L L; Sheng, Q.; Meng, C; Sun, J.; S.S. Chen

    1994-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) gene deletion (6.7 to 7.6 kb) is one of the causes of isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), named IGHD IA. IGHD IA, however, only accounts for about 10% of the total IGHD patients. Most IGHD is caused by unknown mechanisms. Here, hGH gene 5' sequences in three IGHD patients without hGH gene deletion were analysed to see if there was any mutation hindering the expression of the hGH gene.

  8. Understanding and meeting the needs of those using growth hormone injection devices

    OpenAIRE

    Parker Dorothy; Panayiotopoulos Paris; Dumas Hervé; Pongpairochana Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) is used to treat: growth hormone deficiency in children and adults; children born small for gestational age; Turner's syndrome; and chronic renal failure. r-hGH is administered by daily subcutaneous injection and may be given using a number of different administration devices. The aim of this survey was, firstly, to identify which attributes of an r-hGH administration device are considered most important to physicians, teenage patie...

  9. Standardization of Blood Growth Hormone Levels Measured by Different Kits Using a Linear Structural Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Tomohiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Shimatsu, Akira; Katsumata, Noriyuki; HIZUKA, Naomi; Fujieda, Kenji; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Accurate and reliable determination of blood growth hormone level is essential in the diagnosis and treatment of short stature children. However, measured levels differed considerably among measurement kits available in Japan until 2003. Therefore, standardization of the measured values was attempted by measuring growth hormone levels in a sample of healthy adult individuals every year using the different kits. A standardization equation was developed for each kit through linear structural re...

  10. Radioreceptor assay of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioreceptor assay for human growth hormone (hGH) was developed. The receptor preparation was 25,000g pellet from the livers of pregnant rabbits. Iodination of GH with 125I was preformed by the methods of Lactoperoxidase and Iodogen. The sensitivity of assay was 0.67 ± 0.11 ng/ml serum. Serum hGH levels in 72 cases of normal subjects, 102 cases of acromegaly were measured by radioreceptor assay (RRA), and the results were compared with those obtained by radioimmunoassay (RIA)

  11. Random Secretion of Growth Hormone in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prank, Klaus; Kloppstech, Mirko; Nowlan, Steven J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Brabant, Georg

    1996-08-01

    In normal humans, growth hormone (GH) is secreted from a gland located adjacent to the brain (pituitary) into the blood in distinct pulses, but in patients bearing a tumor within the pituitary (acromegaly) GH is excessively secreted in an irregular manner. It has been hypothesized that GH secretion in the diseased state becomes random. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating that GH secretion in patients with acromegaly cannot be distinguished from a variety of linear stochastic processes based on the predictability of the fluctuations of GH concentration in the bloodstream.

  12. A history of growth hormone injection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidotti, E

    2001-05-01

    In the early 1960s, growth hormone (GH) deficiency was treated by intramuscular injection of GH extracted from human pituitary glands. Since then, there have been many advances in treatment encompassing the route of administration, the injection product and the injection device. This review considers the advances in injection device that have already taken place and how they have benefited the patient, particularly in terms of reduced pain and improved convenience. In the future, needle-free injection techniques and depot formulations of GH are likely to offer alternatives to daily subcutaneous injections. PMID:11393569

  13. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn; Hansen, Harald S.; Din, N.

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  14. Effects of growth hormone deficiency and recombinant growth hormone therapy on postprandial gallbladder motility and cholecystokinin release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; Twickler, M.; Rehfeld, J.F.; Ooteghem, N.A. van; Castro Cabezas, M.; Portincasa, P.; Berge-Henegouwen, G.P. van; Erpecum, K.J. van

    2004-01-01

    In addition to cholecystokinin, other hormones have been suggested to be involved in regulation of postprandial gallbladder contraction. We aimed to evaluate effects of growth hormone (GH) on gallbladder contractility and cholecystokinin release. Gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound) and

  15. Continuation of growth hormone therapy versus placebo in transition-phase patients with growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens; Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, Nina;

    2002-01-01

    In a placebo-controlled, parallel study of 18 patients with a mean age of 20 years who had confirmed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we evaluated body composition, insulin sensitivity, and glucose turnover at baseline (when all were receiving GH replacement); after 12 months of continued GH therapy...

  16. Growth hormone-insulinlike growth factor I and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelato, M C

    1993-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) may be part of a neuroendocrine immune axis that stimulates cellular proliferation of primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, thymus) as well as stimulates activation of peripheral lymphocytes and macrophages to enhance specific immune responses. GH can also stimulate production of thymic hormones and cytokines, and in this way impact on immune function. It is not clear whether GH and IGF-I act independently or whether the action of GH is mediated by local production of IGF-I by lymphocytes. Both GH and IGF-I and their receptors are present in lymphocytes. Thus, cells of the immune system may be important targets of the GH-IGF-I axis. PMID:18407143

  17. Growth hormone producing prolactinoma in juvenile cystinosis: a simple coincidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Besouw, Martine T.P.; Levtchenko, Elena N.; Willemsen, Michèl A. A. P.; Noordam, Kees

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile cystinosis was diagnosed in a patient who presented with severe headache attacks and photophobia. Treatment with oral cysteamine and topical cysteamine eye drops was started. One-and-a-half years later, he developed unilateral gynecomastia and elevated prolactin and growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroprolactinoma was discovered and successfully treated with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. Increased serum growth hormone levels were attributed to enhanced growth hormone producti...

  18. Genetic analysis of familial isolated growth hormone deficiency type I.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, J. A.; Parks, J. S.; Hjelle, B L; Herd, J E; Plotnick, L P; Migeon, C. J.; Seeburg, P H

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear DNA from individuals belonging to nine different families in which two sibs were affected with isolated growth hormone deficiency type I were studied by restriction endonuclease analysis. By using 32P-labeled human growth hormone or the homologous human chorionic somatomammotropin complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences as a probe, the growth hormone genes of affected individuals from all families yielded normal restriction patterns. Polymorphic restriction endonuclease sites (HincII and M...

  19. Effect of hypophysectomy and growth hormone replacement on hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor messenger ribonucleic Acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccleston, L M; Powell, J F; Clayton, R N

    1991-12-01

    Abstract The mechanisms by which the pituitary gland, and growth hormone (GH) in particular, affect growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) gene expression have been addressed using the technique of in situ hybridization. Anatomically matched sections through the mediobasal hypothalamus of control and hypophysectomized male rats, with or without GH hormone replacement, were analysed to obtain information on GRF mRNA levels within the arcuate nucleus and around the ventromedial hypothalamus. Hypophysectomy resulted in a 70% increase in the amount of GRF mRNA per cell (PHypothyroidism alone did not affect GRF mRNA levels in either the arcuate nucleus or in the area surrounding the ventromedial hypothalamus. These results show that hypophysectomy increases GRF mRNA levels in two separate ways: by increasing the amount of mRNA produced per cell within the arcuate nucleus, and by increasing the number of cells expressing the gene in the area surrounding the ventromedial hypothalamus. This increase in the number of GRF mRNA-containing cells after hypophysectomy could result from the recruitment of neurons which previously did not express the GRF gene, and may reflect the plasticity of the adult central nervous system in response to a changing endocrine environment. This could represent part of a sensor mechanism to drive the production of GRF in the arcuate nucleus in response to extreme disruption of the GRF/ GH feedback loop. PMID:19215536

  20. Thyroid hormones and adult-type Leydig cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, E.

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in thyroid hormone levels are well known to influence key functions in growth and development. Although in many countries the diet is fortified with iodide, essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, still not all humans have access to fortified diets, leaving a substantial part of the pop

  1. Fast evolution of growth hormone receptor in primates and ruminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhenfang; LI Ying; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) evolves very slowly in most of mammals, but the evolutionary rates appear to have increased markedly on two occasions during the evolution of primates and ruminants. To investigate the evolutionary pattern of growth hormone receptor (GHR), we sequenced the extracellular domain of GHR genes from four primate species. Our results suggested that GHR in mammal also shows an episodic evolutionary pattern, which is consistent with that observed in pituitary growth hormone. Further analysis suggested that this pattern of rapid evolution observed in primates and ruminants is likely the result of coevolution between pituitary growth hormone and its receptor.

  2. Effect of growth hormone-releasing factor on growth hormone release in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five male children who received cranial irradiation for extrahypothalamic intracranial neoplasms or leukemia and subsequently developed severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency were challenged with synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF-44), in an attempt to distinguish hypothalamic from pituitary dysfunction as a cause of their GH deficiency, and to assess the readily releasable GH reserve in the pituitary. In response to a pulse of GRF-44 (5 micrograms/kg intravenously), mean peak GH levels rose to values higher than those evoked by the pharmacologic agents L-dopa or arginine (6.4 +/- 1.3 ng/mL v 1.5 +/- 0.4 ng/mL, P less than .05). The peak GH value occurred at a mean of 26.0 minutes after administration of GRF-44. These responses were similar to those obtained in children with severe GH deficiency due to other etiologies (peak GH 6.3 +/- 1.7 ng/mL, mean 28.0 minutes). In addition, there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between peak GH response to GRF-44 and the postirradiation interval. Prolactin and somatomedin-C levels did not change significantly after the administration of a single dose of GRF-44. The results of this study support the hypothesis that cranial irradiation in children can lead to hypothalamic GRF deficiency secondary to radiation injury of hypothalamic GRF-secreting neurons. This study also lends support to the potential therapeutic usefulness of GRF-44 or an analog for GH deficiency secondary to cranial irradiation

  3. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and Sox9(+) adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors. PMID:27109116

  4. The growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals with endogenous neuroendocrine responses to the genetic programs that determine the body plan. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are integral components of multiple systems controlling both growth and metabolism. The IGF system The IGF system is thought to be more complex than other endocrine systems, as genes for six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs have been identified so far. The IGFs play a critical role in both cell cycle control and apoptosis, two functions involved in regulation of tumorigenesis. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I is essential for normal growth. Confirmation of the significance of IGF-I in human physiology was obtained by the discovery of a patient with intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with a mutation in the IGF-1 gene. Stages of evolution of the somatomedin hypothesis The original somatomedin hypothesis postulated that somatic growth was regulated by growth hormone's (GH's stimulation of hepatic IGF-1 production, with IGF-1 acting in an endocrine fashion to promote growth. The dual effectors theory proposed an alternative view, involving direct effects by GH on peripheral tissues not mediated by IGF-1 and GH-stimulated local IGF-1 production for autocrine/paracrine action. It is now clear that G H stimulates the formation of ternary IGF binding complex, which stabilizes IGF-I in the serum.

  5. Autodecomposition of radiolabeled human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human growth hormone (hGH) was radiolabeled with 125I, using a gentle lactoperoxidase technique. The stability and decomposition products of this tracer were studied by frequent periodic analysis by Sephadex G-100 chromatography on a long column. Monomeric 125I-hGH showed an exponential decline, with a half-life of 61 days. The main radioactive degradation product was iodide, which appeared with a fractional appearance rate of 0.01136 per day. Secondary degradation products were a series of radioactive oligomers of hGH, which appeared with an overall fractional rate of 0.00525 per day. The kinetic data obtained should provide guidelines for the shelf-life and repurification schedule of radioiodinated polypeptides

  6. Methionyl human growth hormone in Turner's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Rongen-Westerlaken, C.; Wit, J M; Drop, S.L.; Otten, B.J.; Oostdijk, W.; Waal, H A; Gons, M H; Bot, A.; Van den Brande, J L

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen girls with Turner's syndrome aged 7.9-15.2 years (bone ages 7.0-11.8 years) were given methionyl growth hormone (somatrem) 4 IU/m2 body surface daily, corresponding to 0.9 IU/kg/week. During one year of treatment their mean (SD) height velocity increased from 3.4 (0.9) to 7.2 (1.7) cm/year and height prediction from 148.2 (4.4) to 150.0 (4.4) cm. All the girls except one had a height velocity increment of more than 2 cm/year and these velocities are above the age references for girls ...

  7. The interaction of growth hormone releasing hormone with other hypothalamic hormones on the release of anterior pituitary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looij, B J; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A C; Mudde, A H; Frölich, M; Piaditis, G P; Hodgkinson, S C; McLean, C; Grossman, A; Coy, D H; Rees, L H

    1986-02-01

    To determine whether the 29 amino-acid fragment of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) can be combined with other hypothalamic releasing hormones in a single test of anterior pituitary reserve, the responses of anterior pituitary hormones to combinations of an i.v. bolus of GHRH(1-29)NH2 or saline with an i.v. bolus of either LH releasing hormone (LHRH) plus TRH, ovine CRH(oCRH) or saline were studied. Each infusion of GHRH(1-29)NH2 resulted in a rapid increment of the plasma GH value. Infusion of GHRH(1-29)NH2 also caused a small and transient rise in plasma PRL, but no change in the integrated PRL response. The combination of GHRH(1-29)NH2 with LHRH plus TRH caused a larger increment of peak and integrated plasma TSH levels than LHRH plus TRH alone. GHRH(1-29)NH2 did not affect the release of other anterior pituitary hormones after infusion with oCRH or LHRH plus TRH. Because of the finding of potentiation of the TSH-releasing activity of LHRH plus TRH by GHRH(1-29)NH2, the study was extended to the investigation of TSH release after infusion of TRH in combination with either GHRH(1-29)NH2 or GHRH(1-40). In this study the combination of TRH with both GHRH preparations also caused a larger increment of the peak and integrated plasma TSH levels than TRH alone. It is concluded that GHRH(1-29)NH2 possesses moderate PRL-releasing activity apart from GH-releasing activity. In addition, GHRH potentiates the TSH-releasing activity of TRH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2871949

  8. Growth hormone (GH) provocative retesting of 108 young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency and the diagnostic value of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Kastrup, K W; Pedersen, S A; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children and exhibit little diurnal variation, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening of GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some...... controversy still exists. In adults, the diagnostic value of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 suspected of GHD has been reported in only a few studies. We performed a GH provocative test, using oral clonidine, in 108 patients who had previously been treated with GH during childhood (73 men and 35 women). Basal IGF-I and...... determinations predict the outcome of a GH provocative test in adults suspected of GHD and believe that IGF-I as well as IGFBP-3 serum concentrations are valuable diagnostic parameters in the evaluation of GHD in adults with childhood-onset disease. We suggest that children who have been treated with GH should...

  9. Results from an international multicenter trial evaluating the ease-of-use of and preference for a newly developed disposable injection pen for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency in treatment-naïve children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleil AM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Andreas M Pleil,1 Feyza Darendeliler,2 Helmuth G Dörr,3 Katherine Hutchinson,4 Hartmut A Wollmann5 1Pfizer Inc., San Diego, CA, USA; 2Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany; 4Quanticate, Hitchin, UK; 5Pfizer Ltd, Walton Oaks, UK Abstract: Previous research has reported that ease of use of and preference for a delivery device are associated with greater patient compliance – an important factor in achieving optimal therapeutic results. The objective of this study was to assess the ease-of-use of a new disposable pen (GoQuick®, Pfizer, Inc. versus the current reusable pen (GENOTROPIN Pen®, Pfizer, Inc. to inject a daily dose of recombinant DNA origin human growth hormone, Genotropin® (somatropin in standard practice. In this randomized, crossover, multicenter, multinational, open-label study, ease-of-use of and preference for the two pens were assessed in three treatment-naïve populations: 1 parents of very young children; 2 parent–child dyads; and 3 adults via use of a validated self-report Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ after 2 months of at-home-use experience. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who reported the new disposable pen to be no different from or easier to use than the current reusable pen. Safety was also assessed and reported according to local legal requirements. Of the 120 screened patients, 119 were included in the ease-of-use analysis and all were included in the safety analyses. In all, 67.2% found the new somatropin disposable pen to be no different from or easier to use than the reusable pen (95% confidence interval: 58.8–75.7. Most adverse events were mild or moderate. No deaths or device- or treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results suggest that improvements made to the reusable somatropin pen are tangible and recognizable to treatment

  10. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Werner, S; Eggertsen, G;

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone therapy after myocardial infarction improves cardiac function and survival in animals. Beneficial effects in humans are reported from studies where patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were treated with growth hormone. We have studied the role of the endogenous growth...... hormone system in myocardial infarction....

  11. Growth Hormone Therapy in Children with Chronic Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Cayir, Atilla; Kosan, Celalettin

    2014-01-01

    Growth is impaired in a chronic renal failure. Anemia, acidosis, reduced intake of calories and protein, decreased synthesis of vitamin D and increased parathyroid hormone levels, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy and changes in growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor and the gonadotropin-gonadal axis are implicated in this study. Growth is adversely affected by immunosuppressives and corticosteroids after kidney transplantation. Treating metabolic disorders using the recombinant huma...

  12. Children and young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) : GH-IGF-IGFBP axis, insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines and body composition during and after growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk (Marije)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis gives a detailed account of various studies, performed in short children born small for gestational age (SGA) participating in the third Dutch GH trial (IUGR-3 study), and in young SGA adults previously treated with GH in the first Dutch GH trial (SGA follow-up study

  13. Optimization of production of recombinant human growth hormone in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human growth hormone (hGH is a single-chain polypeptide that participates in a wide range of biological functions such as metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids as well as in growth, development and immunity. Growth hormone deficiency in human occurs both in children and adults. The routine treatment for this condition is administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH made by prokaryotes. Since nonglycosylated human growth hormone is a biologically active protein, prokaryotic expression systems are preferred for its production. Materials and Methods: Different strains of E.coli were transformed by plasmid containing human growth hormone gene and cultured in different conditions. After induction by IPTG, recombinant human growth hormone production was assessed using ELISA, dot blotting and western blotting techniques. Results: High levels of rhGH were produced using E.coli prokaryotic protein production system. Conclusion: This simple and cost effective production process could be recruited for large scale production of rhGH.

  14. Macimorelin (AEZS-130)-Stimulated Growth Hormone (GH) Test: Validation of a Novel Oral Stimulation Test for the Diagnosis of Adult GH Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, J M; Swerdloff, R.; Wang, C; M. Kyle; Kipnes, M.; Biller, B M K; Cook, D; Yuen, K. C. J.; Bonert, V.; Dobs, A.; Molitch, M. E.; Merriam, G R

    2013-01-01

    Context: In the absence of panhypopituitarism and low serum IGF-I levels, the diagnosis of adult GH deficiency (AGHD) requires confirmation with a GH stimulation test. Macimorelin is a novel, orally active ghrelin mimetic that stimulates GH secretion. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy and safety of macimorelin in AGHD. Design: This was a multicenter open-label study comparing the diagnostic accuracy of oral macimorelin with that of arginine+GHRH in...

  15. Metabolism of growth hormone releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andreas; Delahaut, Philippe; Krug, Oliver; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-12-01

    New, potentially performance enhancing compounds have frequently been introduced to licit and illicit markets and rapidly distributed via worldwide operating Internet platforms. Developing fast analytical strategies to follow these new trends is one the most challenging issues for modern doping control analysis. Even if reference compounds for the active drugs are readily obtained, their unknown metabolism complicates effective testing strategies. Recently, a new class of small C-terminally amidated peptides comprising four to seven amino acid residues received considerable attention of sports drug testing authorities due to their ability to stimulate growth hormone release from the pituitary. The most promising candidates are the growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, hexarelin, alexamorelin, and ipamorelin. With the exemption of GHRP-2, the entity of these peptides represents nonapproved pharmaceuticals; however, via Internet providers, all compounds are readily available. To date, only limited information on the metabolism of these substances is available and merely one metabolite for GHRP-2 is established. Therefore, a comprehensive in vivo (po and iv administration in rats) and in vitro (with human serum and recombinant amidase) study was performed in order to generate information on urinary metabolites potentially useful for routine doping controls. The urine samples from the in vivo experiments were purified by mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction and analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation followed by high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry. Combining the high resolution power of a benchtop Orbitrap mass analyzer for the first metabolite screening and the speed of a quadrupole/time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instrument for identification, urinary metabolites were screened by means of a sensitive full scan analysis and subsequently confirmed by high-accuracy product ion scan experiments. Two

  16. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Azurmendi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG that follows uninephrectomy (uNx is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50% while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p < 0.05. Cell size (protein or RNA/DNA was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  17. Status of long-acting-growth hormone preparations--2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høybye, Charlotte; Cohen, Pinchas; Hoffman, Andrew R; Ross, Richard; Biller, Beverly M K; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment has been an established therapy for GH deficiency (GHD) in children and adults for more than three decades. Numerous studies have shown that GH treatment improves height, body composition, bone density, cardiovascular risk factors, physical fitness and quality of life and that the treatment has few side effects. Initially GH was given as intramuscular injections three times per week, but daily subcutaneous injections were shown to be more effective and less inconvenient and the daily administration has been used since its introduction in the 1980s. However, despite ongoing improvements in injection device design, daily subcutaneous injections remain inconvenient, painful and distressing for many patients, leading to noncompliance, reduced efficacy and increased health care costs. To address these issues a variety of long-acting formulations of GH have been developed. In this review we present the current status of long-acting GH preparations and discuss the specific issues related to their development. PMID:26187188

  18. Growth hormone deficiency in cleft lip and palate patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin AbdollahiFakhim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Failure to thrive (FTT is relatively common among cleft patients, most commonly attributed to feeding problems during the first months of life. Close association between midline clefts and pituitary gland abnormalities prompted us to determine the frequency of growth hormone deficiency in cleft patients, which is easily treated. Methods: Any cleft patient with FTT was studied and when the patient’s height was under the 3rd percentile of normal, growth hormone was checked after clonidine administration. Growth hormone was checked before and 30, 60 and 90 minutes after clonidine use. Results: Of 670 patients with cleft lip or palate, 31 patients (4% had some kind of growth retardation according to weight, height or head circumstance. Eighteen patients were under the 3rd percentile of normal height. Growth hormone deficiency was detected in 8 patients out of 18 patients and overall frequency of growth hormone deficiency among cleft patients with growth retardation was 25.8% (8 out of 31. Seven patients of 8 were male whereas one was female and half of the patients were syndromic. Conclusion: Cleft patients have many problems with normal feeding and all kind of support should be provided to achieve near-normal feeding and they should be monitored for normal growth. Any patient with growth retardation, especially height decrease, should be assessed for growth hormone deficiency.

  19. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium, p...

  20. Radioimmunoassay for human growth hormone (HGH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for human growth hormone (HGH) has been developed, which is highly specific, sensitive, precise, and reliable. The assay is based on the competitive binding principle of radioimmunoassay and utilizes a guinea pig anti-HGH serum and 125I-HGH. The tracer can be used for 3-4 weeks without further purification. Separation of antibody-bound from free 125I-HGH is achieved by the use of an immuno-immobilized precipitating reagent in the presence of 4% polyethylenglycol. Under these conditions the unspecific binding is as low as 2% of the total radioactivity. The standard curve covers the range of 0.05 to 1.6 nmol/l. At higher HGH concentrations (0.8 to 1.6 nmol/l) the inter- and intraassay coefficients of variation are 12-14 and 5-8%, respectively. For determination of HGH concentration plasma, serum or buffer-diluted samples may be used. Recovery of HGH added to 11 individual plasma and serum samples was 103.7 +- 6.3 and 106.5+- 10.1% (x +- S.D.), respectively. Recovery of endogenous HGH in 5 acromegalic sera after dilution with buffer was 102.2 +- 4.2% (x +- S.D.). The levels of circulating HGH obtained with this assay in normal women and men were found to be in the range of 0-0.5 and 0-0.4 nmol/l, respectively. (author)

  1. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and growth-hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been made of the growth hormone (GH) responses of nine children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to the insulin and arginine tolerance tests. All the patients had received induction treatment with prednisone, vincristine and doxorubicin ('Adriamycin') for 4 weeks followed by 2400 rad of orthovoltage cranial irradiation plus five intrathecal injections of methotrexate. During the study all the children were in complete remission, which had been maintained with 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate for 4 to 26 months. No pulses of steroids were used in remission. Five patients in early remission did not respond to either stimulation test, three having longer remissions showed a late and low response to the insulin test and the one patient with the longest remission (26 months) had a normal GH response. Heights and bone ages were normal. These results, which suggest the possibility of a gradual recovery after the end of CNS treatment including orthovoltage cranial irradiation, are contrasted with those for megavoltage treatment reported by Shalet et al. (Shalet, S.M., Beardwell, C.G., Morris-Jones, P.H., Pearson, D., Archs. Dis. Childh., 1976, vol. 51, 489). (U.K.)

  2. Expression of the human growth hormone variant gene in cultured fibroblasts and transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Selden, R F; Wagner, T E; Blethen, S; Yun, J S; Rowe, M E; Goodman, H M

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the human growth hormone variant gene, one of the five members of the growth hormone gene family, predicts that it encodes a growth hormone-like protein. As a first step in determining whether this gene is functional in humans, we have expressed a mouse metallothionein I/human growth hormone variant fusion gene in mouse L cells and in transgenic mice. The growth hormone variant protein expressed in transiently transfected L cells is distinct from growth hormone itse...

  3. Gene expression of a truncated and the full-length growth hormone (GH) receptor in subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Kristensen, K; Rosenfalck, A M;

    2001-01-01

    In humans at least two GH receptors are significantly expressed. One is the full-length receptor (GHR); the other is a truncated form (GHRtr), that lacks most of the intracellular domain. This receptor may inhibit the action of the full-length receptor. Circulating GH-binding protein (GHBP) is a...... proteolytically cleaved product from both of these receptors. The clinical relevance of the different receptor types is unknown. We examined the gene expression of GHR and GHRtr in human adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and the influence of GH treatment on this expression. Furthermore, we studied the...... relationship of circulating GHBP and body composition to GHR and GHRtr gene expression. Eleven adult GH-deficient patients were studied before and after 4 months of GH substitution therapy. Abdominal fat obtained by liposuction and femoral muscle biopsies were taken at baseline and after 4 months. Gene...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human growth hormone administered by cool.click™ 2, a new needle-free device, compared with subcutaneous administration using a conventional syringe and needle

    OpenAIRE

    Brearley, Chris; Priestley, Anthony; Leighton-Scott, James; Christen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Background Growth hormone (GH) is used to treat growth hormone deficiency (GHD, adult and paediatric), short bowel syndrome in patients on a specialized diet, HIV-associated wasting and, in children, growth failure due to a number of disorders including Turner's syndrome and chronic renal failure, and in children born small for gestational age. Different brands and generic forms of recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) are approved for varying indications in different countries. New ways o...

  5. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor system and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva; Kopchick, John J

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In terms of cell cycle regulation, the GH-IGF system induces signalling pathways for cell growth that compete with other signalling systems that result in cell death; thus the final effect of these opposed forces is critical for normal and abnormal cell growth. The association of the GH-IGF system with carcinogenesis has long been hypothesised, mainly based on in vitro studies and the use of a variety of animal models of human cancer, and also on epidemiological and clinical evidence in humans. While ample experimental evidence supports a role of the GH-IGF system in tumour promotion and progression, with several of its components being currently tested as central targets for cancer therapy, the strength of evidence from patients with acromegaly, GH deficiency, or treated with GH is much weaker. In this review, we will attempt to consolidate this data. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (4): 414-426). PMID:27387246

  6. An enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone - Applications to the study of growth hormone variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Marianne A.; Hymer, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific competitive enzyme immunoassay for rat growth hormone (GH) is described and its use in the detection of GH variants is demonstrated. In the present assay, soluble GH and GH adsorbed to a solid-phase support compete for monkey anti-GH antibody binding sites. The immobilized antibody-GH complex is detected and quantified using goat antimonkey immunoglobin G covalently conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. It is noted that the assay can be performed in 27 hours and that sensitivities in the range of 0.19 to 25 ng can be obtained in the region of 10 to 90 percent binding.

  7. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism).

    OpenAIRE

    Daughaday, W H; Trivedi, B

    1987-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, we have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of 12...

  8. GENETIC DEFECTS IN THE GROWTH HORMONE-IGF-I AXIS CAUSING GROWTH HORMONE INSENSITIVITY AND IMPAIRED LINEAR GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Martin O; Vivian eHwa; Alessia eDavid; Rosenfeld, Ron G.; Metherell, Louise A.

    2011-01-01

    Human genetic defects in the growth hormone (GH)–IGF-I axis affecting the IGF system present with growth failure as their principal clinical feature. This is usually associated with GH insensitivity (GHI) presenting in childhood as severe or mild short stature. Dysmorphic features and metabolic abnormalities may also be present. The field of GHI due to mutations affecting GH action has evolved rapidly since the first description of the extreme phenotype related to homozygous GH receptor (GHR)...

  9. A comparison of different definitions of growth response in short prepubertal children treated with growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, P; Bjerknes, R; Dahlgren, J;

    2011-01-01

    How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response.......How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response....

  10. Thyroid hormone signalling and adult neurogenesis in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eRemaud

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The vital roles of thyroid hormone in multiple aspects of perinatal brain development have been known for over a century. In the last decades, the molecular mechanisms underlying effects of thyroid hormone on proliferation, differentiation, migration, synaptogenesis and myelination in the developing nervous system have been gradually dissected. However, recent data reveal that thyroid signalling influences neuronal development throughout life, from early embryogenesis to the neurogenesis in the adult brain. This review deals with the latter phase and analyses current knowledge on the role of T3, the active form of thyroid hormone, and its receptors in regulating neural stem cell function in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, the two principal sites harbouring neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. In particular, we discuss the critical roles of T3 and TRα1 in commitment to a neuronal phenotype, a process that entails the repression of a number of genes, notably that encoding the pluripotency factor, Sox2. Furthermore, the question of the relevance of thyroid hormone control of adult neurogenesis is considered in the context of brain aging, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease.

  11. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eBarth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  12. Transient partial growth hormone deficiency due to zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Y; Hatano, S; Aihara, K; Fujie, A; Kihara, M

    1989-04-01

    We present here a 13-year-old boy with partial growth hormone deficiency due to chronic mild zinc deficiency. When zinc administration was started, his growth rate, growth hormone levels, and plasma zinc concentrations increased significantly. His poor dietary intake resulted in chronic mild zinc deficiency, which in turn could be the cause of a further loss of appetite and growth retardation. There was also a possibility of renal zinc wasting which may have contributed to zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency should be carefully ruled out in patients with growth retardation. PMID:2708733

  13. Endogenous growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone is required for GH responses to pharmacological stimuli.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, C A; DeMott-Friberg, R; Barkan, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and of somatostatin (SRIF) in pharmacologically stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion in humans are unclear. GH responses could result either from GHRH release or from acute decline in SRIF secretion. To assess directly the role of endogenous GHRH in human GH secretion, we have used a competitive GHRH antagonist, (N-Ac-Tyr1,D-Arg2)GHRH(1-29)NH2 (GHRH-Ant), which we have previously shown is able to block the GH response to GH...

  14. Enhancement of bone formation in rabbits by recombinant human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of human recombinant growth hormone on diaphyseal bone in 40 adult rabbits. The diaphyseal periosteum of one femur in each animal was mechanically stimulated by a nylon cerclage band. The bands induced an increase in bone formation, bone mineral content, and maximum torque capacity of the diaphyseal bone at 1 and 2 months. Growth hormone enhanced the anabolic effect of the cerclage bands on bone metabolism, evidenced by a further increase in torsional strength of the femurs. (au) (32 refs.)

  15. Skin morphological changes in growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Merete Wolder; Thulesen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, U;

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the histomorphology of skin and its appendages, especially eccrine sweat glands, in patients with GH disorders, because reduced sweating ability in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased risk of hyperthermia under stressed conditions....

  16. Beta-adrenoceptor-blocking drugs, growth hormone and acromegaly.

    OpenAIRE

    Feely, J.

    1980-01-01

    Chronic treatment with oxprenolol or propranolol in active hypertensive patients was associated with elevation of serum growth hormone (GH). Propranolol, 80 mg orally, caused a marked rise in GH in 3 of 4 acromegalic patients.

  17. Genotyping of Growth Hormone Gene in Egyptian Small Ruminant Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Othman E. Othman; Sally S. Alam; Heba A.M. Abd El-Kader; Omaima M. Abd-El-Moneim

    2015-01-01

    Small ruminants are considered as one of the major sources of meat and milk production in Egypt. Identification of the genes underlying livestock production traits leads to more efficient breeding programs and it is a promising way to improve production traits of farm animals. Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone which is the major regulator of the metabolic procedures of growth and development and it is encoded by GH gene. In this study, we aimed to detect the genetic polymorphism of GH g...

  18. Plant Hormones Promote Growth in Lichen-Forming Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin Yu; Wei, Xin Li; Luo, Heng; Kim, Jung A; Jeon, Hae Sook; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of plant hormones on the growth of lichen-forming fungi (LFF) was evaluated. The use of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and indole-3-butyric acid resulted in a 99% and 57% increase in dry weight of the lichen-forming fungus Nephromopsis ornata. The results suggest that some plant hormones can be used as inducers or stimulators of LFF growth for large-scale culture.

  19. Neuroprotective Actions of Ghrelin and Growth Hormone Secretagogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frago, Laura M.; Baquedano, Eva; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The brain incorporates and coordinates information based on the hormonal environment, receiving information from peripheral tissues through the circulation. Although it was initially thought that hormones only acted on the hypothalamus to perform endocrine functions, it is now known that they in fact exert diverse actions on many different brain regions including the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates growth hormone secretion and food intake to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight by binding to its receptor, growth hormone secretagogues–GH secretagogue-receptor, which is most highly expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. In addition, ghrelin has effects on learning and memory, reward and motivation, anxiety, and depression, and could be a potential therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disorders where excitotoxic neuronal cell death and inflammatory processes are involved. PMID:21994488

  20. Treatment of short stature and growth hormone deficiency in children with somatotropin (rDNA origin)

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    Dana S HardinOhio State University and Columbus Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: Somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) of recombinant DNA origin has provided a readily available and safe drug that has greatly improved management of children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD) and other disorders of growth. In the US and Europe, regulatory agencies have given approval for the use of GH in children and adults who meet specific criteria. However, clinical and ethical ...

  1. Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, and the Skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Giustina, Andrea; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Canalis, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    GH and IGF-I are important regulators of bone homeostasis and are central to the achievement of normal longitudinal bone growth and bone mass. Although GH may act directly on skeletal cells, most of its effects are mediated by IGF-I, which is present in the systemic circulation and is synthesized by peripheral tissues. The availability of IGF-I is regulated by IGF binding proteins. IGF-I enhances the differentiated function of the osteoblast and bone formation. Adult GH deficiency causes low ...

  2. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude;

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not...... affect the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the...

  3. Growth hormone secretion in Turner's syndrome and influence of oxandrolone and ethinyl oestradiol.

    OpenAIRE

    Massarano, A A; Brook, C G; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Pringle, P J; Teale, J. D.; Stanhope, R; Preece, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated 24 hour growth hormone secretion by intermittent 20 minute blood sampling in 34 prepubertal patients with Turner's syndrome, aged 4.3-12.4 years. Growth hormone profiles were analysed by the PULSAR programme and results expressed as the sum of growth hormone pulse amplitudes. Six patients had abnormal growth hormone pulse frequencies. In the remaining 28, growth hormone pulse amplitudes declined significantly with increasing age, but there was no correlation between growth hor...

  4. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M;

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  5. Response to three years of growth hormone therapy in girls with Turner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Kyu; Lee, Hae Sang; Ko, Jung Hee; Hwang, Il Tae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Short stature is the most common finding in patients with Turner syndrome. Improving the final adult height in these patients is a challenge both for the patients and physicians. We investigated the clinical response of patients to growth hormone treatment for height improvement over the period of three years. Methods Review of medical records from 27 patients with Turner syndrome treated with recombinant human growth hormone for more than 3 years was done. Differences in the changes of height standard deviation scores according to karyotype were measured and factors influencing the height changes were analyzed. Results The response to recombinant human growth hormone was an increase in the height of the subjects to a mean value of 1.1 standard deviation for subjects with Turner syndrome at the end of the 3-year treatment. The height increment in the first year was highest. The height standard deviation score in the third year was negatively correlated with the age at the beginning of the recombinant human growth hormone treatment. Different karyotypes in subjects did not seem to affect the height changes. Conclusion Early growth hormone administration in subjects with Turner syndrome is helpful to improve height response to the treatment. PMID:24904845

  6. Decreased hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone content and pituitary responsiveness in hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Katakami, H; Downs, T R; Frohman, L A

    1986-01-01

    The effects of thyroidectomy (Tx) and thyroxine replacement (T4Rx) on pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion and hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GRH) concentration were compared to define the mechanism of hypothyroid-associated GH deficiency. Thyroidectomized rats exhibited a complete loss of pulsatile GH secretion with extensive reduction in GRH responsiveness and pituitary GH content. Cultured pituitary cells from Tx rats exhibited reduced GRH sensitivity, maximal GH responsiveness, and...

  7. Effect of temperature on the radioiodination of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been undertaken to assess the effect of altering the temperature at which human growth hormone is radioiodinated on the incorporation of 125I and the immunoreactivity and stability of the labelled hormone. Employing highly purified monomeric hormone it proved possible, by the iodogen procedure, to prepare a labelled product of high specific activity irrespective of temperature. However, in radioiodinations performed at ambient temperature (20 to 25 degrees) significant amounts of the labelled hormone were in an aggregated form which was less immunoreactive than the 125I-labelled monomeric hormone. Such aggregation was largely prevented by radioiodinating at low temperature (0 to 4 degrees) and even the large monomeric peak was more immunoreactive (about 95% bound in antibody excess) than the monomeric peak from iodinations performed at room temperature

  8. Divergence between growth hormone responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and growth hormone-releasing hormone in patients with non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas and hyperprolactinaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The GH responses to the insulin tolerance test (ITT) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) may yield different results in patients with pituitary lesions. The GH responses to these stimuli were compared in patients with untreated non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas, who represent

  9. Growth hormone (GH) provocative retesting of 108 young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency and the diagnostic value of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Kastrup, K W; Pedersen, S A;

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children and exhibit little diurnal variation, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening of GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some...... controversy still exists. In adults, the diagnostic value of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 suspected of GHD has been reported in only a few studies. We performed a GH provocative test, using oral clonidine, in 108 patients who had previously been treated with GH during childhood (73 men and 35 women). Basal IGF-I and...... IGFBP-3 levels were compared to those in 1237 healthy controls (312 controls > 18 yr) as well as to peak GH levels. Seventy-nine patients had peak GH values below a cut-off value of 7.5 micrograms/L (34 with isolated GHD), whereas 29 patients had a normal GH response (28 with previous isolated GHD), i...

  10. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2009-01-01

    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting,such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partⅠ, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors,epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part Ⅱ will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.

  11. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A multiphase study was conducted to examine the properties of growth hormone cells. Topics investigated included: (1) to determine if growth hormone (GH) cells contained within the rat pituitary gland can be separated from the other hormone producing cell types by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE); (2) to determine what role, if any, gravity plays in the electrophoretic separation of GH cells; (3) to compare in vitro GH release from rat pituitary cells previously exposed to microgravity conditions vs release from cells not exposed to microgravity; (4) to determine if the frequency of different hormone producing pituitary cell types contained in cell suspensions can be quantitated by flow cytometry; and (5) to determine if GH contained within the human post mortem pituitary gland can be purified by CFE. Specific experimental procedures and results are included.

  12. Binding of 125I-human growth hormone to specific receptors in human cultured lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of human growth hormone with human lymphocytes from an established culture (IM-9) was studied using 125I- human growth hormone. The binding of 125I-human growth hormone was rapid; with human growth hormone at 0.1 nM a steady state was observed in 90 min at 300. Bound labeled human growth hormone was dissociated rapidly by addition of excess unlabeled human growth hormone. Binding of 125I-human growth hormone to cultured lymphocytes was relatively insensitive to alterations in the pH and in the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA. At 800 there was very little degradation of labeled human growth hormone or of the specific receptor sites. Tryptic digestion destroyed the capacity of cells to bind human growth hormone. The IM-9 cells bound all human growth hormone preparations but not unrelated hormones or nonprimate growth hormones. The binding of 125I-human growth hormone was inhibited 10 to 14 percent with 1 to 2 ng per ml of unlabeled human growth hormone and 50 percent with 30 to 40 ng per ml, well within the range of hormone concentrations in vivo. Analysis of steady state data revealed a single order of binding sites with an affinity constant of 1.3 x 109 M-1 and about 4000 binding sites per cell. Numerous human growth hormone preparations were assayed by use of this receptor system as well as by immunoassay and by bioassay in vivo. The po

  13. cDNA cloning and sequencing of ostrich Growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doosti Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, industrial breeding of ostrich (Struthio camelus has been widely developed in Iran. Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in different animals. The aim of this study was to clone and sequence the ostrich growth hormone gene in E. coli, done for the first time in Iran. The cDNA that encodes ostrich growth hormone was isolated from total mRNA of the pituitary gland and amplified by RT-PCR using GH specific PCR primers. Then GH cDNA was cloned by T/A cloning technique and the construct was transformed into E. coli. Finally, GH cDNA sequence was submitted to the GenBank (Accession number: JN559394. The results of present study showed that GH cDNA was successfully cloned in E. coli. Sequencing confirmed that GH cDNA was cloned and that the length of ostrich GH cDNA was 672 bp; BLAST search showed that the sequence of growth hormone cDNA of the ostrich from Iran has 100% homology with other records existing in GenBank.

  14. Effects of plasmid-mediated growth hormone-releasing hormone in severely debilitated dogs with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Hahn, Kevin A; King, Glen K; Cummings, Kathleen K; Carpenter, Robert H

    2002-12-01

    Cachexia is a common manifestation of late stage malignancy and is characterized by anemia, anorexia, muscle wasting, loss of adipose tissue, and fatigue. Although cachexia is disabling and can diminish the life expectancy of cancer patients, there are still no effective therapies for this condition. We have examined the feasibility of using a myogenic plasmid to express growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in severely debilitated companion dogs with naturally occurring tumors. At a median of 16 days after intramuscular delivery of the plasmid, serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a measure of GHRH activity, were increased in 12 of 16 dogs (P intramuscular injection of a GHRH-expressing plasmid is both safe and capable of stimulating the release of growth hormone and IGF-I in large animals. The observed anabolic responses to a single dose of this therapy might be beneficial in patients with cancer-associated anemia and cachexia. PMID:12498779

  15. Hormonal regulation of wheat growth during hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Donald

    1988-01-01

    Hormonal control of root growth has been explored as one means to alleviate the crowding of plant root systems experienced in prototype hydroponic biomass production chambers being developed by the CELSS Breadboard Project. Four plant hormones, or their chemical analogs, which have been reported to selectively inhibit root growth, were tested by adding them to the nutrient solutions on day 10 of a 25 day growth test using spring wheat in hydroponic cultures. Growth and morphological changes is both shoot and root systems were evaluated. In no case was it possible to inhibit root growth without a comparable inhibition of shoot growth. It was concluded that this approach is unlikely to prove useful for wheat.

  16. The Intricate Role of Growth Hormone in Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    DerekLeroith

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), a master regulator of somatic growth, also regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism via complex interactions with insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Data from human and rodent studies reveal the importance of GH in insulin synthesis and secretion, lipid metabolism and body fat remodeling. In this review, we will summarize the tissue-specific metabolic effects of GH, with emphasis on recent targets identified to mediate these effects. Furthermore, we will...

  17. Regulatory mechanisms of growth hormone secretion are sexually dimorphic.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, C A; Ocampo-Lim, B; Guo, W; Krueger, K.; Sugahara, I; DeMott-Friberg, R; Bermann, M; Barkan, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic growth hormone (GH) secretory pattern is important in the determination of gender-specific patterns of growth and metabolism in rats. Whether GH secretion in humans is also sexually dimorphic and the neuroendocrine mechanisms governing this potential difference are not fully established. We have compared pulsatile GH secretion profiles in young men and women in the baseline state and during a continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I ...

  18. Treatment of constitutional delay of growth and puberty with oxandrolone compared with growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Buyukgebiz, A; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1990-01-01

    The effects of oxandrolone or biosynthetic human growth hormone (r-hGH) on the growth of 26 boys with constitutional delay of growth and puberty were studied. Both regimens increased growth rate twofold, oxandrolone to a greater extent than r-hGH. We conclude that oxandrolone is a more effective method of increasing growth rate in such children.

  19. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Efforts were directed towards maintenance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro. The production of human growth hormone (hGH) by this means would be of benefit for the treatment of certain human hypopituitary diseases such as dwarfism. One of the primary approaches was the testing of agents which may logically be expected to increase hGH release. The progress towards this goal is summarized. Results from preliminary experiments dealing with electrophoresis of pituitary cell for the purpose of somatotroph separation are described.

  20. OPPORTUNITYTM: a large-scale randomized clinical trial of growth hormone in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopple, Joel D; Cheung, Alfred K; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl;

    2011-01-01

    Adult maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients experience high mortality and morbidity and poor quality of life (QoL). Markers of protein-energy wasting are associated with these poor outcomes. The OPPORTUNITY™ Trial examined whether recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) reduces mortality in...... hypoalbuminemic MHD patients. Secondary end points were effects on number of hospitalizations, cardiovascular events, lean body mass (LBM), serum proteins, exercise capacity, QoL and adverse events....

  1. OPPORTUNITY™: a large-scale randomized clinical trial of growth hormone in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopple, Joel D; Cheung, Alfred K; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl;

    2011-01-01

    Adult maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients experience high mortality and morbidity and poor quality of life (QoL). Markers of protein-energy wasting are associated with these poor outcomes. The OPPORTUNITY™ Trial examined whether recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) reduces mortality in...... hypoalbuminemic MHD patients. Secondary end points were effects on number of hospitalizations, cardiovascular events, lean body mass (LBM), serum proteins, exercise capacity, QoL and adverse events....

  2. Neuroprotective actions of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Frago

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The brain incorporates and coordinates information based on the hormonal environment, receiving information from peripheral tissues through the circulation. Although it was initially thought that hormones only acted on the hypothalamus to perform endocrine functions, it is now known that they in fact exert diverse actions on many different brain regions including the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH secretion and food intake to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight by binding to its receptor, GHS-R1a, which is most highly expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. In addition, ghrelin has effects on learning and memory, reward and motivation, anxiety and depression, and could be a potential therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disorders where excitotoxic neuronal cell death and inflammatory processes are involved.

  3. Growth hormone action in rat insulinoma cells expressing truncated growth hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Annette; Allevato, G; Dyrberg, Thomas;

    1991-01-01

    Transfection of the insulin-producing rat islet tumor cell line RIN-5AH with a full length cDNA of the rat hepatic growth hormone (GH) receptor (GH-R1-638) augments the GH-responsive insulin synthesis in these cells. Using this functional system we analyzed the effect of COOH-terminal truncation of...... the GH receptor. Two mutated cDNAs encoding truncated GH receptors, GH-R1-294 and GH-R1-454, respectively, were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and transfected into the RIN cells. Both receptor mutants were expressed on the cell surface and displayed normal GH binding affinity. Whereas GH-R1......-638 had a molecular mass of about 110 kDa, GH-R1-294 and GH-R1-454 showed molecular masses of 49 and 80 kDa, respectively. Cells expressing GH-R1-454 internalized GH to a similar extent as cells transfected with the full length receptor and the parent cell line, but GH-R1-294-expressing cells showed a...

  4. Etiology of growth hormone deficiency in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD can be isolated or associated with deficiency of other pituitary gland hormones. According to age at diagnosis, causes of GHD are divided into congenital or acquired, and according to etiology into recognized and unknown. Objective. We analyzed etiology and prevalence of GHD, demographic data at birth, age, body height (BH and bone age at diagnosis as well as the frequency of other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Methods. The study involved 164 patients (109 male. The main criterion for the diagnosis of GHD was inadequate response of GH after two stimulation tests. The patients were classified into three groups: idiopathic, congenital and acquired GHD. Results. Idiopathic GHD was confirmed in 57.9% of patients, congenital in 11.6% and acquired in 30.5%. The mean age at diagnosis of GHD was 10.1±4.5 years. The patients with congenital GHD had most severe growth retardation (-3.4±1.4 SDS, while the patients with idiopathic GHD showed most prominent bone delay (-3.6±2.3 SDS. The prevalence of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency was 56.1%, in the group with congenital GHD 73.7%, acquired GHD 54.0% and idiopathic GHD 53.7%. The frequency of thyrotropin deficiency ranged from 88.2-100%, of adrenocorticotrophin 57.1-68.8% and of gonadotrophins deficiency 57.1- 63.0%, while deficiency of antidiuretic hormone was 2.0-25.0%. Conclusion. Although regular BH measurements enable early recognition of growth retardation, patients’ mean age and degree of growth retardation indicate that GHD is still diagnosed relatively late. A high incidence of other pituitary hormone deficiencies requires a detailed investigation of the etiology of disorders and evaluation of all pituitary functions in each child with confirmed GHD.

  5. Growth hormone producing prolactinoma in juvenile cystinosis: a simple coincidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besouw, M.T.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Noordam, K.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile cystinosis was diagnosed in a patient who presented with severe headache attacks and photophobia. Treatment with oral cysteamine and topical cysteamine eye drops was started. One-and-a-half years later, he developed unilateral gynecomastia and elevated prolactin and growth hormone levels. A

  6. The Effects of Growth Hormone Therapy in HIV-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Kotler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of these studies suggested that the growth hormone might play a role in the management of visceral fat accumulation associated with HIV. Analysis of the treatment effect sizes in the published studies show that the effects of various doses of rhGH on trunk fat fit a dose-response characteristic.

  7. New York Milk Supply with Bovine Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Magrath, William B.; Tauer, Loren W.

    1986-01-01

    New York milk supply functions with ans without Bovine Growth Hormone were estimated by a sector linear programming model. High Government price supports make bGH profitable and induces significant increases in output. Reduction or elimination of Price supports greatly diminishes bGH as a variable technology except at low bGH prices

  8. Growth hormone in the eye: A comparative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Comparative studies have previously established that the eye is an extrapituitary site of growth hormone (GH) production and action in fish, amphibia, birds and mammals. In this review more recent literature and original data in this field are considered. PMID:26828817

  9. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human growth hormone test system. 862.1370 Section 862.1370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  10. Compliance with growth hormone treatment--are they getting it?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S L; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate compliance in patients receiving growth hormone treatment. Two hundred patients completed a questionnaire designed to establish understanding about and compliance with treatment; 50% of our patients failed to comply with all aspects of their treatment. Failure to respond to treatment seems to be associated with poor compliance.

  11. Recombinant truncated tilapia growth hormone enhances growth and innate immunity in tilapia fry (Oreochromis sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jannel; Carpio, Yamila; Besada, Vladimir; Morales, Reynold; Sánchez, Aniel; Curbelo, Yosvel; Ayala, Julio; Estrada, Mario P

    2008-05-15

    Pichia pastoris cells transformed with a plasmid engineered for the expression of tilapia growth hormone as a secreted product produced a proteolytically cleaved form of the recombinant protein. The sequence of this truncated variant was obtained by mass spectrometry analysis. The cleavage site was determined to be between residues Tyr 158 and Tyr 159. The resulting truncated tilapia growth hormone was a single chain protein lacking 46 amino acids of the C-terminal portion. In this study, we showed that the truncated growth hormone produced in the P. pastoris culture supernatant has growth promoting effects and stimulates innate immune parameters (lysozyme and lectins) in tilapia larvae. These results suggest that the C-terminal portion of growth hormone is not required for its growth promoting activity and the innate immune functions studied herein in fish. In addition, we found that the culture supernatant containing truncated tilapia growth hormone has a stronger effect over growth and immune system than cells lysate containing intact tilapia growth hormone expressed in P. pastoris. PMID:18471813

  12. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  13. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2012-02-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  14. Growth hormone, prolactin and thyrotrophin responses to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone in diabetic patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrower, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and thyrotrophin (TSH) responses to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) were studied in 15 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Basal plasma GH levels were raised above 5 mu./l in 6 patients and following the injection of TRH there was a significant rise in plasma GH levels in 9. The mean rise in plasma GH from basal to peak values was significant in the group as a whole (P < 0.01). Basal PRL and TSH levels were normal and rose normally in response to TRH...

  15. Maternal and fetal placental growth hormone and IGF axis in type 1 diabetic pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Mary F

    2012-01-01

    Placental growth hormone (PGH) is a major growth hormone in pregnancy and acts with Insulin Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) and Insulin Like Growth Hormone Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3). The aim of this study was to investigate PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 in non-diabetic (ND) compared to Type 1 Diabetic (T1DM) pregnancies.

  16. Growth hormone in the management of female infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Magon; Swati Agrawal; Sonia Malik; K M Babu

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is involved in the regulation of male and female infertility and has been used in the management of both male and female infertility. GH is also produced by the ovary apart from it being produced from pituitary. GH helps in monofollicular growth. GH therapy is one of the adjuvant treatment used in ovarian stimulation and Assisted Reproductive Technologies Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). GH supplementation has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in poor responders...

  17. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben;

    2007-01-01

    disease has been suggested as a primary cause of death, whereas cancer statistics might be influenced by the number of malignancies causing the pituitary disease. Furthermore, differences in mortality rates in females and males have been reported. METHODS: Epidemiological studies of mortality in...... hypopituitary and GHD patients were identified and reviewed. RESULTS: Most studies showed an increased mortality rate in hypopituitary and GHD patients and an increased mortality among female compared with male patients. There is a possibility that differences between patients with adult-onset and childhood...

  18. Effect of obesity on endogenous secretion of growth hormone in Turner's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, P W; Cowell, C T; Jimenez, M.; Simpson, J. M.; Silink, M

    1991-01-01

    Nocturnal growth hormone secretion over a 12 hour period was assessed at 20 minute intervals in 25 prepubertal subjects with Turner's syndrome and 11 normal prepubertal girls of short stature to try and elucidate the relationship between body weight and endogenous secretion of growth hormone in Turner's syndrome. There were no differences in mean growth hormone concentration, age, height, or growth velocity between the two groups. There was an age related decline in mean growth hormone concen...

  19. Growth Hormone and Insulin Signaling in Acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Jakob; Lundby Høyer, Katrine; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Somatostatin analogues (SA) used in acromegaly to suppress GH secretion and tumor growth also suppress insulin secretion and may impact GH signaling. OBJECTIVE: To compare GH and insulin signaling after intravenous GH exposure in acromegalic patients controlled by surgery (n=9) or SA (n=...

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 23--et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Kassem, Moustapha;

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, ...

  1. Human growth hormone binding and stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in cloned rat insulinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 125I labelled human growth hormone to cloned insulin producing RIN-5AH cells is described. Binding was specific for somatotropic hormones since both human and rat growth hormone could compete for binding sites, whereas much higher concentrations of lactogenic hormones were needed to in...

  2. The effects of growht hormone therapy in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy were studied in 6 children, previously treated for brain tumours which did not directly involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and who had received cranial irradiation between 2.1 and 10 years earlier. All 6 were short with a standing height standard deviation score (SDS) from -1.7 to -3.3. Impaired growth hormone responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) were observed in all 6 and a Bovril stimulation test in 5 children. The remainder of pituitary function was essentially normal. All 6 were prepubertal and 5 had a retarded bone age. Subsequently all received human GH in a dose of 5 units 3 times weekly for 1 year. The growth rate in each was at least 2 cm greater during the treatment year than the pre-treatment year.(author)

  3. Expression of the human growth hormone variant gene in cultured fibroblasts and transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleotide sequence of the human growth hormone variant gene, one of the five members of the growth hormone gene family, predicts that it encodes a growth hormone-like protein. As a first step in determining whether this gene is functional in humans, the authors have expressed a mouse methallothionein I/human growth hormone variant fusion gene in mouse L cells and in transgenic mice. The growth hormone variant protein expressed in transiently transfected L cells is distinct from growth hormone itself with respect to reactivity with anti-growth hormone monoclonal antibodies, behavior during column chromatography, and isoelectric point. Transgenic mice expressing the growth hormone variant protein are 1.4- to 1.9-fold larger than nontransgenic controls, suggesting that the protein has growth-promoting properties

  4. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif;

    1995-01-01

    -deficiency may be at risk for developing hyperthermia. To pursue this, we performed a controlled study on sweating and body temperature regulation during exercise in the heat in 16 GH-treated GH-deficient patients with normalized insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor/binding protein-3 serum...... levels [11 with multiple pituitary deficiency (MPD) and 5 with isolated GH deficiency] and in 10 healthy subjects as controls (CTs). Each subject exercised on a bicycle ergometer for 60 min at a workload corresponding to 45% of their individual maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), in a room maintained at...... 35 C. GH serum concentrations increased significantly after approximately 10 min of exercise in the CTs (P <0.001) but remained low in the patients. Body heat storage was significantly higher in the patients compared with the CTs [89 (SE +/- 10) watts (MPD) vs. 37 (SE +/- 8) watts (CTs), P <0...

  5. Modified Clonidine Testing for Growth Hormone Stimulation Reveals α2-Adrenoreceptor Sub Sensitivity in Children with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Willaschek

    Full Text Available The association between short stature and increased risk of ischemic heart disease has been subject to studies for decades. The recent discussion of cardiovascular risk during growth hormone therapy has given new importance to this question. We have hypothesized that the autonomic system is a crucial element relating to this subject.Heart rate variability calculated from 24-hour electrocardiogram data is providing insight into the regulatory state of the autonomous nervous system and is an approved surrogate parameter for estimating cardiovascular risk. We have calculated heart rate variability during clonidine testing for growth hormone stimulation of 56 children. As clonidine is a well-known effector of the autonomous system, stimulating vagal tone and decreasing sympathetic activity, we compared the autonomous reactions of children with constitutional growth delay (CGD, growth hormone deficiency (GHD and former small for gestational age (SGA.During clonidine testing children with CGD showed the expected α2-adrenoreceptor mediated autonomous response of vagal stimulation for several hours. This vagal reaction was significantly reduced in the SGA group and nearly non- existent in the GHD group.Children with GHD show a reduced autonomous response to clonidine indicating α2-adrenoreceptor sub sensitivity. This can be found prior to the start of growth hormone treatment. Since reduction of HRV is an approved surrogate parameter, increased cardiovascular risk has to be assumed for patients with GHD. In the SGA group a similar but less severe reduction of the autonomous response to clonidine was found. These findings may enrich the interpretation of the data on growth hormone therapy, which are being collected by the SAGhE study group.

  6. Glucocorticoids enhance stability of human growth hormone mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Paek, I; Axel, R.

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the control of expression of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene introduced into the chromosomes of mouse fibroblasts. Cell lines transformed with the hGH gene expressed low levels of intact hGH mRNA and secreted hGH protein into the medium. Although the level of expression of hGH mRNA was low, the gene remained responsive to induction by glucocorticoid hormones. To localize the sequences responsible for induction and to determine the mechanism by which these cis-acting sequen...

  7. Growth hormone-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine 333 and/or 338 of the growth hormone receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanderKuur, J A; Wang, X; Zhang, L;

    1995-01-01

    Many signaling pathways initiated by ligands that activate receptor tyrosine kinases have been shown to involve the binding of SH2 domain-containing proteins to specific phosphorylated tyrosines in the receptor. Although the receptor for growth hormone (GH) does not contain intrinsic tyrosine...

  8. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Møldrup, A; Serup, P;

    1990-01-01

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, we have transfected ...

  9. Feeding Supplemental Iodine to Adult Mink;Effect on Thyroid Hormones in Adult and offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RossE.Jones; RichardJ.Aulerich; 等

    1993-01-01

    We fed adult mink diets containing supplemental iodine,from o 50 320ppm,for one or seven months prior to breeding.Bllod samples collected from the adults and their offspring(kits)at 4wk post-partum were assayed for total thyroxine(T4),triiodothyronine(T3),reverse T3(rT3),and T4-binding indices.As expected T4 concentrations of the adult and kit mink varied inversely with the level of supplemental iodine.In addition,T3 and r T3 concentrations decreased gradually in kits from the long-term experiment in response to the increased dietary iodine of the dams.T3 concentrations of kits from dams fed iodine short-term decreased markedly while r T3 concentrations were elevated greatly in response to increased dietary iodine of the dam.These decreases in hormone levels are due to serum odine blocking the thyroid uptake of iodine and subsequent decrease of hormone synthesis,Excess iodine may also block the effect of thyroid stimulating hormone.The T4-binding indices of the adults,in general,were depressed,while the T4-binding indices of the kits were more variable.These effects are probably due to fluctuations in thyroglobulin.

  10. THE ROLE OF GROWTH HORMONE IN LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Dewi Ratnayanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is one of the hormones that regulate metabolism, including lipid metabolism. GH can regulate the amount of fat in the tissue and also the level of lipid profile. Growth hormone affects the lipid in the tissue and blood by modulating the lipid metabolism, especially through the regulation of synthesis, excretion and breakdown of internal lipids. Research showed that GH could consistently lower the level of total cholesterol and LDL, whereas its effect on triglyceride and HDL level showed varying results. Growth hormone induces lypolisis by stimulating the activity of HSL and LPL and thereby influenced the triglyceride level and tissue fat storage. Cholesterol and lipoprotein levels are controlled by regulating the synthesis of cholesterol by lowering the activity of HMGCoA reductase. The excretion of cholesterol through the bile is also enhanced by stimulating the activity of enzymes C7?OH. The breakdown of VLDL and LDL are enhanced by increasing the expression of LDL receptor and ApoE as well as affecting the editing of mRNA ApoB100. Increase activity of LPL is also known to be the important factor in the HDL metabolism

  11. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies...... examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise...

  12. Are needle-free injections a useful alternative for growth hormone therapy in children? Safety and pharmacokinetics of growth hormone delivered by a new needle-free injection device compared to a fine gauge needle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorr, H.G.; Zabransky, S.; Keller, E.; Otten, B.J.; Partsch, C.J.; Nyman, L.; Gillespie, B.K.; Lester, N.R.; Wilson, A.M.; Hyren, C.; Kuijck, M.A. van; Schuld, P.; Schoenfeld, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    The clinical safety, use and pharmacokinetics of a new needle-free device for delivery of growth hormone (GH) were compared with those of conventional needle injection devices. In an open-label, randomized, 4-period crossover study, 18 healthy adults received single subcutaneous injections of Genotr

  13. Physiologic growth hormone replacement improves fasting lipid kinetics in patients with HIV lipodystrophy syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV lipodystrophy syndrome (HLS) is characterized by accelerated lipolysis, inadequate fat oxidation, increased hepatic reesterification, and a high frequency of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The effect of growth hormone (GH) replacement on these lipid kinetic abnormalities is unknown. We aimed ...

  14. The influence of nutrition on the insulin-like growth factor system and the concentrations of growth hormone, glucose, insulin, gonadotropins and progesterone in ovarian follicular fluid and plasma from adult female horses (Equus caballus)

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Ortiz, Juan; Monget, Philippe; Guillaume, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed intake affects the GH-IGF system and may be a key factor in determining the ovarian follicular growth rate. In fat mares, the plasma IGF-1 concentration is high with low GH and a quick follicular growth rate, in contrast to values observed in thin mares. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of differential feed intake on the IGF system. The objective of this experiment was to quantify IGFs, IGFBPs, GH, glucose, insulin, gonadotropin and progesterone (P4) in blood a...

  15. Influencing factors of growth hormone in response to insulin tolerance test in 50 healthy adults%50名健康成人生长激素对胰岛素耐量试验反应性的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋向欣; 顾锋; 徐焱成; 葛家璞; 崔立全

    2014-01-01

    胰岛素耐量试验(ITT)激发的生长激素(GH)峰值是诊断成人生长激素缺乏症的“金标准”.本研究探讨50名中国健康成人中ITT激发的GH峰值的受影响因素.结果显示血糖谷值或血糖下降幅度与GH峰值无相关性.在多元回归分析中,ITT激发的GH与体重指数呈负相关(P<0.01),与年龄、性别和腹围无显著相关性.%The peak level of growth hormone (GH) stimulated by insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the " gold standard" for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in adults.This study was aimed to explore the factors influencing GH response to ITT in 50 healthy adults.The results showed that the nadir or decreased amplitude of blood glucose was not related to GH peak level.In multivariable analysis,the GH level stimulated by ITT was negatively associated with body mass index(P<0.01),but there was no any association with age,gender,and waist circumference.

  16. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S; Winkler, K; Jørgensen, J O; Christiansen, J S; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    for 4 months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled GH trial, while 13 of the patients then received further GH for an additional 14 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased significantly from 100 to 279 micrograms/l and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) from 1930 to 3355 micrograms...

  17. Modulating radiation cataractogenesis by hormonally manipulating lenticular growth kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell cycle of the lens epithelium of northern leopard frogs was manipulated by hypophysectomy (to halt mitotic activity) and pituitary hormone administration (to stimulate baseline mitosis and reverse hypophysectomy-induced mitotic suppression). Animals were hypophysectomized, irradiated and injected with pituitary hormone replacement. Irradiated animals, irradiated animals + hormone replacement and irradiated hypophysectomized animals served as controls. It was found that irradiated-hypophysectomized (mitosis halted) frogs failed to develop opacities, while those with hormonal replacement (mitosis reinstated) developed cataracts. Furthermore, in all instances, the times of cataract onset and rates of progression directly correlated with the mitotic activity in the lens epithelia. Finally, we were able to titrate lens epithelial mitotic activity, and later cataractogenesis, by administering varying concentrations of replacement pituitary hormone, resulting in concentration-dependent correlation between mitotic index and the onset and rate of lens opacification. The ability to modulate cataractogenesis by way of altering cell proliferation is strong evidence that the post-radiation growth fraction plays a central role in the cytopathomechanism of radiocataracts. (Author)

  18. Immune and hormonal activity in adults suffering from depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O.V. Nunes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An association between depression and altered immune and hormonal systems has been suggested by the results of many studies. In the present study we carried out immune and hormonal measurements in 40 non-medicated, ambulatory adult patients with depression determined by CID-10 criteria and compared with 34 healthy nondepressed subjects. The severity of the condition was determined with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Of 40 depressed patients, 31 had very severe and 9 severe or moderate depression, 29 (72.5% were females and 11 (27.5% were males (2.6:1 ratio. The results revealed a significant reduction of albumin and elevation of alpha-1, alpha-2 and ß-globulins, and soluble IL-2 receptor in patients with depression compared to the values obtained for nondepressed subjects (P<0.05. The decrease lymphocyte proliferation in response to a mitogen was significantly lower in severely or moderately depressed patients when compared to control (P<0.05. These data confirm the immunological disturbance of acute phase proteins and cellular immune response in patients with depression. Other results may be explained by a variety of interacting factors such as number of patients, age, sex, and the nature, severity and/or duration of depression. Thus, the data obtained should be interpreted with caution and the precise clinical relevance of these findings requires further investigation.

  19. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  20. Effect of sericin on diabetic hippocampal growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihong Chen; Songhe Yang; Yaqiang He; Chengjun Song; Yongping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sericin extracted from silk cocoon significantly reduces blood glucose levels and protects the nervous system against diabetes mel itus. In this study, a rat type 2 diabetes mel itus model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin for 3 successive days, fol owing which the rats were treated with sericin for 35 days. After treatment, the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats decreased significantly, the growth hormone level in serum and its expression in the hippocampus decreased significantly, while the insulin-like growth factor-1 level in serum and insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone receptor expression in the hippocampus increased significantly. The experimental findings indicate that sericin improves disorders of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis to al eviate hippocampal damage in diabetic rats.

  1. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Rainer W

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone

  2. Adult height in Turner syndrome girls after long-term growth hormone treatment Talla adulta en pacientes con síndrome de Turner tratadas con hormona de crecimiento a largo plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Morín

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the adult height (AH outcome, and factors likely to influence it, in Turner Syndrome (TS girls treated with growth hormone (GH. A total of 25 TS girls treated with GH were compared with 10 TS girls not treated with GH. The percentage of girls who achieved normal third percentile was determined. Projected AH (PAH was calculated according to height standard deviation score (HSDS at the beginning of the treatment. Gain in height was determined as: AH - pretreatment PAH. The percentage of girls who achieved target range (midparental height±2 SD was determined. Multiple linear regression models were fitted on baseline variables- chronological age (CA, midparental height (MPH and HSDS; and treatment variablesduration of oestrogen-free GH therapy and duration of GH therapy+oestrogens. As for baseline data: median CA was 13.0 years (5.6-15.8. Mean HSDS was 0.25±1.1 SDS. PAH was 139.2±5.6 cm. MPH was 160.0±5.0 cm. As for follow up data: Median CA at onset oestrogens was 15.1 years (13.2-16.6. Median duration of GH therapy was 3.8 years (2.1-10.3. Median oestrogen-free GH period was 2.0 years (0.7-7.8, and median GH+oestrogens period, 1.8 years (1.0-3.2. Adult height: Mean AH was 150.4±7.0 cm in treated patients and 140.8±7.2 cm in the group not treated with GH (p=0.001. Fourteen (56% girls achieved normal third percentile compared with an initially predicted 1 (4%. Gain in height was 11.2±3.7 cm. Thirteen (59% girls reached an AH within target range. HSDS at the beginning of the treatment was the variable most strongly related to AH and duration of oestrogen-free GH period was the variable most strongly related to gain in height.Se estudió la talla adulta (TA y los factores que pudieran influenciarla en niñas con síndrome de Turner (ST tratadas con hormona de crecimiento (HC. Se compararon 25 pacientes con ST tratadas con HC y 10 niñas no tratadas. Se determinó: el porcentaje de niñas que alcanzó el tercer percentilo de la curva

  3. Adult growth hormone deficiency metabolic alterations and evaluation of different risk groups Deficiencia de hormona de crecimiento en el adulto. Alteraciones metabólicas y evaluación de diferentes grupos de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo L. Fideleff

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is an heterogeneous clinical entity characterized by increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, alterations in body composition, osteoporosis and impaired quality of life. In order to characterize higher risk subpopulations we studied 77 patients with AGHD, 35 with childhood onset (AGHD-CO: CA 18-44 yr.; 13 females and 22 males, and 42 with adult onset (AGHD-AO: CA 25-70 yr.; 22 females and 20 males. IGF-I, lipid profile, glycemia and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured. Cardiological evaluation: blood pressure, electrocardiogram, ergometry and 2D echocardiogram with mitral Doppler, evaluation of diastolic function (A/E waves ratio and deceleration time, systolic function (ejection and shortening fractions and Cardiac Mass Index (CMI. The Body Mass Index and waist circumference were recorded. Total body composition and bone mineral density were evaluated by densitometry, and the following bone markers were measured: osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, Pyridinoline and Deoxipyridinoline. The subset of females with AGHD-AO had higher levels of total cholesterol: 240 mg/dl (156-351 (pEl déficit de hormona de crecimiento (GH del Adulto (AGHD es una entidad clínica heterogénea caracterizada por incremento de la morbimortalidad cardiovascular, cambios en la composición corporal, osteoporosis y deterioro de la calidad de vida. Para caracterizar subpoblaciones con mayor riesgo de afectación, estudiamos 77 pacientes AGHD, 35 de inicio en la infancia (AGHD-CO: EC 18-44 a; 13 mujeres y 22 varones, y 42 de inicio en la adultez (AGHD-AO: EC 25-70 a; 22 mujeres y 20 varones. Se midió IGF-I, perfil lipídico, glucemia y hemoglobina glicosilada. Evaluación cardiológica: tensión arterial, electrocardiograma, ergometría y ecocardiograma bidimensional con Doppler mitral, evaluando función diastólica (relación ondas A/E y tiempo de desaceleraci

  4. Thyroid hormone receptor binds to a site in the rat growth hormone promoter required for induction by thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. The authors have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. They show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor

  5. Abnormalities of growth hormone release in response to human pancreatic growth hormone releasing factor (GRF (1-44) ) in acromegaly and hypopituitarism.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, S M; Ch'ng, J L; Adams, E. F.; Webster, J D; Joplin, G F; Mashiter, K; Bloom, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Human pancreatic growth hormone releasing factor (GRF (1-44)) is the parent molecule of several peptides recently extracted from pancreatic tumours associated with acromegaly. A study was conducted to examine its effects on the release of growth hormone in normal volunteers and in patients with hypopituitarism and acromegaly. GRF (1-44) dose dependently stimulated the release of growth hormone in normal people and produced no appreciable side effect. This response was grossly impaired in pati...

  6. A controlled study on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and urinary excretion of growth hormone in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Main, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Skakkebaek, N E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM. METHODS. The 24-h urinary growth hormone excretion and serum levels of insulin...... growth hormone and serum levels of IGF-I between patients with FM and healthy controls. CONCLUSION. Major secretory deficiencies were not documented. However, the power of our study does not allow us to discard the role of minor secretory deficiencies of human growth hormone in FM....

  7. Overtrained horses alter their resting pulsatile growth hormone secretion

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf-Roelfsema, E.; Veldhuis, P. P.; Keizer, H.A.; van Ginneken, M. M. E.; van Dam, K. G.; Johnson, M L; Barneveld, A.; Menheere, P. P. C. A.; van Breda, E; Wijnberg, I. D.; van der Kolk, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of intensified and reduced training on nocturnal growth hormone (GH) secretion and elimination dynamics was studied in young (1.5 yr) Standardbred geldings to detect potential markers indicative for early overtraining. Ten horses trained on a treadmill for 32 wk in age-, breed-, and gender-matched fixed pairs. Training was divided into four phases (4, 18, 6, and 4 wk, respectively): 1) habituation to high-speed treadmill trotting, 2) normal training, in which speed and duration ...

  8. Effectiveness of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone for Pharyngocutaneous Fistula Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Kucuk, Nurten; Sari, Murat; Midi, Ahmet; Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Findik, Ozan; Binnetoglu, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In laryngeal cancer, which comprises 25% of head and neck cancer, chemotherapy has come into prominence with the increase in organ-protective treatments. With such treatment, salvage surgery has increased following recurrence; the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula has also increased in both respiratory and digestive system surgery. We investigated the effects of recombinant human growth hormone on pharyngocutaneous fistula closure in Sprague-Dawley rats, based on an increase i...

  9. Emerging options in growth hormone therapy: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp SF; Frindik JP

    2011-01-01

    Stephen F Kemp, J Paul FrindikUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USAAbstract: Growth hormone (GH) was first used to treat a patient in 1958. For the next 25 years it was available only from cadaver sources, which was of concern because of safety considerations and short supply. In 1985, GH produced by recombinant DNA techniques became available, expanding its possible uses. Since that time there have been three indications appro...

  10. Regulation of growth hormone secretion by (pro)renin receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Yuji; Yamada, Shozo; Inoshita, Naoko; Hirata, Yukio; SHICHIRI, MASAYOSHI

    2015-01-01

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) has a single transmembrane domain that co-purifies with the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). In addition to its role in cellular acidification, V-ATPase has been implicated in membrane fusion and exocytosis via its Vo domain. Results from the present study show that PRR is expressed in pituitary adenoma cells and regulates growth hormone (GH) release via V-ATPase-induced cellular acidification. Positive PRR immunoreactivity was detected more often in surgically resecte...

  11. Milk minor constituents, enzymes, hormones, growth factors, and organic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Milk and derived products contain essential nutrients, such as proteins, lactose, minerals, vitamins, and enzymes. Additionally, despite of their low concentrations in milk, many other minor constituents present important physiological and/or technological roles (e.g. hormones, growth factors). Dairy industries face many challenges regarding milk processing. Also, the full knowledge on these constituents’ physiological roles and effects on health is still lacking. Technological...

  12. Effect of growth hormone on human alveolar macrophage oxidative metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, M. P.; Coakley, R.; COSTELLO, R; O'Neill, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has diverse immunological actions and has been shown to augment oxidative metabolism in rat peritoneal and porcine alveolar macrophages and both human and animal neutrophils. A study was performed to determine the effects of GH on human alveolar macrophages in vitro. METHODS: Macrophages were harvested from 10 patients undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage and incubated with 0, 10 and 100 nmol/ml GH for four hours. Oxidative metabolism was assessed by means o...

  13. Duchenne muscular dystrophy with associated growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and growth hormone (GH) deficiency is described who had no clinical evidence of muscular weakness before initiation of GH replacement therapy. Treatment with human GH resulted in appearance of symptoms of easy fatigability and muscle weakness. Thorough investigations including serum creating phosphokinase (CK) levels in recommended in every patient with GH deficiency before starting GH replacement therapy. (author)

  14. Dissolving Microneedle Patch for Transdermal Delivery of Human Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Seong-O; Felner, Eric I.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical impact of biotechnology has been constrained by the limitations of traditional hypodermic injection of biopharmaceuticals. Microneedle patches have been proposed as a minimally invasive alternative. In this study, we assess the translation of a dissolving microneedle patch designed for simple, painless self-administration of biopharmacetucials that generates no sharp biohazardous waste. To study pharmacokinetics and safety of this approach, human growth hormone (hGH) w...

  15. Rat growth-hormone release stimulators from fenugreek seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sang Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Ju Sun; Kang, Sam Sik; Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Chungsook; Lee, Je-Hyun; Son, Kun Ho

    2008-09-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOH extract from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds resulted in the isolation of two rat growth-hormone release stimulators in vitro, fenugreek saponin I (1) and dioscin (9), along with two new, i.e., 2 and 3, and five known analogues, i.e., 4-8. The structures of the new steroidal saponins, fenugreek saponins I, II, and III (1-3, resp.), were determined as gitogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, sarsasapogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and gitogenin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. Fenugreek saponin I (1) and dioscin (9) caused ca. 12.5- and 17.7-fold stimulation of release, respectively, of rat growth hormone from rat pituitary cells, whereas gitogenin (5) showed moderate activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that steroidal saponins stimulate rat growth-hormone release in rat pituitary cells. PMID:18816528

  16. Comparison of RIA techniques in growth hormone determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RIA method used by the authors for the determination of the growth hormone is reproducible, accurate, precise and sensitive (the detection limit being 2 μU/ml). The reorganization of the Czech insurance and health service system led to the need to compare the authors' technique with other available techniques applied in commercial kits from Czechoslovakia - RIA-test-HGH (URVJT), from Poland - RIA-hGH-KIT (ORIPI) and from France - ELSA-HGH (CIS). Quantitative parameters were confronted as were the level of simplicity, the speed of the techniques and the costs. Regression analysis comparing the results of the authors' method with the results of the other techniques shows very good agreement of the former with the commercial kit by ORIPI (Poland) within the concentration range 0-60 μU/ml. The variance of results obtained from an analysis of the same serum samples by different commercial kits shows that - for the determination of the serum growth hormone - the working conditions of the techniques are not yet standardized. The minimum cost of growth hormone analysis in a patient's serum performed by the authors' technique clearly demonstrates the advantage of this method. (author) 5 tabs., 4 figs., 4 refs

  17. AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Graham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.Keywords: AAS, cosmesis, growth hormone, insulin, performance, strength

  18. Radioreceptor assay for detergent-solubilized rat insulinoma growth hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth hormone receptors from a rat insulinoma cell line, RIN-5AH were solubilized in the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. A radioreceptor assay based on polyethylene glycol precipitation of the growth hormone: receptor complex showed time-dependent and saturable hormone binding. The affinity in detergent solution for biosynthetic human growth hormone of approx. 6 ng/ml was found similar to that of intact RIN cells. The solubilization and receptor assay conditions described are useful for further characterization and purification of RIN cell growth hormone receptors, which might provide an initial insight into the molecular mechanism of the growth effects on islet β-cells. (author)

  19. Biologically inactive growth hormone caused by an amino acid substitution.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Y.; Shirono, H; Arisaka, O; K. Takahashi; Yagi, T; Koga, J; Kaji, H; Okimura, Y; ABE, H.; Tanaka, T; Chihara, K.

    1997-01-01

    Short stature caused by biologically inactive growth hormone (GH) is characterized by lack of GH action despite high immunoassayable GH levels in serum and marked catch-up growth to exogenous GH administration. We found a heterozygous single-base substitution (A-->G) in exon 4 of the GH-1 gene of a girl with short stature, clinically suspected to indicate the presence of bioinactive GH and resulting in the substitution of glycine for aspartic acid at codon 112. We confirmed the presence of mu...

  20. Long-term effects of continuous subcutaneous infusion versus daily subcutaneous injections of growth hormone (GH) on the insulin-like growth factor system, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and bone and lipoprotein metabolism in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Heickendorff, Lene;

    2001-01-01

    injections (inj) in the evening as usual, and 7 received a continuous infusion (inf) of GH by means of a portable pump. The GH dose was kept unchanged before and during the study. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) tended to increase in the patients switched to constant infusion (from 175...... +/- 36 to 209 +/- 50 microg/L), but the differences obtained during the two regimens [+34.3 (inf) vs. -11.9 (inj)] were not significant (P = 0.34). Serum levels of IGF-II (P = 0.71) and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 (P = 0.75) were identical during the two modes of treatment. Serum levels of IGFBP-1 (P...... for 6 months are comparable with respect to the IGF-IGFBP axis, whereas intermittent exposure may be of importance for the lipolytic effect of GH. The data on insulin sensitivity and lipoproteins suggest that constant GH exposure is as safe as intermittent GH administration....

  1. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Billestrup, N; Møldrup, A; Serup, P.; Mathews, L S; Norstedt, G; Nielsen, J H

    1990-01-01

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, we have transfected a GH receptor cDNA under the transcriptional control of the human metallothionein promoter into RIN5-AH cells. The transfected cells were found to exhibit an increased expression of GH receptors and t...

  2. Measurements of prolactin and growth hormone synthesis and secretion by rat pituitary cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautvik, K M; Kriz, M

    1976-02-01

    A specific and sensitive immunoprecipitation method for measurements of biosynthesized radioactive prolactin and growth hormone is described. Antisera to rat prolactin and growth hormone were developed in the rabbit and monkey, respectively. The specificity of the immune sera was assessed by polyacylamide gel electrophoresis of the dissolved immunoprecipitates. The two antisera showed cross-reactions with the nonhomologous hormone of less than 1%. Separation of tritium-labelled prolactin and growth hormone by immunoprecipitation, followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate was shown to be 95-57% complete. When both hormones were measured in the same microsample by sequential immunoprecipitation, the reaction was 97% complete for determination of intra- and extracellular prolactin and extracellular growth hormone, but 85% complete for determination of intracellular growth hormone. This method has been used to characterize the basal synthesis and secretion of prolactin and growth hormone in three different but related, pituitary cell strains. Radioactive prolactin and growth hormone was obtained from monolayer cultures when the cells were grown in the presence of [3H]L-leucine. The rate of prolactin synthesis and extracellular accumulation was higher than that of growth hormone in a cell strain which produced both hormones. In these cells prolactin synthesis represents 1-5%, and growth hormone 0.1-0.6% of total protein synthesis. PMID:942913

  3. Evaluation of growth hormone release and human growth hormone treatment in children with cranial irradiation-associated short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied nine children who had received cranial irradiation for various malignancies and subsequently experienced decreased growth velocity. Their response to standard growth hormone stimulation and release tests were compared with that in seven children with classic GH deficiency and in 24 short normal control subjects. With arginine and L-dopa stimulation, six of nine patients who received radiation had a normal GH response (greater than 7 ng/ml), whereas by design none of the GH deficient and all of the normal children had a positive response. Only two of nine patients had a normal response to insulin hypoglycemia, with no significant differences in the mean maximal response of the radiation and the GH-deficient groups. Pulsatile secretion was not significantly different in the radiation and GH-deficient groups, but was different in the radiation and normal groups. All subjects in the GH-deficient and radiation groups were given human growth hormone for 1 year. Growth velocity increased in all, with no significant difference in the response of the two groups when comparing the z scores for growth velocity of each subject's bone age. We recommend a 6-month trial of hGH in children who have had cranial radiation and are in prolonged remission with a decreased growth velocity, as there is no completely reliable combination of GH stimulation or release tests to determine their response

  4. Growth hormone in short, slowly growing children and those with Turner's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, C. R.; Law, C M; Milner, R D

    1987-01-01

    Results of an aborted placebo controlled trial of treatment with human pituitary growth hormone in children with Turner's syndrome and short, slowly growing children are reported. One child in each group had a considerable reduction in growth rate standard deviation score while taking growth hormone. The remaining eight patients with Turner's syndrome and 10 short, slowly growing patients who received growth hormone showed mean rises in growth rate of greater than two standard deviation score...

  5. Thyroid hormone modulation of the hypothalamic growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor-pituitary GH axis in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Miki, N.; Ono, M.; Hizuka, N; Aoki, T.; Demura, H

    1992-01-01

    Both thyroid hormone and hypothalamic growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor (GRF) facilitate pituitary somatotroph function. However, the pathophysiological role of thyroid hormone in GRF secretion is less well understood. Thyrotoxicosis, induced by administration of thyroxine (T4) in rats, inhibited both pituitary GH levels and immunoreactive GRF secretion from incubated hypothalamus. At the highest dose of T4 given for 12 d, GRF secretion and pituitary GH decreased by 50 and 39%, respectivel...

  6. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 3; Plasma Analysis Hormone Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Popova, I. A.; Grossman, E.; Rudolph, I.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma from space flight and tail suspended rats was analyzed for a number of constituents in order to evaluate their metabolic status and endocrine function. The data presented here cover plasma hormone measurements. Corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Prolactin and growth hormone were measured by double antibody immunoassays using hormones and antisera prepared in house. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance.

  7. The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor axis during testosterone replacement therapy in GH-treated hypopituitary males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Nørrelund, Helene; Juul, A;

    2001-01-01

    -independent effect on IGF-I and related parameters. Eight adult hypopituitary men (39.9 +/- 5.7 years) receiving growth hormone (GH) and testosterone replacement therapy (250 mg testosterone enantate every fourth week) participated in this prospective study. Frequent blood samples were drawn over a 5 week period...... (ANOVA, P = 0.08). Prostate-specific antigen tended slightly to increase after each testosterone injection (ANOVA, P = 0.08, post hoc, NS). We conclude that major changes in total IGF-I are not induced during conventional intramuscular testosterone replacement in GH-treated hypopituitary males...

  8. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John;

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair...

  9. Growth hormone receptor expression and function in pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lene R; Kristiansen, Mikkel T; Rasmussen, Lars M;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypopituitarism, in particular GH deficiency, is prevalent in patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) both before and after surgery. The factors regulating the growth of pituitary adenomas in general and residual tumour tissue in particular are not...... transcription 5) phosphorylation was measured by Western blot analysis as an index of GHR signalling; cell proliferation was evaluated by [H3]-thymidine incorporation and glycoprotein hormone production analysed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: All adenomas investigated expressed the GHR, but there was no...... detection of STAT5 phosphorylation. Overall, GH and IGF-I administration did not significantly stimulate cell proliferation in vitro, although some individual adenomas exhibited a proliferative response to various extents. GH also did not significantly influence glycoprotein hormone secretion in vitro...

  10. Radioimmunoassay of human growth hormone: characterization of a monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of cell-hybridization techniques by Koehler and Milstein in 1975 to produce monoclonal antibodies (MA) was a definite improvement in methodological tools of radioimmunoassay, quite apart from all other applications of this technique in immunohistochemistry, affinity chromatography, target-directed drug delivery systems etc. MAs would ideally be suited in RIAs, when the specificity is the crucial aspect of the determination. However, for reasons which are not completely understood, assays with MAs very often lack the attribute of being highly sensitive. Despite several reports in the literature on MAs against human growth hormone (HGH), none of these seem sensitive enough to be of use in clinical chemistry, where a too strongly marked specificity may even be unwanted. However, from the scientific point of view, MAs against polypeptide hormones are of great interest. An MA to HGH was developed with a sensitivity limit of 0.2 ng. The titre of the ascites fluid is higher than 1:106 and the specificity against human placental lactogen, human prolactin and rat growth hormone is nearly complete. A critical step of the RIA procedure is the separation of bound and free hormone. A combination of human immunoglobulin (Sandoglobulin) with polyethylene glycol gives optimal results. A Scatchard plot reveals an affinity constant of 4x10-11M-bar and a maximal binding capacity of 2x108cpm/μL. In conclusion, our monoclonal antibody represents an excellent investigational tool for endocrine research and it seems to be the most sensitive and specific MA to HGH described to date. However, for practical clinical applications, there seems to be little advantage of an MA over a conventional polyclonal antiserum. (author)

  11. Growth Hormone (GH1) Gene Variation, the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Exon 3 Deletion Polymorphism in a West-African Population

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, David S.; Lewis, Mark D.; Horan, Martin; Newsway, Vicky; Rees, D Aled; Easter, Tammy E.; Pepe, Guglielmina; Rickards, Olga; Norin, Martin; Scanlon, Maurice F.; Krawczak, Michael; Cooper, David N.

    2008-01-01

    Growth Hormone (GH1) Gene Variation, the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Exon 3 Deletion Polymorphism in a West-African Population UNITED KINGDOM (Millar, David S.) UNITED KINGDOM Received: 2008-05-29 Revised: 2008-08-21 Accepted: 2008-09-22

  12. A novel oral preparation of human growth hormone (hGH) is absorbed and increases serum IGF-I levels after 7 days administration to GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Mindeholm, Linda; Haemmerle, Sibylle;

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone deficient (GHD) patients are currently effectively treated with daily subcutaneous (sc) injections of hGH in the evening, but alternative routes would be attractive. An oral formulationulation of hGH, using an amino-caprilic acid derivative (5-CNAC, Emisphere's eligen® technology) as...... carrier has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to determine if this oral formulation of hGH could be absorbed and be bioactive. Eight GHD men (mean age 50 years) receiving sc hGH therapy were withdrawn from therapy for 7 days and then treated for 7 days orally with tablets of HGH191...... (Novartis). Each tablet contained 100 mg of hGH and 200 mg 5-CNAC. One tablet was given at 08 h and 17 h, and two tablets at 22 h to match nocturnal GH secretion. The patients were studied thrice for 24 hours: at day 7 of washout, at days 1 and 7 of treatment. GH peaks were recorded in all patients...

  13. Radioimmunoassay of chicken growth hormone using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology: validation and observations of plasma hormone variations in genetically fat and lean chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picaper, G.; Leclercq, B.; Saadoun, A.; Mongin, P.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of chicken growth hormone (c-GH) has been developed using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology. The best rabbit antiserum was used at 1/300,000 final dilution. Hormone labelling by iodine-125, achieved by chloramine T, allowed a specific activity of 3.7 MBq/..mu..g. The equilibrium curves show that optimal conditions of incubation were reached at room temperature for 24h. This RIA used a second sheep antibody which precipitated the whole c-GH bound to the first antibody in the presence of polyethylene glycol solution (6%) at room temperature for 30 min. In our conditions, sensitivity was about 30 pg of c-GH per tube. Coefficient of variation was around 10%. No cross reaction was found with avian LH and prolactin. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) injection to young chickens induced 20-fold higher plasma c-GH concentrations. Simultaneous injection of somatostatin and TRH slightly reduced these concentrations. Hypoglycemia induced by insulin led to a drop of the plasma c-GH concentration. Conversely, refeeding or glucose load induced slight increases of the c-GH level. Genetically fat chickens tended to exhibit higher plasma c-GH concentrations than lean chickens.

  14. A radioimmunoassay of chicken growth hormone using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology: validation and observations of plasma hormone variations in genetically fat and lean chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of chicken growth hormone (c-GH) has been developed using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology. The best rabbit antiserum was used at 1/300,000 final dilution. Hormone labelling by iodine-125, achieved by chloramine T, allowed a specific activity of 3.7 MBq/μg. The equilibrium curves show that optimal conditions of incubation were reached at room temperature for 24h. This RIA used a second sheep antibody which precipitated the whole c-GH bound to the first antibody in the presence of polyethylene glycol solution (6%) at room temperature for 30 min. In our conditions, sensitivity was about 30 pg of c-GH per tube. Coefficient of variation was around 10%. No cross reaction was found with avian LH and prolactin. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) injection to young chickens induced 20-fold higher plasma c-GH concentrations. Simultaneous injection of somatostatin and TRH slightly reduced these concentrations. Hypoglycemia induced by insulin led to a drop of the plasma c-GH concentration. Conversely, refeeding or glucose load induced slight increases of the c-GH level. Genetically fat chickens tended to exhibit higher plasma c-GH concentrations than lean chickens

  15. Expression of functional growth hormone receptor in a mouse L cell line infected with recombinant vaccinia virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strous, G J; van Kerkhof, P; Verheijen, C; Rossen, J W; Liou, W; Slot, J W; Roelen, C A; Schwartz, A L

    1994-01-01

    The growth hormone receptor is a member of a large family of receptors including the receptors for prolactin and interleukins. Upon binding to one molecule of growth hormone two growth hormone receptor polypeptides dimerize. We have expressed the rabbit growth hormone receptor DNA in transfected mou

  16. Adult literacy and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Johnston

    2004-01-01

    Developed countries, including New Zealand, used to consider their populations wholly literate, in the sense that almost all adults could read and write. Contemporary definitions expand the concept of literacy to include wider cognitive skills, and extend it across the whole population: people are more or less literate depending on how well they understand and use printed information to solve everyday problems at home and at work. Using this wider definition, the International Adult Literacy ...

  17. The liver taxis of receptor mediated lactosaminated human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography imaging is used to assess liver taxis mechanism of anti-dwarfism drug lactosaminated human growth hormone (L-rhGH). Both L-rhGH and rhGH labelled with 131I are used to study their biodistribution in animals (including rabbits, cocks and rats). The results show that L-rhGH is of specific hepatic targeting property, and the maximum hepatic concentration rate is 76.8%, which is two times of rhGH. Its hepatic binding is receptor mediated

  18. Radioiodination of low potency human growth hormone and its characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of human growth hormone (hGH) using 125I-labelled tracer prepared from low purity (low potency) hGH and characterisation of the tracer are described. The radioiodination of low potency hGH resulted in low yield of immunoreactive fraction of the tracer. The major quantity of non-immunoreactive fraction could be removed by purification by gel filtration. However, the quality of radioiodinated tracer of low potency hGH has been found to be as that of the tracer prepared from high potency hGH with respect to assay sensitivity and RIA standard curve parameters. (author)

  19. Response to growth hormone therapy in Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Özgen, İlker Tolga; Adal, Erdal; Ünüvar, Tolga; Önal, Hasan; Sarıkaya, Aliye Sevil; Akın, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Short stature a common feature of Turner syndrome may be treated effectively by recombinant human growth hormone rhGH In this study we aimed to evaluate response to rhGH in the first three years of therapy Material and Method: Medical records of 46 girls with Turner syndrome treated with rhGH were evaluated retrospectively Karyotypes age of admission to the hospital age of the beginning of rhGH therapy the height of the mother and father were recorded Data including height...

  20. Growth hormone and ocular dysfunction: Endocrine, paracrine or autocrine etiologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Martinez-Moreno, Carlos G

    2016-08-01

    The eye is a target site for GH action and growth hormone has been implicated in diabetic retinopathy and other ocular dysfunctions. However, while this could reflect the hypersecretion of pituitary GH, the expression of the GH gene is now known to occur in ocular tissues and it could thus also reflect excess GH production within the eye itself. The possibility that ocular dysfunctions might arise from endocrine, autocrine or paracrine etiologies of GH overexpression is therefore the focus of this brief review. PMID:27082451

  1. Extraordinarily stable disulfide-linked homodimer of human growth hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorian, Alexei L.; Bustamante, Juan J.; Hernandez, Peter; Martinez, Andrew O.; Haro, Luis S.

    2005-01-01

    Although a 22-kDa human growth hormone (hGH) is the predicted protein product of the hGH-N gene, a pleiotropic collection of uncharacterized molecular weight and charge isoforms is also produced. Using chromatography and preparative SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions we isolated an unusually stable mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) 45-kDa hGH. A 5-h incubation at 100°C in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol was required to convert approximately 90% of MER-45-kDa hGH into a 22-kDa hGH. Other reduc...

  2. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  3. Direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptor molecules in A549 human lung epithelial cells by nanodiamond labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C.-Y.; Perevedentseva, E.; Tu, J.-S.; Chung, P.-H.; Cheng, C.-L.; Liu, K.-K.; Chao, J.-I.; Chen, P.-H.; Chang, C.-C.

    2007-04-01

    This letter presents direct observation of growth hormone receptor in one single cancer cell using nanodiamond-growth hormone complex as a specific probe. The interaction of surface growth hormone receptor of A549 human lung epithelial cells with growth hormone was observed using nanodiamond's unique spectroscopic signal via confocal Raman mapping. The growth hormone molecules were covalent conjugated to 100nm diameter carboxylated nanodiamonds, which can be recognized specifically by the growth hormone receptors of A549 cell. The Raman spectroscopic signal of diamond provides direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptors in physiology condition in a single cell level.

  4. Emerging options in growth hormone therapy: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemp SF

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen F Kemp, J Paul FrindikUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USAAbstract: Growth hormone (GH was first used to treat a patient in 1958. For the next 25 years it was available only from cadaver sources, which was of concern because of safety considerations and short supply. In 1985, GH produced by recombinant DNA techniques became available, expanding its possible uses. Since that time there have been three indications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for GH-deficiency states and nine indications approved for non-GH-deficiency states. In 2003 the FDA approved GH for use in idiopathic short stature (ISS, which may indirectly cover other diagnoses that have short stature as a feature. However, coverage for GH therapy is usually more reliably obtainable for a specific indication, rather than the ISS indication. Possible future uses for GH therapy could include the treatment of syndromes such as Russell–Silver syndrome or chondrodystrophy. Other non-short-stature indications could include wound healing and burns. Other uses that have been poorly studied include aging and physical performance, in spite of the interest already shown by elite athletes in using GH. The safety profile of GH developed over the past 25 years has shown it to be a very safe hormone with few adverse events associated with it. The challenge for the future is to follow these patients into adulthood to determine whether GH therapy poses any long-term risks.Keywords: growth hormone, somatotropin, anabolic, short stature

  5. Acute alterations in growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis in humans injected with endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C H; Pollard, V; Fan, J; Traber, L D; Traber, D L; Frost, R A; Gelato, M C; Prough, D S

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute changes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in humans after administration of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS). Escherichia coli LPS (4 ng/kg) was injected intravenously into healthy adults, and serial blood samples were collected for the next 5 h; subjects injected with saline served as time-matched controls. LPS administration resulted in a gradual decrease in the total extractable IGF-I concentration, which was reduced by approximately 20% over the final 2 h of the experiment; levels of free IGF-I were not significantly altered. LPS also produced a marked but transient elevation in growth hormone (GH) concentration. IGF-binding protein (BP)-1 levels were elevated more than fivefold 2 h after LPS injection, and thereafter levels gradually returned toward baseline. IGFBP-2 concentration also increased after LPS injection, but the maximal increase (approximately 50% above basal) was observed during the final 2 h of the protocol. In contrast, IGFBP-3 levels did not vary over the period examined in response to LPS, and there was no apparent increase in number of BP-3 proteolytic fragments. Cortisol levels were increased early and remained two- to threefold above baseline throughout the protocol. No significant alterations in serum concentration of glucose or insulin were noted. LPS also produced an early elevation in tumor necrosis factor and a later increase in interleukin-6. These data indicate that the acute changes in the GH-IGF axis in humans in response to LPS are comparable with those observed in humans in other traumatic conditions and in animal models of endotoxemia and infection. PMID:9249574

  6. Pseudotumor Cerebri in a Child with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Insufficiency Two Months after Initiation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Loukianou; Anastasia Tasiopoulou; Constantinos Demosthenous; Dimitrios Brouzas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a rare case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) in a child two months after receiving treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and to emphasize the need of close collaboration between ophthalmologists and pediatric endocrinologists in monitoring children receiving rhGH. Methods. A 12-year-old boy with congenital hypothyroidism started treatment with rhGH on a dose of 1,5 mg/daily IM (4.5 IU daily). Eight weeks later, he was complaining of severe headache without any ...

  7. Evolution of Growth Hormone Devices: Matching Devices with Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimer-Hall, Dawn; Shea, Heidi Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    Self-injection of growth hormone (GH) by children with GH deficiency can be problematic. They may have difficulty manipulating injection devices or preparing medication, and injections can be painful and create anxiety. Adherence to daily GH injections optimizes treatment benefit. Studies indicate that injection pens or needle-free devices enable easy self-injection by children, minimize medication reconstitution and storage requirements, and reduce injection pain. Newer GH delivery devices potentially encourage improved patient adherence. Reviewing features of GH devices will help nurses decide which GH device best fits the needs and abilities of pediatric patients. We searched recent medical literature about GH device development, about device-associated patient preferences and treatment adherence, and comparisons among GH devices. We concluded that improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of GH devices will enable nurses to guide families in selecting and using GH devices, improving adherence and outcomes, and helping children reach full growth potential. PMID:26292454

  8. Role of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, MM; Izadyar, F

    2002-01-01

    Near the completion of growth, mammalian oocytes acquire the competence to resume and complete meiosis. In vivo the preovulatory LH surge triggers the resumption of meiosis in the oocyte contained in preovulatory follicles. When immature oocytes and the surrounding cumulus cells are released from th

  9. Treatment of short stature and growth hormone deficiency in children with somatotropin (rDNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana S Hardin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana S HardinOhio State University and Columbus Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: Somatotropin (growth hormone, GH of recombinant DNA origin has provided a readily available and safe drug that has greatly improved management of children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD and other disorders of growth. In the US and Europe, regulatory agencies have given approval for the use of GH in children and adults who meet specific criteria. However, clinical and ethical controversies remain regarding the diagnosis of GHD, dosing of GH, duration of therapy and expected outcomes. Areas which also require consensus include management of pubertal patients, transitioning pediatric patients to adulthood, management of children with idiopathic short stature and the role of recombinant IGF-1 in treatment. Additionally, studies have demonstrated anabolic benefits of GH in children who have inflammatory-based underlying disease and efficacy of GH in overcoming growth delays in people treated chronically with corticosteroids. These areas are open for possible new uses of this drug. This review summarizes current indications for GH use in children and discusses areas of clinical debate and potential anabolic uses in chronic illness.Keywords: somatotropin, growth hormone deficiency, children, short stature

  10. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were...... randomized to either 0.1 IU/kg (n = 18) or 0.2 IU/kg (n = 17) per day. GH treatment was interrupted for 12 mo after 2 y of treatment in prepubertal patients to study catch-down growth. Mean height SDS (HSDS) at start was -5.6 and -5.2 for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively, and mean age 7.3 and 6.......6 y. RESULTS: Mean growth velocity (baseline 4.5/4.6 cm/y for the groups) increased significantly by 1.9/3.6 cm/y during the first year and by 0.5/1.5 cm/y during the second year. During the third year, a decrease of growth velocity was observed at 1.9/1.3 cm/y below baseline values. HSDS increased...

  11. Effect of N-methyl-aspartate and Betaine on Growth Performance and Correlation Between Growth Hormone, Growth Performance and Carcass Composition in Finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X(U) Zi-rong; FENG Jie; ZOU Xiao-ting

    2002-01-01

    Ninety finishing pigs were selected to study the effect of N-methyl-aspartate and betaine on the internal growth hormone level in the serum and the correlation between the growth hormone level, growth performance and carcass characteristic of finishing pig. The study showed that the two matters could improve pig growth and carcass composition significantly. The correlation analyses indicated that the growth hormone and IGF-I have a positive correlation with the growth rate. Carcass lean ratio, longissimus dorsi area, serum free fatty acid and lipase activity have a negative correlation with the feed conversion ratio, carcass fat ratio and urine nitrogen. But the growth hormone is more effective than IGF-I (P< 0.01 ). The results implicated that both the two matters may act through growth hormone axis(growth hormone - IGF-I) to manipulate pig growth.

  12. Human growth hormone: new delivery systems, alternative routes of administration, and their pharmacological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cázares-Delgadillo, J; Ganem-Rondero, A; Kalia, Y N

    2011-06-01

    The availability of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) has broadened its range of clinical applications. Approved indications for GH therapy include treatment of growth hormone deficiency (in children and in adults), Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency and more recently, idiopathic short stature in children, AIDS-related wasting and fat accumulation associated with lipodystrophy in adults. Therapy with GH usually begins at a low dose and is gradually titrated to obtain optimal efficacy while minimizing side effects. It is usually administered on a daily basis by subcutaneous injection, since this was considered to impact upon patient compliance, extended-release GH preparations were developed and new delivery platforms - e.g., auto-injectors and needle-free devices - were introduced in order to improve not only compliance and convenience but also dosing accuracy. In addition, alternative less invasive modes of administration such as the nasal, pulmonary and transdermal routes have also been investigated. Here, we provide an overview of the different technologies and routes of GH administration and discuss the principles, limitations and pharmacological profiles for each approach. PMID:21296662

  13. Short-term effect of recombinant human growth hormone in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Becker, U; Grønbaek, M;

    1994-01-01

    As growth hormone possesses anabolic properties that are active on protein metabolism, and thus of potential benefit to patients with chronic liver disease, we determined the metabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) its specific binding proteins...

  14. Shared decision making and patient choice for growth hormone therapy: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    George B; Ayyar V

    2016-01-01

    Belinda George, Vageesh Ayyar Department of Endocrinology, St. John’s Medical College Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India Abstract: Growth hormone has now been available in medical practice for close to 50 years. Its use has provided dramatic results in patients with growth hormone deficiency and it is associated with an overall favorable safety profile. Over the years, the utility of growth hormone has expanded to include treatment for short stature associated with conditions ot...

  15. A Chinese familial growth hormone deficiency with a deletion of 7.1 kb of DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    He, Y A; Chen, S S; Wang, Y. X; Lin, X. Y.; D. F. Wang

    1990-01-01

    Using restriction endonuclease analysis and a human growth hormone cDNA probe, we have found a Chinese family with a human growth hormone gene deletion. Two affected sibs are homozygous for a deletion of approximately 7.1 kb of DNA, which contains the normal human growth hormone gene. The patients' parents and grandmothers are heterozygous for the deleted gene. Their grandfathers are normal and homozygous for the hGH-N gene. All of them have normal stature.

  16. Detection of two growth hormone receptor mRNAs and primary translation products in the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, W.C.; Linzer, D I; Talamantes, F

    1989-01-01

    Two mouse growth hormone-receptor primary translation products of Mr 95,900 and 31,800 were identified from in vitro-translated late pregnant mouse liver mRNA. RNA isolated from mouse liver was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system containing [35S]methionine, and the growth hormone receptor primary translation products were identified by immunoprecipitation with anti-mouse growth hormone receptor antiserum followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate/PAGE and fluorography. Detectable amount...

  17. European audit of current practice in diagnosis and treatment of childhood growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Bernasconi, Sergio; Clayton, Peter E;

    2002-01-01

    The present survey among members of the ESPE on current practice in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is of great clinical relevance and importance in the light of the recently published guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD by the Growth Hormone Research Soc...... Society. We have found much conformity but also numerous discrepancies between the recommendations of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the current practice in Europe....

  18. The Influence of a 12-Week Conditioning Program on Growth Hormone and Somatomedin C Concentrations in Moderately Overweight Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinard, James D.; Bazzarre, Terry L.

    The growth hormone is a lipolytic hormone and somatomedin C mediates the metabolic effects of the growth hormone in many tissues. Growth hormone plasma levels are often depressed in obese individuals, and this low plasma level has been postulated as a reason for perpetuation of excess weight. Substantial weight loss in obese subjects improves…

  19. Non-Compliance with Growth Hormone Treatment in Children Is Common and Impairs Linear Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Cutfield, Wayne S.; Derraik, José G. B.; Alistair J. Gunn; Reid, Kyle; Delany, Theresa; Robinson, Elizabeth; Hofman, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Background GH therapy requires daily injections over many years and compliance can be difficult to sustain. As growth hormone (GH) is expensive, non-compliance is likely to lead to suboptimal growth, at considerable cost. Thus, we aimed to assess the compliance rate of children and adolescents with GH treatment in New Zealand. Methods This was a national survey of GH compliance, in which all children receiving government-funded GH for a four-month interval were included. Compliance was define...

  20. Long-term effects of plasmid-mediated growth hormone releasing hormone in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Catherine M; Cardoza, Dawn M; Carpenter, Robert H; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2004-05-01

    Geriatric and cancer-afflicted patients often experience decreased quality of life with cachexia, anemia, anorexia, and decreased activity level. We have studied the possibility that a myogenic plasmid that expresses growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) can prevent and/or treat these conditions. We administered plasmid to 17 geriatric and five cancer-afflicted companion dogs with an average age of 10.5+/-1.0 and 11.3+/-0.6 years at enrollment, respectively. Effects of the treatment were documented for at least 180 days post-treatment, with 10 animals followed for more than 1 year post-treatment, on average 444+/-40 days. Treated dogs showed increased IGF-I levels, and increases in scores for weight, activity level, exercise tolerance, and appetite. No adverse effects associated with the GHRH plasmid treatment were found. Most importantly, the overall assessment of the quality of life of the treated animals increased. Hematological parameters such as red blood cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentrations were improved and maintained within their normal ranges. We conclude that intramuscular injection of a GHRH-expressing plasmid is both safe and capable of improving the quality of life in animals for an extended period of time in the context of aging and disease. The observed anabolic and hematological responses to a single dose of this plasmid treatment may also be beneficial in geriatric patients or patients with cancer-associated anemia and/or cachexia. PMID:15073611

  1. USE OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE EFFECT OF ENDOGENOUS HORMONES AND A XENOBIOTIC PESTICIDE ON GROWTH OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a teleost model to screen physiological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on somatic growth. Growth is largely controlled by the endocrine system via the growth-hormone releasing hormone (GRF) - growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor (IG...

  2. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on enterocutaneous fistula patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Sheng Gu; Jian-An Ren; Ning Li; Jie-Shou Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on intestinal mucosal epithelial cell proliferation and nutritional status in patients with enterocutaneous fistula.METHODS: Eight patients with enterocutaneous fistulas recived recombinant human growth hormone(10 μg/d) for 7 d. Image analysis and immunohisto-chemical techniques were used to analyse the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in intestinal mucosal epithelial cells in biopsy samples from the patients who had undergone an endoscopic biopsy through the fistula at day 0, 4 and 7. Body weights, nitrogen excretion, serum levels of total proteins, albumin, prealbumin, transferrin and fibronectin were measured at day 0, 4 and 7. RESULTS: Significant improvements occurred in the expression of PCNA in the intestinal mucosal epithelial cells at clay 4 and 7 compared to day 0 (24.93±3.41%, 30.46±5.24% vs 12.92±4.20%, P<0.01).These changes were accompanied by the significant improvement of villus height (500.54±53.79 μm,459.03±88.98 μm vs 210.94±49.16 μm, P<0.01),serum levels of total proteins (70.52±5.13 g/L, 74.89±5.16 g/L vs 63.51±2.47 g/L, P<0.01), albumin (39.44±1.18 g/L, 42.39±1.68 g/L vs 35.74±1.75 g/L, P<0.01) and fibronectin (236.3±16.5 mg/L,275.8±16.9 mg/L vs 172.5±21.4 mg/L, P<0.01) at day 4 and 7, and prealbumin (286.38±65.61 mg/L vs180.88±48.28 mg/L, P<0.05), transferrin (2.61±0.12 g/L vs 2.41±0.14 g/L, P<0.05) at day 7. Nitrogen excretion was significantly decreased at day 7 (3.40±1.65 g/d vs 7.25±3.92 g/d, P<0.05). No change was observed in the body weight.CONCLUSION: Recombinant human growth hormone could promote intestinal mucosal epithelial cell proliferation and protein synthesis in patients with enterocutaneous fistula.2008 The WIG Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Safaei; Keikhosro Karimi; Poorandokht Golkar; Akram Zamani

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the ...

  4. Hormone therapy in transgender adults is safe with provider supervision; A review of hormone therapy sequelae for transgender individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie D. Weinand, BS, BA; Joshua D. Safer, MD

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Some providers report concern for the safety of transgender hormone therapy (HT). Methods: This is a systematic literature review of HT safety for transgender adults. Results: Current literature suggests HT is safe when followed carefully for certain risks. The greatest health concern for HT in transgender women is venous thromboembolism. HT among transgender men appears to cause polycythemia. Both groups experienced elevated fasting glucose. There is no increase in cancer...

  5. Posttranscriptional regulation of rat growth hormone gene expression: increased message stability and nuclear polyadenylation accompany thyroid hormone depletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, D; Pardy, K; Seah, V; Carter, D.

    1992-01-01

    In thyroid hormone-depleted rats, the rate of transcription of the growth hormone (GH) gene in the anterior pituitary gland is lower than the rate in euthyroid controls, and there is a corresponding reduction in the abundance of the GH mRNA. Concomitantly, the poly(A) tail of the GH mRNA increases in length. Examination of nuclear RNA from anterior pituitary glands of control and thyroid hormone-depleted rats revealed no difference in the length of pre-mRNAs containing the first and last intr...

  6. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of growth hormone gene expression in cultured rat pituitary cells by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cultured GC cells, a rat pituitary tumor cell line, growth hormone [GH] is induced in a synergistic fashion by physiologic concentrations of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones. Abundant evidence indicates that these hormones mediate this response via their specific receptors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms by which these hormones affect GH production. When poly (A)+ RNA was isolated from cells grown both with and without hormones and translated in a cell-free wheat germ system, the preGH translation products were shown to be proportional to immunoassayable GH production under all combinations of hormonal milieux, indicating that changes in GH production is modulated at a pretranslational level. A cDNA library was constructed from poly (A)+RNA and one clone containing GH cDNA sequences was isolated. This was used to confirm the above results by Northern dot blot analysis. This probe was also used to assess hormonal effects on GH mRNA half-life and synthetic rates as well as GH gene transcription rates in isolated nuclei. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cellular RNA was labeled in vivo with [3H]uridine, and quantitating [3H]GHmRNA directly by hybridization to GH cDNA bound to nitrocellulose filters, GHmRNA was found to have a half-life of approximately 50 hours, and was not significantly altered by the presence of inducing hormones

  7. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    Body weights of rat pups reared during exposure to hypergravity (hg) are significantly reduced relative to 1 g controls. In the present study, we examined in hg-reared rat pups two major contributors to growth and development, namely growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)l0, plasma GH and IGF-1 were analyzed using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Both hormones were significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g control pups. Together, these findings suggest that GH and IGF-1 are not primary determinants of reduced body weights observed in hg-reared pups. The significant elevations in pup GH and IGF-1 may be related to increased physical stimulation in hypergravity.

  8. Skeletal effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Richard C; Mohan, Subburaman

    2016-09-01

    The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis is critically important for the regulation of bone formation, and deficiencies in this system have been shown to contribute to the development of osteoporosis and other diseases of low bone mass. The GH/IGF axis is regulated by a complex set of hormonal and local factors which can act to regulate this system at the level of the ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), or IGFBP proteases. A combination of in vitro studies, transgenic animal models, and clinical human investigations has provided ample evidence of the importance of the endocrine and local actions of both GH and IGF-I, the two major components of the GH/IGF axis, in skeletal growth and maintenance. GH- and IGF-based therapies provide a useful avenue of approach for the prevention and treatment of diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:26408965

  9. Radioimmunological activity of 22K variant of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a preparation of human growth hormone its integral variant (hGH-22K) was isolated by isoelectric focusing, having a pI of 5,20 and relative mobility (Rm) of 0,621 in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Several experiments for the characterization of the isolated variant were carried out. The immunological properties was tested by radioimmunoassay (RIE), in which the activity of the isolated variant and the activity of the total preparation were compared. The dose response-curves obtained by RIE were found to be considered parallels (p < 0,01). It was checked using the F test between the slope of the two curves. The parallelism shown the immunochemical identity of the two preparation and indicates that the separation process developed does not produce alterations in the immunological properties of the variant. (Author)

  10. Cell transfection as a tool to study growth hormone action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norstedt, G; Enberg, B; Francis, S;

    1994-01-01

    of cellular function that mimic those of the endogenous GHR. GHR cDNA transfected cells also offer a system where the mechanism of GH action can be studied. Such a system has been used to demonstrate that the GHR itself becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and that further phosphorylation of downstream...... proteins is important in GH action. The GH signals are transmitted to the nucleus and GH regulated genes have now begun to be characterized. The ability to use cell transfection for mechanistic studies of GH action will be instrumental to define domains within the receptor that are of functional importance......The isolation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) cDNA clones has made possible the transfection of GHRs into cultured cells. Our aim in this minireview is to show how the application of such approaches have benefited GHR research. GH stimulation of cells expressing GHR cDNAs can cause an alteration...

  11. Thyroid hormone is required for growth adaptation to pressure load in the ovine fetal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Jeffrey L; Volk, Ken A; Lipman, Michael H B; Scholz, Thomas D

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid hormone exerts broad effects on the adult heart, but little is known regarding the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of cardiac growth early in development and in response to pathophysiological conditions. To address this issue, we determined the effects of fetal thyroidectomy on cardiac growth and growth-related gene expression in control and pulmonary-artery-banded fetal sheep. Fetal thyroidectomy (THX) and/or placement of a restrictive pulmonary artery band (PAB) were performed at 126 ± 1 days of gestation (term, 145 days). Four groups of animals [n = 5-6 in each group; (i) control; (ii) fetal THX; (iii) fetal PAB; and (iv) fetal PAB + THX] were monitored for 1 week prior to being killed. Fetal heart rate was significantly lower in the two THX groups compared with the non-THX groups, while mean arterial blood pressure was similar among groups. Combined left and right ventricle free wall + septum weight, expressed per kilogram of fetal weight, was significantly increased in PAB (6.27 ± 0.85 g kg(-1)) compared with control animals (4.72 ± 0.12 g kg(-1)). Thyroidectomy significantly attenuated the increase in cardiac mass associated with PAB (4.94 ± 0.13 g kg(-1)), while THX alone had no detectable effect on heart mass (4.95 ± 0.27 g kg(-1)). The percentage of binucleated cardiomyocytes was significantly decreased in THX and PAB +THX groups (∼16%) compared with the non-THX groups (∼27%). No differences in levels of activated Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase or c-Jun N-terminal kinase were detected among the groups. Markers of cellular proliferation but not apoptosis or expression of growth-related genes were lower in the THX and THX+ PAB groups relative to thyroid-intact animals. These findings suggest that in the late-gestation fetal heart, thyroid hormone has important cellular growth functions in both physiological and pathophysiological states. Specifically, thyroid hormone is required for adaptive fetal cardiac growth in

  12. Growth hormone promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of growth hormone receptors in murine 3T3-F442A fibroblasts and adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, C.M.; Shafer, J.A.; Rozsa, F.W.; Wang, X.; Lewis, S.D.; Renken, D.A.; Natale, J.E.; Schwartz, J.; Carter-Su, C.

    1988-01-12

    Because many growth factor receptors are ligand-activated tyrosine protein kinases, the possibility that growth hormone (GH), a hormone implicated in human growth, promotes tyrosyl phosphorylation of its receptor was investigated. /sup 125/I-Labeled human GH was covalently cross-linked to receptors in intact 3T3-F442A fibroblasts, a cell line which differentiates into adipocytes in response to GH. The cross-linked cells were solubilized and passed over a column of phosphotyrosyl binding antibody immobilized on protein A-Sepharose. Immunoadsorbed proteins were eluted with a hapten (p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The eluate from the antibody column contained in M/sub r/ 134,000 /sup 125/I-GH-receptor complex. A similar result was obtained when the adipocyte form of 3T3-F442A cells was used in place of fibroblast form. O-Phosphotyrosine prevented /sup 125/I-GH-receptor complexes from binding to the antibody column, whereas O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine did not. In studies of GH-promoted phosphorylation in 3T3-F442A fibroblasts labeled metabolically with (/sup 32/P)P/sub i/, GH was shown to stimulate formation of a /sup 32/P-labeled protein which bound to immobilized phosphotyrosyl binding antibodies. The molecular weight of 114,000 obtained for this protein is similar to that expected for non-cross-linked GH receptor. These observations provide strong evidence that binding of GH to its receptor stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in the GH receptor.

  13. Growth hormone promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of growth hormone receptors in murine 3T3-F442A fibroblasts and adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because many growth factor receptors are ligand-activated tyrosine protein kinases, the possibility that growth hormone (GH), a hormone implicated in human growth, promotes tyrosyl phosphorylation of its receptor was investigated. 125I-Labeled human GH was covalently cross-linked to receptors in intact 3T3-F442A fibroblasts, a cell line which differentiates into adipocytes in response to GH. The cross-linked cells were solubilized and passed over a column of phosphotyrosyl binding antibody immobilized on protein A-Sepharose. Immunoadsorbed proteins were eluted with a hapten (p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The eluate from the antibody column contained in M/sub r/ 134,000 125I-GH-receptor complex. A similar result was obtained when the adipocyte form of 3T3-F442A cells was used in place of fibroblast form. O-Phosphotyrosine prevented 125I-GH-receptor complexes from binding to the antibody column, whereas O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine did not. In studies of GH-promoted phosphorylation in 3T3-F442A fibroblasts labeled metabolically with [32P]P/sub i/, GH was shown to stimulate formation of a 32P-labeled protein which bound to immobilized phosphotyrosyl binding antibodies. The molecular weight of 114,000 obtained for this protein is similar to that expected for non-cross-linked GH receptor. These observations provide strong evidence that binding of GH to its receptor stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in the GH receptor

  14. A comparison of the growth responses following intramuscular GHRH plasmid administration versus daily growth hormone injections in young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid c...

  15. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  16. Pulsatile growth hormone secretion in patients with acromegaly and normal men: the effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelato, M C; Oldfield, E; Loriaux, D L; Merriam, G R

    1990-09-01

    Twenty-four GH secretory patterns were studied before and during continuous infusions of GHRH in six patients with active acromegaly and in six normal adult men. GH release was episodic in both groups. Control subjects showed a normal diurnal variation in GH release, with the majority of GH released at night (2200-0800 h); mean levels were 1.5 +/- 0.4 (SE) ng/mL (day) and 4.2 +/- 0.8 ng/mL (night). Acromegalics had no diurnal variation in GH; levels were 45.3 +/- 13.7 ng/mL (day) and 39.8 +/- 12.2 ng/mL (night). Acromegalics demonstrated an increased frequency of GH pulses compared to normals (11.8 +/- 0.8 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3/24 h). During continuous 24-h infusions of GHRH, the normal subjects continued to show a diurnal variation in GH release, but GH pulse frequency increased to a rate (11.7 +/- 1.4 pulses/24 h) very similar to that of the patients with acromegaly. In contrast, GHRH infusion did not alter the GH pulse frequency in the acromegalics. GHRH increased the mean levels of GH in both groups (patients 80.2 +/- 20.3 vs. 41.0 +/- 12.1 ng/mL, x +/- SE. P less than 0.05; controls 10.2 +/- 2.0 vs. 3.33 +/- 0.5 ng/mL, P less than 0.01). Some of the patients with acromegaly showed a progressive decline in GH levels during the infusion period, suggesting desensitization or exhaustion of releaseable stores; however, GH levels remained above basal values in all patients. After the 24-h GHRH infusions, the GH response to a bolus of GHRH was diminished in the normal subjects (2.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 16.8 +/- 5 ng/mL, x +/- SE; P less than 0.01) but not in the acromegalic patients (30.2 +/- 8.9 vs. 35.5 +/- 12.5 ng/mL; NS). These results indicate that GH release is episodic under basal conditions and during continuous GHRH infusion in both acromegalic and normal subjects, indicating the importance of other modulators of GH release, such as somatostatin, which may remain pulsatile even in acromegaly. PMID:2118536

  17. Genetic polymorphisms and protein structures in growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin in Mehraban sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, A; Behzadi, Sh; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Roh, S-G; Katoh, K

    2013-09-15

    The somatotropic axis, the control system for growth hormone (GH) secretion and its endogenous factors involved in the regulation of metabolism and energy partitioning, has promising potentials for producing economically valuable traits in farm animals. Here we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the genes of factors involved in the somatotropic axis for growth hormone (GH1), growth hormone receptor (GHR), ghrelin (GHRL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and leptin (LEP), using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods in 452 individual Mehraban sheep. A nonradioactive method to allow SSCP detection was used for genomic DNA and PCR amplification of six fragments: exons 4 and 5 of GH1; exon 10 of GH receptor (GHR); exon 1 of ghrelin (GHRL); exon 1 of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and exon 3 of leptin (LEP). Polymorphisms were detected in five of the six PCR products. Two electrophoretic patterns were detected for GH1 exon 4. Five conformational patterns were detected for GH1 exon 5 and LEP exon 3, and three for IGF-I exon 1. Only GHR and GHRL were monomorphic. Changes in protein structures due to variable SNPs were also analyzed. The results suggest that Mehraban sheep, a major breed that is important for the animal industry in Middle East countries, has high genetic variability, opening interesting prospects for future selection programs and preservation strategies. PMID:23747407

  18. Growth hormone treatment in young children with Down's syndrome: effects on growth and psychomotor development

    OpenAIRE

    Anneren, G.; Tuvemo, T; Carlsson-Skwirut, C; Lonnerholm, T; Bang, P; Sara, V; Gustafsson, J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Learning disability and short stature are cardinal signs of Down's syndrome. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), regulated by growth hormone (GH) from about 6 months of age, may be involved in brain development.
AIMS—To study long term effects of GH on linear growth and psychomotor development in young children with Down's syndrome. 
Study design—Fifteen children with Down's syndrome were treated with GH for three years from the age of 6 to 9 months (mean,...

  19. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    OpenAIRE

    Denancé, Nicolas; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Goffner, Deborah; Molina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids, that have been thoroughly described to regulate plant development and growth, have recently emerged as key regulators of plant immunity. Plant hormones inter...

  20. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas eDenancé; Andrea eSánchez-Vallet; Deborah eGoffner; Antonio eMolina

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, gibberellins and brassinosteroids, that have been thoroughly described to regulate plant development and growth, have recently emerged as key regulators of plant immunity. Plant hormones interac...

  1. Estrogens regulate the hepatic effects of growth hormone, a hormonal interplay with multiple fates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Guerra, Borja; Díaz-Chico, Juan C;

    2013-01-01

    with endocrine, metabolic, and sex-differentiated functions of GH. Most previous studies have been focused on the influence of estrogens on pituitary GH secretion, which has a great impact on hepatic transcriptional regulation. However, there is strong evidence that estrogens can influence the GH......-regulated endocrine and metabolic functions in the human liver by acting at the level of GHR-STAT5 signaling pathway. This crosstalk is relevant because the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. Therefore, GH or estrogen signaling deficiency as well as the influence of estrogens...... of children with growth disorders and of adults with GH deficiency....

  2. MRI of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: factors determining pretreatment hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative serum growth hormone (GH) level is one of the most important determinants of outcome. Our aim was to assess MRI findings which may correlate with pretreatment GH levels in GH-secreting adenomas. We retrospectively studied 29 patients with acromegaly caused by a pituitary adenoma. Tumor size (height, width, thickness and volume), suprasellar extension, sphenoid or cavernous sinus invasion, signal intensity and contrast enhancement were studied. Linear regression analysis or Fisher's exact probability test was used for statistical analysis. Factors related to high GH levels were the maximum dimension of the tumour (r = 0.496, P < 0.01), its volume (r = 0.439, P < 0.05), spenoid sinus invasion (P < 0.01) and intracavernous carotid artery encasement (P < 0.01). The other items were not related to serum GH levels. Since we believe surgery is the first choice of treatment and the cavernous sinus is difficult of access with a conventional surgical approach, preoperative assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus is critical for predicting the surgical outcome. Low GH levels (5-50 ng/ml) were found with tumours medial to the intercarotid line and high levels (more than 101 ng/ml) with invasive tumours with carotid artery encasement. Variable GH levels were noted with tumours extending beyond the intercarotid line. Because functioning adenomas invading the cavernous sinus tend to have markedly high hormone levels, and only patients with carotid artery encasement showed markedly elevated GH levels, we believe carotid artery encasement a reliable MRI indicator of cavernous sinus invasion. (orig.)

  3. Use of human growth hormone in treatment of nesidioblastosis in a neonate.

    OpenAIRE

    Hocking, M D; Newell, S J; Rayner, P H

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone was effective in reducing the glucose requirement in an infant with nesidioblastosis. He was suffering from fluid overload secondary to glucose and water infusions necessary to maintain blood glucose. Early pancreatectomy is the preferred treatment in severe cases, but human growth hormone has a place in preoperative management.

  4. Evidence for association of the cloned liver growth hormone receptor with a tyrosine kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X; Uhler, M D; Billestrup, N;

    1992-01-01

    The ability of the cloned liver growth hormone (GH) receptor, when expressed in mammalian cell lines, to copurify with tyrosine kinase activity and be tyrosyl phosphorylated was examined. 125I-human growth hormone-GH receptor complexes isolated from COS-7 cells transiently expressing high levels...

  5. European audit of current practice in diagnosis and treatment of childhood growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Bernasconi, Sergio; Clayton, Peter E; Kiess, Wieland; DeMuinck-Keizer Schrama, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    The present survey among members of the ESPE on current practice in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is of great clinical relevance and importance in the light of the recently published guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD by the Growth Hormone Research Soc...

  6. Gender influences short-term growth hormone treatment response in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sävendahl, Lars; Blankenstein, Oliver; Oliver, Isabelle; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Lee, Peter; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Rakov, Viatcheslav; Ross, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment.......Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment....

  7. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and the Regulation of Growth Hormone Receptor Availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.J.M. van

    2002-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) promotes postnatal longitudinal growth in children and is active throughout an individual’s live in protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. GH is an anabolic hormone, inducing a positive nitrogen balance and protein synthesis in muscle. The multiple actions of GH start when GH

  8. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic effects of growth hormone injected subcutaneously in growth hormone deficient patients: thich versus abdomen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    1994-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: The absorption of insulin following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is faster in the abdomen than the thigh. We therefore studied the effect of changing the site of injection on the absorption and metabolic effects of human growth hormone. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: In a cross...... the s.c. tissue (mm) was higher on the abdominal site (9.35 +/- 1.38 (thigh), and 22.61 +/- 2.19 (abdomen), P < 0.001). Mean (+/- SEM) integrated levels (area under the curves (AUC) divided by time) of GH (mU/l) were identical: 5.54 +/- 0.70 (thigh) versus 5.48 +/- 0.64 (abdomen) (P = 0.91). AUC (m...

  9. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects. PMID:21731659

  10. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Gotoh

    Full Text Available The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer, juvenile hormone (JH titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  11. Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ≈ 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

  12. Effects of thyroid hormones on the antioxidative status in the uterus of young adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    KONG, Lingfa; WEI, Quanwei; FEDAIL, Jaafar Sulieman; Shi, Fangxiong; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones and oxidative stress play significant roles in the normal functioning of the female reproductive system. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), participates in the regulation of thyroid function and is also a good biomarker for assessment of the oxidative stress status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate effects of thyroid hormones on uterine antioxidative status in young adult rats. Thirty immature female Sprague-D...

  13. A statistical model of diurnal variation in human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Adler, Gail K.; Jin, Moonsoo; Maliszewski, Anne M.; Brown, Emery N.

    2003-01-01

    The diurnal pattern of growth hormone (GH) serum levels depends on the frequency and amplitude of GH secretory events, the kinetics of GH infusion into and clearance from the circulation, and the feedback of GH on its secretion. We present a two-dimensional linear differential equation model based on these physiological principles to describe GH diurnal patterns. The model characterizes the onset times of the secretory events, the secretory event amplitudes, as well as the infusion, clearance, and feedback half-lives of GH. We illustrate the model by using maximum likelihood methods to fit it to GH measurements collected in 12 normal, healthy women during 8 h of scheduled sleep and a 16-h circadian constant-routine protocol. We assess the importance of the model components by using parameter standard error estimates and Akaike's Information Criterion. During sleep, both the median infusion and clearance half-life estimates were 13.8 min, and the median number of secretory events was 2. During the constant routine, the median infusion half-life estimate was 12.6 min, the median clearance half-life estimate was 11.7 min, and the median number of secretory events was 5. The infusion and clearance half-life estimates and the number of secretory events are consistent with current published reports. Our model gave an excellent fit to each GH data series. Our analysis paradigm suggests an approach to decomposing GH diurnal patterns that can be used to characterize the physiological properties of this hormone under normal and pathological conditions.

  14. Growth hormone treatment in Turner syndrome accelerates growth and skeletal maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rongen-Westerlaken (Ciska); J.M. Wit (Jan); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); B.J. Otten (Barto); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); H.A. Delemarre-van der Waal (H.); M.H. Gons (M.); A.G. Bot (Alice); J.L. van den Brande (J.)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSixteen girls with Turner syndrome (TS) were treated for 4 years with biosynthetic growth hormone (GH). The dosage was 4IU/m2 body surface s.c. per day over the first 3 years. In the 4th year the dosage was increased to 61 U/m2 per day in the 6 girls with a poor height increment and in 1

  15. Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 May Mediate Growth Hormone Resistance in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Goldstein, Mark; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a state of chronic nutritional deprivation, is characterized by GH resistance with elevated GH levels and decreased levels of IGF-I. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, a hormone produced in the liver and adipocytes, is induced in the liver by fasting and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists. In a transgenic mouse model, FGF-21 reduces IGF-I levels by inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, a mediator of the intracellular ...

  16. Effect of sericin on diabetic hippocampal growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhihong; Yang, Songhe; He, Yaqiang; Song, Chengjun; Liu, Yongping

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sericin extracted from silk cocoon significantly reduces blood glucose levels and protects the nervous system against diabetes mellitus. In this study, a rat type 2 diabetes mellitus model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin for 3 successive days, following which the rats were treated with sericin for 35 days. After treatment, the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats decreased significantly, the growth hormone level in ...

  17. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test ≥7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  18. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  19. Short-term effect of recombinant human growth hormone in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Becker, U; Grønbaek, M;

    1994-01-01

    recombinant human growth hormone group increased after 3 (p <0.01) and 6 weeks (p <0.02), whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. The change in insulin-like growth factor-I during the treatment period was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). The AUCIGF-I was significantly larger...... treated patients as well as in controls, whereas no change in insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 concentrations was found. No significant changes were seen in the area under the curve for biochemical liver function tests. We conclude that administration of recombinant human growth hormone......As growth hormone possesses anabolic properties that are active on protein metabolism, and thus of potential benefit to patients with chronic liver disease, we determined the metabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) its specific binding proteins...

  20. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Metin; EKİNCİ, Melek; YILDIRIM, Ertan; GÜNEŞ, Adem; Karagöz, Kenan; KOTAN, Recep; Dursun, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to observe the effects of Bacillus megaterium strain TV-91C, Pantoea agglomerans strain RK-92, and B. subtilis strain TV-17C inoculation on the growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage seedlings. The seeds of cabbage were incubated in flasks by shaking at 80 rpm for 2 h at 28 °C to coat the seeds with the rhizobacteria. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments increased fresh and dry shoot and root weight, stem diameter, seedling hei...

  1. Radioautographic identification of lactogen binding sites in rat median eminence using 125I-human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding characteristics of human growth hormone were exploited to identify radioautographically lactogen binding sites in the rat median eminence following systemic injection 125I-human growth hormone bound preferentially to the lateral palisade zone, a region of median eminence rich in dopamine and LHRH. Coinjection of 125I-human growth hormone with an excess of unlabeled human growth hormone or ovine prolactin, but not bovine growth hormone, competitively blocked 125I-human growth hormone binding to the external median eminence. These observations provide direct evidence of recognition sites for lactogenic hormones in a discrete region of the median eminence associated with hypothalamic regulation of hypophyseal prolactin and luteinizing hormone secretion. Median eminence lactogen binding sites may mediate presumed direct effects of lactogenic hormones on the reproductive functions of the hypophysiotropic hypothalamus. (orig.)

  2. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P growth.

  3. Growth enhancement of shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) after transfer of tilapia growth hormone gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenal, Amilcar; Pimentel, Rafael; Pimentel, Eulogio; Martín, Leonardo; Santiesteban, Dayamí; Franco, Ramón; Aleström, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Electroporation of Litopenaeus schmitti embryos was used to transfer the pE300tiGH15 plasmid that contains the tilapia growth hormone gene (tiGH) complexed with a nuclear localization signal peptide into the zygotes. The gene construct was detected in 35 (36%) of the 98 larvae screened by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Western blot analyses revealed that 34% of the screened larvae expressed a single tiGH-specific band with the expected molecular mass (23.1 kDa). The development index and larval length indicated a significant growth enhancement from day 3 on after electroporation, with an average of 32% of the growth enhancement. To our knowledge, this is the first report on gene transfer enhanced growth in crustaceans. PMID:18204820

  4. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth hormone in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Becker, Povl Ulrik

    1992-01-01

    Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are peptides synthesized in the liver. IGFs have different anabolic and metabolic actions and are important in normal growth and development. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is low in patients with chronic liver disease...... mainly due to the decreased liver function. Low levels of somatomedins are also seen in patients with growth hormone (GH) insufficiency, renal impairment, and malnutrition. GH stimulates the production of IGF-1, and both are part of a negative feedback system acting on hepatic, pituitary, and...... hypothalamic levels. The basal and stimulated GH concentration is pathologically elevated in patients with chronic liver disease and may be due to a disturbed regulation. Alterations in liver IGF receptors in patients with chronic liver disease still require investigation as they may be important for the liver...

  5. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P GH group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the processes regulating new collagen accretion, bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  6. Different growth hormone sensitivity of target tissues and growth hormone response to glucose in HIV-infected patients with and without lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Hansen, Birgitte R;

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-secretion in HIV-lipodystrophy is impaired; however, GH-sensitivity of GH-target tissues remains to be evaluated. We measured overnight fasting concentrations of GH-sensitive insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) including GH binding protein...

  7. The influence of growth hormone (GH) substitution on patient-reported outcomes and cognitive functions in GH-deficient patients: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arwert, L.I.; Deijen, J.B.; Witlox, J.; Drent, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of growth hormone (GH) replacement on patient-reported outcomes (i.e., quality of life, health status and well-being) and cognitive functioning in GH-deficient adults is controversial. DESIGN: We carried out a meta-analysis of clinical trials concerning the influence of GH s

  8. Synthesis of a tritiated human growth hormone releasing peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-labeled growth hormone releasing peptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 was synthesized by tritium-halogen exchange on the precursor His-5,7-Br2-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2. The radiolabeled peptide had a specific activity of 29 Ci/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 95%. The tritium label was shown by 3H NMR to be located mostly at the expected 5,7-positions of the indole nucleus in the D-Trp residue. The dibromopeptide was prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis, employing racemic 5,7-Br2-Trp as a building block and separation of the resulting epimeric mixture by HPLC. 5,7-Br2-Trp was prepared by a five-step sequence beginning with 2,4-dibromoaniline. The use of anisole as an additive in the HF resin/peptide cleavage was rejected because anisole was found to undergo electrophilic substitution of the dibromoindole nucleus; a modified HF deprotection/cleavage procedure was developed and used instead. (au) (17 refs.)

  9. Molecular basis of human growth hormone gene deletions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossover sites resulting from unequal recombination within the human growth hormone (GH) gene cluster that cause GH1 gene deletions and isolated GH deficiency type 1A were localized in nine patients. In eight unrelated subjects homozygous for 6.7-kilobase (kb) deletions, the breakpoints are within two blocks of highly homologous DNA sequences that lie 5' and 3' to the GH1 gene. In seven of these eight cases, the breakpoints map within a 1,250-base-pair (bp) region composed of 300-bp Alu sequences of 86% homology and flanking non-Alu sequences that are 600 and 300 bp in length and are of 96% and 88% homology, respectively. In the eighth patient, the breakpoints are 5' to these Alu repeats and are most likely within a 700-bp-region of 96% homologous DNA sequences. In the ninth patient homozygous for a 7.6-kb deletion, the breakpoints are contained with a 29-bp perfect repeat lying 5' to GH1 and the human chorionic somatomammotropin pseudogene (CSHP1). Together, these results indicate that the presence of highly homologous DNA sequences flanking GH1 predispose to recurrent unequal recombinational events presumably through chromosomal misalignment

  10. Zinc effect on the structure of recombinant human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of protein substances are known to undergo chemical decomposition when stored under non-ideal conditions. Metal induced precipitation of protein is being used and further developed as a processing step in protein formulation and may have utility in protein purification bulk storage. In such processes, it is important that native protein structure is maintained and the metal complexation is reversible. Series of dialysis experiments, treatment with chelating agents and divalent metal ions showed that zinc was required for such process. In this study, the effect of zinc induced precipitation recombinant human growth hormone (rh GH) was investigated. Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) was added and the precipitate was dissolved yielding complete recovery of native protein. The protein has specific metal binding sites and requires specific molar ratios of zinc to protein to initiate precipitation (zinc: rh GH=2:1). Furthermore, the secondary structure of the protein was unperturbed in soluble zinc complexes and zinc induced precipitates, as measured by infrared and spectroscopy. The soluble zinc complex of rh GH had minor tertiary structural alterations. This study indicated that metal induced precipitation provides a good method maintain proteins in their native state in precipitates, which may be useful for purification storage and formulation. In addition, formation of a Zn (2+)-rh GH dimeric complex may be important for storage of rh GH in secretory granules

  11. Progestin-induced hypersecretion of growth hormone: an introductory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnberk, A; Mol, J A

    1997-01-01

    In the 1970s acromegalic features were reported in some dogs used in long-term toxicity studies of progestins. In 1980 confirmation that progestagen administration can lead to increased circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations was obtained. This phenomenon appeared not to be confined to exogenous progestins, for an excess of GH was also found in bitches during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. In bitches with a progestin-induced excess of GH, GH secretion could neither be inhibited nor stimulated by well-known regulatory neurohormones, indicating autonomous secretion. Because it could not be attributed to a neoplasm and was reversible, an extra-pituitary site of GH production was investigated. The progestin-induced GH was found to originate from the mammary gland. This phenomenon seems to play a role in the mammary development that occurs during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. The increase in cell proliferative activity may also be responsible for the susceptibility of the mammary gland to neoplastic transformation. The discovery of mammary GH in the dog has recently become of wider importance now that expression of the GH gene has also been demonstrated in other species, namely, humans and cats. PMID:9404303

  12. Growth Hormone Deficiency in a Patient with Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Pediatric Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Calcaterra; Annachiara Malvezzi; Rossana Toglia; Angela Berardinelli; Elena Bozzola; Mauro Bozzola; Daniela Larizza

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe a biochemical growth hormone (GH) deficiency and to evaluate therapeutic result in a six-year-old male with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Methods. GH peak was evaluated after response to arginine and insulin. Bone age was evaluated according to Greulich and Pyle method. Results. The GH-supplementary therapy was very effective in terms of growth gain. Conclusion. The possibility of a growth hormone deficiency and treatment with GH in patients with BMD cannot be exclud...

  13. Thyroxine modifies the effects of growth hormone in Ames dwarf mice

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Andrew; Menon, Vinal; Zhi, Xu; Gesing, Adam; Wiesenborn, Denise S.; Spong, Adam; Sun, Liou; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M.

    2015-01-01

    Ames dwarf (df/df) mice lack growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin. Treatment of juvenile df/df mice with GH alone stimulates somatic growth, reduces insulin sensitivity and shortens lifespan. Early‐life treatment with thyroxine (T4) alone produces modest growth stimulation but does not affect longevity. In this study, we examined the effects of treatment of juvenile Ames dwarf mice with a combination of GH + T4 and compared them to the effects of GH alone. Treatment ...

  14. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsun Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  15. Growth hormone and risk for cardiac tumors in Carney complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandettini, W Patricia; Karageorgiadis, Alexander S; Sinaii, Ninet; Rosing, Douglas R; Sachdev, Vandana; Schernthaner-Reiter, Marie Helene; Gourgari, Evgenia; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Keil, Meg F; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Carney, J Aidan; Arai, Andrew E; Lodish, Maya; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-09-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome that is caused mostly by PRKAR1A mutations. Cardiac myxomas are the leading cause of mortality in CNC patients who, in addition, often develop growth hormone (GH) excess. We studied patients with CNC, who were observed for over a period of 20 years (1995-2015) for the development of both GH excess and cardiac myxomas. GH secretion was evaluated by standard testing; dedicated cardiovascular imaging was used to detect cardiac abnormalities. Four excised cardiac myxomas were tested for the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). A total of 99 CNC patients (97 with a PRKAR1A mutation) were included in the study with a mean age of 25.8 ± 16.6 years at presentation. Over an observed mean follow-up of 25.8 years, 60% of patients with GH excess (n = 46) developed a cardiac myxoma compared with only 36% of those without GH excess (n = 54) (P = 0.016). Overall, patients with GH excess were also more likely to have a tumor vs those with normal GH secretion (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.23-6.29; P = 0.014). IGF-1 mRNA and protein were higher in CNC myxomas than in normal heart tissue. We conclude that the development of cardiac myxomas in CNC may be associated with increased GH secretion, in a manner analogous to the association between fibrous dysplasia and GH excess in McCune-Albright syndrome, a condition similar to CNC. We speculate that treatment of GH excess in patients with CNC may reduce the likelihood of cardiac myxoma formation and/or recurrence of this tumor. PMID:27535175

  16. Microgravity associated changes in pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells prepared from rats flown on Space Lab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Hayes, C.; Grindeland, R.; Fast, T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on the release of pituitary growth hormone (GH) in rats is studied. The pituitary glands from six adult rats exposed to microgravity are analyzed for in vitro and in vivo changes in pituitary growth hormone cells. The GH cell functions in the somatotrophs of flight rats are compared to a control group. The two assay procedures employed in the experiment are described. It is observed that intracellular levels of GH are two to three times greater in the flight rats than in the control group; however, the amount of GH released from the somatotrophs is 1.11 + or - 0.4 micrograms for the flight rats and 1.85 + or - 1.3 micrograms for the control rats.

  17. The Steroid Molting Hormone Ecdysone Regulates Sleep in Adult Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysone is the major steroid hormone in insects and plays essential roles in coordinating developmental transitions such as larval molting and metamorphosis through its active metabolite 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Although ecdysone is present throughout life in both males and females, its functions in adult physiology remain largely unknown. In this study we demonstrate that ecdysone-mediated signaling in the adult is intimately involved in transitions between the physiological states of slee...

  18. Growth and growth hormone secretion in children following treatment of brain tumours with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the growth of 144 children after treatment of brain tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. All had cranial irradiation and 87 spinal irradiation. In 56 patients observed without intervention for 3 years, height SDS in the cranial (CR) group (n=20) declined from 0.02 to -0.44 and in the craniospinal (CS) group (n=36) from -0.28 to -1.11. Failure of spinal growth had a marked effect in the CS group. The onset of puberty was slightly but not significantly advanced; median ages at onset of puberty were 10.3 years in girls and 12.1 years in boys. Of the total group 86.4% had clinical and biochemical evidence of growth hormone insufficiency. Fifty-two children, 33 (28 CS; 5 CR) of whome were prepubertal, received biosynthetic human growth hormone, in a dose of 15 mU/m2/week by daily injection for a period of one year. Height velocity SDS increased significantly in both groups from -2.74 to +1.90 (CS) and from -1.0 to +4.26 (CR). Spinal response to GH treatment was restricted in the craniospinal group. (authors)

  19. Impaired hair growth and wound healing in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Jurado, Constanza; García-Serrano, Laura; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia; Paramio, Jesús M.; Aranda, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Both clinical and experimental observations show that the skin is affected by the thyroidal status. In hypothyroid patients the epidermis is thin and alopecia is common, indicating that thyroidal status might influence not only skin proliferation but also hair growth. We demonstrate here that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mediate these effects of the thyroid hormones on the skin. Mice lacking TRα1 and TRβ (the main thyroid hormone binding isoforms) display impaired hair cycling associat...

  20. The effect of 30 months of low-dose replacement therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on insulin and C-peptide kinetics, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and body composition in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Maghsoudi, S; Fisker, S;

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (30 months) metabolic effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) given in a mean dose of 6.7 microg/kg x day (= 1.6 IU/day), in 11 patients with adult GH deficiency. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test and an iv.......002); however, the glucose tolerance deteriorated significantly, and three patients developed impaired glucose tolerance. Fasting insulin level (P

  1. Estrogens regulate the hepatic effects of Growth Hormone, a hormonal interplay with multiple fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro eFernandez-Perez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver responds to estrogens and GH which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk with endocrine, metabolic, and sex-differentiated functions of GH. Most previous studies have been focused on the influence of estrogens on pituitary GH secretion, which has a great impact on hepatic transcriptional regulation. However, there is strong evidence that estrogens can influence the GH-regulated endocrine and metabolic functions in the human liver by acting at the level of GHR-STAT5 signaling pathway. This cross-talk is relevant because the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. Therefore, GH or estrogen signaling deficiency as well as the influence of estrogens on GH biology can cause a dramatic impact in liver physiology during mammalian development and in adulthood. In this review, we will summarize the current status of the influence of estrogen on GH actions in liver. A better understanding of estrogen-GH interplay in liver will lead to improved therapy of children with growth disorders and of adults with GH deficiency.

  2. Serum Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels in Women with Postadolescent Acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mualla Polat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. It usually starts after puberty but may continue into adulthood. We studied Growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 levels in women patients with acne vulgaris in whom all other hormon levels were normal. We aimed to show any relation of the acne vulgaris lesion type and GH and IGF-1 levels. Material and Method: The study conducted on the postadolesance period woman patients applying to out patient dermatology department with complaint of acne symptoms between Semtember 2005 and July 2006. All other hormonal parameters were normal in patients. 25 healthy similar age women were accepted as control. IGF-I and GH were quantified by solid-phase competitive chemiluminescence assays. Results: There was no difference according to age between the groups (p=0.726. The mean IGF-1 level was 336.5±112.88 ng/ml in patients and 194±31.32 ng/ml in control; the difference was significantly important (p=0.000. The mean GH level was 3.16±4.35 µIU/ml in patients and 1.15±1.21 µIU/ml in control; and the diffrence was not found as important (p=0.03. IGF-1 level was significantly important in patients with noduler involvement (p=0.015, and GH level was also significantly important in patients with cystic involvement (p=0.05. Conclusion: We supported the hypothesis that GH and IGF-1 levels were important in postadolasence period women patients with acne vulgaris. We recommend new studies comparing GH and IGF-1 levels in adolesence and postadolesence period women patients in order to support the role of these hormones in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

  3. Increased activity of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone substituted at positions 8, 9, and 10

    OpenAIRE

    Varga József L.; Schally, Andrew V.; Horváth Judit E. (New Orleans); Kovács Magdolna; Groot, Kate; Toller Gábor L.; Rékási Zoltán; Zarándi Márta; Halmos Gábor (1962-) (gyógyszerész, receptorfarmakológus, experimentális onkológus)

    2004-01-01

    Antagonists of human growth hormone-releasing hormone (hGHRH) with increased potency and improved enzymatic and chemical stability are needed for potential clinical applications. We synthesized 21 antagonistic analogs of hGHRH(1-29)NH2, substituted at positions 8, 9, and 10 of the common core sequence {phenylacetyl-Tyr1, d-Arg2,28, para-chloro-phenylalanine 6, Arg9/homoarginine 9, Tyr10/O-methyltyrosine 10, α-aminobutyric acid 15, norleucine 27, Har29} hGHRH(1-29)NH2. Inhibitory effects on hG...

  4. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cortés-Campos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons.

  5. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Campos, Christian; Letelier, Joaquín; Ceriani, Ricardo; Whitlock, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons. PMID:26209533

  6. Expression of an Exogenous Growth Hormone Gene by Transplantable Human Epidermal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey R.; Barrandon, Yann; Green, Howard; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1987-09-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer was used to introduce a recombinant human growth hormone gene into cultured human keratinocytes. The transduced keratinocytes secreted biologically active growth hormone into the culture medium. When grafted as an epithelial sheet onto athymic mice, these cultured keratinocytes reconstituted an epidermis that was similar in appearance to that resulting from normal cells, but from which human growth hormone could be extracted. Transduced epidermal cells may prove to be a general vehicle for the delivery of gene products by means of grafting.

  7. Characterization and histologic localization of human growth hormone-variant gene expression in the placenta.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Urbanek, M; Ray, J.; Tuan, R.S.; Cooke, N E

    1989-01-01

    The human growth hormone-variant (hGH-V) gene is one of five highly similar growth hormone-related genes clustered on the short arm of chromosome 17. Although the pattern of expression of the adjacent normal growth hormone (hGH-N) and chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) genes in this cluster are well characterized, the expression of the hGH-V gene remains to be defined. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that the hGH-V gene is transcribed in the term placenta and expressed as two alterna...

  8. Parents' views on growth hormone treatment for their children: psychosocial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dongen N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nadine van Dongen,1 Ad A Kaptein21Patient Intelligence Panel Health Ltd, London, United Kingdom; 2Section Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The NetherlandsBackground: We evaluated the opinions of parents in The Netherlands concerning treatment of their children with growth hormone, and examined beliefs and perceptions about treatment and quality of health care communication and support.Methods: An Internet survey was completed by 69 parents who had children prescribed growth hormone and were part of the Patient Intelligence Panel. Acceptance of the diagnosis and treatment was investigated with reference to four topics, ie, search and quality of information, involvement in decision-making process, operational aspects, and emotional problems and support.Results: Among the parents surveyed, 48% reported a lack of freedom to choose the type of growth hormone device that best suited their needs, 92% believed that their children (and they themselves would benefit if the children self-administered growth hormone, and 65% believed training to support self-administration would be helpful. According to 79%, the availability of support from another parent with experience of treating their own child with growth hormone, alongside their doctor, would be valuable. Thirty-seven percent of the parents indicated that their children felt anxious about administration of growth hormone, and 83% of parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome their anxiety. An increase in reluctance to receive treatment with growth hormone was observed by 40% of parents after the children reached puberty, and 57% of these parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome this reluctance.Conclusion: Understanding how growth hormone treatments and their implications are perceived by parents is a first step towards addressing quality of growth hormone treatment, which may be instrumental in improving adherence. The data show a need for

  9. A Molecular Basis for Variation in Clinical Severity of Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency Type II

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Rizwan; Phillips, John A.; Holladay, Cindy; Cogan, Joy D.; Eric D Austin; Backeljauw, Philippe F.; Travers, Sharon H.; James G Patton

    2009-01-01

    Context: Dominant-negative GH1 mutations cause familial isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD II), which is characterized by GH deficiency, occasional multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. The basis of the variable expression and progression of IGHD II among relatives who share the same GH1 mutation is poorly understood.

  10. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denance, N.; Sanchez Vallet, A.; Goffner, D.; Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokini

  11. The effect of 30 months of low-dose replacement therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on insulin and C-peptide kinetics, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and body composition in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Maghsoudi, S; Fisker, S;

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (30 months) metabolic effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) given in a mean dose of 6.7 microg/kg x day (= 1.6 IU/day), in 11 patients with adult GH deficiency. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test and an iv.......002); however, the glucose tolerance deteriorated significantly, and three patients developed impaired glucose tolerance. Fasting insulin level (P < 0.003) and the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance score increased significantly, indicating a deterioration in insulin sensitivity; whereas the...

  12. Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pareren, Y.; Houdijk, M.; Jansen, Maarten; Reeser, M.; Mulder, Paul; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to treatment with either 3 IU (group A) or 6 IU (group B) GH/m(2).d ( approximately 0.033 or 0.067 mg/kg.d, respectively). The mean (+/-SD) birth length was -3.6 (1.4), the age at the start of the study was 8...

  13. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human growth hormone by subcutaneous jet- or needle-injection in patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdijk, E C; Herdes, E; Delemarre-Van de Waal, H A

    1997-12-01

    Eighteen growth hormone (GH) deficient children and adolescents (11 6/12-20 9/12 y) participated in a randomized open, two-period (4 weeks) cross-over study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administered daily, either by subcutaneous jet-injection or conventional needle-injection. Plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), glucose, insulin, HbAlc and serum-free fatty acids (FFA) levels were analysed repeatedly. GH absorption characteristics, expressed as AUC(0-infinity), Cmax and Tmax ratio (%) jet-injected over needle-injected were similar in both groups. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 plasma levels were identical in both groups. Serum FFA concentrations were comparable after GH administration with either injection device. Surprisingly nocturnal blood glucose decreased to asymptomatic hypoglycaemic levels in all patients. The results of this study showed equal responses concerning absorption and bioavailability of growth hormone administered daily for 4 weeks by either a jet- or a needle-injection device in GH-deficient children and adolescents. PMID:9475305

  14. Comparison of the intravenous insulin and oral clonidine tolerance tests for growth hormone secretion. The Health Services Human Growth Hormone Committee.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The plasma growth hormone response to intravenous insulin was compared with that of oral clonidine in a multicentre trial in 64 patients being investigated for short stature. Either test was judged to give a positive result if the maximum plasma growth hormone concentration was at least 20 mU/1. In 42 pairs of tests concordant results were obtained, 19 being positive and 23 negative. In 12 tests only the response to insulin was positive and 10 tests were positive only for clonidine. Clonidine...

  15. GROWTH HORMONE LEVEL EVOLUTION IN CHILDREN WITH HEPATOBILIARY DISEASES, UNDERGOING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available End stage liver disease is often associated with growth retardation in children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. The aim was to investigate the serum growth hormone level before and after liver transplantation in 52 children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. Data of our research work revealed increased serum level of growth hormone in children with liver cirrhosis (3,32 ± 7,7 ng/ml vs. 1,16 ± 1,46 ng/ml in healthy children, p = 0,01, which correlates with PELD score (r = 0,62, p < 0,001. In a month after liver transplantation growth hormone concentration decreases (p < 0,001 and in a year after transplantation it doesn’t differ from healthy children. There wasn’t revealed any interaction between serum growth hormone level and anthropometric parameters before liver transplantation, but in a year after there was significant correlation between growth hormone concentration and height (r = 0,79, p = 0,01. Investigation of growth hormone level in children with liver cirrhosis and its evolution after liver transplantation is of interest as objective criterion of recovery of physical development regulation and as an additional parameter, which cor- relates with severity of end-stage liver disease. 

  16. Lymphocyte subset distribution and natural killer activity in growth hormone deficiency before and during short-term treatment with growth hormone releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiess, W; Malozowski, S; Gelato, M; Butenand, O; Doerr, H; Crisp, B; Eisl, E; Maluish, A; Belohradsky, B H

    1988-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell activity was assessed in the peripheral blood of 20 patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to a hypothalamic deficit of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH). All patients failed to respond to at least two provocative tests of GH secretion (GH below 7 ng/ml) but responded to a single GHRH iv bolus injection (1 microgram/kg body wt). In 14 of the 20 patients (20 determinations), lymphocyte subsets were also measured; in all patients the distribution of lymphocyte subsets was within the normal range. More importantly, NK cell activity in the 20 patients was significantly lower than in controls (P less than 0.01). To assess the in vivo effect of GH and GHRH on NK activity and lymphocyte subset distribution, immunologic tests were performed (i) before and after a single iv bolus injection of GHRH (1 microgram/kg body wt) in six patients; (ii) before and after 3 weeks of GHRH treatment (3-9 micrograms/kg body wt, one to four times daily) in five patients; and (iii) after 6 weeks of GH treatment (5 IU sc every alternate day) in one patient. Neither NK activity nor the distribution of lymphocyte subsets was altered during short-term GHRH administration. In conclusion, low NK activity is found in GH-deficient patients, and short-term administration of GH or GHRH fails to restore this immunological abnormality. This result suggests that the hypothalamus may be a regulator of NK activity in the human and that patients with hypothalamic deficiencies should be monitored for the development of discrete immunodeficiencies. PMID:3133146

  17. Effects of octreotide on insulin-like growth factor I and metabolic indices in growth hormone-treated growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Ørskov, Hans;

    1993-01-01

    Abstract Animals studies have demonstrated that in addition to inhibiting growth hormone (GH) secretion octreotide inhibits in a direct manner hepatic or peripheral insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) generation. To test this hypothesis in humans we studied ten GH-deficient patients with frequent...... octreotide (200 micrograms/24 h) or placebo (saline). The pharmacokinetics of GH were similar on the two occasions. The area under the curve +/- SEM of serum GH was 142.5 +/- 53.6 micrograms.l-1 x h-1 (octreotide) and 144.8 +/- 41.8 micrograms.l-1 x h-1 (placebo), (p = 0.73); Cmax (microgram/l) was 12.......5 +/- 1.47 (octreotide) and 12.8 +/- 1.42 (placebo) (p = 0.83), and Tmax (h) was 6.1 +/- 0.97 (octreotide) and 5.2 +/- 0.65 (placebo) (p = 0.49). Growth hormone administration was associated with an increase in serum IGF-I (microgram/l), which was identical during the two studies, from 85.3 +/- 19.4 to...

  18. Effects of microgravity on growth hormone concentration and distribution in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Aga; Jensen, Philip; Desrosiers, Mark; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    On earth, gravity affects the distribution of the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a manner such that the plant grows into a normal vertical orientation (shoots up, roots down). How the plant controls the amount and distribution of IAA is only partially understood and is currently under investigation in this laboratory. The question to be answered in the flight experiment concerns the effect of gravity on the concentration, turn over, and distribution of the growth hormone. The answer to this question will aid in understanding the mechanism by which plants control the amount and distribution of growth hormone. Such knowledge of a plant's hormonal metabolism may aid in the growth of plants in space and will lead to agronomic advances.

  19. Effects of growth hormone replacement on cortisol metabolism in hypopituitary patients treated with cortisone acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; Kerstens, MN; Dullaart, RPF

    2001-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) replacement may inhibit 11 beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta HSD1) activity, resulting in diminished conversion of cortisone to cortisol. Moreover, GH replacement may lower bioavailability of hydrocortisone tablets. Therefore, substitution therapy with cortisone

  20. Effects of Applying New-style Growth Hormone on Eucalypt Cuttage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qunying

    2006-01-01

    Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate AC is a new-style growth hormone that induces cuttings to root by molecule signal.With Eucalptus urophylla and E.urophyllaxE.grandis as testing varieties, effects of applying different growth hormones on eucalypt cuttage were compared through experiments, and the result showed that diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate AC made cuttings root 4 days earlier than other common growth hormones did.The average rooting rate and the mean root quantity of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate AC treated cuttings were 11%-26.5% higher than and 1.8-8.5 pieces per cutting more than those in other treatments.Besides, the seedlings were excellent.The new-style growth hormone improves cuttage of eucalypt to a higher level.

  1. Lipoprotein metabolism in hypothyroidism : the contribution of growth hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCurrent data suggest a role for GH in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. In hypothyroidism not only the secretion of thyroid hormone, but also of GH is decreased. Generally the effects on plasma lipids seen in hypothyroid individuals are considered to be a consequence of decreased thyroid hormone levels. More then twenty years ago evidence was found that treatment of hypothyroid rats with GH in supraphysiologic doses affects plasma lipid concentrations, but whether a lack o...

  2. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  3. A further British case of growth hormone induced Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, C J; Katifi, H; Weller, R O

    1992-01-01

    Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) from cadaveric growth hormone injections had previously been reported in 7 cases, including one from Britain. As a result, the treatment was abandoned in 1985 and superceded by safer recombinant DNA growth hormone injections. Recent reports now record the number of cases worldwide as 23, but with the incubation period being measured in years, new cases of CJD can still present. We give a detailed report of one of the recent cluster of British ca...

  4. Growth hormone therapy in Canada: end of one era and beginning of another.

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, H J; Friesen, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the difficulties in diagnosing a true deficiency of growth hormone (GH), the long-term results of therapy, the Canadian experience in treating GH deficiency, including the contributions made by the Medical Research Council's Therapeutic Trial of Human Growth Hormone, and the occurrence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in recipients of GH therapy. It also speculates on potential alternatives to treatment with GH derived from human pituitaries.

  5. Genetic and structural characterization of the growth hormone gene and protein from tench, Tinca tinca

    OpenAIRE

    Panicz, R.; J. Sadowski; Drozd, R.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the tench growth hormone gene structure revealed a comparable organization of coding and non-coding regions than other from cyprinid species. Based on the performed mRNA and amino acid sequence alignments, gh tench is related to Asian than to European representatives of Cyprinidae family. Second aim of the work was to characterize and predict protein structure of the tench growth hormone. Tinca tinca GH share many common features with human GH molecule. The Tench GH protein bi...

  6. Parents’ views on growth hormone treatment for their children: psychosocial issues

    OpenAIRE

    van Dongen, Nadine; Kaptein, Ad A

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the opinions of parents in The Netherlands concerning treatment of their children with growth hormone, and examined beliefs and perceptions about treatment and quality of health care communication and support. Methods An Internet survey was completed by 69 parents who had children prescribed growth hormone and were part of the Patient Intelligence Panel. Acceptance of the diagnosis and treatment was investigated with reference to four topics, ie, search and quality of ...

  7. Effects of Growth Hormone on Bacterial Translocation Due to Intestinal Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    BALIK, Ahmet A.

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial translocation is an important etiologic factor in multisystem organ failure and sepsis, which have a high mortality rate. To determine the effects of growth hormone on bacterial translocation, an experimental study was performed. Twenty pathogen-free rabbits were divided into two groups each containing 10 rabbits. After loop obstruction was performed, the rabbits in the control group were given saline solution whereas the rabbits in the study group received growth hormone...

  8. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) or high (fat) backfat have large differences in plasma GH profiles. Fat genotype ram lambs (5 months old) were treated with growth hormone (GH) to simulate the plasma GH profiles of lean sheep and investigate whether exogenous GH could modify carcass fatness. For 77 days, bovine GH was administered at 25mug/kg live weight per day either as a single, daily subcutaneous bolus (fat bolus) or via portable pulsatile infusion pumps (fat pump) which delivered GH solution at 90-min intervals into a jugular catheter. Measurements of body composition were made by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic scanning during the trial, with linear carcass measurements and proximate analysis undertaken at the end of the experiment. Before treatments began, mean plasma GH levels were lower (P < 0.01) in fat control (0.34 mug/l) than in lean lambs (1.1 mug/l). Several weeks after the start of the trial, mean plasma GH had increased in both fat bolus (1.2mug/l) and fat pump (0.45mug/l) treatment lambs with major changes in the pulsatility relative to the fat control lambs. Although these changes were maintained in the fat bolus lambs, by the end of the trial there was no significant difference in mean plasma GH between fat pump and fat control sheep. Throughout the trial, plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in fat bolus, fat pump and lean lambs than in fat control lambs. Analysis of body composition data over the GH treatment period revealed that the slope of the allometric equation for total fat relative to empty body weight was lower in the fat bolus lambs (1.07) than in the lean lambs (1.50) with fat control and fat pump treatment lambs intermediate (1.30 and 1.36, respectively). Subcutaneous fat was later maturing in lean lambs than in fat control and bolus treatment lambs when regressed against total fat, with the fat pump treatment lambs being intermediate. Linear carcass measurements revealed changes due to GH administration in the

  9. Growth Hormone Therapy Is Safe and Effective in Patients with Lysinuric Protein Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Niinikoski, Harri; Lapatto, Risto; Nuutinen, Matti; Tanner, Laura; Simell, Olli; Näntö-Salonen, Kirsti

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an autosomal recessive cationic amino acid transport defect characterized by episodes of postprandial hyperammonemias and spontaneous protein aversion. Subnormal growth is common in spite of appropriate nutritional therapy. Growth hormone (GH) therapy promotes appetite, protein synthesis and accretion, but its possible growth-promoting effects and safety in patients with LPI are poorly known.

  10. Induction of chronic growth hormone deficiency by anti-GH serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Smith, A. T.; Ellis, S.; Evans, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    The observations reported indicate that the growth rate of neonatal rats can be specifically inhibited for at least 78 days following the administration of antisera against growth hormone (GH) for only four days after birth. The inhibition can be correlated with a marked deficit of tibial growth promoting activity in the pituitary but not with the plasma concentrations of immuno-reactive GH.

  11. Seasonal response of ghrelin, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in the free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Rachel L; Bonde, Robert K.; Avery, Julie P.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal changes in light, temperature, and food availability stimulate a physiological response in an animal. Seasonal adaptations are well studied in Arctic, Sub-Arctic, and hibernating mammals; however, limited studies have been conducted in sub-tropical species. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a sub-tropical marine mammal, forages less during colder temperatures and may rely on adipose stores for maintenance energy requirements. Metabolic hormones, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and ghrelin influence growth rate, accretion of lean and adipose tissue. They have been shown to regulate seasonal changes in body composition. The objective of this research was to investigate manatee metabolic hormones in two seasons to determine if manatees exhibit seasonality and if these hormones are associated with seasonal changes in body composition. In addition, age related differences in these metabolic hormones were assessed in multiple age classes. Concentrations of GH, IGF-I, and ghrelin were quantified in adult manatee serum using heterologous radioimmunoassays. Samples were compared between short (winter) and long (summer) photoperiods (n = 22 male, 20 female) and by age class (adult, juvenile, and calf) in long photoperiods (n = 37). Short photoperiods tended to have reduced GH (p = 0.08), greater IGF-I (p = 0.01), and greater blubber depth (p = 0.03) compared with long photoperiods. No differences were observed in ghrelin (p = 0.66). Surprisingly, no age related differences were observed in IGF-I or ghrelin concentrations (p > 0.05). However, serum concentrations of GH tended (p = 0.07) to be greater in calves and juveniles compared with adults. Increased IGF-I, greater blubber thickness, and reduced GH during short photoperiod suggest a prioritization for adipose deposition. Whereas, increased GH, reduced blubber thickness, and decreased IGF-I in long photoperiod suggest prioritization of lean tissue

  12. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi;

    2010-01-01

    controls. The effect of acute exercise stress on PRL (p=.56) did not differ between depressed and healthy subjects. Apart from a decrease in GH response in the strength-training group (p=.03) the pragmatic exercise intervention did not affect resting hormonal levels, or the response to acute exercise....... CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mild to moderate depression had a different growth hormone and cortisol response to acute exercise stress compared to healthy controls. Strength training was able to reduce the growth hormone response to acute exercise stress in this patient population. Studies with more rigorous...

  13. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, the authors have transfected a GH receptor cDNA under the transcriptional control of the human metallothionein promoter into RIN5-AH cells. The transfected cells were found to exhibit an increased expression of GH receptors and to contain a specific GH receptor mRNA that was not expressed in the parent cell line. The expression of GH receptors in one clone (1.24) selected for detailed analysis was increased 2.6-fold compared to untransfected cells. The increased GH receptor expression was accompanied by an increased responsiveness to GH. Thus, the maximal GH-stimulated increase of insulin biosynthesis was 4.1-fold in 1.24 cells compared to 1.9-fold in the nontransfected RIN5-AH cells. The expression of the transfected receptor was stimulated 1.6- and 2.3-fold when cells were cultured in the presence of 25 or 50 μM Zn2+ was associated with an increased magnitude of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis. A close stoichiometric relationship between the level of receptor expression and the level of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis was observed. They conclude from these results that the hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the effect of GH on insulin biosynthesis in RIN5-AH cells

  14. Isolation, purification and studies on radiation induced biochemical and physiological changes of bovine growth hormone in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth hormone has a great importance in the field of animal physiology. Bovine growth hormone was extracted by alteration of the hydrogen ion concentration of phosphate buffer extract of frozen pituitary glands. The extracted bovine growth hormone has similar absorption peaks at UV and infrared spectra, bands of the same location on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plate and had a molecular weight exactly as the standard bovine growth hormone and equal to 20.9 KD. Labelling of bovine growth hormone with 131 I was carried out with fast and least expensive method. The biological and physiological effects of labelled and non labelled bovine growth hormone were studied on rabbits. The labelled bovine growth hormone decreased the biological and physiological effects of the hormone. Bovine growth hormone (unlabelled) and different effects on growth performance traits, body chemical composition (water, fat,protein and ash), and also on the serum biochemical parameters. We conclude that the bovine growth hormone affects on the biological and physiological properties but this depends on the dose, type of delivery of hormone, time of treatment, and the diet content of the animal. 6 tabs., 13.2 figs., 110 refs

  15. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  16. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in a Sydney Olympic gold medallist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, D; Faggian, D; Scaroni, C; Plebani, M

    2002-04-01

    An Italian athlete who won a gold medal at the Sydney Olympic Games was studied. She was accused of doping after the finding of high levels of plasma growth hormone (GH) before the Games. She was studied firstly under stressed and then under unstressed conditions. In the first study, GH was measured every 20 minutes for one hour; it was above the normal range in all blood samples, whereas insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was normal. In the second study, GH progressively returned to accepted normal levels; IGF-I was again normal. It was concluded that the normal range for GH in athletes must be reconsidered for doping purposes, because athletes are subject to stress and thus to wide variations in GH levels. PMID:11916901

  17. Growth factors, glucose and insulin kinetics after low dose growth hormone in HIV - lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Flyvbjerg, Allan;

    2006-01-01

    temporary reduction in insulin sensitivity was caused by a reduction in non-oxidative glucose metabolism (n=5). GH-administration reduced hepatic extraction of insulin alleviating the demand for insulin secretion (n=5). No adverse effects of GH were detected. CONCLUSIONS: As judged from effects on......OBJECTIVES: Low-dose growth hormone (GH) administration has been suggested as a treatment for HIV-lipodystrophy. METHODS: Postglucose GH-secretion, kinetics of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), insulin, and glucose metabolism were examined in six male HIV-infected lipodystrophic patients (two...... normal-weight patients with normal glucose-tolerance (NGT), two normal-weight with impaired glucose-tolerance (IGT), and two obese patients with diabetes (DM)) during a 16 weeks open-labelled pilot-study of low-dose GH, 0.7 mg/day. RESULTS: DM, compared to NGT and IGT, displayed an impaired rebound of GH...

  18. Understanding and meeting the needs of those using growth hormone injection devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Dorothy

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH is used to treat: growth hormone deficiency in children and adults; children born small for gestational age; Turner's syndrome; and chronic renal failure. r-hGH is administered by daily subcutaneous injection and may be given using a number of different administration devices. The aim of this survey was, firstly, to identify which attributes of an r-hGH administration device are considered most important to physicians, teenage patients, parents of young children requiring GH and nurses who have experience of r-hGH administration, and, secondly, to determine how they rate existing devices in each of these key attributes. Methods The opinions of 67 individuals with experience in r-hGH administration were captured in discussion sessions. Parents, physicians and nurses were asked to rate 19 device attributes by completing a questionnaire, and to rank four different r-hGH administration devices (including a conceptual electronic device in order of preference. Results Reliability, ease of use, lack of pain during injection, safety in use, storage, and number of steps in preparation before use, during use and after were considered to be the five most desirable attributes of an r-hGH administration device. An electronic device was preferred to an automatic, multi-dose injection device, a needle-free injection device or a manual, ready-to-use, disposable injection device. Conclusion In the opinion of physicians, nurses and parents using r-hGH injection devices, an ideal device must combine reliability with simplicity, while delivering treatment with minimal pain. An electronic device, which combines many of the most useful features of existing devices with novel functions, was the preferred option for r-hGH administration.

  19. Hormonal regulation of rat hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNAs: effect of hypophysectomy and hormone replacement on growth-hormone-releasing factor, somatostatin and the insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, T L; Berelowitz, M; Gelato, M C; Roberts, C T; LeRoith, D; Millard, W J; McKelvy, J F

    1991-03-01

    Hormonal feedback regulation of hypothalamic peptides putatively involved in growth hormone (GH) regulation has been studied by measurement of steady-state mRNA levels in male hypophysectomized rats with or without thyroid hormone, corticosterone, testosterone or GH replacement. Hypothalamic GH-releasing factor (GRF) mRNA levels increased progressively following hypophysectomy to 420% of sham levels after 15 days while hypothalamic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) mRNA levels decreased to less than 40% of sham levels. Whole hypothalamic somatostatin mRNA levels were not significantly different from sham. One week of continuous GH infusion restored hypothalamic IGF-I mRNA to levels (95%) indistinguishable from those in sham-operated controls but had no effect on either IGF-II or GRF mRNA. Thyroid hormone, corticosterone and testosterone treatment without GH had no effect on the hypophysectomy-induced reduction of either IGF-I or IGF-II mRNA levels but reversed the elevation of GRF mRNA. We conclude that hypothalamic IGF-I may be involved in GH feedback regulation and thus may function as a hypothalamic modulator of GH. In contrast, IGF-II may be regulated by one of the pituitary trophic hormones but not by GH or the target hormones tested. Finally, hypothalamic GRF mRNA regulation appears to be complex and may include target hormone feedback. PMID:1674982

  20. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Renes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA. Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr, 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP. The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. RESULTS: The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17. Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46. Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  1. Changes in serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 3 and urinary growth hormone excretion during the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Pedersen, A T;

    1997-01-01

    Few studies exist on the physiological changes in the concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) within the menstrual cycle, and some controversy remains. We therefore decided to study the impact of endogenous sex steroids on the GH......-IGF-IGFBP axis during the ovulatory menstrual cycle in 10 healthy women (aged 18-40 years). Blood sampling and urinary collection was performed every morning at 0800 h for 32 consecutive days. Every second day the subjects were fasted overnight before blood sampling. Follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing...... hormone (LH), oestradiol, progesterone, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, sex hormone-binding globulin, dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate and GH were determined in all samples, whereas insulin and IGFBP-1 were determined in fasted samples only. Serum IGF-I concentrations showed some fluctuation during the menstrual cycle...

  2. Changes in serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 3 and urinary growth hormone excretion during the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Pedersen, A T;

    1997-01-01

    -IGF-IGFBP axis during the ovulatory menstrual cycle in 10 healthy women (aged 18-40 years). Blood sampling and urinary collection was performed every morning at 0800 h for 32 consecutive days. Every second day the subjects were fasted overnight before blood sampling. Follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing......Few studies exist on the physiological changes in the concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) within the menstrual cycle, and some controversy remains. We therefore decided to study the impact of endogenous sex steroids on the GH...... hormone (LH), oestradiol, progesterone, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, sex hormone-binding globulin, dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate and GH were determined in all samples, whereas insulin and IGFBP-1 were determined in fasted samples only. Serum IGF-I concentrations showed some fluctuation during the menstrual cycle...

  3. Diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency after pituitary surgery : the combined acipimox/GH-releasing hormone test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieguez, C; Cordido, F; de Vries, WR; Veldhuyzen, BFE; van Thiel, E; Casanueva, FF; Koppeschaar, HPF

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Reduction of plasma free fatty acids leads to enhanced GH response after stimulation by GH-releasing hormone (GHRH). We studied the clinical usefulness of combined administration of acipimox and GHRH for the diagnosis of GH deficiency. DESIGN We evaluated 35 patients [mean age 53.0 years;

  4. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27445863

  5. Effect of growth hormone on protein phosphorylation in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocytes from male rats were incubated with [32P]P/sub i/ for 40 min at 370C, thereby equilibrating the cellular ATP pool with 32P. Subsequent exposure to bovine growth hormone for 10 additional min did not change the specific activity of cellular [γ-32P]ATP. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or chromatofocusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to fractionate phosphoproteins solubilized from control or hormone-stimulated cells. Stimulation of hepatocytes with 5 nM growth hormone for 10 min at 370C affected the phosphorylation of a number of proteins including an M/sub r/ 46,000 species of pI 4.7 whose phosphorylation was augmented (2.65 +/- 0.50)-fold. A significant fraction of the maximal effect of growth hormone on phosphorylation of the M/sub r/ 46,000 species was elicited by 1-5% receptor occupancy. Bovine growth hormone, which binds to somatogenic receptors with great specificity, or recombinant human growth hormone, which is not contaminated with other hormones, affected phosphorylation of hepatic proteins similarly. The M/sub r/ 46,000 phosphoprotein was isolated in a fraction enriched in cytosol after centrifugation of cellular homogenates. Phosphorylation of the M/sub r/ 46,000 phosphoprotein was also increased (1.75 +/- 0.35)-fold and (2.15 +/- 0.50)-fold by insulin and glucagon, respectively. These observations are consistent with the possibility that selective changes in the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins may mediate growth hormone actions in cells

  6. Effect of growth hormone on the immune function of dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiu-liang; WANG Yi-sheng; WANG Jia-xiang

    2010-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the most important antigen presenting cells in the human body, and DCs at various stages of maturation possess different or even opposite functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of growth hormones on the functional status of cord blood-derived DCs encompassing immunophenotype, ability to excrete interleukin (IL)-12 and provoke autologous leukomonocyte.Methods Mononuclear cells were isolated from fresh cord blood, with IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) used to induce and stimulate the mononuclear cells. Growth hormone at different concentrations was used to modify DCs, and then DCs morphology, number and growth status were observed. The immunophenotype of DCs was detected with a flow cytometer. The concentration of IL-12 in the DCs supernatant was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and DCs functional status was evaluated by autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions. Results Mononuclear cells from cord blood can be differentiated into DCs by cytokine induction and growth hormone modification. With the increase in growth hormone concentrations (5-100 μ g/L), the expression of DCs HLA-DR, CD1α, CD80 and CD83 were significantly increased (P<0.05). The ability of DCs to secrete IL-12 was significantly improved (P <0.05), and the ability of DCs to activate autologous lymphocytes was significantly enhanced (P <0.05). Pegvisomant was able to ablate the effects of growth hormone on DCs.Conclusions Growth hormone may facilitate DCs induction and maturation, and improve the reproductive activity of autologous lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Growth hormone may serve as a factor of modifying DCs to achieving maturity.

  7. Position stand on androgen and human growth hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Storer, Thomas; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Haff, G Gregory; Willoughby, Darryn S; Rogol, Alan D

    2009-08-01

    Hoffman, JR, Kraemer, WJ, Bhasin, S, Storer, T, Ratamess, NA, Haff, GG, Willoughby, DS, and Rogol, AD. Position stand on Androgen and human growth hormone use. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S1-S59, 2009-Perceived yet often misunderstood demands of a sport, overt benefits of anabolic drugs, and the inability to be offered any effective alternatives has fueled anabolic drug abuse despite any consequences. Motivational interactions with many situational demands including the desire for improved body image, sport performance, physical function, and body size influence and fuel such negative decisions. Positive countermeasures to deter the abuse of anabolic drugs are complex and yet unclear. Furthermore, anabolic drugs work and the optimized training and nutritional programs needed to cut into the magnitude of improvement mediated by drug abuse require more work, dedication, and preparation on the part of both athletes and coaches alike. Few shortcuts are available to the athlete who desires to train naturally. Historically, the NSCA has placed an emphasis on education to help athletes, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals become more knowledgeable, highly skilled, and technically trained in their approach to exercise program design and implementation. Optimizing nutritional strategies are a vital interface to help cope with exercise and sport demands (). In addition, research-based supplements will also have to be acknowledged as a strategic set of tools (e.g., protein supplements before and after resistance exercise workout) that can be used in conjunction with optimized nutrition to allow more effective adaptation and recovery from exercise. Resistance exercise is the most effective anabolic form of exercise, and over the past 20 years, the research base for resistance exercise has just started to develop to a significant volume of work to help in the decision-making process in program design (). The interface with nutritional strategies has been less

  8. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  9. Diabetes, growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor pathways and association to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Olumi, Aria F

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes significantly increases the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The major endocrine aberration in connection with the metabolic syndrome is hyperinsulinemia. Insulin is an independent risk factor and a promoter of BPH. Insulin resistance may change the risk of BPH through several biological pathways. Hyperinsulinemia stimulates the liver to produce more insulin-like growth factor (IGF), another mitogen and an anti-apoptotic agent which binds insulin receptor/IGF receptor and stimulates prostate growth. The levels of IGFs and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in prostate tissue and in blood are associated with BPH risk, with the regulation of circulating androgen and growth hormone. Stromal-epithelial interactions play a critical role in the development and growth of the prostate gland and BPH. Previously, we have shown that the expression of c-Jun in the fibroblastic stroma can promote secretion of IGF-I, which stimulates prostate epithelial cell proliferation through activating specific target genes. Here, we will review the epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular findings which have evaluated the relation between diabetes and development of BPH. PMID:21536370

  10. Human growth hormone production through recombinant DNA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obtention of identical human hormones from bacteria was realized. The extracted product after purification was analysed through the physico-chemical, radioimmunological and biological analysis. The biological assay in mice presented the potency equivalent to the pattern of the HWO Health World Organization (OMS). (L.M.J.)

  11. Lipoprotein metabolism in hypothyroidism : the contribution of growth hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCurrent data suggest a role for GH in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. In hypothyroidism not only the secretion of thyroid hormone, but also of GH is decreased. Generally the effects on plasma lipids seen in hypothyroid individuals are considered to be a consequence of decreased

  12. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迎利; 苗宏志; 刘振辉; 邓勇; 兰山; 王尧; 张培军; 徐斌; 麦康森

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGHand rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer ma-trix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containin greGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium algi-nate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulato fish growth.

  13. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGH and rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer matrix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containing reGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium alginate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulate fish growth.

  14. Growth promotion of red sea bream, Pagrosomus major, by oral administration of recombinant eel and salmon growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Ying-Li; Miao, Hong-Zhi; Liu, Zhen-Hui; Dong, Yong; Lan, Shan; Wang, Rao; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-06-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGH and rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer matrix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containing reGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium alginate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulate fish growth.

  15. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors in fish: Where we are and where to go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, M.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Dickhoff, Walton W.; McCormick, S.D.; Navarro, I.; Power, D.M.; Gutierrez, J.

    2005-01-01

    This communication summarizes viewpoints, discussion, perspectives, and questions, put forward at a workshop on "Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors in fish" held on September 7th, 2004, at the 5th International Symposium on Fish Endocrinology in Castello??n, Spain. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microarray analysis of thyroid hormone-induced changes in mRNA expression in the adult rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Mreyoud, Amjad; Fishman, Miriam; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2004-07-15

    To determine which genes in the adult rat brain are regulated by thyroid hormone (TH), we used microarrays to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on neuron-specific gene expression. Four-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were rendered hyperthyroid by intraperitoneal injection of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3, 15 microg/100 g body weight) for 10 consecutive days. To minimize interindividual variability, pooled cerebral tissue RNA from four-control and five-hyperthyroid rats was hybridized in duplicates to the Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) U34N rat neurobiology microarray, which contains probes for 1224 neural-specific genes. Changes in gene expression were considered significant only if they were observed in both pair-wise comparisons as well as by Northern blot analysis. Hyperthyroidism was associated with modest changes in the expression of only 11 genes. The expression of the phosphodiesterase Enpp2, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), growth hormone (GH), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase beta-subunit (Camk2b), neuron-specific protein PEP-19 (Pcp4), a sodium-dependent neurotransmitter, and the myelin-associated glycoprotein (S-MAG) was significantly increased. Three genes were suppressed by hyperthyroidism, including the activity and neurotransmitter-induced early genes-1 and -7 (ANIA-1 and ANIA-7) and the guanine nucleotide-binding protein one (Gnb1). The present study underscores the paucity of TH responsive genes in adult cerebral tissue. PMID:15234464

  17. Growth hormone-insuline-like growth factor-I system in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Arranz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Using biotechnology to increase the growth rates of fish is likely to reduce production costs per unit of food. Among vertebrates, fish appear to occupy a unique position, when growth patterns are considered. With few exceptions, fish species tend to grow indeterminately, implying that size is never fixed. Both hyperplasia and hypertrophy contribute to post-larval muscle growth in fish. Growth hormone (GH - Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I is the most important growth axis in fish. Our experimental model, the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis (Ateriniformes is a South American inland water fish considered to be a promising species for intensive aquaculture. However, one major drawback to achieve this goal is its slow growth in captivity. In order to understand how growth is regulated in this species, our first objective was to characterized pejerrey GH- IGF-I axis. We first cloned and characterized pejerrey (pj GH, IGF-I and the growth hormone receptors (GHRs I and II. In addition to providing valuable data for evolutionary comparison of GH, investigation of GH action in teleosts is particularly important because of its potential application in aquaculture. GH can not only promote the somatic growth in fish but also lower dietary protein requirements. A prerequisite for providing sufficient amounts of GH for basic research and aquaculture application is a large-scale production of GH. For that purpose, recombinant pjGH was expressed in a bacterial system. Protocols for solubilization and proper folding were achieved. Activity of recombinant pjGH was assessed in fish by measuring the liver IGF-I response to different doses of GH. IGF-I transcript was measured in the liver after pjGHr in vivo stimulation by means of quantitative real-time PCR assays. A dose-dependent response of IGF-I mRNA was observed after pjGHr administration, and reached a 6 fold IGF-I maximum increase over control group when 2.5 µg pjGH /g-body weight were injected

  18. Auxin, the organizer of the environmental/hormonal signals for root hair growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Taeg eCho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The root hair development is controlled by diverse factors such as fate-determining developmental cues, auxin-related environmental factors, and hormones. In particular, the soil environmental factors are important as they maximize their absorption by modulating root hair development. These environmental factors affect the root hair developmental process by making use of diverse hormones. These hormonal factors interact with each other to modulate root hair development in which auxin appears to form the most intensive networks with the pathways from environmental factors and hormones. Moreover, auxin action for root hair development is genetically located immediately upstream of the root hair-morphogenetic genes. These observations suggest that auxin plays as an organizing node for environmental/hormonal pathways to modulate root hair growth.

  19. Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms involving growth hormone relative to growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, V R; Thomas, M G; Franke, D E; Silver, G A

    2006-01-01

    Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone (GH) relative to growth and carcass characteristics in growing Brahman steers (N = 324 from 68 sires) were evaluated. Polymorphisms were an Msp-I RFLP and a leucine/valine SNP in the GH gene as well as a Hinf-I RFLP and a histidine/arginine SNP in transcriptional regulators of the GH gene, Pit-1 and Prop-1. Genotypic frequencies of the GH SNP, Pit-1 RFLP, and Prop-1 SNP were greater than 88% for one of the bi-allelic homozygous genotypes. Genotypic frequencies for the GH Msp-I RFLP genotypes were more evenly distributed with frequencies of 0.43, 0.42, and 0.15 for the genotypes of +/+, +/-, and -/-, respectively. Mixed model analyses of growth and carcass traits with genotype and contemporary group serving as fixed effects and sire fitted as a random effect suggested that sire was a significant source of variation (P carcass yield, and marbling score. However, measures of growth and carcass traits were similar across GH Msp-I genotypes as steers were slaughtered when fat thickness was estimated to be approximately 1.0 cm. These polymorphisms within the GH gene and/or its transcriptional regulators do not appear to be informative predictors of growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers. This is partly due to the high level of homozygosity of genotypes. These findings do not eliminate the potential importance of these polymorphisms as predictors of growth and carcass traits in Bos taurus or Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle. PMID:17117358

  20. Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ji-wen Wang,1,2 Ying Li,3 Zhi-gang Mao,1,2 Bin Hu,1,2 Xiao-bing Jiang,1,2 Bing-bing Song,4 Xin Wang,4 Yong-hong Zhu,4 Hai-jun Wang1,21Department of Neurosurgery and Pituitary Tumor Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Key Laboratory of Pituitary Adenoma in Guangdong Province, 3State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 4Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Excessive growth hormone (GH is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG and octreotide long-acting release (LAR, and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4–6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated

  1. Effects of growth hormone on morphology of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle and hormone levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effects of growth hormone (GH) on morphology of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle and hormone levels in Wistar rats. Methods: The GH was given with subcutaneous injection for 15 days, the level of serum GH was determined by radiation-immune method; the body weight and the ratio of organ weight to body weight were determined; the cell appearances of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle were observed under microscope. the control group was set up. Results; The level of serum GH and rat body weight in experimental group were obviously higher than that in the control group, but the ratio of organ weight to body weight was not obviously different in two groups; musculature hypertrophy and cell nucleolus increasing were observed under microscopy, there were no capillary vessel hyperplasia and inflammatory soakage. Conclusion: GH can induce hypertrophy of cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells but not interstitial proliferation. (authors)

  2. Growth Hormone Deficiency in a Patient with Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Pediatric Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calcaterra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a biochemical growth hormone (GH deficiency and to evaluate therapeutic result in a six-year-old male with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD. Methods. GH peak was evaluated after response to arginine and insulin. Bone age was evaluated according to Greulich and Pyle method. Results. The GH-supplementary therapy was very effective in terms of growth gain. Conclusion. The possibility of a growth hormone deficiency and treatment with GH in patients with BMD cannot be excluded, especially considering the good therapeutic response.

  3. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free teraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

  4. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1991-01-01

    sweat excretion rate from childhood to adulthood showed a difference between the sexes. Both pre-pubertal and pubertal boys had a lower secretion value than adult men (p less than 0.001 and 0.01, respectively), whereas girls showed higher secretion values than adult women (p less than 0.01 and p less...

  5. Effects of spaceflight on hypothalamic peptide systems controlling pituitary growth hormone dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchenko, P. E.; Arias, C.; Krasnov, I.; Grindeland, R. E.; Vale, W.

    1992-01-01

    Possible effects of reduced gravity on central hypophysiotropic systems controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion were investigated in rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellites. Immunohistochemical (IHC)staining for the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SS), and other hypothalamic hormones was performed on hypothalami obtained from rats. IHC analysis was complemented by quantitative in situ assessments of mRNAs encoding the precursors for these hormones. Data obtained suggest that exposure to microgravity causes a preferential reduction in GRF peptide and mRNA levels in hypophysiotropic neurons, which may contribute to impared GH secretion in animals subjected to spaceflight. Effects of weightlessness are not mimicked by hindlimb suspension in this system.

  6. Low-dose growth hormone and human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Flyvbjerg, A;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with high doses (2-6 mg day(-1)) of human growth hormone (hGH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) has been shown to increase concentrations of total insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) more than twofold greater than...

  7. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood sampl

  8. SOCS2 mediates the cross talk between androgen and growth hormone signaling in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Gato, Diego; Chuan, Yin Choy; Wikström, Pernilla;

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic signals such as androgens and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis play an essential role in the normal development of the prostate but also in its malignant transformation. In this study, we investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) a...

  9. A case of Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS): multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, lack of H19 hypomethylation and favourable growth hormone (GH) treatment response

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zoran S. Gucev; Velibor Tasic; Aleksandra Jancevska; Ilija Kirovski

    2009-08-01

    Hypomethylation of the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) at the IGF2/H19 locus on 11p15 is linked to Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS) and/or hemihypertrophy. This SRS patient was born in term with weight of 3500 g (50 percentile) and length 48 cm (>1 SD below the mean). He was first noticed at the age of 10 years for short stature (114.5 cm, $-3.85$ SD), relatively normal head circumference, a classic facial phenotype, hemihypertrophy (2.5 cm thinner left arm and leg in comparison to the right, asymmetric face), moderate clinodactyly and striking thinness (BMI of 15.3). At the age of 30, the body asymmetry ameliorated (1 cm thinner left arm and leg than the right), and BMI normalized (20.5 cm). Methylation analysis was performed by bisulphate treatment of DNA samples, radiolabelled PCR amplification, and digestion of the PCR products using restriction enzymes. The patient had normomethylation, and in addition hypopituitarism, with low levels of growth hormone (GH) (provocative testing before the start and after termination of GH treatment), thyroxin, TSH, FSH, LH and testosterone. The GH was given for six years, growth response was satisfactory and he reached an adult height of 166 cm. This is a first report of hypopituitarism in a patient with SRS without H19 hypomethylation. It seems that the lack of hypomethylation in this hypopituitary SRS patient is responsible, at least partly, for the favourable final adult height under GH treatment.

  10. Gravity-induced asymmetric distribution of a plant growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Momonoki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Dolk (1936) demonstrated that gravistimulation induced an asymmetric distribution of auxin in a horizontally-placed shoot. An attempt is made to determine where and how that asymmetry arises, and to demonstrate that the endogenous auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, becomes asymmetrically distributed in the cortical cells of the Zea mays mesocotyl during 3 min of geostimulation. Further, indole-3-acetic acid derived by hydrolysis of an applied transport form of the hormone, indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, becomes asymmetrically distributed within 15 min of geostimulus time. From these and prior data is developed a working theory that the gravitational stimulus induces a selective leakage, or secretion, of the hormone from the vascular tissue to the cortical cells of the mesocotyl.

  11. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denancé, Nicolas; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Goffner, Deborah; Molina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids, that have been thoroughly described to regulate plant development and growth, have recently emerged as key regulators of plant immunity. Plant hormones interact in complex networks to balance the response to developmental and environmental cues and thus limiting defense-associated fitness costs. The molecular mechanisms that govern these hormonal networks are largely unknown. Moreover, hormone signaling pathways are targeted by pathogens to disturb and evade plant defense responses. In this review, we address novel insights on the regulatory roles of the ABA, SA, and auxin in plant resistance to pathogens and we describe the complex interactions among their signal transduction pathways. The strategies developed by pathogens to evade hormone-mediated defensive responses are also described. Based on these data we discuss how hormone signaling could be manipulated to improve the resistance of crops to pathogens. PMID:23745126

  12. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma:clinical and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe clinical and MRI findings of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, to determine if there are any characteristic MRI findings different from those of other pituitary adenomas, to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and serum growth hormone level, and to assess the results of immunohi-stochemical study. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI findings of 29 patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma confirmed by serum growth hormone level and surgery. We also evaluated the relationship between the tumor volume and serum growth hormone level, and the results of immunohistochemical study. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in all patients and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in 28 patients were obtained with 2.0 T(24 cases) and 0.5 T(5 cases) MR imagers. The images were analyzed in terms of tumor size, signal intensity, degree of contrast enhancement, extent of tumor growth and the presence or absence of cystic change, hemorrhage and calcification. Clinical manifestations included facial feature change and soft tissue swelling of hands and feet(n=29), headache(n=12), impaired visual acuity(n=9), symptoms of hyperprolactinemia(n=8), visual field defect(n=5), and others(n=6). On MR images, all of the 29 cases were seen to be macroadenomas and the size of the tumors averaged 2.2cm(1-5.2cm). Supra- and infrasellar extensions were seen in 21 and 22 patients, respectively. Cavernous sinus invasion was noted in seven, and in one this was bilateral. Signal intensity was isointense with cortical grey matter in 26 cases(90%). Cystic change or necrosis was seen in eight cases(28%), hemorrhage in four(14%), and calcification in two(7%). After enhancement, most(25/28) of the tumors enhanced less than normal pituitary in degree. There was no correlation between serum growth hormone level and tumor size. Immunohistochemical study showed positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were various and included

  13. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma:clinical and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Suk; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Jae Uoo; Yoo, In Kyu; Jung, Hee Won; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To describe clinical and MRI findings of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, to determine if there are any characteristic MRI findings different from those of other pituitary adenomas, to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and serum growth hormone level, and to assess the results of immunohi-stochemical study. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI findings of 29 patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma confirmed by serum growth hormone level and surgery. We also evaluated the relationship between the tumor volume and serum growth hormone level, and the results of immunohistochemical study. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in all patients and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in 28 patients were obtained with 2.0 T(24 cases) and 0.5 T(5 cases) MR imagers. The images were analyzed in terms of tumor size, signal intensity, degree of contrast enhancement, extent of tumor growth and the presence or absence of cystic change, hemorrhage and calcification. Clinical manifestations included facial feature change and soft tissue swelling of hands and feet(n=29), headache(n=12), impaired visual acuity(n=9), symptoms of hyperprolactinemia(n=8), visual field defect(n=5), and others(n=6). On MR images, all of the 29 cases were seen to be macroadenomas and the size of the tumors averaged 2.2cm(1-5.2cm). Supra- and infrasellar extensions were seen in 21 and 22 patients, respectively. Cavernous sinus invasion was noted in seven, and in one this was bilateral. Signal intensity was isointense with cortical grey matter in 26 cases(90%). Cystic change or necrosis was seen in eight cases(28%), hemorrhage in four(14%), and calcification in two(7%). After enhancement, most(25/28) of the tumors enhanced less than normal pituitary in degree. There was no correlation between serum growth hormone level and tumor size. Immunohistochemical study showed positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were various and included

  14. Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant’s late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Ind...

  15. Functional maturation of growth hormone cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have disclosed the molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotype determination of the anterior pituitary cell types. However, as far as growth hormone (GH) cells are concerned, particular extra-cellular cues are required for the initiation of GH and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-receptor gene production in addition to the expression of the cell type specific transcription factor, pit-1. The glucocorticoids play a principal role in the functional maturation of nascent GH cell...

  16. Growth hormone and cortisol secretion in relation to sleep and wakefulness.

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, J R; Moldofsky, H; Lue, F A

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated secretory patterns of growth hormone (GH) and cortisol in relation to sleep and wakefulness. Plasma hormone levels were monitored in 10 young men during baseline waking and sleeping, during 40 hours of wakefulness, and during sleep following deprivation. The normal nocturnal GH surge disappeared with sleep deprivation, and was intensified following sleep deprivation. Mean GH levels were higher during slow wave sleep (SWS) compared with other sleep stages. During sleep a...

  17. Plant growth hormones suppress the development of Harpophora maydis, the cause of late wilt in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Ofir; Drori, Ran; Goldblat, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Late wilt, a severe vascular disease of maize caused by the fungus Harpophora maydis, is characterized by rapid wilting of maize plants before tasseling and until shortly before maturity. The pathogen is currently controlled by resistant maize cultivars, but the disease is constantly spreading to new areas. The plant's late phenological stage at which the disease appears suggests that plant hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis. This work revealed that plant growth hormones, auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (kinetin), suppress H. maydis in culture media and in a detached root assay. Kinetin, and even more auxin, caused significant suppression of fungus spore germination. Gibberellic acid did not alter colony growth rate but had a signal suppressive effect on the pathogens' spore germination. In comparison, ethylene and jasmonic acid, plant senescing and defense response regulators, had minor effects on colony growth and spore germination rate. Their associate hormone, salicylic acid, had a moderate suppressive effect on spore germination and colony growth rate, and a strong influence when combined with auxin. Despite the anti-fungal auxin success in vitro, field experiments with dimethylamine salt of  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (that mimics the influence of auxin) failed to suppress the late wilt. The lines of evidence presented here reveal the suppressive influence of the three growth hormones studied on fungal development and are important to encourage further and more in-depth examinations of this intriguing hormonal complex regulatory and its role in the maize-H. maydis interactions. PMID:25649030

  18. Molecular cloning and analysis of the partial sequence of Rhinopithecus roxellanae growth hormone gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐来祥; 孔繁华; 华育平

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone gene (GH) of Rhinopithecus roxellanae was amplified by PCR based on the sequences of the reported mammalian growth hormone gene for the first time. The amplified fragment was about 1.8 kb. It was cloned and its upper stream was sequenced. This sequencing region consists of a 5¢ flanking regulatory region, exon I and part of exon II, intron I of growth hormone gene. Comparing the corresponding sequences of growth hormone gene between Rhinopithecus roxellanae and the porcine, we concluded that the homology reached 81% in the region, and there was high conservation in the 5¢ flanking sequence. The kinds of amino acids of exon I and exon II for about 90% were the same to those in pig. Many mutations occurred in the degenerate site of the triplet code. In the nucleotides of intron I, there were only 72% homologies with those in pig. It means that introns and 3¢ flanking sequence maybe play an important part in growth hormone gene regulation of the different animals.

  19. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Brannick, Katherine E., E-mail: kbran@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Wang2@covance.com; Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@yahoo.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-04-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators. • DEHP

  20. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators. • DEHP

  1. The challenge of growth hormone deficiency (GHD diagnosis and treatment during the transition from puberty into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eCianfarani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In children with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency, replacement GH therapy is effective in normalising height during childhood and achieving adult height within the genetic target range. GH has further beneficial effects on body composition and metabolism through adult life. The transition phase, defined as the period from mid to late teens until 6–7 years after the achievement of final height, represents a crucial time for reassessing children’s GH secretion and deciding whether GH therapy should be continued throughout life. Evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD children during transition are lacking. The aim of this review is to critically review the up-to-date evidence on the best management of transition patients in order to ensure the correct definitive diagnosis and establish the appropriate therapeutic regimen.

  2. A Comparison of the Growth Responses Following Intramuscular GHRH Plasmid Administration Versus Daily Growth Hormone Injections in Young Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Amir S.; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Shypailo, Roman J; Ellis, Kenneth I; Mersmann, Harry; Fiorotto, Marta L.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid constructs were driven by a synthetic muscle-specific promoter. A fifth group received daily injections of GH [0.15 mg/(kg·day)]. Control and pGHRH-treated pigs were pair-fed to GH-treated pigs. Bod...

  3. A comparison of immunoenzymometric assays for human thyroid stimulating hormone and human growth hormone with established immunoradiometric assay methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-site immunoenzymometric assays (IEMAs) utilizing polyclonal antisera coated microtitre well (solid phase) and horse radish peroxidase labelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) have been developed with a view to supplying a non-radioisotopic immunoassay system for use in a bulk matched reagent scheme. A two state assay format with a spectrophotometric end point readout was chosen. Results for the pituitary hormones human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) and human growth hormone (hGH) are presented. Assay characteristics and performance of these IEMAs compared favourably with existing immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) which use microcrystalline cellulose coupled solid phase antibody and 125I labelled MAb. Intra-assay analytical precision was similar for both hTSH methods but slightly worse for the hGH IEMA. Relative to IRMA, mean IEMA sensitivity was better for the hTSH, but worse for hGH. However, ''working ranges'' with analytical imprecision of less than 10% covered the distribution of standards in all assays. Good agreement was obtained between methods for patient hTSH specimens up to 12.5 mIU/L but a concentration-dependent negative bias developed in the IEMA at higher hTSH levels. A similar bias was observed in the hGH IEMA. The bias was traced to a ''matrix effect'' due to the hTSH-free horse serum used to prepare standards. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  4. Non-compliance with growth hormone treatment in children is common and impairs linear growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne S Cutfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GH therapy requires daily injections over many years and compliance can be difficult to sustain. As growth hormone (GH is expensive, non-compliance is likely to lead to suboptimal growth, at considerable cost. Thus, we aimed to assess the compliance rate of children and adolescents with GH treatment in New Zealand. METHODS: This was a national survey of GH compliance, in which all children receiving government-funded GH for a four-month interval were included. Compliance was defined as ≥ 85% adherence (no more than one missed dose a week on average to prescribed treatment. Compliance was determined based on two parameters: either the number of GH vials requested (GHreq by the family or the number of empty GH vials returned (GHret. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. FINDINGS: 177 patients were receiving GH in the study period, aged 12.1 ± 0.6 years. The rate of returned vials, but not number of vials requested, was positively associated with HVSDS (p < 0.05, such that patients with good compliance had significantly greater linear growth over the study period (p<0.05. GHret was therefore used for subsequent analyses. 66% of patients were non-compliant, and this outcome was not affected by sex, age or clinical diagnosis. However, Maori ethnicity was associated with a lower rate of compliance. INTERPRETATION: An objective assessment of compliance such as returned vials is much more reliable than compliance based on parental or patient based information. Non-compliance with GH treatment is common, and associated with reduced linear growth. Non-compliance should be considered in all patients with apparently suboptimal response to GH treatment.

  5. DNA sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and processes for producing bovine growth hormone-like polypeptides in high yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for increasing the yield of a bovine growth hormone-like polypeptide to at least 100 times that of a bovine growth hormone-like polypeptide encoded by a DNA sequence. The process comprises the steps of culturing a host transformed with a recombinant DNA molecule comprising DNA sequence encoding a Met Λ or Λ bovine growth hormone-like polypetide operatively linked to an expression control sequence. The Λ is an amino terminal deletion from the amino acid sequence of mature bovine growth hormone

  6. Radioimmunoassay of human growth hormone and its application in pituitary dysfunction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, specific and sensitive Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the measurement of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in serum samples. 123I-labelled HGH has been used as a tracer and dextran coated charcoal system has been employed to separate antibody bound hormone from the unbound one. The assay offers sensitivity of 0.16 ng/ml with a reproducibility of 7% intraassay and inter-assay variations. Serum HGH levels were measured at fasting-resting state and during insulin stimulation test in (1) 15 normal subjects (controls) and (2) 31 patients with stunted growth, whereas (3) in 7 acromegalic patients the same were measured at fasting-resting state and after oral glucose administration. This procedure has been used to distinguish dwarfs due to growth hormone deficiency from other conditions unrelated to pituitary disease and to confirm acromegaly. (author)

  7. Growth Control and Biophoton Radiation by Plant Hormones in Red Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Shoichi; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Fujimoto, Tokio

    1995-12-01

    The growth kinetics of seeds of red beans ( Phaseolus angularis ) was investigated by externally adding various hormones (gibberellin (GA3)), abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA)) during germination. For root growth of red beans, GA3 always acted as an activator while ABA as an inhibitor. IAA was both an activator and an inhibitor depending on its concentration. Root growth could be described by a stochastic logistic equation. The hormone concentration dependences of coefficients of the equation were determined. The hormone influences on biophoton radiation were also investgated. With GA3, the intensity of spontaneous bioluminescence increased with time and showed two strong radiation periods, in which strong localization of bioluminescence was induced. However with ABA and IAA, weaker bioluminescences were observed. The location of the strong radiation induced by GA3 was determined as the growing point near a root cap, by use of a two-dimensional photon counting system.

  8. Effect of sex hormones on bone density during growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of special phantoms permitted precise measurement of vertebral mineral content by CT in the very young. The normal standards for spinal trabecular bone of children aged 0-18 years are presented. Although there is no age-related difference in bone density before puberty, there is a significant increase in bone mineral content after puberty. The increase in sex hormones during puberty accounts for the increased density. Longitudinal studies analyzing vertebral density changes in castrated rabbits after testosterone and estradiol administration are discussed

  9. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Clinical aspects and effects of growth hormone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Festen, Dederieke

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis presents a detailed description of several studies on growth, metabolism, psychomotor development, cognition, behaviour and breathing in PWS children. In chapter 2, growth, body composition and body proportions before and during growth hormone (GH) treatment are evaluated. In chapter 3, the effects of GH treatment on psychomotor development, as measured with Bayley Scales of Infant Development in PWS infants and toddlers are reported In chapter 4, studies on sleep-rela...

  10. Different thresholds of tissue-specific dose-responses to growth hormone in short prepubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Decker Ralph; Nygren Anders; Kriström Berit; Nierop Andreas FM; Gustafsson Jan; Albertsson-Wikland Kerstin; Dahlgren Jovanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to stimulating linear growth in children, growth hormone (GH) influences metabolism and body composition. These effects should be considered when individualizing GH treatment as dose-dependent changes in metabolic markers have been reported. Hypothesis: There are different dose-dependent thresholds for metabolic effects in response to GH treatment. METHOD: A randomized, prospective, multicentre trial TRN 98-0198-003 was performed for a 2-year catch-up growth period, wi...

  11. Glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in growth hormone-transgenic mice: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boparai, Ravneet K; Arum, Oge; Khardori, Romesh; Bartke, Andrzej

    2010-10-01

    In contrast to its stimulatory effects on musculature, bone, and organ development, and its lipolytic effects, growth hormone (GH) opposes insulin effects on glucose metabolism. Chronic GH overexposure is thought to result in insulin insensitivity and decreased blood glucose homeostatic control. Yet, despite the importance of this concept for basic biology, as well as human conditions of GH excess or deficiency, no systematic assessment of the impact of GH over- expression on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been conducted. We report that male and female adult GH transgenic mice have enhanced glucose tolerance compared to littermate controls and this effect is not dependent on age or on the particular heterologous GH transgene used. Furthermore, increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, augmented insulin sensitivity, and muted gluconeogenesis were also observed in bovine GH overexpressing mice. These results show that markedly increased systemic GH concentration in GH-transgenic mice exerts unexpected beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, presumably via a compensatory increase in insulin release. The counterintuitive nature of these results challenges previously held presumptions of the physiology of these mice and other states of GH overexpression or suppression. In addition, they pose intriguing queries about the relationships between GH, endocrine control of metabolism, and aging. PMID:20707609

  12. Polysomnographic sleep, growth hormone insulin-like growth factor-I axis, leptin, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Juul, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    Short sleep appears to be strongly associated with obesity and altered metabolic function, and sleep and growth hormone (GH) secretion seems interlinked. In obesity, both the GH-insulin-like-growth-factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis and sleep have been reported to be abnormal, however, no studies have...... investigated sleep in relation to the GH-IGF-I axis and weight loss in obese subjects. In this study polygraphic sleep recordings, 24-h GH release, 24-h leptin levels, free-IGF-I, total-IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), acid-labile subunit (ALS), cortisol and insulin sensitivity were determined in six...... severely obese subjects (BMI: 41+/-1 kg/m(2), 32+/-2 years of age), cross-sectional at baseline, and longitudinal after a dramatically diet-induced weight loss (36+/-7 kg). Ten age- and gender-matched nonobese subjects served as controls. Sleep duration (360+/-17 vs. 448+/-15 min/night; P<0.01), 24-h GH...

  13. Final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily growth hormone injections. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Sas, Theo; Vulsma, T.; Gerver, W J; Drop, Stenvert; Reeser, Maarten; Jansen, Maarten; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine; Stijnen, Theo; Teunenbroek, Arne; Hokken-Koelega, Anita; Waelkens, Johan; Massa, G G; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To study final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily injections of growth hormone (GH) in combination with low dose ethinyl oestradiol. DESIGN: Until final height was reached, the effect of fractionated subcutaneous injections given twice daily was compared with once daily injections of a total GH dose of 6 IU/m2/day. Twice daily injections were given as one third in the morning and two thirds at bedtime. All girls concurrently receive...

  14. Insulin-like growth factor system in patients with HIV infection: effect of exogenous growth hormone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynarcik, D C; Frost, R A; Lang, C H; DeCristofaro, K; McNurlan, M A; Garlick, P J; Steigbigel, R T; Fuhrer, J; Ahnn, S; Gelato, M C

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins (BP) 1, 2, and 3 in HIV-infected adults throughout the course of their disease, and to assess the responsiveness of the IGF system components to growth hormone (GH) administration (6 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Healthy control study subjects (n = 10) were compared with patients who were either HIV-positive (n = 9), had AIDS without weight loss (n = 13), or had AIDS with >10% weight loss (n = 6), all of whom had been free of acute illness for at least 3 months. Under basal conditions, fasting serum concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, glucagon, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 were not significantly different among the four groups. The serum concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 were significantly higher in AIDS patients with wasting than in the other three groups (p < .05). In addition, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the levels of IGFBP- 1 (p = .004) and IGFBP-2 (p = .03) and the stage of disease. Following GH administration, the serum concentrations of insulin and IGF-I were increased in all groups (p < .05). In addition, the increases in insulin levels correlated with stage of disease (p = .004). The responses of the IGFBPs were more variable. GH administration significantly increased the levels of IGFBP-3 in all groups except the patients with AIDS wasting, whereas the levels of IGFBP-1 were significantly decreased in controls and AIDS patients. These results demonstrate that there is a continuum of both elevations in the IGFBPs and altered metabolic responsiveness in patients infected with HIV that increases with the severity of the disease. These data also demonstrate that AIDS patients, who are free from secondary infection, respond to administration of GH by significantly increasing hepatic IGF-I production. PMID:10534146

  15. Learning and Memory Recoveries in a Young Girl Treated with Growth Hormone and Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Devesa; Hortensia Lema; Eva Zas; Borja Munín; Pilar Taboada; Pablo Devesa

    2016-01-01

    Background—To describe the results obtained after treating a non growth hormone-deficient 10-year-old girl who suffered asphyxia during delivery, resulting in important cognitive deficits, with growth hormone (GH) and neurorehabilitation. Methods—GH was administered (mg/day) at doses of 0.5 over three months followed by 0.9, every two weeks over three months, and then alternating 1.2 three days/week and 0.3 two days/week. Neurorehabilitation consisted of daily sessions of neurostimulation, sp...

  16. Expression of Growth Hormone Receptors by Lymphocyte subpopulations in the Human tonsil

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Thellin; Bernard Coumans; Willy Zorzi; Ross Barnard; Georges Hennen; Ernst Heinen; Ahmed Igout

    1998-01-01

    The ability of human tonsillar lymphoid cells to express growth hormone receptor (hGH-N-R) was analyzed by flow cytometry. FITC-coupled recombinant human growth hormone (hGH-N) was used to reveal the receptors, in combination with phenotype markers. Unlike T cells, tonsillar B cells constitutively express the hGH-N receptor. Quiescent cells separated from activated cells by Percoll-gradient centrifugation bear fewer receptors than activated ones. Activated T cells express hGH-N-R, but the typ...

  17. Study on RIA of lactosaminated human growth hormone and its in vivo kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of lactosaminated human growth hormone (hGH-L) and human growth hormone (hGH) in livers and kidneys of mice are determined, and evaluated on the RIA. The results demonstrate that the total amount of uptake of hGH-L is more than hGH in liver, and less than hGH in kidney, and the remove is faster than hGH in liver and kidney. The sensitivity, recovery of experiment, repetition character and dilution linear of the method accord with the demands of RIA quality

  18. Absence of a growth hormone effect on rat soleus atrophy during a 4-day spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bian; Roy, Roland R.; Navarro, Christine; Edgerton, V. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of a 4-day-long spaceflight on the size and the enzyme properties of soleus fibers of rats and the effects of exogenous growth hormone (GH) on the atrophic response of the soleus muscle were investigated in four groups of rats: (1) control, (2) control plus GH treatment, (3) flight, and (4) flight plus GH treatment. Results showed that the fiber size and the type of myosin heavy chain expressed fibers (but not the metabolic properties) of the soleus were affected by four days of weightlessness and that the effects were not ameliorated by the administration of growth hormone.

  19. Metabolic Abnormalities in growth hormone deficiency Anormalidades metabólicas en la deficiencia de la hormona de crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lanes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been reported in adult subjects with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Long term follow up of a large cohort of patients with adult onset GHD, suggests that GH therapy may contribute to a reduced risk of nonfatal stroke, particularly in women and in a decline in nonfatal cardiac events in GHD men(1,2. Adult hypopituitary patients with untreated growth hormone deficiency have been shown to have a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors such as increased visceral adiposity, disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism, premature atherosclerosis, impaired fibrinolytic activity, increased peripheral insulin resistance, abnormal cardiac structure, impaired cardiac performance and endothelial dysfunction (3,4. Several of these risk factors have now been confirmed in double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trials (5,6. Metabolic changes in GH deficient children and adolescents have been evaluated only quite recently and superficially. In this article we will discuss these metabolic abnormalities and their underlying mechanism in untreated GHD subjects and we will review the beneficial effect of growth hormone therapy in adults, adolescents and children with GHD.Se ha reportado un aumento en la morbilidad y mortalidad de pacientes adultos con deficiencia de la hormona de crecimiento (DHC. El seguimiento a largo plazo de una cohorte de pacientes con DHC sugiere que la administracion de hormona de crecimiento puede contribuir a una reducción en el número de los accidentes cerebrovasculares no fatales, particularmente en mujeres y de eventos cardíacos en hombres(1,2. Pacientes adultos con hipopituitarismo y una DHC cursan con un acúmulo de factores de riesgo cardiovascular tales como un aumento en la adiposidad visceral, alteraciones en el metabolismo lipoproteico, ateroesclerosis prematura, actividad fibrinolítica alterada, resistencia a la insulina, masa y función cardíaca alterada y disfunci

  20. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits iodide uptake in the thyroid follicular cells and lowers plasma levels of thyroid hormones upon infusion into sheep and ewes. In this study, the effects of EGF on basal and stimulated thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in the mouse. Mice were pretreated with 125I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was not altered by intravenous injection of EGF (5 micrograms/animal). However, the radioiodine secretion stimulated by both TSH (120 microU/animal) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 5 micrograms/animal) were inhibited by EGF (5 micrograms/animal). At a lower dose level (0.5 microgram/animal), EGF had no influence on stimulated radioiodine secretion. In conclusion, EGF inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

  1. Effects of gamma radiation, growth hormones and modulation of radiation responses by phyto hormones in Solanum khasianum Clarke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of radiation (gamma rays 0-800 k rad) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Solanum Clarke were investigated. Pollen germination was stimulated by 200 k rad and inhibited by 500-800 k rad. Pollen tube elongation was inhibited by 500-800 k rad. LDsub(100) dose for pollen germination was 800 k rad while LDsub(50) dose ranged between 600-700 k rad. High concentrations of growth hormones (5-25 ppm kinetin and IAA, and 25 ppm GA3) inhibited both pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Amongst the phytohormones (kinetin, IAA and GA3) only GA3 gave partial protection against the radiation caused injury to pollen germination. (author). 21 refs

  2. Influence of Dietary Copper on Serum Growth-Related Hormone Levels and Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yazhou; Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Baoyu; Yin, Yunhou; Liu, Guowen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary copper on serum growth-related hormones levels and growth performance, a total of 60 weanling pigs were randomly assigned to six groups each containing 10 pigs, fed on basal diets supplemented with 0 (control), 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/kg copper sulfate for 80 days, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG), feed to gain ratio (F/G), feed intake and serum growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were detected at interval of 20 days. The results revealed that ADG, and serum GH, INS, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were increased significantly in the pigs fed on diets added with 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/kg copper sulfate. Meanwhile, in the pigs supplemented with 250 mg/kg copper sulfate, ADG was increased significantly from the 40th to the 60th day of the experiment (P IGFBP-3 in serum were elevated significantly from the 20th to the 40th day of the experiment (P IGFBP-3 in serum which were induced by copper. High dietary copper increase the concentrations of growth-related hormones in serum, resulting in improving the growth performance of weanling pigs. PMID:26631054

  3. Impaired hair growth and wound healing in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Contreras-Jurado

    Full Text Available Both clinical and experimental observations show that the skin is affected by the thyroidal status. In hypothyroid patients the epidermis is thin and alopecia is common, indicating that thyroidal status might influence not only skin proliferation but also hair growth. We demonstrate here that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs mediate these effects of the thyroid hormones on the skin. Mice lacking TRα1 and TRβ (the main thyroid hormone binding isoforms display impaired hair cycling associated to a decrease in follicular hair cell proliferation. This was also observed in hypothyroid mice, indicating the important role of the hormone-bound receptors in hair growth. In contrast, the individual deletion of either TRα1 or TRβ did not impair hair cycling, revealing an overlapping or compensatory role of the receptors in follicular cell proliferation. In support of the role of the receptors in hair growth, TRα1/TRβ-deficient mice developed alopecia after serial depilation. These mice also presented a wound-healing defect, with retarded re-epithelialization and wound gaping, associated to impaired keratinocyte proliferation. These results reinforce the idea that the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors play an important role on skin homeostasis and suggest that they could be targets for the treatment of cutaneous pathologies.

  4. Growth hormone therapy for Prader–willi syndrome: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugni, Graziano; Sartorio, Alessandro; Crinò, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by a dysregulation of growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I axis, as the consequence of a complex hypothalamic involvement. PWS’ clinical picture seems to resemble the classic non-PWS GH deficiency (GHD), including short stature, excessive body fat, decreased muscle mass, and impaired quality of life. GH therapy is able to ameliorate the phenotypic appearance of the syndrome, as well as to improve body composition, physical strength, and cognitive level. In this regard, however, some pathophysiologic and clinical questions still remain, representing a challenge to give the most appropriate care to PWS patients. Data about the prevalence of GHD in PWS children are not unequivocal, ranging from 40% to 100%. In this context, to establish whether the presence (or not) of GHD may have a different effect on clinical course during GH therapy may be helpful. In addition, the comparison of GH effects in PWS children diagnosed as small for gestational age with those obtained in subjects born appropriate for gestational age is of potential interest for future trials. Emerging information seems to demonstrate the maintenance of beneficial effects of GH therapy in PWS subjects after adolescent years. Thus, GH retesting after achievement of final height should be taken into consideration for all PWS patients. However, it is noteworthy that GH administration exerts positive effects both in PWS adults with and without GHD. Another critical issue is to clarify whether the genotype–phenotype correlations may be relevant to specific outcome measures related to GH therapy. Moreover, progress of our understanding of the role of GH replacement and concomitant therapies on bone characteristics of PWS is required. Finally, a long-term surveillance of benefits and risks of GH therapy is strongly recommended for PWS population, since most of the current studies are uncontrolled and of short duration. PMID:27330297

  5. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  6. Circadian variation in serum free and total insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II in untreated and treated acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjaerbaek, Christian; Frystyk, Jan; Kaal, Andreas; Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Weeke, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Ørskov, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: It is generally accepted that there is no clinically significant circadian variation in total insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I or total IGF-II in healthy subjects. In contrast there is a significant nocturnal decrease in free IGF-I in healthy subjects, corresponding to the...... nocturnal increase in IGF binding protein-1. In this study we have investigated the circadian variation in circulating free IGF-I and IGF-II in patients with acromegaly and patients with adult onset growth hormone deficiency. PATIENTS: Seven acromegalic patients were studied with and without treatment with...... a slow-release formulation of octreotide. Seven GH-deficient patients were studied without GH replacement. In addition 5 of the GH-deficient patients were studied during GH replacement. DESIGN: Serum samples were obtained every hour for 24 h. Free IGF-I and IGF-II were measured every 2nd hour. Total...

  7. Growth hormone promotes skeletal muscle cell fusion independent of insulin-like growth factor 1 up-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Ohanna, Mickaël; Kedzia, Cécile; Menon, Ram K.; Kopchick, John J.; Kelly, Paul A; Pende, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) participates in the postnatal regulation of skeletal muscle growth, although the mechanism of action is unclear. Here we show that the mass of skeletal muscles lacking GH receptors is reduced because of a decrease in myofiber size with normal myofiber number. GH signaling controls the size of the differentiated myotubes in a cell-autonomous manner while having no effect on size, proliferation, and differentiation of the myoblast precursor cells. The GH hypertrophic action ...

  8. Growth hormone and tesamorelin in the management of HIV-associated lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedimo R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger BedimoInfectious Disease section, VA North Texas Health Care System, TX, USAAbstract: HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART develop a complex of body composition changes known, including peripheral fat loss (lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation (lipohypertrophy. These changes may cause significant patient distress, which could in turn interfere with adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Treatment options – including antiretroviral switch, insulin sensitizers, and surgical approaches – have been associated with limited success and potential complications. The observation that low growth hormone levels are associated with central fat accumulation among HIV patients has led to the development of tesamorelin (a growth hormone releasing hormone analog for the management of central fat accumulation. Randomized controlled trials have shown that administration of tesamorelin is safe and effective in reducing central fat accumulation among HIV-infected patients. This effect is transient, however, and its association with improved cardiovascular risk remains unclear.Keywords: HAART, HIV, tesamorelin, lipodystrophy

  9. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J. (UWA); (St. Vincent); (Queensland)

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  10. Effects of long-term gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analog treatment on growth, growth hormone (GH) secretion, GH receptors, and GH-binding protein in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, E F; Wit, J M; Robinson, I C

    1998-01-01

    Long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs (GnRH-a) suppress gonadal steroid production and are used in precocious puberty, resulting in an arrest of pubertal development, a slower epiphyseal maturation, and a deceleration of growth, but an increased final height. However, the way that GnRH-a affect growth is not clear. GnRH-a treatment might not only affect gonadal steroid production but might also modulate the GH axis and thereby affect growth. We used a rat model to investigate the long-term effects of prepubertally started GnRH-a treatment (triptorelin) on growth, spontaneous GH secretion, hepatic GH receptors (GHR), and GH-binding protein (GHBP) and compared it with surgical gonadectomy. Triptorelin affected most parameters in the same direction as surgical gonadectomy but to a lesser extent. In females, growth was enhanced by triptorelin, baseline GH secretion was decreased, and hepatic GHR and GHBP were decreased. Apart from these effects on the GH axis, reduction of the direct inhibiting effect of estrogen on growth could be responsible for the triptorelin-induced growth. In males, triptorelin treatment enhanced body weight gain and slightly enhanced gain in length. GH peak amplitude was the only parameter of GH secretion affected and decreased, whereas GHR or GHBP were not affected. This stimulation of weight gain by long-term triptorelin treatment in male rats, which is opposite the effect of surgical gonadectomy, could indicate an interference of GnRH-a in the hormonal regulation of food intake and body weight control. We conclude that triptorelin treatment affected growth and the GH-GHR-GHBP axis in rats, more markedly in females than in males. However, triptorelin was not as effective as surgical gonadectomy. PMID:9432121

  11. Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasheski, K E; Campbell, J A; Smith, K; Rennie, M J; Holloszy, J O; Bier, D M

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth hormone (GH) administration enhances the muscle anabolism associated with heavy-resistance exercise. Sixteen men (21-34 yr) were assigned randomly to a resistance training plus GH group (n = 7) or to a resistance training plus placebo group (n = 9). For 12 wk, both groups trained all major muscle groups in an identical fashion while receiving 40 micrograms recombinant human GH.kg-1.day-1 or placebo. Fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water increased (P less than 0.05) in both groups but more (P less than 0.01) in the GH recipients. Whole body protein synthesis rate increased more (P less than 0.03), and whole body protein balance was greater (P = 0.01) in the GH-treated group, but quadriceps muscle protein synthesis rate, torso and limb circumferences, and muscle strength did not increase more in the GH-treated group. In the young men studied, resistance exercise with or without GH resulted in similar increments in muscle size, strength, and muscle protein synthesis, indicating that 1) the larger increase in FFM with GH treatment was probably due to an increase in lean tissue other than skeletal muscle and 2) resistance training supplemented with GH did not further enhance muscle anabolism and function. PMID:1550219

  12. Altered metabolism of growth hormone receptor mutant mice: a combined NMR metabonomics and microarray study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Joachim Schirra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone is an important regulator of post-natal growth and metabolism. We have investigated the metabolic consequences of altered growth hormone signalling in mutant mice that have truncations at position 569 and 391 of the intracellular domain of the growth hormone receptor, and thus exhibit either low (around 30% maximum or no growth hormone-dependent STAT5 signalling respectively. These mutations result in altered liver metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of metabolic changes was performed using microarray analysis of liver tissue and NMR metabonomics of urine and liver tissue. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics and Gene Ontology tools. The metabolic profiles characteristic for each of the two mutant groups and wild-type mice were identified with NMR metabonomics. We found decreased urinary levels of taurine, citrate and 2-oxoglutarate, and increased levels of trimethylamine, creatine and creatinine when compared to wild-type mice. These results indicate significant changes in lipid and choline metabolism, and were coupled with increased fat deposition, leading to obesity. The microarray analysis identified changes in expression of metabolic enzymes correlating with alterations in metabolite concentration both in urine and liver. Similarity of mutant 569 to the wild-type was seen in young mice, but the pattern of metabolites shifted to that of the 391 mutant as the 569 mice became obese after six months age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The metabonomic observations were consistent with the parallel analysis of gene expression and pathway mapping using microarray data, identifying metabolites and gene transcripts involved in hepatic metabolism, especially for taurine, choline and creatinine metabolism. The systems biology approach applied in this study provides a coherent picture of metabolic changes resulting from impaired STAT5 signalling by the growth hormone

  13. Postnatal growth of broilers in response to in ovo administration of chicken growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocamis, H; Yeni, Y N; Kirkpatrick-Keller, D C; Killefer, J

    1999-08-01

    The effect of in ovo administration of chicken growth hormone (cGH) on growth rate and efficiency of gain, organ, and long bone growth of 42-d-old broiler chickens was investigated. Eggs were injected once with 100 microL vehicle (0.03 M NaHCO3, 0.15 M NaCl, pH 8.3) per embryo or vehicle containing 100 ng cGH/100 microL per embryo (n = 630 eggs total) on one of the following Days: 1, 4, or 7 through 18 of embryogenesis. There was no significant difference in hatchability between control and cGH treatment groups on any given injection day. Cumulative feed conversion of all treatment groups was improved relative to their respective control groups (P < 0.05). In ovo administration of cGH on Day 15 or 16 of incubation increased body weights (P < 0.01) of female broilers. On the other hand, body weights of male broilers were significantly increased by treatment on Day 1 (P < 0.04). Breast weights of female broilers from treatment groups Day 15 or 16 were increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). Liver weights of female broilers from treatment groups Day 1 and 15 were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). In contrast, in ovo administration of cGH on Day 11 of incubation increased liver weights of male broilers (P < 0.03). There was no significant difference between control and treatment groups, in terms of heart or leg weights, or in Warner-Bratzler shear force of Pectoralis profundus muscle. Hydroxyproline concentration and cross-sectional area of female broiler tibias from treatment groups Day 11 or Day 16 were increased (P < 0.05), and ultimate breaking strength (stress) of tibias from the same groups was reduced (P < 0.05). In ovo administration of cGH altered growth and tissue development of broiler chickens in a time by sex dependent fashion. PMID:10472850

  14. Local administration of growth hormone stimulates tendon collagen synthesis in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Vestergaard; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Olesen, Jens L;

    2012-01-01

    Tendon collagen content and circulating growth hormone (GH) are reduced in elderly. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we examined if local injections of rhGH enhance collagen synthesis in healthy elderly men (61 ± 1 yr). Two injections of rhGH or saline (control) were injected into...

  15. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  16. Abnormal Polyamine Metabolism in Hereditary Muscular Dystrophies: EFFECT OF HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE

    OpenAIRE

    Rudman, Daniel; Kutner, Michael H.; Chawla, Rajender K.; Goldsmith, Martin A.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies showed hyperre-sponsiveness to human growth hormone (hGH) in men with myotonic or limb girdle dystrophies (MMD or LGD). Because polyamines may mediate some actions of hGH, we have now investigated polyamine metabolism in these and other dystrophies.

  17. Relationship between plant hormone level excreted by ectomycorrhizal fungi and growth of poplar NL-895

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MA; Xiaoqin WU; Ling ZHENG

    2009-01-01

    To explore the effects of plant hormones levels excreted by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on the growth of poplars, Populus x euramericana cv. NL-895 seedlings were inoculated with nine species of ECM fungi. We investigated the status of ectomycorrhizal formation and the effects of these fungi on poplar growth, and using the HPLC method, we measured the contents of four kinds of plant hormones, indole acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in both the culture filtrate and the mycelium of these fungi. The results showed that the effects of nine ECM fungi on the growth of poplar NL-895 varied. The inoculated seedlings, whether or not obvious mycorrhizas were developed, grew better than those non-inoculated ones. All nine ectomycorrhizal fungi excreted the four plant hormones, but at different levels. The hormone contents in culture filtrate were higher than that in mycelium, which showed a definite relationship with poplar growth. Significantly, correlation analysis suggested the height and stem diameter of the poplar were positively correlated with zeatin contents in the mycelium, and were negatively correlated with the levels of ABA or IAA in the mycelium.

  18. PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF 2 YEARS OF HUMAN GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT IN TURNER SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLIJPER, FME; SINNEMA, G; AKKERHUIS, GW; BRUGMANBOEZEMAN, A; FEENSTRA, J; DENHARTOG, L; HEUVEL, F

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight girls with Turner syndrome were treated for 2 years with human growth hormone. Both parents and patients carried out assessments of the effects of treatment on various aspects of psychosocial functioning. The children used the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and the Social Anxiety Scale

  19. Noonan syndrome and Turner syndrome patients respond similarly to 4 years' growth-hormone therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Peter A; Ross, Judith L; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome (TS) and Noonan syndrome (NS) are distinct syndromes associated with short stature and other similar phenotypic features. We compared the responses to growth hormone (GH) therapy of TS and NS patients enrolled in the NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) or the...

  20. An auxology-based growth hormone program : Update on the Australian experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werther, GA; Cowell, CT

    2003-01-01

    In 1988, new guidelines for growth hormone (GH) usage emphasizing auxological criteria were adopted in Australia. Currently, 1,250 children with the following diagnoses are being treated: idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD), 23.4%; malignancy-related GHD, 7.9%; Turner's syndrome, 12.1%; nonendogrine dis

  1. GROWTH-HORMONE THERAPY IN TURNERS SYNDROME - IMPACT OF INJECTION FREQUENCY AND INITIAL BONE-AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RONGENWESTERLAKEN, C; VANES, A; WIT, JM; OTTEN, BJ; KEIZERSCHRAMA, SMPFD; DRAYER, NM; OOSTDIJK, W; DELEMARREVANDERWAAL, HA; GONS, MH; WAELKENS, JJJ; VANDENBRANDE, JL

    1992-01-01

    Study Objective.-To determine the influence of the injection frequency and the initial bone age on the efficacy of treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone in Turner's syndrome. Design.-Randomized study. Setting.-Referral-based pediatric endocrinology departments of seven university medical center

  2. Acute and chronic effects of growth hormone on renal regulation of electrolyte and water homeostasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimke, H.; Flyvbjerg, A.; Frische, S.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, growth hormone (GH) has been known to influence electrolyte and water handling in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the GH-induced anti-natriuretic and anti-diuretic effects have remained elusive. This review will examine the existing literature on renal e

  3. Sequence Analysis of the Protein Structure Homology Modeling of Growth Hormone Gene from Salmo trutta caspius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Rezaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the growth hormone protein investigated and characterized from Salmo trutta caspius. Growth hormone gene in the Salmo trutta caspius have six exons in the full length that is translated into a Molecular Weight (kDa: ssDNA: 64.98 and dsDNA: 129.6. There are also 210 amino acid residue. The assembled full length of DNA contains open reading frame of growth hormone gene that contains 15 sequences in the full length. The average GC content is 47% and AT content is 53%. This protein multiple alignment has shown that this peptide is 100% identical to the corresponding homologous protein in the growth hormone protein which including Salmo salar (Accession number: AAA49558.1 and Rainbow trout (Salmo trutta (Accession number: AAA49555.1" sequences. The sequence of protein had deposited in Gene Bank, Accession number: AEK70940. Also we were analyzed second and third structure between sequences reported in Gene Bank Network system. The results are shown, there are homology between second structure in three sequences including: Salmo trutta caspius, Salmo salar and Rainbow trout. Regarding third structure, Salmo trutta caspius and Salmo salar are same type, but Rainbow trout has different homology with Salmo trutta caspius and Salmo salar. However, the sequences were observed three parallel " helix and in second structure there were almost same percent β sheet.

  4. Expression of the growth hormone receptor gene in insulin producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Annette; Billestrup, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1990-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a dual role in glucose homeostasis. On the one hand, it exerts an insulin antagonistic effect on the peripheral tissue, on the other hand, it stimulates insulin biosynthesis and beta-cell proliferation. The expression of GH-receptors on the rat insulinoma cell line RIN-5...

  5. Low blood glucose levels and other complications during growth hormone supplementation in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faintuch Joel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels in the high normal range or even moderate hyperglycemia is the expected profile in septic postoperative patients receiving high-calorie enteral alimentation. The addition of growth hormone as an anabolic agent should additionally reinforce this tendency. In a cancer patient undergoing partial gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and suffering from postoperative subphrenic abscess and prolonged sepsis, tube feeding (38.3 kcal/kg/day and growth hormone (0.17 IU/kg/day were simultaneously administered for 25 days. Blood glucose levels were in the lower limits of the normal range before growth hormone introduction, and continued with a similar tendency during most of the therapeutic period. Two additional complications, namely heart arrest and peripheral edema, were documented during the same period. It is concluded that sepsis was the most likely mechanism for low glucose values, and that high-calorie enteral diet and growth hormone supplementation did not prevent that result. It is uncertain whether heart arrest was due to the drug, but its association with peripheral edema is well documented in clinical series.

  6. Radioimmunological determination of insulin, growth hormone and calcitonin in serum, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of insulin, growth hormone and calcitonin in blood serum were developed. The procedure as well as the iodination of antigens and the generation of antibodies are described. Short-term and long-term quality control experiments dealing with specificity, recovery, sensitivity, intrassay variability and interassay variability are reported

  7. Growth hormone-induced insulin resistance in human subjects involves reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Birgitte; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Nielsen, Thomas S;

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by growth hormone (GH) is linked to promotion of lipolysis by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that suppression of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form (PDHa) underlies GH-induced insulin resistance similar to what is observed during fasting....

  8. Effects of growth hormone on glucose and fat metabolism in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens O L; Møller, Louise; Krag, Morten Brøgger;

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on in vivo data from tests performed in normal subjects and in patients who had abnormal growth hormone (GH) status. Experimental data in human subjects demonstrate that GH acutely inhibits glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. At the same time GH stimulates the turnover...

  9. Effects of sericin on the testicular growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Tang, Qi-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sericin on the testicular growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty rats were randomly assigned to normal control, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sericin and metformin treated groups. Type 2 diabetes was established by repeated intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, and identified by blood glucose ≥16.7 mmol/L at 1 week. The diabetic rats were given no other treatment, these rats in the sericin group were intragastrically perfused with 2.4 g/kg sericin and the metformin treated rats were intragastrically perfused with 55.33 mg/kg Metformin daily for 35 consecutive days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine serum testosterone, growth hormone and IGF-1 levels. Immunohistochemical staining, western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR were used to determine testicular growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and IGF-1 expression. The sericin significantly reduced serum growth hormone levels, downregulated growth hormone expression, increased serum testosterone and IGF-1 levels, and upregulated testicular growth hormone receptor and IGF-1 expression. Moreover, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters between the sericin and metformin treated groups. These findings indicated that sericin improved spermatogenic function through regulating the growth hormone/IGF-1 axis, thereby protecting reproductive function against diabetes-induced damage. PMID:26379831

  10. Surface plasmon resonance and electrochemical imunosensors for human growth hormone and antibodies against human growth hormone detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rukšnaitė, Justina

    2014-01-01

    Šioje daktaro disertacijoje buvo nagrinėjami paviršiaus plazmonų rezonanso (PPR) ir elektrocheminiai imuniniai jutikliai žmogaus augimo hormonui (ŽAH) ir antikūnams prieš žmogaus augimo hormoną (anti-ŽAH) nustatyti bei pritaikyti juos realių mėginių analizei. Šiame darbe buvo nagrinėjami nekryptingas ir kryptingas antikūnų imobilizavimo būdai PPR jutiklio lusto paviršiuje ir tirtas antikūno-antigeno komplekso formavimasis. Buvo nustatyta, kad tinkamiausias iš tirtų anti-ŽAH imobilizavimo P...

  11. Interpulse interval in circulating growth hormone patterns regulates sexually dimorphic expression of hepatic cytochrome P450.

    OpenAIRE

    Waxman, D. J.; Pampori, N A; Ram, P A; Agrawal, A. K.; Shapiro, B. H.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) profiles are sexually differentiated in many species and regulate the sex-dependence of peripubescent growth rates and liver function, including steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 expression, by mechanisms that are poorly understood. By use of an external pump to deliver to hypophysectomized rats pulses of rat GH of varying frequency and amplitude, a critical element for liver discrimination between male and female GH patterns was identified. Liver expression of th...

  12. Growth hormone (GH) provocation tests and the response to GH treatment in GH deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, T. J.; Hindmarsh, P C; Dunger, D B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors, particularly the growth hormone (GH) provocation test result, affecting growth response to GH treatment in children with GH deficiency (GHD).Subjects: A total of 337 prepubertal GHD patients aged,10 years from the UK Pharmacia KIGS database (GH response to provocation test >20 mU/l).Outcome measure: Annual change in height standard deviation score (SDS) (revised UK reference) in the first and second years of treatment.Results: Height increased by 0.74 SDS units...

  13. Mouse models of growth hormone action and aging: A proteomic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Juan; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Kopchick, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a protein secreted by the anterior pituitary and circulates throughout the body to exert important actions on growth and metabolism. GH stimulates the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) which mediates some of the growth promoting actions of GH. The GH/IGF-I axis has recently been recognized as important in terms of longevity in organisms ranging from C. elegans to mice. For example, GH transgenic mice possess short lifespans while GH receptor null (GHR−/−...

  14. [Study on exogenous hormones inducing parthenocarpy fruit growth and development and quality of Siraitia grosvenorii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Tu, Dong-ping; Ma, Xiao-jun; Mo, Chang-ming; Pan, Li-mei; Bai, Long-hua; Feng, Shi-xin

    2015-09-01

    To explore the growth and development and analyze the quality of the parthenocarpy fruit induced by exogenous hormones of Siraitia grosvenorii. the horizontal and vertical diameter, volume of the fruit were respectively measured by morphological and the content of endogenous hormones were determined by ELISA. The size and seed and content of mogrosides of mature fruit were determined. The results showed that the fruit of parthenocarpy was seedless and its growth and development is similar to the diploid fruit by hand pollination and triploid fruit by hand pollination or hormones. But the absolute value of horizontal and vertical diameter, volume of parthenocarpy fruit was less than those of fruit by hand pollination, while triploid was opposite. The content of IAA, ABA and ratio of ABA/GA was obviously wavy. At 0-30 d the content of IAA and ABA of parthenocarpy fruit first reduced then increased, content of IAA and GA parthenocarpy fruit was higher than that of fruit by hand pollination. Mogrosides of parthenocarpy fruit was close to pollination fruit. Hormones can induce S. grosvenorii parthenocarpy to get seedless fruit and the fruit shape and size and quality is close to normal diploid fruit by hand pollination and better than triploid fruit by hormone or hand pollination. PMID:26983201

  15. Polypeptide hormone receptor phosphorylation: is there a role in receptor-mediated endocytosis of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether receptor phosphorylation is a critical step in the internalization of polypeptide hormones and their receptors, the authors have studied a model system wherein insulin stimulates phosphorylation of its receptor and is also internalized. Using insulin as a positive control, they found that it stimulated a partially purified plasma membrane preparation of IM-9 lymphocytes to autophosphorylate its receptor and to catalyze the phosphorylation of a tyrosine-containing substrate. The human GH (hGH) receptor of the IM-9 lymphocytes, when coupled to [125I]iodo-hGH, migrated as a 140,000-dalton protein on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This protein, in contrast to the insulin receptor, was not phosphorylated by the addition of hGH, nor did hGH stimulate this preparation to phosphorylate the tyrosine-containing substrate poly-(GluNa,Tyr)4:1, casein, or histone f2b under a variety of conditions. The authors conclude that receptor phosphorylation is not a critical intermediate in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of hGH and probably other polypeptide hormones and growth factors

  16. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR gene in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Misrianti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein 3 as diagnostic markers of growth hormone deficiency in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Jeppesen, Katrine Arp; Vielwerth, Signe;

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in infancy is difficult, and no specific cutoff value during GH provocative testing is recommended in early life.......The diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in infancy is difficult, and no specific cutoff value during GH provocative testing is recommended in early life....

  18. Motives for choosing growth-enhancing hormone treatment in adolescents with idiopathic short stature: a questionnaire and structured interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisman Jaap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such as the amelioration of current height-related psychosocial problems or the enhancement of future prospects in life and society. The aim of our study was to clarify the motives of adolescents and their parents when choosing to participate in a growth-enhancing trial combining growth hormone and puberty-delaying hormone treatment. Methods Participants were early pubertal adolescents (25 girls, 13 boys aged from 11 to 13 years (mean age 11.5 years with a height standard deviation score (SDS ranging from -1.03 to -3.43. All had been classified as idiopathic short stature or persistent short stature born small for the gestational age (intrauterine growth retardation on the basis of a height SDS below -2, or had a height SDS between -1 and -2 and a predicted adult height SDS below -2. The adolescents and their parents completed questionnaires and a structured interview on the presence of height-related stressors, parental worries about their child's behavior and future prospects, problems in psychosocial functioning, and treatment expectations. Questionnaire scores were compared to norms of the general Dutch population. Results The adolescents reported normal psychosocial functioning and highly positive expectations of the treatment in terms of height gain, whereas the parents reported that their children encountered some behavioral problems (being anxious/depressed, and social and attention problems and height-related stressors (being teased and juvenilized. About 40% of the parents were worried about their children's future prospects for finding a spouse or job. The motives of the adolescents and their parents exhibited rather different profiles

  19. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--mechanism of growth hormone stimulation of skeletal muscle growth in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Ge, X

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone, also called somatotropin (ST), is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. The major functions of GH include stimulating bone and skeletal muscle growth, lipolysis, milk production, and expression of the IGF-I gene in the liver. Based on these functions, recombinant bovine ST (bST) and recombinant porcine ST (pST) have been used to improve milk production in dairy cows and lean tissue growth in pigs, respectively. However, despite these applications, the mechanisms of action of GH are not fully understood. Indeed, there has been a lot of controversy over the role of liver-derived circulating IGF-I and locally produced IGF-I in mediating the growth-stimulatory effect of GH during the last 15 yr. It is in this context that we have conducted studies to further understand how GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results do not support a role of skeletal muscle-derived IGF-I in GH-stimulated skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results indicate that GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle, in part, by stimulating protein synthesis in muscle through a GH receptor-mediated, IGF-I-independent mechanism. In this review, besides discussing these results, we also argue that liver-derived circulating IGF-I should be still considered as the major mechanism that mediates the growth-stimulatory effect of GH on skeletal muscle in cattle and other domestic animals. PMID:24166991

  20. Growth hormone increases vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Krarup; Fisker, Sanne; Dall, Rolf;

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the impact of GH administration on endothelial adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin, in vivo and in vitro. Soluble VCAM-1, E-selectin, and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured before and after treatment in 25 healthy subjects and...... 25 adult GH-deficient (GHD) patients randomized to GH treatment or placebo. Furthermore, we studied the direct effect of GH and IGF-I and serum from GH-treated subjects on basal and TNF alpha-stimulated expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Baseline...... levels of VCAM-1, but not E-selectin, were significantly lower in GHD patients than in healthy subjects (362 +/- 15 microg/liter vs. 516 +/- 21 microg/liter, P < 0.001) and increased in GHD patients during GH treatment, compared with placebo [net difference between groups 151.8 microg/liter (95...