WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult fish passage

  1. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions on the Umatilla River; 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    We report on our progress from October 1993 through September 1994 in evaluating juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and juvenile salmonid passage through ladder facilities, and investigating passage conditions for juvenile fish at diversion dam facilities on the lower Umatilla River in northeastern Oregon. We also report on our progress in evaluating adult salmonid passage at and between dams on the lower Umatilla River and upriver migration using radio telemetry. Two principal studies are also included. Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile salmonid bypass facilities a Feed and Furnish canals, juvenile salmonid passage through fish ladders at Stanfield, Feed Canal, Westland, and Three Mile Falls dams, and the juvenile salmonid trap and haul procedures at Westland Canal. To investigate passage conditions at all passage facilities. Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids past diversions in the lower Umatilla River and their movement in the upper river after transport, using radio telemetry, and to assess factors for successful homing. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  2. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents progress from October 1992 through September 1993 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls, Maxwell, Westland, and Feed Canal dams on the Umatilla River, and in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River. Also reported is an effort to evaluate delayed mortality and stress responses of juvenile salmonids resulting from trapping and transport at high temperatures. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the matilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon and chinook salmon, as well as enhancement of summer steelhead.

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Three-Mile Falls Dam; Umatilla River, Oregon, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from October 1989 through September 1990 on evaluating juvenile fish bypass and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR are: (1) ODFW (Report A): Operate and evaluate the juvenile fish bypass system in the West Extension Irrigation District canal at Three Mile Falls Dam; and (2) CTUIR (Report 8): Examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin that includes restorations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus Wsutch and chinook salmon 0. tshawytscha and enhancement of summer steelhead 0. mytiss.

  4. Cowlitz Falls fish passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system

  5. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Caudill

    Full Text Available Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  6. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1990-1991 Progress Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1992-06-01

    We report on our effort from October 1990 through March 1991 to prepare for the evaluation of the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. We also report on our preliminary activities to prepare for future evaluations at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. A detailed sampling plan was written to guide our efforts in the evaluation process and associated preparatory activities were conducted. In the sampling plan, we developed experimental designs for evaluating the passage of juvenile salmonids through the bypass system including the evaluation at design flow of injury and mortality rates, and passage of juvenile salmonids through and over the screens. We designed and fabricated fish nets for screen leakage tests, and holding facilities for test fish. Modifications to improve evaluation activities were incorporated into the collection facility, and our sampling gear. We designed and fabricated collection systems for the juvenile fish bypass facilities at Maxwell and Westland diversion dams. Preliminary monitoring of system operation was performed at Westland Diversion Dam. We offer recommendations for improving preparations and designs of future evaluations, and also recommend that a detailed evaluation of the Maxwell and Westland juvenile facilities, including evaluation of fish condition and fish passage through or over the screens, be conducted.

  8. Studies of fish passage through culverts in Montana

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Matt; Cahoon, Joel; Burford, Drake; McMahon, Tom; Stein, Otto

    2005-01-01

    Road crossings that utilize culverts on fish-bearing streams can impede fish passage in several ways. The most common impediments include large outlet drops, insufficient water depths, and excessive velocity. High velocities can act as passage barriers, especially for fish that migrate during high-flow periods of the year such as westslope cutthroat trout and Yellowstone cutthroat trout. We performed a basin-wide culvert study to investigate fish passage across a large basin in Montana. A sec...

  9. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1993 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Fryer, Jeffrey

    1994-07-01

    Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to evaluate the feasibility of using video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss. A video system was to produced video images during salmon passage periods. A technician identified and counted fish images from the video record. Fish ladder passage estimates of target species made from the video record were similar to estimates made by on-site counters during daytime periods, indicating that the two methods were relatively precise. We also found that a significant percentage (6.4% and 8.3%) of target salmonids migrated during nighttime periods when on-site counts were not typically made during the two years of study. Analysis of the video record permitted verification of individual sockeye salmon identified and counted by on-site count personnel, and provided data useful to managers of this ESA-listed stock. Analysis of the video record also permitted collection of additional data such as length measurements of individual specimens, which was used to regulate a fishery located upstream.

  10. Fish Passage Center 2001 annual report.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extremely poor water conditions within the Columbia River Basin along with extraordinary power market conditions created an exceptionally poor migration year for juvenile salmon and steelhead. Monthly 2001 precipitation at the Columbia above Grand Coulee, the Snake River above Ice Harbor, and the Columbia River above The Dalles was approximately 70% of average. As a result the 2001 January-July runoff volume at The Dalles was the second lowest in Columbia River recorded history. As a compounding factor to the near record low flows in 2001, California energy deregulation and the resulting volatile power market created a financial crisis for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Power emergencies were first declared in the summer and winter of 2000 for brief periods of time. In February of 2001, and on April 3, the BPA declared a ''power emergency'' and suspended many of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Biological Opinion (Opinion) measures that addressed mainstem Columbia and Snake Rivers juvenile fish passage. The river and reservoir system was operated primarily for power generation. Power generation requirements in January through March coincidentally provided emergence and rearing flows for the Ives-Pierce Islands spawning area below Bonneville Dam. In particular, flow and spill measures to protect juvenile downstream migrant salmon and steelhead were nearly totally suspended. Spring and summer flows were below the Opinion migration target at all sites. Maximum smolt transportation was implemented instead of the Opinion in-river juvenile passage measures. On May 16, the BPA Administrator decided to implement a limited spill for fish passage at Bonneville and The Dalles dams. On May 25, a limited spill program was added at McNary and John Day dams. Spill extended to July 15. Juvenile migrants, which passed McNary Dam after May 21, experienced a noticeable, improved survival, as a benefit of spill at John Day Dam. The suspension of Biological Opinion

  11. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill; Loffink, Ken

    2008-12-30

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. Migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage and trapping facility design, operation, and criteria. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. Beginning in March of 2007, two work elements from the Walla Walla Fish Passage Operations Project were transferred to other projects. The work element Enumeration of Adult Migration at Nursery Bridge Dam is now conducted under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project and the work element Provide Transportation Assistance is conducted under the Umatilla Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance Project. Details of these activities can be found in those project's respective annual reports.

  12. Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele [Fish Passage Center of the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Authority

    2008-11-25

    and McNary dams), whereas prior to 2005 spill was terminated at these projects after the spring period. In addition, the 2007 operations agreement provided regardless of flow conditions. For the first time spill for fish passage was provided in the low flow conditions that prevailed in the Snake River throughout the spring and summer migration periods. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) monitoring continued throughout the spill period. A higher incidence of rank 1, GBT signs were observed in late arriving steelhead smolts arriving after the 95% passage date had occurred. During this time dissolved gas levels were generally below the 110% water quality standard in the forebay where fish were sampled. This occurrence was due to prolonged exposure and extended travel times due to low migration flows. The 2007 migration conditions differed from any year in the historic record. The migration conditions combined low river flows in the Snake River with spill throughout the spring and summer season. The juvenile migration characteristics observed in 2007 were unique compared to past years in that high levels of 24 hour spill for fish passage were provided in low flow conditions, and with a delayed start to the smolt transportation program a smaller proportion of the total run being transported. This resulted in relatively high spring juvenile survival despite the lower flows. The seasonal spring average flow in the Snake River was 61 Kcfs much lower than the spring time average of 120 Kcfs that occurred in 2006. However juvenile steelhead survival through the Lower Granite to McNary reach in 2007 was nearly 70% which was similar to the juvenile steelhead survival seen in 2006 under higher migration flows. The low flows in the May-July period of 2007 were similar to the 2001 low flow year, yet survival for fall chinook juveniles in this period in 2007 was much higher. In 2001 the reach survival estimate for juvenile fall Chinook from Lower Granite to McNary Dam ranged from 0

  13. California Fish Passage Assessment Database [ds69

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Passage Assessment Database shapefile contains locations of known and potential barriers to salmonid migration in California streams with additional information...

  14. Fish Passage Center 2000 annual report.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    plan, spill hours were increased at Lower Monumental Dam. Spill volume at The Dalles was reduced and daytime spill tests were conducted at John Day and Bonneville Dams. Although provided for fish, most spill that occurred in 2000 was either in excess of project hydraulic capacity or excess generation. This effectively reduced the actual cost of the spill program. For the most part, spill in 2000 was managed to the waiver limits for total dissolved gas levels and the NMFS action criteria for dissolved gas signs were not exceeded. Hatchery spring chinook returns comprised an estimated 81.4% of the total spring chinook adult return to Lower Granite Dam. Smolt travel time and survival were similar to past years for most Smolt Monitoring Program groups. The notable exceptions were Snake River hatchery steelhead groups and mid-Columbia hatchery sub-yearling groups from Wells and Ringold hatcheries, which had significantly lower survival than previous years. Yearling chinook travel time showed variation from past years, reflecting the atypical flow shape in 2000 which had high flows in April, declining through May

  15. Fish passage mitigation of impacts from hydroelectric power projects in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obstruction of fish movements by dams continues to be the major environmental issue facing the hydropower industry in the US. Dams block upstream migrations, which can cut off adult fish form their historical spawning grounds and severely curtail reproduction. Conversely, downstream-migrating fish may be entrained into the turbine intake flow and suffer turbine-passage injury or mortality. Hydroelectric projects can interfere with the migrations of a wide variety of fish. Maintenance, restoration or enhancement of populations of these species may require the construction of facilities to allow for upstream and downstream fish passage. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), by law, must give fish and wildlife resources equal consideration with power production in its licensing decisions, must be satisfied that a project is consistent with comprehensive plans for a waterway (including fisheries management plans), and must consider all federal and state resource agency terms and conditions for the protection of fish and wildlife. As a consequence, FERC often requires fish passage mitigation measures as a condition of the hydropower license when such measures are deemed necessary for the protection of fish. Much of the recent research and development efforts of the US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program have focused on the mitigation of impacts to upstream and downstream fish passage. This paper descries three components of that effort: (1) a survey of environmental mitigation measures at hydropower sites across the country; (2) a critical review of the effectiveness of fish passage mitigation measures at 16 case study sites; and (3) ongoing efforts to develop new turbine designs that minimize turbine-passage mortality

  16. Australian experience of fish passage past instream structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth in hydropower has resulted in the construction of various structures across rivers and streams, such as dams and weirs, which may impede essential fish movements and result in local extinctions of some fish species. When it is not practical to build instream structures that provide for fish passage, it may be appropriate to install some type of fishway. Site specific factors such as the fish species present, topography, flow characteristics and cost effectiveness will determine how best to provide for fish passage. The types of fishways suitable at small dams and weirs up to five metres high were described in this paper along with their benefits and effectiveness. The purpose was to provide simple and appropriate solutions that can improve the health of rivers considerably by managing the native aquatic habitat. The upstream passage past obstacles can be provided for through several types of fishways such as pool-type fishways, Denil fish passes, rock ramps, nature-like bypass channels, fish lifts or locks, collection and transportation facilities. In addition to environmental benefits, providing for fish passage can have long term social and economic benefits as well. 17 refs., 3 figs

  17. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  18. Technologies for evaluating fish passage through turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of two types of technologies to observe fish and near neutrally buoyant drogues as they move through hydropower turbines. Existing or reasonably modified light-emitting and ultrasonic technologies were used to observe flow patterns, the response of fish to flow, and interactions between fish and turbine structures with good spatial and temporal accuracy. This information can be used to assess the biological benefits of turbine design features such as reductions in gaps at the tips and hub of turbine runner blades, reshaping wicket gates and stay vanes, modifications to draft tube splitter piers, and design changes that enhance egress through the powerhouse and tailrace.

  19. Benefits of fish passage and protection measures at hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is engaged in a multi-year study of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation measures at nonfederal hydroelectric power plants. An initial report (Volume 1) reviewed and surveyed the status of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality; this paper focuses on the fish passage/protection aspects of the study. Fish ladders were found to be the most common means of passing fish upstream; elevators/lifts were less common, but their use appears to be increasing. A variety of mitigative measures is employed to prevent fish from being drawn into turbine intakes, including spill flows, narrow-mesh intake screens, angled bar racks, and lightor sound-based guidance measures. Performance monitoring and detailed, quantifiable performance criteria were frequently lacking at non-federal hydroelectric projects. Volume 2 considers the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection measures, as illustrated by case studies for which performance monitoring has been conducted. The report estimates the effectiveness of particular measures, the consequent impacts on the fish populations that are being maintained or restored, and the resulting use and non-use values of the maintained or restored fish populations

  20. Fish passage post-construction issues: analysis of distribution, attraction and passage efficiency metrics at the Baguari Dam fish ladder to approach the problem

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo Martins da Silva; Lorena Bettinelli Nogueira; Bruno Pereira Maia; Lucas Borges de Resende

    2012-01-01

    Fish passages are considered the oldest management tool used to minimize the impact of blocking fish migratory routes by hydroelectric power plants. However, fish passages are being installed without specific criteria in Brazil, with severe consequences to the conservation of the local fish fauna. Therefore, basic data gathered for fish passages already constructed could contribute to define operational rules, in addition to offer subsidies to decision-making and design of future facilities. ...

  1. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  2. Status of fish passage facilities at nonfederal hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of direct mitigation practices for fish passage was assessed as part of an ongoing, multi-year study of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation measures at nonfederal hydroelectric power plants. Information was obtained from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, hydropower developers and state and federal resource agencies involved in hydropower regulation. Fish ladders were found to be the most common means of passing fish upstream; elevators/lifts were less common, but their use appears to be increasing. A wide variety of mitigative measures, including spill flows, narrow-mesh intake screens, angled bar racks and light- or sound-based guidance measures, is employed to prevent fish from being drawn into turbine intakes. Performance monitoring and detailed, quantifiable performance criteria were frequently lacking. Fifty-two of the 66 projects (82%) with operating downstream fish passage measures had no performance monitoring requirements; 50 of 71 project operators (70%) indicated that no performance objectives had been specified for the mitigative measures. The authors found that comprehensive field studies needed to evaluate the effectiveness of fish passage devices have been rare. 16 refs., 8 figs

  3. Effect of electric barrier on passage and physical condition of juvenile and adult rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shaw, Amy; Smuckall, Matthew; Kapperman, Kevin; Reyes, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Electric barriers can inhibit passage and injure fish. Few data exist on electric barrier parameters that minimize these impacts and on how body size affects susceptibility, especially to nontarget fish species. The goal of this study was to determine electric barrier voltage and pulse-width settings that inhibit passage of larger bodied rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (215–410 mm fork length) while allowing passage of smaller bodied juvenile rainbow trout (52–126 mm) in a static laboratory setting. We exposed rainbow trout to 30-Hz pulsed-direct current voltage gradients (0.00–0.45 V cm−1) and pulse widths (0.0–0.7 ms) and recorded their movement, injury incidence, and mortality. No settings tested allowed all juveniles to pass while impeding all adult passage. Juvenile and adult rainbow trout avoided the barrier at higher pulse widths, and fewer rainbow trout passed the barrier at 0.7-ms pulse width compared to 0.1 ms and when the barrier was turned off. We found no effect of voltage gradient on fish passage. No mortality occurred, and we observed external bruising in 5 (7%) juvenile rainbow trout and 15 (21%) adult rainbow trout. This study may aid managers in selecting barrier settings that allow for increased juvenile passage.

  4. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume I..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest (Or.)

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developed to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost ratio of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. 28 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Education in Engineering and Ecohydrology for Fish Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, D.; Towler, B.

    2011-12-01

    Historical fish migration routes linking feeding and spawning habitats have been significantly impacted by culverts, dikes, dams, and other barriers on waterways throughout the world. For example an estimated 2.5 million barriers to fish migration exist in the United States. In recent years, there has been an increased focus on removing or mitigating these barriers as an efficient mechanism to restore habitat. Effective design and implementation of these measures requires specialists with skills at the intersection of engineering, hydrology and biology. Recognizing the need for a cadre of engineers with the additional skills in hydraulics and ecohydrology needed to analyze and design solutions for enhancing fish passage in streams and rivers, the University of Massachusetts Amherst now offers a Master of Science in Civil Engineering (MSCE) degree with a specialization in Fish Passage Engineering. The curriculum is offered in conjunction with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is informed by the recommendations of the Curriculum Working Group of the Bioengineering Section of the American Fisheries Society. The curriculum is offered through the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. This presentation will describe the motivation for the degree, the content of coursework and the challenges inherent in developing an interdisciplinary education program spanning biogeosciences and engineering.

  6. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2004-09-01

    The runoff volumes in 2003 were below average for the January to July period above Lower Granite Dam (79%) and The Dalles Dam (82%). The year 2003 hydrosystem operations and runoff conditions resulted in flows that met the spring seasonal Biological Opinion flow objectives at Lower Granite Dam, McNary Dam and Priest Rapids Dam. However, summer seasonal flows at Lower Granite Dam and McNary Dam were considerably below the Biological Opinion objectives of 50.7 Kcfs at Lower Granite Dam and 2000 Kcfs at McNary Dam. Actual summer seasonal flows were just 32.3 Kcfs and 135.5 Kcfs, respectively. In most instances spill was provided as described by the Biological Opinion program for fish passage, within the constraints of the State waivers for total dissolved gas supersaturation levels. Spill was altered during spill testing and most notably during the month of August at Ice Harbor dam. At this project spill was modified from a 24-hour program to a 12-hour nightly spill period pending the evaluation of studies being conducted in-season. Spill was not returned to full implementation of the Biological Opinion levels even after data showed that spillway passage had the highest associated fish survival. This experience demonstrated the difficulty of managing the hydrosystem for fish passage based on preliminary data and data collected in-season. Increased hatchery releases and higher wild fish production resulted in a population of yearling chinook at Lower Granite Dam being one of the highest observed in recent years. However, the increased hatchery production may have been offset to some extent by decreased survival from release to Lower Granite Dam as suggested by the lower than average survival observed for the PIT tagged trap released fish to Lower Monumental Dam. Travel times were also longer for hatchery spring chinook compared to recent past years. The short duration of high flows that occurred in the Lower Snake River was too late for yearling chinook, but likely was

  7. Sluiceway Operations for Adult Steelhead Downstream Passage at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Tackley, Sean C.

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam in the Columbia River, USA, during the late fall, winter, and early spring months between 2008 and 2011. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of operating the dam’s ice-and-trash sluiceway during non-spill months to provide a relatively safe, non-turbine, surface outlet for overwintering steelhead fallbacks and downstream migrating steelhead kelts. We applied the fixed-location hydroacoustic technique to estimate fish passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines of the dam. The spillway was closed during our sampling periods, which generally occurred in late fall, winter, and early spring. The sluiceway was highly used by adult steelhead (91–99% of total fish sampled passing the dam) during all sampling periods. Turbine passage was low when the sluiceway was not operated. This implies that lack of a sluiceway route did not result in increased turbine passage. However, when the sluiceway was open, adult steelhead used it to pass through the dam. The sluiceway may be operated during late fall, winter, and early spring to provide an optimal, non-turbine route for adult steelhead (fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam.

  8. The development of advanced hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Recent efforts to improve the survival of hydroelectric turbine-passed juvenile fish have explored modifications to both operation and design of the turbines. Much of this research is being carried out by power producers in the Columbia River basin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the public utility districts), while the development of low impact turbines is being pursued on a national scale by the U.S. Department of Energy. Fisheries managers are involved in all aspects of these efforts. Advanced versions of conventional Kaplan turbines are being installed and tested in the Columbia River basin, and a pilot scale version of a novel turbine concept is undergoing laboratory testing. Field studies in the last few years have shown that improvements in the design of conventional turbines have increased the survival of juvenile fish. There is still much to be learned about the causes and extent of injuries in the turbine system (including the draft tube and tailrace), as well as the significance of indirect mortality and the effects of turbine passage on adult fish. However, improvements in turbine design and operation, as well as new field, laboratory, and modeling techniques to assess turbine-passage survival, are contributing toward resolution of the downstream fish passage issue at hydroelectric power plants.

  9. Fish passage in plains and prairie waterways and predicting fish response to climate change: Fine scale fish passage and physiological response data needed to restore and conserve plains and prairie pothole fish species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The research aims to build on two existing projects underway: (1) to improve fish passage and landscape connectivity for native species; and (2) determine thermal...

  10. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  11. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown author

    1994-04-01

    The 1993 downstream migration of juvenile salmon experienced much better outmigration conditions than in recent years. Higher flows occurred in the spring, due to above-average spring precipitation and larger runoff volumes. Higher flows in the summer period resulted from implementation of Opinion flow targets. All indicators, passage indices, proportion of marks reaptured, and migration duration and pattern, indicate that fall chinook juveniles in particular benefitted from the passage conditions provided in 1993. Wild and hatchery spring chinook and steelhead responded to the conditions provided with faster travel times and a higher proportion reaching sample sites, when compared to past years, indicating improved survival. High uncontrolled runoff resulted in higher spill levels, benefitting fish passage, but also minor incidence of gas bubble trauma. Large scale problems were not observed. Very low returns of chinook jacks and one salt steelhead reflected the dismal outmigration conditions provided under the 1992 mitigation measures.

  12. Is fish passage technology saving fish resources in the lower La Plata River basin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Oscar Oldani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 450 dams have been constructed in the upper Paraná River basin in Brazil during the past 40 years. River regulation by these dams is considered a primary factor in the reduction of fish diversity and depletion of migratory species. In contrast to the upper Paraná Basin, only two large dams (both with upstream fish passage have been constructed in the lower La Plata River basin. Fishery managers in the lower basin are concerned that existing and planned dams will further deplete populations of migratory fish species that constitute important recreational and commercial fisheries as has occurred in the upper basin. We assessed the sustainability of fisheries in the lower basin in the face of increased river regulation by using literature information to describe the efficiency of the fish passage systems used to mitigate river regulation impacts on fisheries. Our analysis shows that fish passage systems at both lower basin dams, Yacyreta and Salto Grande, fail to transfer sufficient numbers of upstream migrants to sustain populations of migratory species. Fish passage efficiency of target species in the fish elevators at Yacyreta is less than 2%. Fish diversity in the fish elevators is low because about 85% of the fish belong to only three non-migratory species (Pimelodus maculatus, Oxydoras kneri and Rhinodoras dorbignyi. Large migratory species targeted for passage rarely comprise even 5 % of the fish number in the passage system. The two Borland locks at Salto Grande Dam cannot dependably pass large numbers of migratory species because passage efficiency is dependent upon interactions of powerhouse and spillway operation with tailrace elevations. Most species in the Borland system were either a small catfish (Parapimelodus valenciennis or a engraulid (Lycengraulis grossidens. Again, the targeted migratory species were not abundant in the passage system. We conclude that existing fish passage technology in the lower basin is inadequate and

  13. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-03-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 17, 2002 to September 29, 2003. A total of 3,080 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1716 adult, 617 jack, and 1,709 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 3,820 adult and 971 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 3,607 adult and 135 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 6 summer steelhead and 330 adult and 49 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,882 summer steelhead; 1161 adult, 509 jack and 1,546 subjack fall chinook; 3,704 adult and 915 jack coho; and 2,406 adult and 31 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 109 summer steelhead; 532 adult and 32 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 282 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 159 days between January 27 and July 4, 2003. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 145 days and were trapped 11 days. An estimated 205 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 82% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on September 16, 2002. and continued until November 1, 2002. The bypass was reopened March 3, 2003 and ran until July 3, 2003. The juvenile trap was operated by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation

  14. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Washington, Volume IIA, Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1984-05-01

    This engineering feasibility and predesign report on the Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Project provides BPA with information for planning purposes and will serve as a discussion document for interested agencies. Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dams, both on the Wenatchee River, were built in the early 1900's as diversions for hydropower, and irrigation and hydropower, respectively. The present fishway facilities at both sites are inadequate to properly pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. These runs include spring and summer chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon and steelhead trout. Predesign level drawings are provided in this report that represent fishway schemes capable of adequately passing present and projected fish runs. The effects of present passage facilities on anadromous fish stocks is addressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative treatment assesses losses of adult migrants due to the structures and places an estimated value on those fish. The dollar figure is estimated to be between $391,000 and $701,000 per year for both structures. The qualitative approach to benefits deals with the concept of stock vigor, the need for passage improvements to help ensure the health of the anadromous fish stock. 29 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Review of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on current environmental mitigation practices at nonfederal hydropower projects. Information was obtained from project operators on dissolved oxygen (DO) mitigation, instream flows, upstream fish passage facilities, and downstream fish passage facilities. The most common method for DO mitigation is the use of spill flows, which are costly because of lost power generation. DO concentrations are commonly monitored, but biological effects of DO mitigation are not. At many projects, instream flow requirements have been set without reference to formalized methods. About half of the projects with instream flow requirements monitor flow rates, but few monitor fish populations to verify that instream flows are effective. Angled bar racks are the most commonly used downstream fish passage devices and fish ladders are the most commonly used upstream fish passage devices. Fish passage rates or populations have been monitored to verify the effectiveness of passage mitigation at few projects. This analysis is the first phase of an evaluation of the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of mitigation measures

  16. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine and Regulating Outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-05-23

    Fish passage conditions through a Francis turbine and a regulating outlet (RO) at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions encountered during passage via specific routes. The RO investigation was performed in December 2009 and the turbine evaluation in January 2010, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision, strike, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Cougar Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 3.7-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine passage. Compared to mainstem Columbia River passage routes, none of the Cougar Dam passage routes as tested are safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  17. John Day fish screening and passage : annual report fy 2001.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accomplishments of the John Day, Umatilla, and Walla Walla Fish Passage and Screening Programs include the following: Operation and maintenance of 364 existing fish screening devices (see Table 4), replacement of 18 outdated fish screening devices that totaled 31 rotary drums (some were multiple drum systems), 4 new screens at unscreened diversions, 26 pump intake fish screens, fabrication of components for 16 additional fish screens for the Rogue basin, construction of two fish passage structures, and participation in other activities. After the replacement or construction of 22 fish screening devices during 2001, we now have 108 screening devices that meet NMFS criteria. Funding for these projects was attained from BPA, NMFS and OWEB. The John Day Fish Passage and Screening Program focused construction efforts into new and replacement fish screening devices for these various programs throughout the state of Oregon. The program also continued to develop and implement innovative designs to meet the diverse and expanding needs for the state of Oregon. Projects completed during this report period meet the current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria. Fish species targeted for protection include ESA Listed Mid-Columbia steelhead, Columbia basin bull trout, anadromous and resident salmonids, and numerous non-game fish species. Priority project locations have been identified as the upper reaches of the Middle Fork, North Fork, South Fork and the Mainstem of the John Day River and their tributaries. These upper reaches contain critical salmon and steelhead spawning and rearing habitat

  18. Fish passage in a western Iowa stream modified by grade control structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvan, M.E.; Pierce, C.L.; Stewart, T.W.; Larson, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Grade control structures (GCSs) are commonly used in streams of western Iowa to control bank erosion and channel headcutting but may be barriers to fish passage. From May 2002 to May 2006, we used mark-recapture methods to evaluate fish passage over a total of five GCSs, ranging in slope (run : rise) from 13:1 to 18:1 in Turkey Creek, Cass County, Iowa. Three structures, over which limited fish movement was documented from 2002 to 2004, were modified in the winter of 2004-2005 to facilitate fish passage. Before modification, the majority of recaptured fish were recaptured at the station where they were originally marked; only 1% displayed movement between sites and either upstream or downstream over a GCS. After modification fish passage improved, 14% of recaptured fish displayed movement either upstream or downstream over a GCS. Individuals of four target species - channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, black bullhead A. melas, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus - passed over at least one modified structure. The majority of documented movements over GCSs were in the upstream direction and occurred in late spring and early summer, when streamflow was relatively high. Although we documented low numbers of fish passing both upstream and downstream over GCSs, these structures are probably barriers to fish movement during periods of low flow and when there is a structural failure, such as in-channel movement of riprap. Grade control structures are pervasive in western Iowa streams; nearly every low-order stream contains at least one instream structure. To sustain fish populations, management efforts should focus on constructing or modifying GCSs to allow fish passage. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  20. Sensor Fish Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through John Day Dam Spillbay 20 with a Modified Flow Deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-04-29

    Fish passage conditions over a modified deflector in Spillbay 20 at John Day Dam were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objectives of the study were to describe and compare passage exposure conditions at two spill discharges, 2.4 and 4.0 thousand cubic feet per second (kcfs), identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes, and to evaluate a low-tailwater condition at the 2.4-kcfs discharge. The study was performed in April 2010 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events; 2) differences in passage conditions between treatments; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Nearly all Sensor Fish significant events were classified as collisions; the most severe occurred at the gate, on the spillbay chute, or at the deflector transition. Collisions in the gate region were observed only during the 2.4-kcfs discharge, when the tainter gate was open 1.2 ft. One shear event was observed during the evaluation, occurring at the deflector transition during passage at the 2.4-kcfs discharge at low tailwater. Flow quality, computed using the Sensor Fish turbulence index, was best for passage at the low-flow low-tailwater condition as well. The worst flow quality was observed for the 4.0-kcfs test condition. Contrasting the passage exposure conditions, the 2.4-kcfs low-tailwater treatment would be most deleterious to fish survival and well-being.

  1. Australian experience of providing for fish passage at small instream structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various instream structures have been constructed in Australia as a result of increasing agricultural activities. However, even small structures such as culverts and stream gauging stations can restrict essential fish movements and result in the extinction of local fish species. This paper discussed methods of modifying and designing new structures to ensure adequate fish passage. It was suggested that instream structures can provide for fish passage through the provision of bridges, or through the use of low profile structures for small weirs. Recommendations for site-specific instream structures included an assessment of fish species, topography, flow characteristics and cost effectiveness. Solutions for reducing the impact of small instream barriers to fish movement were also discussed. Provision for fish passage is an important consideration for planners and designers of dams. Legislation is now in place to ensure a planning and approval process prior to the commencement of construction and operation. It was concluded that significant works are now being undertaken to restore fish migration pathways caused by barriers that restrict fish movement. However, monitoring is needed to ensure that designs operate effectively. 17 refs., 3 figs

  2. A new technique for assessing fish passage survival at hydro power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HI-Z Turb'N Tag recovery method is presented as a new technique that has been successfully used at ten hydropower stations to determine turbine or spillway passage survival of fish. According to this technique, fish are tagged with the Turb'N Tag, which is pear-shaped, made of inflatable latex, and ca 35 mm long and 13 mm wide. The tag is designed to inflate after passage through the turbine, where it then floats the fish to the surface where it can be easily spotted and netted. One tag is sufficient to retrieve fish less than 18 cm long, while three tags may be needed for fish longer than 30 cm. In tests, fish were recovered in under 10 minutes from the tailrace after being tagged and released into a turbine. The tag allowed over 90% recovery of fish in most tests. The technique had minimal effect on the well-being of both hardy and sensitive species and provided an opportunity to examine recovered fish for injuries and retain them up to 72 h to assess possible delayed effects. The technique overcomes most of the logistical problems associated with conventional methods (netting, radio telemetry, mass mark-recapture) to determine turbine passage survival. The technique can also be used to assess effects of spill and fish bypass structures. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine, Spillway, and Regulating Outlet at Detroit Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-05-06

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike, collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  4. Wildlife risks associated with passage of contaminated, anadromous fish at Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Licensed Dams in Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this paper is to assess the issue of anadromous fish passage at Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licensed hydropower dams in Michigan and...

  5. Fish as vectors in the dispersal of Bythotrephes cederstroemi: Diapausing eggs survive passage through the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnagin, S.T.; Swan, B.K.; Kerfoot, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    1. Bythotrephes cederstroemi (Crustacea: Onychopoda: Cercopagidae) is an introduced invertebrate predator currently spreading through the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. We examined a previously unsuspected way in which B. cederstroemi may be dispersed by fish by their consumption of diapausing eggs. 2. Ninety-four percentage of the mature B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs consumed by fish were egested apparently intact. This proportion is considerably above previous estimates for the ephippial eggs of Daphnia. The hatching success of diapausing eggs was compared among four categories: (a) eggs released naturally by B. cederstroemi (control, 73% hatched (b) eggs released during 'stressful confinement' (46% hatched) (c) eggs dissected from dead females (13% hatched) and (d) eggs recovered from faecal pellets following consumption by fish (viable gut passage experiment, 41% hatched). 3. Samples of small fish and B. cederstroemi were collected simultaneously. Examination of gut contents revealed that fish contained B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs and that B. cederstroemi bearing resting eggs were consumed selectively over those without eggs. Moreover, fish selected B. cederstroemi bearing mature rather than immature diapausing eggs. 4. The fact that diapausing eggs survive gut passage is important for the dispersal of B. cederstroemi. Fish often move between the pelagic and littoral zones of lakes and may thus disperse diapausing eggs widely. Fish may also move between lakes connected by river systems and can be caught and passively dispersed by anglers or piscivorous birds. Our results demonstrate the potential for fish to act as vectors in the spread of B. cederstroemi.

  6. The fish fauna in the fish passage at the Ourinhos Dam, Paranapanema River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Sofia Arcifa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition and abundance of the fish assemblage were evaluated in the fish ladder of Ourinhos Dam, the newest dam (closed in 2005 in the cascade of dams constructed on the Paranapanema River. Samplings were carried out three times on a diel cycle, in three sampling periods, two in the warm season and one in the cold season of 2008 - 2009. The ladder was closed and emptied and the entire fish assemblage was sampled and identified. Most individuals were released alive downstream of the dam. The assemblage found in the ladder was compared with the fish fauna sampled in the reservoir and in downstream sites, in the same period. Twenty seven species and a total of 4682 individuals were caught in the ladder. Pimelodus maculatus was the only migratory species, which was caught in low number in the ladder (0.04% of the total captured, where small sedentary species predominated. The most abundant species were the non-migratory Apareiodon affinis, Bryconamericus stramineus, Astyanax fasciatus and Parodon nasus. Individuals observed in the ladder's window were moving up- and down the passage. The fish ladder is a microhabitat inhabited by an abundant association of benthic organisms that is probably used as a food resource for the fish assemblage in the ladder. The similarity between the fish fauna in the ladder and that of the Ourinhos Reservoir was low (26%. The species richness of migrants in the stretch between the uspstream reservoir (Chavantes and the downstream one (Salto Grande, before the Ourinhos dam closure (23 species was reduced to 16 and 12 species in Salto Grande and Ourinhos reservoirs, respectively, after the dam closure, and to a single species in the ladder.A composição e abundância da ictiofauna da escada de peixes da barragem de Ourinhos, a mais nova hidrelétrica (fechada em 2005 na sequência de barragens construídas no rio Paranapanema, foram avaliadas três vezes em um ciclo diário, em três períodos de coleta, dois no

  7. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2002-07-01

    Extremely poor water conditions within the Columbia River Basin along with extraordinary power market conditions created an exceptionally poor migration year for juvenile salmon and steelhead. Monthly 2001 precipitation at the Columbia above Grand Coulee, the Snake River above Ice Harbor, and the Columbia River above The Dalles was approximately 70% of average. As a result the 2001 January-July runoff volume at The Dalles was the second lowest in Columbia River recorded history. As a compounding factor to the near record low flows in 2001, California energy deregulation and the resulting volatile power market created a financial crisis for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Power emergencies were first declared in the summer and winter of 2000 for brief periods of time. In February of 2001, and on April 3, the BPA declared a ''power emergency'' and suspended many of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Biological Opinion (Opinion) measures that addressed mainstem Columbia and Snake Rivers juvenile fish passage. The river and reservoir system was operated primarily for power generation. Power generation requirements in January through March coincidentally provided emergence and rearing flows for the Ives-Pierce Islands spawning area below Bonneville Dam. In particular, flow and spill measures to protect juvenile downstream migrant salmon and steelhead were nearly totally suspended. Spring and summer flows were below the Opinion migration target at all sites. Maximum smolt transportation was implemented instead of the Opinion in-river juvenile passage measures. On May 16, the BPA Administrator decided to implement a limited spill for fish passage at Bonneville and The Dalles dams. On May 25, a limited spill program was added at McNary and John Day dams. Spill extended to July 15. Juvenile migrants, which passed McNary Dam after May 21, experienced a noticeable, improved survival, as a benefit of spill at John Day Dam. The suspension of

  8. A multi-scale GIS and hydrodynamic modelling approach to fish passage assessment: Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Rita M.; Reinfelds, Ivars V.; Butler, Gavin L.; Walsh, Chris T.; Broderick, Tony J.; Chisholm, Laurie A.

    2016-05-01

    Natural barriers such as waterfalls, cascades, rapids and riffles limit the dispersal and in-stream range of migratory fish, yet little is known of the interplay between these gradient dependent landforms, their hydraulic characteristics and flow rates that facilitate fish passage. The resurgence of dam construction in numerous river basins world-wide provides impetus to the development of robust techniques for assessment of the effects of downstream flow regime changes on natural fish passage barriers and associated consequences as to the length of rivers available to migratory species. This paper outlines a multi-scale technique for quantifying the relative magnitude of natural fish passage barriers in river systems and flow rates that facilitate passage by fish. First, a GIS-based approach is used to quantify channel gradients for the length of river or reach under investigation from a high resolution DEM, setting the magnitude of identified passage barriers in a longer context (tens to hundreds of km). Second, LiDAR, topographic and bathymetric survey-based hydrodynamic modelling is used to assess flow rates that can be regarded as facilitating passage across specific barriers identified by the river to reach scale gradient analysis. Examples of multi-scale approaches to fish passage assessment for flood-flow and low-flow passage issues are provided from the Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW, Australia. In these river systems, passive acoustic telemetry data on actual movements and migrations by Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) provide a means of validating modelled assessments of flow rates associated with successful fish passage across natural barriers. Analysis of actual fish movements across passage barriers in these river systems indicates that two dimensional hydraulic modelling can usefully quantify flow rates associated with the facilitation of fish passage across natural barriers by a majority of individual fishes for use in management

  9. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR)

    2005-07-01

    The runoff volume for 2004 was below average throughout the Columbia Basin. At The Dalles the January-July runoff volume was 77% of average or 83.0 MAF. Grand Coulee, Hungry Horse, and Libby were below their Biological Opinion reservoir target elevations on April 10 at the beginning of the spring salmon migration season. All major storage reservoirs except Libby, Grand Coulee, Hungry Horse, Dworshak, and Brownlee were within a few feet of full by the end of June and early July. Overall, NOAA Biological Opinion seasonal flow targets were not met at any project for either spring or summer migrations of salmon and steelhead. Overall, spill was reduced in 2004. Implementation of Biological Opinion spill for fish passage measures was wrought with contention in 2004, particularly for summer spill which was finally the subject of litigation. The spring migration spill season began with debate among the fishery mangers and tribes and action agencies regarding spill at Bonneville Dam for the Spring Creek Hatchery release. The USFWS agreed to a spill test versus a corner collector operation to determine the best route for survival for these fish. The USFWS agreement includes no spill for early Spring Creek Hatchery releases for the next two years. Spring spill at Snake River transportation sites was eliminated after April 23, and transportation was maximized. The federal operators and regulators proposed to reduce Biological Opinion summer spill measures, while testing the impact of those reductions. This proposal was eventually rejected in challenges in the Federal Ninth Circuit Court. The Corps of Engineers reported that spill at Bonneville Dam in the 2002 to 2004 period was actually lower than reported due to a spill calibration error at the project. Because flows were low and spill levels were easily controlled few fish were observed with any signs of Gas Bubble Trauma. The annual Smolt Monitoring Program was implemented and provided in-season timing and passage

  10. Fish passage and abundance around grade control structures on incised streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.T.; Papanicolaou, A.N.; Pierce, C.L.; Dermisis, D.C.; Litvan, M.E.; Larson, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes research from separate studies of fish passage over weirs (Larson et al., 2004; Litvan, 2006; Litvan, et al., 2008a-c) and weir hydraulics (Papanicolaou and Dermisis, 2006; Papanicolaou and Dermisis, in press). Channel incision in the deep loess region of western Iowa has caused decreased biodiversity because streams have high sediment loads, altered flow regimes, lost habitat, and lost lateral connectivity with their former floodplains. In-stream grade control structures (GCS) are built to prevent further erosion, protect infrastructure, and reduce sediment loads. However, GCS can have a detrimental impact on fisheries abundance and migration, biodiversity, and longitudinal connectivity. Fish mark-recapture studies were performed on stretches of streams with and without GCS. GCS with vertical or 1:4 (rise/run) downstream slopes did not allow fish migration, but GCS with slopes ??? 1:15 did. GCS sites were characterized by greater proportions of pool habitat, maximum depths, fish biomass, slightly higher index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores, and greater macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity than non-GCS sites. After modification of three GCS, IBI scores increased and fish species exhibiting truncated distributions before were found throughout the study area. Another study examined the hydraulic performance of GCS to facilitate unimpeded fish passage by determining the mean and turbulent flow characteristics in the vicinity of the GCS via detailed, non-intrusive field tests. Mean flow depth (Y) and velocity (V) atop the GCS were critical for evaluating GCS performance. Turbulent flow measurements illustrated that certain GCS designs cause sudden constrictions which form eddies large enough to disorient fish. GCS with slopes ??? 1:15 best met the minimum requirements to allow catfish passage of a flow depth of ??? 0.31 m and a mean flow velocity of ??? 1.22 m/s. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  11. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Deng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  12. Synthesis of Biological Reports on Juvenile Fish Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam through 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, Gary E.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Johnson, Richard L.; Stevenson, John R.; Schilt, Carl R.; Johnson, Peter N.; Patterson, Deborah S.

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a review of available literature on juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam from 1939 through 2005. Studies of interest included project-wide fish-passage efficiency (FPE) studies by radio telemetry and fixed-aspect hydroacoustics, fish survival studies (direct and indirect), FGE studies, powerhouse and unit (by netting, hydroacoustics, and radio telemetry), predation studies in the forebay and tailrace, behavioral studies on forebay approach and egress, and surface-bypass studies. The FPE effort will include a review of available distribution data (horizontal, diel, and vertical) for juvenile salmon. This study does not repeat the results of previous review and synthesis studies but cites them. Where no previous review exists for a subject area, all reports were reviewed and synthesized. The report includes an annotated bibliography summarizing each of the documents reviewed and a DVD disk containing all of the original papers and reports along with an HTML index to the documents.

  13. Passage of native riverine fishes through geometrically different sections of a vertical slot fishway on the Moselle River, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, Matthias; Mockenhaupt, Bernd; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study effects of different geometric types of pools or change of the flow direction on the passability of fish, sets of PIT antennas were installed inside a modern vertical slot fishway at the mouth of the River Moselle. Fish of 13 abundant species were caught and tagged with PIT tags in 2013 and released in the tailwater of Koblenz. 16% of the tagged fish were detected entering the fishway a short time after release. These individuals provided data on entry and passage rates for different sections of the fishway. Preliminary results show differences in passage time and passage rates between different sections of the fishway.

  14. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2001-06-01

    the FCRPS. Under this plan, spill hours were increased at Lower Monumental Dam. Spill volume at The Dalles was reduced and daytime spill tests were conducted at John Day and Bonneville Dams. Although provided for fish, most spill that occurred in 2000 was either in excess of project hydraulic capacity or excess generation. This effectively reduced the actual cost of the spill program. For the most part, spill in 2000 was managed to the waiver limits for total dissolved gas levels and the NMFS action criteria for dissolved gas signs were not exceeded. Hatchery spring chinook returns comprised an estimated 81.4% of the total spring chinook adult return to Lower Granite Dam. Smolt travel time and survival were similar to past years for most Smolt Monitoring Program groups. The notable exceptions were Snake River hatchery steelhead groups and mid-Columbia hatchery sub-yearling groups from Wells and Ringold hatcheries, which had significantly lower survival than previous years. Yearling chinook travel time showed variation from past years, reflecting the atypical flow shape in 2000 which had high flows in April, declining through May.

  15. Risk assessment for fish passage through small, low-head turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the findings of a study to improve the accuracy of prediction methods for fish fatalities for small-head Francis and Kaplan propeller turbine designs and gives details of computational fluid dynamic modelling to estimate pressure fluxes and shear stresses. Biological data is reviewed, and the STRIKER Excel spreadsheet model is used to predict death caused by pressure flux, shear turbulence, and blade strike. Field validation is discussed, and drawings of the Francis 1 and Kaplan 1 turbines, results of the fish passage trials, and STRIKER instructions and sample runs are presented in the appendices

  16. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele; Berggren, Thomas J.; Filardo, Margaret (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2003-09-01

    The runoff volumes in 2002 were near average for the January to July period above Lower Granite Dam (80%) and The Dalles Dam (97%). The year 2002 hydrosystem operations and runoff conditions resulted in flows that were less than the seasonal Biological Opinion (Opinion) flow objectives at Lower Granite Dam for both the spring and summer period. The seasonal flow objectives for Priest Rapids and McNary dams were exceeded for the spring period, but at McNary Dam summer flow objectives were not met. While seasonal flow objectives were exceeded for the spring at McNary Dam, the 2002 season illustrated that Biological Opinion management to seasonal flow targets can result in conditions where a major portion of the juvenile fish migration migrates in conditions that are less than the flow objectives. The delay in runoff due to cool weather conditions and the inability of reservoirs to augment flows by drafting lower than the flood control elevations, resulted in flows less than the Opinion objectives until May 22, 2002. By this time approximately 73% of the yearling chinook and 56% of steelhead had already passed the project. For the most part, spill in 2002 was managed below the gas waiver limits for total dissolved gas levels and the NMFS action criteria for dissolved gas signs were not exceeded. The exception was at Lower Monumental Dam where no Biological Opinion spill occurred due to the need to conduct repairs in the stilling basin. Survival estimates obtained for PIT tagged juveniles were similar in range to those observed prior to 2001. A multi-year analysis of juvenile survival and the factors that affect it was conducted in 2002. A water transit time and flow relation was demonstrated for spring migrating chinook and steelhead of Snake River and Mid Columbia River origin. Returning numbers of adults observed at Bonneville Dam declined for spring chinook, steelhead and coho, while summer and fall chinook numbers increased. However, all numbers were far greater

  17. Passage of north temperate fish through the Cowan Dam Denil fishway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish passage through a standard Denil fishway under low tailwater conditions was studied at Cowan Dam in Saskatchewan in 1990. In 1991 and 1992, fish passage through an experimental two-level Denil fishway was studied at the same location under similar flow conditions. Six species of fish used the Cowan Dam Denil fishway in 1990: northern pike, walleye, white sucker, longnose sucker, cisco, and lake whitefish. Tag returns suggest that most fish that congregate below Cowan Dam in the spring originate in Lac Ile-a-la-Crosse 150-200 km downstream. Northern pike waited until spawning had been completed before ascending the fishway. Only 12.1% of the pike congregated below the dam are estimated to have ascended the fishway. During 1990 and 1991, the number of pike ascending the fishway appeared to decline as water velocities in the standard and two-level Denil fishways increased. Mean pike length also declined over the period of fish movement, and as water velocities in the standard Denil declined. Walleye did not appear to have any difficulty ascending the standard Denil in 1990, but they did appear to have difficulty ascending the two-level Denil in 1991. Only 29% of the white suckers that ascended the fishway did so prior to spawning. According to recaptures of tagged fish, 58.8% of white suckers present in the tailwater pool ascended the standard Denil in 1990. White suckers also appeared to be able to ascend the two-level Denil without difficulty. Of the longnose suckers, 98% ascended the fishway prior to spawning in 1990, and appeared to ascend both the standard and two-level fishways without obvious delay or difficulty. Only small numbers of cisco and lake whitefish utilized the standard Denil fishway in 1990. 68 refs., 56 figs., 24 tabs

  18. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P.; Loffink, Ken; Duke, Bill

    2008-12-31

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from June 7, 2007 to August 11, 2008. A total of 3,133 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,487 adult, 1,067 jack, and 999 subjack fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha); 5,140 adult and 150 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,009 adult, 517 jack, and 128 subjack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 1,442 summer steelhead and 88 adult and 84 jack spring Chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 1,497 summer steelhead; 609 adult, 1,018 jack and 979 subjack fall Chinook; 5,036 adult and 144 jack coho; and 1,117 adult, 386 jack and 125 subjack spring Chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 110 summer steelhead; 878 adult and 43 jack fall Chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring Chinook were collected as broodstock for the Umatilla River hatchery program. In addition, there were 241 adult and 15 jack spring Chinook collected at Threemile Dam for outplanting in the South Fork Walla Walla River and Mill Cr, a tributary of the mainstem Walla Walla River. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at river mile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for out-migrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 158 days between February 11, 2008 and July 18, 2008. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 150 days and were trapped 6 days. There were also 2 days when fish were directed into and held in the canal forebay between the time the bypass was closed and the trap opened. An estimated 64 pounds of fish were transported from the Westland trapping facility. Approximately 25.8% of the fish transported were salmonids. In addition, one

  19. Fish Passage though Hydropower Turbines: Simulating Blade Strike using the Discrete Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ

    2014-12-08

    mong the hazardous hydraulic conditions affecting anadromous and resident fish during their passage though turbine flows, two are believed to cause considerable injury and mortality: collision on moving blades and decompression. Several methods are currently available to evaluate these stressors in installed turbines, i.e. using live fish or autonomous sensor devices, and in reduced-scale physical models, i.e. registering collisions from plastic beads. However, a priori estimates with computational modeling approaches applied early in the process of turbine design can facilitate the development of fish-friendly turbines. In the present study, we evaluated the frequency of blade strike and nadir pressure environment by modeling potential fish trajectories with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) applied to fish-like composite particles. In the DEM approach, particles are subjected to realistic hydraulic conditions simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and particle-structure interactions—representing fish collisions with turbine blades—are explicitly recorded and accounted for in the calculation of particle trajectories. We conducted transient CFD simulations by setting the runner in motion and allowing for better turbulence resolution, a modeling improvement over the conventional practice of simulating the system in steady state which was also done here. While both schemes yielded comparable bulk hydraulic performance, transient conditions exhibited a visual improvement in describing flow variability. We released streamtraces (steady flow solution) and DEM particles (transient solution) at the same location from where sensor fish (SF) have been released in field studies of the modeled turbine unit. The streamtrace-based results showed a better agreement with SF data than the DEM-based nadir pressures did because the former accounted for the turbulent dispersion at the intake but the latter did not. However, the DEM-based strike frequency is more

  20. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher [Colville Confederated Tribes

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  1. Dealing With Uncertainty When Assessing Fish Passage Through Culvert Road Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory B.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Straight, Carrie A.; Hagler, Megan M.; Peterson, James T.

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the passage of aquatic organisms through culvert road crossings has become increasingly common in efforts to restore stream habitat. Several federal and state agencies and local stakeholders have adopted assessment approaches based on literature-derived criteria for culvert impassability. However, criteria differ and are typically specific to larger-bodied fishes. In an analysis to prioritize culverts for remediation to benefit imperiled, small-bodied fishes in the Upper Coosa River system in the southeastern United States, we assessed the sensitivity of prioritization to the use of differing but plausible criteria for culvert impassability. Using measurements at 256 road crossings, we assessed culvert impassability using four alternative criteria sets represented in Bayesian belief networks. Two criteria sets scored culverts as either passable or impassable based on alternative thresholds of culvert characteristics (outlet elevation, baseflow water velocity). Two additional criteria sets incorporated uncertainty concerning ability of small-bodied fishes to pass through culverts and estimated a probability of culvert impassability. To prioritize culverts for remediation, we combined estimated culvert impassability with culvert position in the stream network relative to other barriers to compute prospective gain in connected stream habitat for the target fish species. Although four culverts ranked highly for remediation regardless of which criteria were used to assess impassability, other culverts differed widely in priority depending on criteria. Our results emphasize the value of explicitly incorporating uncertainty into criteria underlying remediation decisions. Comparing outcomes among alternative, plausible criteria may also help to identify research most needed to narrow management uncertainty.

  2. Fish passage through hydropower turbines: Simulating blade strike using the discrete element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the hazardous hydraulic conditions affecting anadromous and resident fish during their passage though hydro-turbines two common physical processes can lead to injury and mortality: collisions/blade-strike and rapid decompression. Several methods are currently available to evaluate these stressors in installed turbines, e.g. using live fish or autonomous sensor devices, and in reduced-scale physical models, e.g. registering collisions from plastic beads. However, a priori estimates with computational modeling approaches applied early in the process of turbine design can facilitate the development of fish-friendly turbines. In the present study, we evaluated the frequency of blade strike and rapid pressure change by modeling potential fish trajectories with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) applied to fish-like composite particles. In the DEM approach, particles are subjected to realistic hydraulic conditions simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and particle-structure interactions-representing fish collisions with turbine components such as blades-are explicitly recorded and accounted for in the calculation of particle trajectories. We conducted transient CFD simulations by setting the runner in motion and allowing for unsteady turbulence using detached eddy simulation (DES), as compared to the conventional practice of simulating the system in steady state (which was also done here for comparison). While both schemes yielded comparable bulk hydraulic performance values, transient conditions exhibited an improvement in describing flow temporal and spatial variability. We released streamtraces (in the steady flow solution) and DEM particles (transient solution) at the same locations where sensor fish (SF) were released in previous field studies of the advanced turbine unit. The streamtrace- based results showed a better agreement with SF data than the DEM-based nadir pressures did because the former accounted for the turbulent dispersion at the

  3. The Application of Traits-Based Assessment Approaches to Estimate the Effects of Hydroelectric Turbine Passage on Fish Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    One of the most important environmental issues facing the hydropower industry is the adverse impact of hydroelectric projects on downstream fish passage. Fish that migrate long distances as part of their life cycle include not only important diadromous species (such as salmon, shads, and eels) but also strictly freshwater species. The hydropower reservoirs that downstream-moving fish encounter differ greatly from free-flowing rivers. Many of the environmental changes that occur in a reservoir (altered water temperature and transparency, decreased flow velocities, increased predation) can reduce survival. Upon reaching the dam, downstream-migrating fish may suffer increased mortality as they pass through the turbines, spillways and other bypasses, or turbulent tailraces. Downstream from the dam, insufficient environmental flow releases may slow downstream fish passage rates or decrease survival. There is a need to refine our understanding of the relative importance of causative factors that contribute to turbine passage mortality (e.g., strike, pressure changes, turbulence) so that turbine design efforts can focus on mitigating the most damaging components. Further, present knowledge of the effectiveness of turbine improvements is based on studies of only a few species (mainly salmon and American shad). These data may not be representative of turbine passage effects for the hundreds of other fish species that are susceptible to downstream passage at hydroelectric projects. For example, there are over 900 species of fish in the United States. In Brazil there are an estimated 3,000 freshwater fish species, of which 30% are believed to be migratory (Viana et al. 2011). Worldwide, there are some 14,000 freshwater fish species (Magurran 2009), of which significant numbers are susceptible to hydropower impacts. By comparison, in a compilation of fish entrainment and turbine survival studies from over 100 hydroelectric projects in the United States, Winchell et al. (2000

  4. Effects of grade control structures on fish passage, biological assemblages, and hydraulic environments in western Iowa streams: a multidisciplinary review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.T.; Culler, M.E.; Dermisis, D.C.; Pierce, Clay; Papanicolaou, A.N.; Stewart, T.W.; Larson, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Land use changes and channelization of streams in the deep loess region of western Iowa have led to stream channel incision, altered flow regimes, increased sediment inputs, decreased habitat diversity and reduced lateral connectivity of streams and floodplains. Grade control structures (GCSs) are built in streams to prevent further erosion, protect infrastructure and reduce sediment loads. However, GCS can have a detrimental impact on fisheries and biological communities. We review three complementary biological and hydraulic studies on the effects of GCS in these streams. GCS with steep (≥1:4 rise : run) downstream slopes severely limited fish passage, but GCS with gentle slopes (≤1:15) allowed greater passage. Fish assemblages were dominated by species tolerant of degradation, and Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores were indicative of fair or poor biotic integrity. More than 50% of fish species had truncated distributions. After modification of GCS to reduce slopes and permit increased passage, IBI scores increased and several species were detected further upstream than before modification. Total macroinvertebrate density, biomass and taxonomic diversity and abundance of ecologically sensitive taxa were greater at GCS than in reaches immediately upstream, downstream or ≥1 km from GCS. A hydraulic study confirmed results from fish passage studies; minimum depths and maximum current velocities at GCS with gentle slopes (≤1:15) were more likely to meet minimum criteria for catfish passage than GCS with steeper slopes. Multidisciplinary approaches such as ours will increase understanding of GCS-associated factors influencing fish passage, biological assemblage structure and other ecological relationships in streams.

  5. Evaluation of fish passage through the Igarapé Dam fish ladder (rio Paraopeba, Brazil, using marking and recapture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rio Paraopeba, a tributary of rio São Francisco, has a six-meter high dam, built in 1978 to divert water to the Igarapé Thermal Power Plant. In 1994, a fish ladder was built at this dam. The results of a marking and recapture program carried out along rio Paraopeba between 1997 and 2001 are described, using information from fish community studies conducted at ten sampling stations between 1994 and 1997. These investigations showed the presence of at least 91 species in the river. During four rainy seasons between 1997 and 2000, fish were caught downstream of the dam, marked with external plastic tags, and immediately released at the same site. The objective was to evaluate fish passage through the ladder, based on recapture information from artisanal and sport fishermen. A total of 3,642 specimens were marked, adding up to a biomass of approximately 1.33 tons. Twenty-six species were used, representing 28.5% of the total recorded richness (91 species. Maximum recorded tag retention time was 10 months. Total recapture rate was 4.37% in four years, reaching 5.75% in the last period (2000-2001. Of all recaptured specimens, 14.0% were caught upstream of the dam, evidencing passage through the ladder. The specimens recaptured upstream of the dam belonged to three species: piau-verdadeiro (Leporinus obtusidens, mandi-amarelo (Pimelodus maculatus and curimatá-pioa (Prochilodus costatus. These species showed linear home ranges of 15.4, 81.5 and 232.0 km, respectively. Most recaptures occurred immediately downstream of the dam, one of the most intensely fished stretches of rio Paraopeba.Desde 1978, o rio Paraopeba, um afluente do rio São Francisco, tem uma barragem de 6 metros de altura para desvio de água para a Usina Térmica de Igarapé. Em 1994, uma escada para peixes foi construída nessa barragem. Os resultados de um programa de marcação e recaptura realizado entre 1997 e 2001 são descritos, utilizando dados prévios de estudos das

  6. Hungry Horse Dam fisheries mitigation program: Fish passage and habitat improvement in the Upper Flathead River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects

  7. The use of morphometric analysis to predict the swimming efficiency of two Neotropical long-distance migratory species in fish passage

    OpenAIRE

    Lucileine de Assumpção; Maristela Cavicchioli Makrakis; Sergio Makrakis; Ricardo Luiz Wagner; Patrícia Sarai da Silva; Ariane Furtado de Lima; Elaine Antoniassi Luiz Kashiwaqui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the external body morphology (based on morphometric data) and the swimming efficiency in fish passages (based on the ascent time in a fish ladder) of two Neotropical long-distance migratory species. The fish were collected in the fish ladder of the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Power Plant (known as Engenheiro Sergio Motta), upper Paraná River, Brazil. The species differ in several morphometric ratios related to swimming performance. Prochilodus lineatus exhibited a hi...

  8. A barrier to upstream migration in the fish passage of Itaipu Dam (Canal da Piracema), Paraná River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore R Castro-Santos; Fontes Júnior, Hélio Martins; Makrakis, Sergio; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Latini, João Dirço

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the fish passages built in the Neotropical region are characterised by low efficiency and high selectivity; in many cases, the benefits to fish populations are uncertain. Studies conducted in the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu dam on the Parana River indicate that the system component designated as the Discharge channel in the Bela Vista River (herein named Canal de deságue no rio Bela Vista or CABV), a 200 m long technical section, was the main barrier to the upstream migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of restriction imposed by the CABV on upstream movements of Prochilodus lineatus and Leporinus elongatus, Characiformes. Fish were tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) and released both downstream and upstream of this critical section. Individuals of both species released downstream of the CABV took much more time to reach the upper end of the system (43.6 days vs. 15.9 days), and passed in much lower proportions (18% vs. 60.8%) than those tagged upstream of this component. Although more work is needed to differentiate between fishway effects and natural variation in migratory motivation, the results clearly demonstrate passage problems at the CABV.

  9. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  10. Reservoir to river passage of age-0+ year fishes, indication of a dispersion pathway for a non-native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janáč, M; Jurajda, P; Kružíková, L; Roche, K; Prášek, V

    2013-03-01

    This study demonstrates passage of age-0+ year individuals of pikeperch Sander lucioperca, common bream Abramis brama and non-native tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris from the Nové Mlýny Reservoir into the River Dyje (Danube River basin, Czech Republic) through the turbine of a hydropower facility. Most fishes had standard length (LS ) in the range 12-33 mm. Seasonal patterns corresponded with spawning activity, i.e. an early single spawning event for S. lucioperca, multiple spawning events for A. brama and continuous spawning with a later start and prolonged duration for P. semilunaris. Sander lucioperca, P. semilunaris and larger A. brama (>22 mm) drifted almost exclusively during the dark; smaller A. brama displayed no preference for light or dark. Proterorhinus semilunaris displayed significantly lower mortality than other species when passing through the turbine (3% compared to 18%). The passage of high numbers of P. semilunaris from the reservoir (estimated at 473 000 individuals per year), and their subsequent mass downstream drift, may have contributed to rapid population establishment along the River Dyje and the quick downstream expansion. PMID:23464556

  11. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume II, Appendix A, Fisheries Habitat Inventory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest (Or.)

    1985-06-01

    Stream habitat inventories on 155 stream miles in the White River drainage on the Mt. Hood National Forest are summarized in this report. Inventory, data evaluation, and reporting work were accomplished within the framework of the budgetary agreements established between the USDA Forest Service, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Bonneville Power Administration, in the first 2 years of a multiyear program. One hundred forty-two stream miles of those inventoried on the Forest appear suitable for anadromous production. The surveyed area appears to contain most or all of the high quality fish habitat which would be potentially available for anadromous production if access is provided above the White River Falls below the Forest boundary. About 34 stream miles would be immediately accessible without further work on the Forest with passage at the Falls. Seventy-two additional miles could be made available with only minor (requiring low investment of money and planning) passage work further up the basin. Thirty-six miles of potential upstream habitat would likely require major investment to provide access.

  12. Identifying the effects on fish of changes in water pressure during turbine passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernathy, C. Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-09-01

    This article discusses experiments conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine how water pressure and dissolved gas levels associated with hydroelectric facilities may affect the survival of fish. The results of the experiments are discussed as well as how these results can be applied to turbine designs and plant operation.

  13. Further Tests of Changes in Fish Escape Behavior Resulting from Sublethal Stresses Associated with Hydroelectric Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G.

    2004-10-20

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. The most commonly used laboratory technique for assessing susceptibility to predation is the predator preference test. In this report, we evaluate the field application of a new technique that may be valuable for assessing indirect mortality, based on changes in a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. Initial studies demonstrated that turbulence created in a small laboratory tank can alter escape behavior. As a next step, we converted our laboratory design to a more portable unit, transported it to Alden Research Laboratory in Holden, Massachusetts, and used it to test fish that passed uninjured through a pilot-scale turbine runner. Rainbow trout were either passed through the turbine or exposed to handling stresses, and their behavior was subsequently evaluated. Groups of five fish were given a startle stimulus (a visual and pressure wave cue) and filmed with a high-speed (500 frames per s) video camera. The reactions of each group of fish to the startle stimulus were filmed at nominally 1-, 5-, and 15-min post-exposure. We compared the behaviors of 70 fish passed through the turbine

  14. Further tests of changes in fish escape behavior resulting from sublethal stresses associated with hydroelectric turbine passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, John G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. The most commonly used laboratory technique for assessing susceptibility to predation is the predator preference test. This report evaluates the field application of a new technique that may be valuable for assessing indirect mortality, based on changes in a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The study compared the behaviors of 70 fish passed through the turbine and another 70 under control conditions (either transferred from the holding tank or injected into the Alden loop downstream of turbine). The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a startle response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of the maximum C-shape, time to completion of the C-shape, completeness of the C-shape, direction of turn, and degree of turn. The data were evaluated for statistical significance and patterns of response were identified.

  15. Perspective: Towards environmentally acceptable criteria for downstream fish passage through mini hydro and irrigation infrastructure in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Lee J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Thorncraft, Garry; Boys, Craig A.; Brown, Richard S.; Singhanouvong, Douangkham; Phonekhampeng, Oudom

    2014-02-26

    Tropical rivers have high annual discharges optimal for hydropower and irrigation development. The Mekong River is one of the largest tropical river systems, supporting a unique mega-diverse fish community. Fish are an important commodity in the Mekong, contributing a large proportion of calcium, protein, and essential nutrients to the diet of the local people and providing a critical source of income for rural households. Many of these fish migrate not only upstream and downstream within main-channel habitats but also laterally into highly productive floodplain habitat to both feed and spawn. Most work to date has focused on providing for upstream fish passage, but downstream movement is an equally important process to protect. Expansion of hydropower and irrigation weirs can disrupt downstream migrations and it is important to ensure that passage through regulators or mini hydro systems is not harmful or fatal. Many new infrastructure projects (<6 m head) are proposed for the thousands of tributary streams throughout the Lower Mekong Basin and it is important that designs incorporate the best available science to protect downstream migrants. Recent advances in technology have provided new techniques which could be applied to Mekong fish species to obtain design criteria that can facilitate safe downstream passage. Obtaining and applying this knowledge to new infrastructure projects is essential in order to produce outcomes that are more favorable to local ecosystems and fisheries.

  16. Invasive zebra mussels (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) survive gut passage of migratory fish species: implications for dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Michael R.; Shoup, Daniel E.; Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is of great concern to natural resource managers in the United States. To effectively control the spread of these species, managers must be aware of the multitude of dispersal methods used by the organisms. We investigated the potential for survival through the gut of a migrating fish (blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus) as a dispersal mechanism for two invasive bivalves: zebra mussel (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea). Blue catfish (N = 62) were sampled over several months from Sooner Lake, Oklahoma, transported to a laboratory and held in individual tanks for 48 h. All fecal material was collected and inspected for live mussels. Survival was significantly related to water temperature in the lake at the time of collection, with no mussels surviving above 21.1 C°, whereas 12 % of zebra mussels (N = 939) and 39 % of Asian clams (N = 408) consumed in cooler water survived gut passage. This research demonstrates the potential for blue catfish to serve as a dispersal vector for invasive bivalves at low water temperatures.

  17. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation : Fish Passage and Habitat Improvement in the Upper Flathead River Basin, 1991-1996 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, W.Ladd; Deleray, Mark; Marotz, Brian L.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects.

  18. Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

  19. Evaluation of swimming capability and potential velocity barrier problems for fish. Part A: Swimming performance of selected warm and cold water fish species relative to fish passage and fishway design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to provide information about the swimming capability of several widely distributed, economically or recreationally important fish species, for use in mitigating potential velocity barrier problems associated with hydroelectric power facilities. Swimming capability of anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon, brook trout, brown trout, lake sturgeon, and walleye, collected from various locations throughout Canada, were investigated to develop criteria for sustained, prolonged, burst swimming performance characteristics of the study species, fish physiology, life history and migration distance on swimming performance. Swimming performance characteristics in the wild, especially the use of physiological telemetry, as well as development of new methodology for the measurement of burst speed was also central to the study. Models were derived to describe swimming capabilities for each study species/life stage in relation to fish length, water velocity, water temperature, and other significant environmental factors. The data will form the basis of guideline development and decision making to improve design and evaluation of fish passage facilities. A series of annotated bibliographies resulting from the study are described in Appendix B. 74 refs., 8 tabs., figs., 2 appendices

  20. Fish passage through a simulated horizontal bulb turbine pressure regime: A supplement to "Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, B. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the “worst case” pressure conditions (Abernethy et al. 2001) and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized (Abernethy et al. 2002). For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low-head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Tests indicated that for most of the cross-sectional area of a horizontal bulb turbine, pressure changes occurring during turbine passage are not harmful to fall chinook salmon and only minimally harmful to bluegill. However, some areas within a horizontal bulb turbine may have extreme pressure conditions that would be harmful to fish. These scenarios were not tested because they represent a small cross-sectional area of the turbine compared to the centerline pressures scenarios used in these tests.

  1. Residence times and diel passage distributions of radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in a gatewell and fish collection channel of a Columbia River Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The amount of time radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss spent within a gatewell and the juvenile collection channel at McNary Dam, Columbia River, USA, was measured to determine the diel passage behavior and residence times within these portions of the juvenile bypass system. The median gatewell residence times were 8.9 h for juvenile chinook salmon and 3.2 h for steelhead. Juvenile spring chinook salmon spent 83% of their time in the 18-m-deep gatewell at depths of 9 m or less, and juvenile steelhead spent 96% of their time in the upper 11 m. Fish released during midday and those released in the evening generally exited the gatewell in the evening, indicating that fish entering the gatewell during daylight will have prolonged residence times. Median collection-channel residence times of juvenile chinook salmon were much shorter (2.3 min) than those of steelhead (28.0 min), most likely because of the greater size of the steelhead and the high water velocities within the channel (2.1 m/s). This and other studies indicate most juvenile salmonids enter gatewells of several Columbia and Snake river dams in the evening and pass into the collection channels quickly. However, this is not consistent with the natural in-river migration patterns of these species and represents a delay in dam passage.

  2. Fish damage by turbine passage at the hydroelectric power plant in the river Maas near Linne, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Netherlands three large hydroelectric power plants are in operation. Fish, migrating along these plants, can be injured by the turbines, which may result in death of the fish. The injuries were investigated in two parts. This report deals with damage to eel. In part 2 attention is paid to the damage of squamous fishes. The survey at the title plant was executed in the autumn of 1990 and the spring of 1991. The percentage of injuries was determined for three turbine flows. The percentage increases with the length of the eel and when the turbine flow decreases

  3. 基于生态修复的青海湖沙柳河鱼道建设与维护%Construction and management of fish passage on Shaliu River adjacent to Qinghai Lake based on ecological restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓春; 史建全

    2014-01-01

    Gymnocypris przewalskii belongs to subfamily of Schizothoracinae, family of Cyprinidae and order of Cypriniformes, and it is an endemic species only distributed in the Qinghai Lake and its adjacent rivers and lakes. It possesses migration characteristics, and goes upstream from the lake to surrounding rivers in the reproduction season. However, several dams built on the rivers flowing into the lake with the agricultural development in the Qinghai Lake region since 1970s, severely blocked its migration passages, leading to obviously decreasing of resources of Gymnocypris przewalskii in recent years. To protect Gymnocypris przewalskii, three kinds of fish passages on the dams of rivers flowing into the Qinghai Lake were introduced, which were types of guide wall, simple steel modular and ladder slope, respectively. 1) The guide wall type fish passage was separately constructed on the dams in the Shaliu River, Quanji River and Haergai River in 2006, which were built along river side, but it had several defects because of the lack of experience. 2) The simple steel modular type fish passage was designed and constructed on the dam of the Shaliu River in 2008, Based on biological characteristics of Gymnocypris przewalskii and the basic situation of the dam and environmental conditions of the Shaliu River. After considering inlet location of fish passage, suction flow and hydraulic conditions within passage, the inlet was located at the area with aggregated fish and slow current velocity. The water flow was 0.5 m/s, the current velocity was 0.1-0.25 m3/s, as well as the slope of 1:10 within fish passage. 3) The ladder slope type fish passage was built on the dam of Shaliu River in 2010, which used two types open fishponds of multi-ladder and slight slope. Fish passage without hindrance had been almost come to be real through this type. This type was designed according to basic theories and related parameters of simple fish passage. The length was 80 m and the width was 1

  4. Experience Sampling Methodology reveals similarities in the experience of passage of time in young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John H

    2015-03-01

    Many people accept the idea that time seems to pass more quickly as they get older, as if this is a psychological reality. However, systematic investigations of differences in judgments of passage of time between young and elderly people are very rare and contradictory. The present study examined the experience of passage of time in daily life in young and elderly people using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM), with 8 alerts per day for 5 days being delivered by smartphones. At each alert, a short questionnaire was filled in, asking questions about passage of present time, affective state, arousal level, and attention to current activities, among others. Our ESM study found no difference between the young and the old participants in the judgment of passage of present time. Irrespective of the participants' age, the experience of passage of time in every-day life was significantly related to affective states and current activities when they captured attention. PMID:25701720

  5. Assessment of fishes, habitats, and fish passage at tide gates on Deer Island Slough and lower Tide Creek: 2009 project report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Columbia Soil and Water Conservation District (Columbia SWCD) and Lower Columbia River Watershed Council (LCRWC) are leading efforts to engage natural resource...

  6. Modelling population effects of juvenile offshore fish displacement towards adult habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Wolfshaar, K.E.; Tulp, I.; Wennhage, H.; Støttrup, Josianne

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of fish distribution patterns highlight shifts in the spatial distributions of particular life-stages. Focus has thus far been on changes in habitat use and possible drivers for these changes. Yet, small-scale shifts in habitat use of certain life stages may have profound......, the biomass of small juveniles and adults is barely affected. Between the 2 states there is a profoundly different population response to increased fishing mortality. In the adult biomass dominated state, adult biomass is hardly affected while juvenile biomass increases until population collapse, with...... increased fishing. In the small juvenile dominated state, adult and small juvenile biomass decrease, and large juvenile biomass increases. This state persists at much higher fishing mortality than the adult biomass dominated state. This study highlights that safeguarding nursery functions in a changing...

  7. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to

  8. Investigation of head burns in adult salmonids: Phase 1: Examination of fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain

  9. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1 : Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, Ralph

    1996-08-01

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain.

  10. Design and performance of radio telemetry systems for assessing juvenile fish passage at three hydroelectric dams: Chapter 6.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hockersmith, Eric; Stevenson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  11. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  12. The use of morphometric analysis to predict the swimming efficiency of two Neotropical long-distance migratory species in fish passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucileine de Assumpção

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the external body morphology (based on morphometric data and the swimming efficiency in fish passages (based on the ascent time in a fish ladder of two Neotropical long-distance migratory species. The fish were collected in the fish ladder of the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Power Plant (known as Engenheiro Sergio Motta, upper Paraná River, Brazil. The species differ in several morphometric ratios related to swimming performance. Prochilodus lineatus exhibited a higher muscle ratio and caudal fin length ratio. However, Leporinus elongatus showed higher values for the fineness ratio, a higher length from snout to pectoral fin base ratio, and a higher caudal peduncle depth factor. Although both species show good swimming performance, the characteristics listed above may enable L. elongatus to apply greater power and propulsion, allowing it to reach a high swimming speed and to exhibit greater efficiency than P. lineatus. Leporinus elongatus moves faster than P. lineatus and has a lower mean ascent time (1.39 hours than P. lineatus (3.76 hours. Prochilodus lineatus would require a somewhat longer time to pass through the fish ladder.Este estudo investigou a relação entre a morfologia externa do corpo (baseado em dados morfométricos e eficiência de natação em passagem para peixes (baseado no tempo de ascensão em uma escada para peixes de duas espécies neotropicais migradoras de longas distâncias. Os peixes foram coletados na escada para peixes da Usina Hidrelétrica de Porto Primavera (conhecida como Engenheiro Sérgio Motta, alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. As espécies diferem em algumas razões morfométricas referentes ao desempenho de natação: Prochilodus lineatus apresentou valores mais elevados para razão muscular e razão do comprimento da nadadeira caudal. No entanto, Leporinus elongatus apresentou valores mais elevados para razão fineza, para razão do comprimento do focinho à base da nadadeira peitoral e

  13. Using passive acoustic telemetry to infer mortality events in adult herbivorous coral reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J. A.; Welsh, J. Q.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    Mortality is considered to be an important factor shaping the structure of coral reef fish communities, but data on the rate and nature of mortality of adult coral reef fishes are sparse. Mortality on coral reefs is intrinsically linked with predation, with most evidence suggesting that predation is highest during crepuscular periods. We tested this hypothesis using passive acoustic telemetry data to determine the time of day of potential mortality events (PMEs) of adult herbivorous reef fishes. A total of 94 fishes were tagged with acoustic transmitters, of which 43 exhibited a PME. Furthermore, we identified five categories of PMEs based on the nature of change in acoustic signal detections from tagged fishes. The majority of PMEs were characterised by an abrupt stop in detections, possibly as a result of a large, mobile predator. Overall, mortality rates were estimated to be approximately 59 % per year using passive acoustic telemetry. The time of day of PMEs suggests that predation was highest during the day and crepuscular periods and lowest at night, offering only partial support for the crepuscular predation hypothesis. Visually oriented, diurnal and crepuscular predators appear to be more important than their nocturnal counterparts in terms of predation on adult reef fishes. By timing PMEs, passive acoustic telemetry may offer an important new tool for investigating the nature of predation on coral reefs.

  14. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...... paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21. cm...... (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09. cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially...

  15. Evaluation of nature-like and technical fishways for the passage of alewives at two coastal streams in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Abigail E.; Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Noreika, John

    2012-01-01

    Nature-like fishways have been designed with the intent to reconnect river corridors and provide passage for all species occurring in a system. The approach is gaining popularity both in Europe and North America, but performance of these designs has not been quantitatively evaluated in a field setting for any North American species. Two nature-like fishways and three technical fishways in New England were evaluated for passage of anadromous adult alewives Alosa pseudoharengus by using passive integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry. A perturbation boulder rock ramp (32 m long; 4.2% slope) constructed in Town Brook (Plymouth, Massachusetts) passed 94% of the fish that made passage attempts, with most fish ascending the ramp in less than 22 min. In the East River (Guilford, Connecticut), a step-pool bypass design (48 m long; 7.1% slope) passed only 40% of attempting fish, with a median transit time of 75 min. In Town Brook, a technical pool-and-weir fishway (14 m long; 14.3% slope) exhibited poor entry and poor passage for the fish. In contrast, in the East River, two technical steeppass fishways (3 m long; 29.6% and 9.6% slopes) passed the majority of available fish, although one of these steeppass fishways may have lacked sufficient flow to attract fish to the entrance. In both Town Brook and the East River, tagged fish passed rapidly downstream through all fishways after spawning. In the East River, the amount of time fish spent in the spawning habitat before migrating downstream ranged from 1 to 41 d. These studies demonstrate that some nature-like and technical fishway designs can effectively facilitate passage of alewives, but a fishway's location in relation to a spillway is important, and further evaluations are required to more precisely identify the influence of the vertical drop per pool and the specific local hydraulics on alewife behaviors and passage performance.

  16. Oily Fish Intake and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Atahualpa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Gillman, Jennifer; Zambrano, Mauricio; Ha, Jung-eun

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oily fish consumption is likely associated with a better cognitive performance. However, information on this association is controversial, with some studies showing a positive effect while others showing no association. We aimed to assess the effects of oily fish consumption on cognitive performance in a population of frequent fish consumers living in rural coastal Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and evaluated by the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Oily fish servings per week were calculated in all participants. We estimated whether fish intake correlated with MoCA scores in generalized multivariate linear models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, edentulism and symptoms of depression. Out of 330 eligible persons, 307 (93%) were enrolled. Mean MoCA scores were 19 ± 4.8 points, and mean oily fish consumption was 8.6 ± 5.3 servings per week. In multivariate analyses, MoCA scores were related to fish servings (β 0.097, 95% CI 0.005-0.188, p = 0.038). Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing showed an inflection point in the total MoCA score curve at four fish servings per week. However, predictive margins of the MoCA score were similar across groups below and above this point, suggesting a direct linear relationship between oily fish intake and cognitive performance. Simple preventive measures, such as modifying dietary habits might be of value to reduce the rate of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults living in underserved populations. PMID:26187093

  17. Hair Mercury Levels in Relation to Marine Fish Consumption among Adults in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of carnivorous fish is one of the major sources of human exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg). This study presents the data on fish consumption habits and hair mercury levels taken from 201 adults aged between 17- 72 years from four districts in the Peninsular Malaysia. The means for total mercury (THg) ranged from 0.93 ppm-1.69 ppm. The means for females and males were 1.21 ppm (SD=0.76) and 1.48 ppm (SD=0.89) respectively. The THg level for 59.30% of the study population (26.60% fe...

  18. Hair Mercury Levels in Relation to Marine Fish Consumption among Adults in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of carnivorous fish is one of the major sources of human exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg. This study presents the data on fish consumption habits and hair mercury levels taken from 201 adults aged between 17- 72 years from four districts in the Peninsular Malaysia. The means for total mercury (THg ranged from 0.93 ppm-1.69 ppm. The means for females and males were 1.21 ppm (SD=0.76 and 1.48 ppm (SD=0.89 respectively. The THg level for 59.30% of the study population (26.60% female participants exceeded the USEPA recommendation of 1 ppm. The average fish consumption was 180.19+11.34 g/day/person with higher fish consumption in both rural coastal areas compared with the urban communities (p=0.0001. Age was positively correlated with THg (rs=0.4588; p=0.0001 followed by the amount of fish eaten (rs=0.4199; p=0.0001, use of whitening cream (rs=0.2410; p=0.006, BMI (rs=0.2034; p=0.0041, location of study (rs=0.1818; p=0.01, and gender (0.1637; p=0.0241. However, we found negative correlation between the numbers of filling with THg (rs=-0.2485; p=0.004.

  19. Educating and Training out of Poverty? Adult Provision and the Informal Sector in Fishing Communities, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at access to adult education and vocational education and training (VET) provision in fishing communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Fishing communities are being disadvantaged due to geographical and socio-political marginalisation, and the predominance of informal sector employment in the context of worldwide marine…

  20. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam Turbines, Early Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.

    2012-02-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam turbines during early spring 2011. The study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) to investigate whether adult steelhead are passing through turbines during early spring before annual sluiceway operations typically begin. The sluiceway surface flow outlet is the optimal non-turbine route for adult steelhead, although operating the sluiceway reduces hydropower production. This is a follow-up study to similar studies of adult steelhead passage at the sluiceway and turbines we conducted in the fall/winter 2008, early spring 2009, fall/winter 2009, and early spring 2010. The goal of the 2011 study was to characterize adult steelhead passage rates at the turbines while the sluiceway was closed so fisheries managers would have additional information to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. Sluiceway operations were not scheduled to begin until April 10, 2011. However, based on a management decision in late February, sluiceway operations commenced on March 1, 2011. Therefore, this study provided estimates of fish passage rates through the turbines, and not the sluiceway, while the sluiceway was open. The study period was March 1 through April 10, 2011 (41 days total). The study objective was to estimate the number and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics with transducers deployed at all 22 main turbine units at The Dalles Dam. Adult steelhead passage through the turbines occurred on 9 days during the study (March 9, 12, 30, and 31 and April 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9). We estimated a total of 215 {+-} 98 (95% confidence interval) adult steelhead targets passed through the

  1. Effects of substituting fish meal with Azolla pinnata in practical diets for fingerling and adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    EL-SAYED, A.-F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Dry and fresh Azolla pinnata were evaluated as feed ingredients for fingerling and adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Dry Azolla was incorporated into practical diets containing approximately 30% crude protein and 360�400kcal/lOOg of GE lo replace 25,50,75 and 100% of the fish meal (FM) protein in the control diet. Fresh Azolla was also tested as a total diet for these fish. Formulated diets were fed to duplicate groups of fingerling (2�54g � 0093) and adult (4033g � 103) fish at...

  2. Nematodes parasitic in fishes of cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Part 1. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Mendoza-Franco, E; González-Solís, D

    1995-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of adult nematodes collected from fishes from cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, southeastern Mexico, in 1993-1994. Examinations of a total of 533 fishes (17 species) originating from 39 cenotes from the Mexican states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo revealed the presence of the following nine nematode species: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) kidderi, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae, P. (S.) neocaballeroi, Philometroides caudata, Hysterothylacium cenotue. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis, Paracapillaria rhamdiae, P. teixerafreitasi and Capillostrongyloides sp. (only females). Four species (R. kidderi, P. rebecae, P. neocaballeroi and Capillostrongyloides sp.) are briefly described and illustrated and some problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. Taxonomic changes include Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) neocaballeroi (Caballero-Deloya. 1977) comb. n. and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae (Andrade-Salas, Pineda-López et García-Magaña, 1994) comb. n. The nematode fauna of fishes in cenotes of the Yucatan Peninsula shows its appurtenance to the Neotropical fauna with close affinities with that of fish nematodes from South America, but with a considerable degree of endemism. PMID:8774767

  3. Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-04-01

    A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

  4. p53 Mutation suppresses adult neurogenesis in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoe, Yasuko; Okuyama, Teruhiro [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yoshihito [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35, Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Kubo, Takeo [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takeuchi, Hideaki, E-mail: takeuchi@biol.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Progenitor migration is accompanied by an increase in their numbers in the adult brain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 Mutation suppressed an increase in the number of the migrated progenitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decreased progenitor number is not due to enhanced cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 Mutation did not affect proliferation of stem cells. -- Abstract: Tumor suppressor p53 negatively regulates self-renewal of neural stem cells in the adult murine brain. Here, we report that the p53 null mutation in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) suppressed neurogenesis in the telencephalon, independent of cell death. By using 5-bromo-29-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, we identified 18 proliferation zones in the brains of young medaka fish; in situ hybridization showed that p53 was expressed selectively in at least 12 proliferation zones. We also compared the number of BrdU-positive cells present in the whole telencephalon of wild-type (WT) and p53 mutant fish. Immediately after BrdU exposure, the number of BrdU-positive cells did not differ significantly between them. One week after BrdU-exposure, the BrdU-positive cells migrated from the proliferation zone, which was accompanied by an increased number in the WT brain. In contrast, no significant increase was observed in the p53 mutant brain. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP) nick end-labeling revealed that there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells in the telencephalon of p53 mutant and WT medaka, suggesting that the decreased number of BrdU-positive cells in the mutant may be due to the suppression of proliferation rather than the enhancement of neural cell death. These results suggest that p53 positively regulates neurogenesis via cell proliferation.

  5. p53 Mutation suppresses adult neurogenesis in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Progenitor migration is accompanied by an increase in their numbers in the adult brain. ► p53 Mutation suppressed an increase in the number of the migrated progenitors. ► The decreased progenitor number is not due to enhanced cell death. ► p53 Mutation did not affect proliferation of stem cells. -- Abstract: Tumor suppressor p53 negatively regulates self-renewal of neural stem cells in the adult murine brain. Here, we report that the p53 null mutation in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) suppressed neurogenesis in the telencephalon, independent of cell death. By using 5-bromo-29-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, we identified 18 proliferation zones in the brains of young medaka fish; in situ hybridization showed that p53 was expressed selectively in at least 12 proliferation zones. We also compared the number of BrdU-positive cells present in the whole telencephalon of wild-type (WT) and p53 mutant fish. Immediately after BrdU exposure, the number of BrdU-positive cells did not differ significantly between them. One week after BrdU-exposure, the BrdU-positive cells migrated from the proliferation zone, which was accompanied by an increased number in the WT brain. In contrast, no significant increase was observed in the p53 mutant brain. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP) nick end-labeling revealed that there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells in the telencephalon of p53 mutant and WT medaka, suggesting that the decreased number of BrdU-positive cells in the mutant may be due to the suppression of proliferation rather than the enhancement of neural cell death. These results suggest that p53 positively regulates neurogenesis via cell proliferation.

  6. Proliferation zones in the brain of adult fish Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiform: Rivulidae): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A S; Rosillo, J C; Casanova, G; Olivera-Bravo, S

    2011-08-25

    In contrast with mammals, adult fish brains exhibit an enormous potential to produce new cells. Proliferation zones, however, have been described in only a few species, hindering comparisons among genuses and orders. Here we analyzed brain cell proliferation in annual teleostean fishes Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiform: Rivulidae). Immunocytochemistry against 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was quantitated and mapped 24 h after injection in three species with different phylogenetic positions or habitats. All species had similar brain anatomy and total volume, but olfactory bulbs, torus longitudinalis and cerebellum were of different sizes in different species. Cell proliferation was found throughout the brain. Three-D reconstructions provided evidence for contiguity along the rostro-caudal axis and concentration in the vicinity of the ventricles. Brain regions analyzed exhibited high mitotic activity, and the torus longitudinalis had the highest volume-normalized proliferation index. A. affinis exhibited the highest normalized proliferation indexes in visual regions but the lowest in olfactory bulb. A. reicherti showed an inverse pattern, suggesting that these species have a different hierarchy of sensorial modalities that could be related to phylogeny or habitat. Double immunostaining against BrdU and cell-type specific markers was performed to determine the fate of proliferating cells. A widespread gliogenesis was evidenced. Few cells positive for both BrdU and the neuronal marker HuC/D were found in the brain of the three species, demonstrating neurogenesis in the adult Austrolebias brain. Summarizing, adult members of the three species showed similar brain anatomy and cell proliferation patterns. Among species, volume-normalized proliferation indexes varied in regions involved in different sensory modalities. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing proliferating cells with neuronal markers as earlier as 24 h after BrdU injection. PMID:21664435

  7. Hydraulic evaluation of fish attraction potential at Merwin Dam fish collection facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed a 1:24 scale physical model constructed to optimize a proposed fish trap entrance for a hydroelectric project located on the Lewis River in Washington state. The fish trap entrance will be placed at the Merwin dam, which is located at the furthest point downstream of the main project. The new adult fish passage facilities will collect, sort, and transport adult fish migrating upstream from the ocean. The physical model was used to confirm the preliminary entrance locations as well as to evaluate attraction flows and optimize entrance weir designs. A pump station intake arrangement was also designed to supply fishway attraction flow. It was concluded that the model will also be used to document tailrace flow patterns in order to assist with future studies of fish behavior and dams. 5 figs.

  8. Enloe Dam Passage Project, Volume I, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, M.L.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses issues related to the provision of fish passage facilities at Enloe Dam and the introduction of anadromous salmonid fish to the upper Similkameen River basin. The species of fish being considered is a summer run of steelhead trout adapted to the upper Columbia basin. (ACR)

  9. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  10. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and passage at water diversions on the lower Umatilla River. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outdated juvenile and adult fish passage facilities were recently reconstructed at the five major irrigation dams on the lower Umatilla River, Oregon to meet National marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design standards. Changes in design at juvenile fish bypass facilities included reduced mesh size on the rotating drum screens, larger screening area, a more oblique orientation of the drum screens to canal flow, improved screen seals, replacement of bypass portals with vertical slot bypass channels, and increased bypass pipe diameters. Weir-and-pool adult fish ladders and jump pools were replaced with vertical-slot ladders. From 1991--1995, they investigated injury and travel rate of juvenile fish moving through the facilities, and efficiency of screens in preventing fish entry into the canals. Water velocities in front of canal screens, at bypass channel entrances, and at ladder diffusers were measured to assess adherence to NMFS criteria and identify hydraulic patterns. Biological evaluations were conducted by releasing and recapturing marked yearling summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), yearling spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and subyearling fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in varying locations within the fish passage facilities

  11. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  12. Cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, as a habitat of adult trematodes of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Moravec, F; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Mendoza-Franco, E

    1995-01-01

    Examination of a total of 581 fish specimens of 15 species from 39 cenotes (sinkholes) in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeastern Mexico, revealed the presence of 10 species of adult trematodes. These were as follows: Saccocoelioides sogandaresi Lumsden, 1963, Saccocoelioides sp. (family Haploporidae), Cichlasotrema ujati Pineda et Andrade, 1989 (Angiodictyidae), Crassicutis cichlasomae Manter, 1936 (Homalometridae), Magnivitellinum simplex Kloss, 1966 (Macroderoididae), Stunkardiella minima (Stunkard, 1938) (Acanthostomidae), Oligogonotylus manteri Watson, 1976 (Cryptogonimidae), Genarchella tropica (Manter, 1936), G. astyanactis (Watson, 1976), and G. isabellae (Lamothe-Argumedo, 1977) (Derogenidae). Saccocoelioides sogandaresi is reported from Mexico for the first time. Poecilia velifera and P. latipunctata for S. sogandaresi, Cichlasoma octofasciatum for C. cichlasomae, Cichlasoma friedrichstahli and C. meeki for O. manteri, and C. meeki, C. octofasciatum and Gobiomorus dormitor for G. isabellae represent new host records. Most species found are described and figured and their host range and distribution are discussed. PMID:9599426

  13. Boule is present in fish and bisexually expressed in adult and embryonic germ cells of medaka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The DAZ family genes boule, daz and dazl encode RNA binding proteins essential for fertility of diverse animals including human. dazl has bisexual expression in both mitotic and meiotic germ cells, whereas daz has male premeiotic expression, and boule is largely a unisexual meiotic regulator. Although boule has been proposed as the ancestor for dazl/daz by gene duplication, it has been identified only in invertebrates and mammals. It has, however, remained unclear when and how the DAZ family has evolved in vertebrates. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was aimed at identifying and characterizing the DAZ family genes in fish as the basal vertebrate. We show that boule and dazl coexist in medaka and stickleback. Similar to the medaka dazl (Odazl, the medaka boule (Obol is maternally supplied and segregates with primordial germ cells. Surprisingly, Obol is expressed in adult germ cells at pre-meiotic and meiotic stages of spermatogenesis and oogenesis. However, the maximal meiotic Obol expression in spermatocytes contrasts with the predominant pre-meiotic Odazl expression in spermatogonia, and the diffuse cytoplasmic Obol distribution in early oocytes contrasts with the Odazl concentration in the Balbinani's body. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of fish boule and dazl genes provides direct evidence for the early gene duplication during vertebrate evolution. Our finding that Obol exhibits bisexual expression in both embryonic and adult germ cells considerably extends the diversity of boule expression patterns and offers a new insight into the evolutions of DAZ family members, expression patterns and functions in animal fertility.

  14. Community-Based Adult Education for the Fisherwomen of Rajapalyam Fishing Village in Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    Rajapalyam village is located in the Tuticorin district along the biodiversity rich Gulf of Mannar coast in southeastern India. The people of this village are economically backward and most of the men are engaged in fishing. The fisherwomen of this village are less literate than the men, or illiterate. Adult education has been introduced to the…

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves heart rate variability and heart rate responses to exercise in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Daniel M; Hill, Alison M; Howe, Peter R; Buckley, Jonathan D; Saint, David A

    2008-11-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation and regular physical activity can improve outcomes in patients with established CVD. Exercise has been shown to improve heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiac death, but whether fish oil benefits HRV is controversial. Obese adults at risk of future coronary disease have impaired HRV and may benefit from these interventions. We evaluated the effect of DHA-rich tuna fish oil supplementation with and without regular exercise on HRV in sedentary, overweight adults with risk factors for coronary disease. In a randomised, double-blind, parallel comparison, sixty-five volunteers consumed 6 g fish oil/d (DHA 1.56 g/d, EPA 0.36 g/d) or sunflower-seed oil (placebo) for 12 weeks. Half of each oil group also undertook regular moderate physical activity (3 d/week for 45 min, at 75 % of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR)). Resting HR and the HR response to submaximal exercise were measured at weeks 0, 6 and 12. In forty-six subjects, HRV was also assessed by power spectrum analysis of 20 min electrocardiogram recordings taken supine at baseline and 12 weeks. Fish oil supplementation improved HRV by increasing high-frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, compared with placebo (P = 0.01; oil x time interaction). It also reduced HR at rest and during submaximal exercise (P = 0.008; oil x time interaction). There were no significant fish oil x exercise interactions. Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil reduced HR and modulated HRV in keeping with an improved parasympathetic-sympathetic balance in overweight adults with risk factors for future coronary disease. PMID:18339222

  16. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Yoon Ling, Cheong; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Che Hussein, Nasriyah; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demog...

  17. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  18. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam, 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2010-07-31

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2009 through early spring 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines for fisheries managers and engineers to use in decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study was from November 1, 2009 to April 10, 2010. The study was divided into three study periods: Period 1, November 1 - December 15, 2009 for a fall/winter sluiceway and turbine study; Period 2, December 16, 2009 - February 28, 2010 for a turbine only study; Period 3, March 1 - April 10, 2010 for a spring sluiceway and turbine study. Sluiceway operations were scheduled to begin on March 1 for this study; however, because of an oil spill cleanup near the sluice outfall, sluiceway operations were delayed until March 8, 2010, therefore the spring study period did not commence until March 8. The study objectives were to (1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA between November 1 and December 15, 2009 and March 1 and April 10, 2010, and (2) estimate the numbers and distribution of adult steelhead and kelt-sized targets passing into turbine units between December 16, 2009 and February 28, 2010. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics. For Period 1, overwintering summer steelhead fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. A total of 879 {+-} 165 (95% CI) steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse and sluiceway during November 1 to December 15, 2009. Ninety two

  19. 杂食性鱼类排泄物中藻类光能活性研究%Changes in the photosynthetic activity of Microcystis colonies after gut passage through omnivorous fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银平; 赵勇; 曾庆飞; 孙明波

    2013-01-01

    The photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria (predominantly Microcystis spp.) after pass through the digestive tract of Crucian Carp and Gold Crucian Carp was determined by PAM fluorirneter(Dual-PAM-100) so as to argue if ingestion of cyanobacterial biomass by Crucian Carp and Gold Crucian Carp could be considered as one of the biological methods for the water bloom formation control. The results showed that fish digestion had a significantly effect (P<0.05) on the photosynthetic activity and growth of microcystis. The photosynthetic activity, Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm, ETR and qP, of phytoplankton from Crucian Carp guts after the fifth day and ΦPSII from the third day became significantly higher than that of phytoplankton from Gold Crucian Carp, while NPQ decreased during the incubatioa The Fluorescence parameters, Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, ETR and qP, form goldfish passage, decreased sharply during the incubation. The Chlorophyll-a concentration and cell density of Microcystis from Crucian Carp gut passage decreased at the beginning, then increased, and finally restored to the level of the control. Moreover, Chlorophyll-a concentration had an extremely significant (P<0.01) positive correlation with the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters respectively. However, the Chlorophyll-a concentration and cell density of Microcystis from Gold Crucian Carp gut passage had a extremely significant (P<0.01) positive correlation with the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, kept declining during the culture period and much lower than that of control, Finally, the Chlorophyll fluorescence and growth of Microcystis after Crucian Carp digestion droped at the beginning, and then restored gradually. But for Gold Crucian Carp, gut passage significantly damaged the photosynthetic activity of Microcystis. Since the Gold Crucian Carp was usually stocked as ornamental fishes, it isn't suitable to be considered as cyanobacteria bloom control.%借助叶绿素荧光技术,通

  20. Hydropower R&D: Recent advances in turbine passage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rinehart, Ben N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that are often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  1. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  2. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2009-09-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2008 and early spring 2009, respectively. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). Operating the sluiceway reduces the potential for hydropower production. However, this surface flow outlet may be the optimal non-turbine route for fallbacks in late fall after the sluiceway is typically closed for juvenile fish passage and for overwintering summer steelhead and kelt passage in the early spring before the start of the voluntary spill season. The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines, and their movements in front of the sluiceway at TDA to inform fisheries managers’ and engineers’ decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study periods were from November 1 to December 15, 2008 (45 days) and from March 1 to April 9, 2009 (40 days). The study objectives were to 1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA during the two study periods, respectively, and 2) assess the behavior of these fish in front of sluice entrances. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics and fish behavior data using acoustic imaging. For the overwintering summer steelhead, fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. We estimated that a total of 1790 ± 250 (95% confidence interval) summer steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse intakes and operating sluices during November 1 to December 15, 2008. Ninety five percent of these fish passed through the sluiceway. Therefore, without the sluiceway as

  3. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2008 and early spring 2009, respectively. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). Operating the sluiceway reduces the potential for hydropower production. However, this surface flow outlet may be the optimal non-turbine route for fallbacks in late fall after the sluiceway is typically closed for juvenile fish passage and for overwintering summer steelhead and kelt passage in the early spring before the start of the voluntary spill season. The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines, and their movements in front of the sluiceway at TDA to inform fisheries managers and engineers decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study periods were from November 1 to December 15, 2008 (45 days) and from March 1 to April 9, 2009 (40 days). The study objectives were to (1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA during the two study periods, respectively, and (2) assess the behavior of these fish in front of sluice entrances. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics and fish behavior data using acoustic imaging. For the overwintering summer steelhead, fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. We estimated that a total of 1790 ± 250 (95% confidence interval) summer steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse intakes and operating sluices during November 1 to December 15, 2008. Ninety five percent of these fish passed through the sluiceway. Therefore, without the sluiceway as a

  4. Rites of Passage in Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Young Mormons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry J.

    2003-01-01

    Explored the role of rites of passage in emerging adulthood among Mormon college students. Found that the majority supported individualistic criteria for adulthood, but most also believed that rites of passage specific to their religion were necessary to become an adult. Determined that emerging adulthood is a distinct period of the life course…

  5. McNary Dam powerhouse surface passage project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed a fish passage design developed as part of the McNary dam system. Located approximately 470 km from the mouth of the Columbia River, the McNary Powerhouse Surface Passage (PSP) project will use a surface passage route within the powerhouse to ensure the lateral distribution of fish across the 14-turbine unit powerhouse. Fish at the dam are currently guided by turbine screens onto a juvenile bypass system. The new design concept incorporates the use of ogee crest weirs extending from the forebay into an existing sluiceway channel. A 1:20 scale physical model of the sluiceway system was constructed in order to optimize the weir entrance and the fish channel transport system. It was concluded that a 2-year prototype test will be conducted with a single weir in place in order to determine the effectiveness of the design for transporting Chinook salmon. 12 figs.

  6. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  7. E.D.F. - Fish passes: follow up and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief recall on the steps of E.D.F. towards fish passes, this paper presents the different methods used for the control of fish passage facilities and the results obtained for structure conception or dimensioning. Informations on fish counting techniques, costs, efficiency and follow up of fish passage facilities are also given. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 8 photos

  8. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles Dam during summer 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion, dam passage survival is required to be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam and through the tailrace to 2 km downstream of the dam, forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required by the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  9. Does Fish Oil Have an Anti-Obesity Effect in Overweight/Obese Adults? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Shichun; Jin, Jie; Fang, Wenjun; Su, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Context Accumulating evidence has suggested favorable effects of fish oil on weight loss in animal experiments; however, findings remain inconsistent in humans. Objects The meta-analysis was performed to investigate the influence of fish oil on some parameters of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Design Human randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified by a systematic search of Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, web of science and reference lists of related reviews and...

  10. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Kimberly L; Yackulic, Charles B; Kennedy, Theodore A; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-12-01

    Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may increase dispersal downriver where other fish species may be a priority (e.g., endangered species). There is an urgent need to understand the drivers of trout population dynamics in tailwaters, in particular the role of flow management. Here, we evaluate how flow, fish density, and other physical factors of the river influence recruitment and mean adult length in tailwaters across western North America, using data from 29 dams spanning 1-19 years. Rainbow trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high annual, summer, and spring flow and dam latitude, and positively correlated with high winter flow, subadult brown trout catch, and reservoir storage capacity. Brown trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high water velocity and daily fluctuations in flow (i.e., hydropeaking) and positively correlated with adult rainbow trout catch. Among these many drivers, rainbow trout recruitment was primarily correlated with high winter flow combined with low spring flow, whereas brown trout recruitment was most related to high water velocity. The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics

  11. Suitability of herbal pesticides, turmeric and neem, in repelling dry fish insect Necrobia sp. adult

    OpenAIRE

    Lithi, U.J.; Hassan, M. N.; Hossain, M. M.; Nowsad, A.A.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Repellency effect of turmeric and neem was investigated against the mite Necrobia sp. and field doses were determined on the basis of their repellency, keeping quality, insect occurrence and sensory evaluation of turmeric and neem treated dry fish and their cooked products. Turmeric and neem were used in three forms, viz., i. extract, ii. powder and iii. pellet. The concentrations tested for turmeric and neem extracts were 2%, 3%, 4% and 3%, 5%, 7%, respectively, those of both powders were 1....

  12. Some aspects of the taxonomy and biology of adult spirurine nematodes parasitic in fishes: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2007), s. 239-257. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Spirurina * Nematoda * taxonomy * Cystidicolidae * Rhabdochonidae * fish Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2007

  13. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Detroit Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Detroit Dam (DET) on the North Santiam River, Oregon for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at DET and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to regulatory requirements necessitated by the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the study was to provide information of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at DET from February 2011 through February 2012. The results of the hydroacoustic study provide new and, in some cases, first-ever data on passage estimates, run timing, distributions, and relationships between fish passage and environmental variables at the dam. This information will inform management decisions on the design and development of surface passage and collection devices to help restore Chinook salmon populations in the North Santiam River watershed above DET. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 182,526 smolt-size fish (±4,660 fish, 95% CI) passed through turbine penstock intakes. Run timing peaked in winter and early spring months. Passage rates were highest during late fall, winter and early spring months and low during summer. Horizontal distribution for hours when both turbine units were operated simultaneously indicated Unit 2 passed almost twice as much fish as Unit 1. Diel distribution for smolt-size fish during the study period was fairly uniform, indicating fish were passing the turbines at all times of the day. A total of 5,083 smolt-size fish (± 312 fish, 95% CI) were estimated passed via the spillway when it was open between June 23 and September 27, 2011. Daily passage was low at the spillway during the June-August period, and

  14. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-02-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  15. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-07

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  16. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  17. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-03-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  18. The making of winners (and losers): how early dominance interactions determine adult social structure in a clonal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Kate L; Wolf, Max; Bierbach, David

    2016-05-11

    Across a wide range of animal taxa, winners of previous fights are more likely to keep winning future contests, just as losers are more likely to keep losing. At present, such winner and loser effects are considered to be fairly transient. However, repeated experiences with winning and/or losing might increase the persistence of these effects, generating long-lasting consequences for social structure. To test this, we exposed genetically identical individuals of a clonal fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa), to repeated winning and/or losing dominance interactions during the first two months of their life. We subsequently investigated whether these experiences affected the fish's ability to achieve dominance in a hierarchy five months later after sexual maturity, a major life-history transition. Individuals that had only winning interactions early in life consistently ranked at the top of the hierarchy. Interestingly, individuals with only losing experience tended to achieve the middle dominance rank, whereas individuals with both winning and losing experiences generally ended up at the bottom of the hierarchy. In addition to demonstrating that early social interactions can have dramatic and long-lasting consequences for adult social behaviour and social structure, our work also shows that higher cumulative winning experience early in life can counterintuitively give rise to lower social rank later in life. PMID:27170711

  19. Alternatives and passages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    -called "technological"). This brief positioning paper takes point of departure in an ongoing postdoc project following circulations and establishments of http://www.mingoville.com/ , which is a virtual universe with game based elements developed for beginning English teaching and learning.  The paper presents a Science...... and Technology Studies (STS) and Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) inspired approach to researching emerging passages between beginning English teaching and learning and Mingoville.......While much research into serious games focus on following teaching and/or learning activities, and particularly the human and institutional actors involved in these, the central actors of game based learning research (i.e. the games) seldom get much attention (unless the focus is so...

  20. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  1. Results of a shoreline waterbird survey in Passage Canal, Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1 September 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers findings from shoreline water birds surveys of Passage Canal, Prince William Sound in Alaska. Methods, results and discussion are included,...

  2. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and allergic respiratory disease in the adult offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal supplementation with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can have immunologic effects on the developing fetus through several anti-inflammatory pathways. However, there is limited knowledge of the long-term programming effects. OBJECTIVE: In a randomized controlled trial...... from 1990 with 24 years of follow-up, our aim was to determine whether supplementation with 2.7 g of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy can reduce the risk of asthma in offspring and allergic respiratory disease. METHODS: The randomized controlled trial included 533 women who were...... randomly assigned to receive fish oil during the third trimester of pregnancy, olive oil, or no oil in the ratio 2:1:1. The offspring were followed in a mandatory national prescription register, with complete follow-up for prescriptions related to the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis as primary...

  3. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1, Examination of Fish at Lookingglass Hatchery in 1996 : Addendum to Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groberg, Warren J.

    1996-11-01

    This information is an addendum to the report 'Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids, Phase 1: Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996' by Ralph Elston because there may be relevant observations included here. The author of this document participated in the examinations at Lower Granite Dam described in that report. Because of Endangered Species Act issues, the Rapid River stock of spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery on the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon are annually being captured as returning adults at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River and trucked to Lookingglass. During the peak migration period they are held in an adult holding facility at Lower Granite for as long as 72 hours and then transported by truck to Lookingglass for holding in an adult pond for spawning. In 1996 a total of 572 adults were transported from Lower Granite Dam between May 3 and August 6. Two-hundred eighty-one of these were later transported from Lookingglass to Wallowa Hatchery for artificial spawning and the remaining 291 were held for spawning at Lookingglass. On May 21, 24, 30 and June 2, 1996 hatchery personnel identified a total of 32 off-loaded fish with lesions on the dorsal area of the head they described as having the appearance of blisters (Robert Lund personal communication). By date these are shown in Table 1 (fish with similar lesions were also observed on May 27 but the number of these was not recorded). Such lesions were not observed on fish offloaded on any other dates. On May 24, 1996 hatchery personnel took photographs of fish with these lesions but do to light-meter problems the photographs did not turn out. On June 28, 1996 personnel of the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Fish Pathology laboratory in La Grande were notified by James Lauman, ODFW Northeast Region supervisor, of discussions and concerns of head burn on returning adult chinook while he was on a visitation to Lower Granite Dam

  4. Behavior, passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon from Detroit Reservoir to Portland, Oregon, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Beeman, John W.; Hansen, Amy C.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sholtis, Matthew D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted to estimate dam passage survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at Detroit Dam during a period of spill. To estimate dam passage survival, we used a paired-release recapture study design and released groups of tagged fish upstream (997 fish) and downstream (625 fish) of Detroit Dam. A total of 43 fish (6.8 percent) passed Detroit Dam from the upstream release group and passage occurred through regulating outlets (54.8 percent), spill bays (31.0 percent), and turbines (14.3 percent). We do not present dam passage survival estimates from 2014 because these estimates would have been highly uncertain due to the low number of fish that passed Detroit Dam during the study. Secondary objectives were addressed using data collected from tagged fish that were released at the downstream release site.

  5. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead at McNary Dam, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Batton, George; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Deng, Zhiqun; Etherington, D. J.; Fu, Tao; Greiner, Michael J.; Ingraham, John M.; Kim, Jin A.; Li, Xi; Martinez, Jayson J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Seaburg, Adam; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-12-23

    The study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at McNary Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. This study supports the USACE’s continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  6. Expression of mep50 in adult and embryos of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nana; Guo, Maomao; Chang, Pei; Zhang, Xueyan; Zhang, Runshuai; Qi, Chao; Zhong, Xueping; Zhou, Qingchun; Zhao, Haobin

    2016-06-01

    Protein arginine methylation is important for gene regulation and biological processes. Methylosome protein 50 (Mep50) is identified as a partner of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (Prmt5), a major enzyme capable of symmetric dimethylation, in mammals and Xenopus. The isolation and characterization of medaka mep50 were reported in this paper. Medaka Mep50 is a homolog of human MEP50 with six WD40 domains. Medaka mep50 was ubiquitously expressed in the adult tissues and had maternal origin with continuous and dynamical expression during embryonic development detected by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. A strong interaction of medaka Mep50 and Prmt5 was shown by yeast two hybridization. The expression pattern of mep50 is similar to that of prmt5 in medaka. The results suggested that medaka Mep50 could be a partner of Prmt5 and might play major roles in a variety of tissues in medaka. PMID:26749004

  7. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. PMID:24995635

  8. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  9. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  10. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes.Objective: To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day inta...

  11. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-03-31

    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  12. A new and fast technique to generate offspring after germ cells transplantation in adult fish: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyra M S N Lacerda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Germ cell transplantation results in fertile recipients and is the only available approach to functionally investigate the spermatogonial stem cell biology in mammals and probably in other vertebrates. In the current study, we describe a novel non-surgical methodology for efficient spermatogonial transplantation into the testes of adult tilapia (O. niloticus, in which endogenous spermatogenesis had been depleted with the cytostatic drug busulfan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using two different tilapia strains, the production of fertile spermatozoa with donor characteristics was demonstrated in adult recipient, which also sired progeny with the donor genotype. Also, after cryopreservation tilapia spermatogonial cells were able to differentiate to spermatozoa in the testes of recipient fishes. These findings indicate that injecting germ cells directly into adult testis facilitates and enable fast generation of donor spermatogenesis and offspring compared to previously described methods. CONCLUSION: Therefore, a new suitable methodology for biotechnological investigations in aquaculture was established, with a high potential to improve the production of commercially valuable fish, generate transgenic animals and preserve endangered fish species.

  13. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  14. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  15. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Batten, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cushing, Aaron W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, James S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Scott M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etherington, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fischer, Eric S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hennen, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martinez, Jayson J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rayamajhi, Bishes [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  16. Young-of-the-year fish assemblages as an alternative to adult fish monitoring for ecological quality evaluation of running waters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Slavík, O.; White, S.M.; Adámek, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 644, č. 1 (2010), s. 89-101. ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : 0+ Fish * Water Framework Directive * Rivers * Biological quality element Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.964, year : 2010

  17. Ontogenetic improvement of visual function in the medaka Oryzias latipes based on an optomotor testing system for larval and adult fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P.S.M.; Noltie, D.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a system for evaluation of visual function in larval and adult fish. Both optomotor (swimming) and optokinetic (eye movement) responses were monitored and recorded using a system of rotating stripes. The system allowed manipulation of factors such as width of the stripes used, rotation speed of the striped drum, and light illuminance levels within both the scotopic and photopic ranges. Precise control of these factors allowed quantitative measurements of visual acuity and motion detection. Using this apparatus, we tested the hypothesis that significant posthatch ontogenetic improvements in visual function occur in the medaka Oryzias latipes, and also that this species shows significant in ovo neuronal development. Significant improvements in the acuity angle alpha (ability to discriminate detail) were observed from approximately 5 degrees at hatch to 1 degree in the oldest adult stages. In addition, we measured a significant improvement in flicker fusion thresholds (motion detection skills) between larval and adult life stages within both the scotopic and photopic ranges of light illuminance. Ranges of flicker fusion thresholds (X?? ?? SD) at log I=1.96 (photopic) varied from 37.2 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young adults to 18.6 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. At log I= - 2.54 (scotopic), flicker fusion thresholds varied from 5.8 ?? 0.7 cycles/s in young adults to 1.7 ?? 0.4 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. Light sensitivity increased approximately 2.9 log units from early hatched larval stages to adults. The demonstrated ontogenetic improvements in visual function probably enable the fish to explore new resources, thereby enlarging their fundamental niche. ?? 2002 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannicke Borch Myhre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective: To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design: Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results: Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E% from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion: Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes.

  19. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (< 1 mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. - Highlights: • We saw down-regulation of Chg H in males exposed to marine plastic. • We saw down-regulation of Vtg I, Chg H and ERα in females exposed to plastic. • We saw abnormal proliferation of germ cells in a male exposed to marine plastic. • Our results suggest that the ingestion of plastic may alter endocrine system function

  20. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochman, Chelsea M., E-mail: cmrochman@ucdavis.edu; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J.

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (< 1 mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. - Highlights: • We saw down-regulation of Chg H in males exposed to marine plastic. • We saw down-regulation of Vtg I, Chg H and ERα in females exposed to plastic. • We saw abnormal proliferation of germ cells in a male exposed to marine plastic. • Our results suggest that the ingestion of plastic may alter endocrine system function.

  1. Validation of a refined short-term adult fish reproductive test with improved power for mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) to test complex effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, Thijs; Hewitt, L Mark; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2010-10-01

    Short-term adult fish reproductive tests are widely used to assess the toxicity of chemicals and waste streams. However, these tests often have low power to detect differences in egg production among treatments, due to high variance and small sample sizes, limiting their effectiveness for informing regulatory decisions. A protocol for a fish reproductive test using mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) was refined to increase statistical power. Three studies using the original protocol were compared with three studies using the refined protocol. Tank pre-selection and sample size increased the a priori power from 11.2% to 85.7%. After exposure, average power levels were 62.0%, a more than five-fold increase compared to studies that used the original protocol (power of 15.0%). There was a high level of consistency compared to the original protocol; differences >33% in female and male gonad size and egg production could be detected among treatments. This study demonstrates that a refinement process can address shortcomings in short-term adult fish reproductive protocols, creating a solid foundation for further standardization and possible regulatory use. PMID:20708267

  2. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  3. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John R.

    2010-12-21

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon smolts at The Dalles Dam during summer 2010. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 2 km below the dam The forebay-to-tailrace survival estimate satisfies the “BRZ-to-BRZ” survival estimate called for in the Fish Accords. , as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The estimate of dam survival for subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles in 2010 was 0.9404 with an associated standard error of 0.0091.

  4. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabon Vanessa A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO on resting metabolic rate (RMR, body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO; or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03, a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04, and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08. No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg, RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05. There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11. There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02 and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001. Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased

  5. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2011 - February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2013-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder tags were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon. The purpose of the study was to provide information to aid with decisions about potential alternatives for improving downstream passage conditions for juvenile salmonids in this flood-control reservoir. In 2011, a total of 411 hatchery fish and 26 wild fish were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 356 hatchery fish and 117 wild fish were released during a 3-month period in the fall. A series of 16 autonomous hydrophones throughout the reservoir and 12 hydrophones in a collective system near the dam outlet were used to determine general movements and dam passage of the fish over the life of the acoustic transmitter, which was expected to be about 3 months. Movements within the reservoir were directional, and it was common for fish to migrate repeatedly from the head of the reservoir downstream to the dam outlet and back to the head of the reservoir. Most fish were detected near the temperature control tower at least once. The median time from release near the head of the reservoir to detection within about 100 meters of the dam outlet at the temperature control tower was between 5.7 and 10.8 days, depending on season and fish origin. Dam passage events occurred over a wider range of dates in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter, but dam passage numbers were greatest during the fall and winter. A total of 10.5 percent (43 of 411) of the hatchery fish and 15.4 percent (4 of 26) of the wild fish released in the spring are assumed to have passed the dam, whereas a total of 25.3 percent (90 of 356) of the hatchery fish and 16.9 percent (30 of 117) of the wild fish released in the fall are assumed to have passed the dam. A small number of fish passed the dam after their transmitters had stopped working and were detected at

  6. Passage of radiation through wormholes

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshkevich, Andrey; Hansen, Jakob; Novikov, Igor; Shatskiy, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We investigate numerically the process of the passage of a radiation pulse through a wormhole and the subsequent evolution of the wormhole that is caused by the gravitational action of this pulse. The initial static wormhole is modeled by the spherically symmetrical Armendariz-Picon solution with zero mass. The radiation pulses are modeled by spherically symmetrical shells of self-gravitating massless scalar fields. We demonstrate that the compact signal propagates through the wormhole and in...

  7. Model fan passage flow simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Myre, David D.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Two-dimensional experimental and numerical simulations of a transonic fan blade passage were conducted at a Mach number of 1.4 to provide baseline data for the study of the effects of vortex generating devices on the suction surface shock-boundary layer interaction. In the experimental program, a probe and transverse system were designed and constructed. A new data acquisition system was adapted to record data from probe surveys and ...

  8. Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 1: Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vaitkus, Jesse A; Greentree, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Spatial adiabatic passage represents a new way to design integrated photonic devices. In conventional adiabatic passage designs require smoothly varying waveguide separations. Here we show modelling of adiabatic passage devices where the waveguide separation is varied digitally. Despite digitisation, our designs show robustness against variations in the input wavelength and refractive index contrast of the waveguides relative to the cladding. This approach to spatial adiabatic passage opens new design strategies and hence the potential for new photonics devices.

  9. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior passage. 3280.108 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.108 Interior passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock...

  10. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Batten, G.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Elder, T.; Etherington, D. J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Miracle, Ann L.; Mitchell, T. D.; Prather, K.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Royer, Ida; Seaburg, Adam; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-06-21

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for tagged yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during spring 2011. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a paired-release survival model.

  11. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Wagner, Katie A.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Miracle, Ann L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Royer, Ida M.; Khan, Fenton; Cushing, Aaron W.; Etherington, D. J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Elder, T.; Batton, George; Johnson, Gary E.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    This report presents survival, behavioral, and fish passage results for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts and juvenile steelhead tagged with JSATS acoustic micro-transmitters as part of a survival study conducted at John Day Dam during 2010. This study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead to assist managers in identifying dam operations for compliance testing as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. Survival estimates were based on a single-release survival estimate model.

  12. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2012 - February 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hatton, Tyson; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin

    2014-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon, during 2012 and 2013. Cougar Dam is a high-head flood-control reservoir with a temperature control tower as its outlet enabling selective withdrawals of water at various depths to control the temperature of water passed downstream. This report describes the second year of a 2-year study with the goal of providing information to inform decisions about future downstream passage alternatives. Inferences were based on the behavior of yearling-size juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters. The fish were released near the head of the reservoir during the spring (March, April, and May) and fall (September, October, and November) of 2012. Most tagged fish were of hatchery origin (468 spring, 449 fall) because of the low number of wild fish captured from within the reservoir (0 spring, 65 fall). Detections at hydrophones placed in several lines across the reservoir and within a collective system used to estimate three-dimensional positions near the temperature control tower were used to determine fish behavior and factors affecting dam passage rates. Most tagged fish made repeated non-random migrations from one end of the reservoir to the other and took a median of 3.7–11.7 days to travel about 7 kilometers from the release site to within about 100 meters of the temperature control tower, depending on season and origin. Reservoir passage efficiency (percentage of tagged fish detected at the head of the forebay) was 97.8 percent for hatchery fish and 74.2 percent for wild fish. Tagged fish commonly were within about 100 meters of the temperature control tower, and often spent considerable time near the entrance to the tower; however, the dam passage efficiency (percentage of dam passage of fish detected at the head of the forebay) was low for fish released during the spring (11.1 percent) and

  13. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  14. Upstream passage, spawning, and stock identification of fall chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs

  15. An Evaluation of Adult Freshwater Mussels Held in Captivity at the White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery, West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Boyles, Julie L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing need to provide refugia for freshwater mussels impacted by anthropogenic activities and exotic species, facilities should be identified and protocols developed for holding mussels in captivity. White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery (WSSNFH), White Sulphur Springs, WV, has held freshwater mussels for nearly eight years, and has the potential to become an important refugium and propagation facility for conservation of mussels in the Ohio River Basin and elsewhere. ...

  16. Rites of passage in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change? PMID:21495289

  17. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  18. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  19. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A., E-mail: ami.s.yamada@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Bemrah, N., E-mail: nawel.bemrah@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Veyrand, B., E-mail: bruno.veyrand@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Pollono, C., E-mail: charles.pollono@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Merlo, M., E-mail: mathilde.merlo@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Desvignes, V., E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Sirot, V., E-mail: sirotv@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis.

  20. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg−1 bw.d−1). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis

  1. Efficacy of Single-Suture Incision Closures in Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed to Simulated Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, James W.; Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.

    2011-09-01

    Reductions in the size of acoustic transmitters implanted in migrating juvenile salmonids have resulted in the use of a shorter incision-one that may warrant only a single suture for closure. However, it is not known whether a single suture will sufficiently hold the incision closed when fish are decompressed and when outward pressure is placed on the surgical site during turbine passage through hydroelectric dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of single-suture incision closures on five response variables in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were subjected to simulated turbine passage. An acoustic transmitter (0.43 g in air) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g in air) were implanted in each fish; the 6-mm incisions were closed with either one suture or two sutures. After exposure to simulated turbine passage, none of the fish exhibited expulsion of transmitters. In addition, the percentage of fish with suture tearing, incision tearing, or mortal injury did not differ between treatments. Expulsion of viscera through the incision was higher among fish that received one suture (12%) than among fish that received two sutures (1%). The higher incidence of visceral expulsion through single-suture incisions warrants concern. Consequently, for cases in which tagged juvenile salmonidsmay be exposed to turbine passage, we do not recommend the use of one suture to close 6-mm incisions associated with acoustic transmitter implantation.

  2. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedgepeth, J (Tenera Environmental, LLC); Johnson, Gary E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J (BioSonics Inc.)

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  3. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  4. Pressure relief radial passages for SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 40 mm SSC cross--section design radial helium venting passages located every 6 inch were present. The purpose of these passages was to provide escape routes for helium from the coil cooling passage to the bypasses during a quench. The passages are introduced in the magnet by placing special yoke laminations with channels going from the bypasses to the inner radius. The question as to whether the venting passages are still needed in the 50 mm design is addressed here. One might expect that they would be more needed here since the stored magnetic field energy increases considerably faster than the coil cooling passage cross-section, unless the width of the latter is increased. Since the dimensions of the beam tube are not fixed at this time two cases are considered: a coil cooling passage gap of 1.3 mm and one of 5 mm. An existing computer code developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by R.P. Shutt and programmed by K. Jellet is applied to the present problem. Pressures, helium, coil, and yoke temperatures, and mass flows are computed during a quench for one magnet with no venting occurring in the interconnect regions. Only one magnet is considered here as opposed to a string of magnets

  5. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival Proportions at John Day Dam, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Kim, Jin A.; Johnson, Gary E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Khan, Fenton; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, J. R.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2011-09-28

    The overall purpose of the acoustic telemetry study at JDA during 2009 was to determine the best configuration and operation for JDA prior to conducting BiOp performance standard tests. The primary objective was to determine the best operation between 30% and 40% spill treatments. Route-specific and JDA to TDA forebay survival estimates, passage distribution, and timing/behavior metrics were used for comparison of 30% to a 40% spill treatments. A secondary objective was to evaluate the performance of TSWs installed in spill bays 15 and 16 and to estimate fish survival rates and passage efficiencies under 30% and 40% spill-discharge treatments each season.

  6. Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 2: Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Vincent; Chaboyer, Zachary J; Nguyen, Thach; Dawes, Judith M; Withford, Michael J; Greentree, Andrew D; Steel, M J

    2016-01-01

    Using a femtosecond laser writing technique, we fabricate and characterise three-waveguide digital adiabatic passage devices, with the central waveguide digitised into five discrete waveguidelets. Strongly asymmetric behaviour was observed, devices operated with high fidelity in the counter-intuitive scheme while strongly suppressing transmission in the intuitive. The low differential loss of the digital adiabatic passage designs potentially offers additional functionality for adiabatic passage based devices. These devices operate with a high contrast ($>\\!90\\%$) over a 60~nm bandwidth, centered at $\\sim 823$~nm.

  7. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Logan-Chesney, Laura M.; McLean, Montana F.; Buhariwalla, Colin F.; Redden, Anna M.; Beardsall, Jeffrey W.; Broome, Jeremy E.; Dadswell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010–2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010–2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012–2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  8. Evaluation of two release operations at Bonneville Dam on the smolt-to-adult survival of Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery fall Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In March 2004, two groups of coded wire tagged subyearling fall Chinook were released from Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery to directly evaluate the effects of...

  9. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  10. Hydrodynamical Methods in Last Passage Percolation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Cator, Eric; Pimentel, Leandro P. R.

    2011-01-01

    These lecture notes are written as reference material for the Advanced Course "Hydrodynamical Methods in Last Passage Percolation Models", given at the 28th Coloquio Brasileiro de Matematica at IMPA, Rio de Janeiro, July 2011.

  11. Skeptical notes on a physics of passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Nick

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage. PMID:25183288

  12. Skeptical Notes on a Physics of Passage

    CERN Document Server

    Huggett, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of `dynamical passage' of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, `causal set theory' provides a physics of passage.

  13. The Effect of an Externally Attached Neutrally Buoyant Transmitter on Mortal Injury during Simulated Hydroturbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2012-02-03

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing through hydroturbines experience a rapid decrease in pressure as they pass by the turbine blade and the severity of this decompression can be highly variable. This rapid decrease in pressure can result in injuries such as swim bladder rupture, exophthalmia, and emboli and hemorrhaging in the fins and tissues. However, recent research indicates that the presence of a telemetry tag (acoustic, radio, inductive) implanted inside the coelom of a juvenile salmon increases the likelihood that the fish will be injured or die during turbine passage. Thus, previous research conducted using telemetry tags implanted into the coelom of fish may have been inaccurate. Thus, a new technique is needed to provide unbiased estimates of survival through turbines. This research provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter. Both nontagged fish and fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter were exposed to a range of rapid decompressions simulating turbine passage. Juvenile Chinook salmon tagged with a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter did not receive a higher degree of barotrauma than their nontagged counterparts. We suggest that future research include field-based comparisons of survival and behavior among fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter and those internally implanted with transmitters.

  14. Privacy-Preserving Important Passage Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Marujo, Luis; Portêlo, José; de Matos, David Martins; Neto, João P.; Gershman, Anatole; Carbonell, Jaime; Trancoso, Isabel; Raj, Bhiksha

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art important passage retrieval methods obtain very good results, but do not take into account privacy issues. In this paper, we present a privacy preserving method that relies on creating secure representations of documents. Our approach allows for third parties to retrieve important passages from documents without learning anything regarding their content. We use a hashing scheme known as Secure Binary Embeddings to convert a key phrase and bag-of-words representation to bit st...

  15. First-passage phenomena and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Metzler, Ralf; Redner, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    The book contains review articles on recent advances in first-passage phenomena and applications contributed by leading international experts. It is intended for graduate students and researchers who are interested in learning about this intriguing and important topic. Sample Chapter(s)Chapter 1: Arrival Statistics and Exploration Properties of Mortal Walkers (290 KB) Contents:Arrival Statistics and Exploration Properties of Mortal Walkers (S B Yuste et al.)First-Passage of a Randomly Accelerated Particle (T Burkhardt)First-Pa

  16. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales

    OpenAIRE

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Kristin L Laidre; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Citta, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite trackin...

  17. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  18. Environmental Effects of Hydrokinetic Turbines on Fish: Desktop and Laboratory Flume Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T. [Electric Power Research Institute; Amaral, Stephen V. [Alden Research Laboratory; Castro-Santos, Theodore [U.S. Geological Survey; Giza, Dan [Alden Research Laboratory; Haro, Alexander J. [U.S. Geological Survey; Hecker, George [Alden Research Laboratory; McMahon, Brian [Alden Research Laboratory; Perkins, Norman [Alden Research Laboratory; Pioppi, Nick [Alden Research Laboratory

    2012-12-31

    90%) for fish less than 200 mm in length. Strike mortality was not predicted to occur during passage through a Welka UPG turbine at ambient current velocities less than about 2.5 m/s. Survival and Behavior of Juvenile Atlantic Salmon and Adult American Shad on Exposure to a Hydrokinetic Turbine This report describes a series of experiments designed to measure the effect of exposure to a full-scale, vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine on downstream migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon and upstream migrating adult American shad. Studies were performed in a large-scale, open-channel flume, and all individuals approached the turbine under volitional control. No injuries were observed, and there was no measurable increase in mortality associated with turbine passage. Exposure to the turbine elicited behavioral responses from both species, however, with salmon passing primarily over the downrunning blades. Shad movement was impeded in the presence of the device, as indicated by fewer attempts of shorter duration and reduced distance of ascent up the flume. More work should be performed in both laboratory and field conditions to determine the extent to which observed effects are likely to influence fish in riverine environments. Analysis is needed to assess the potential for multiple units to lead to greater mortality rates or impacts on fish movements and migrations. Additionally, future research should focus on expanding the existing data by developing better estimates of encounter and avoidance probabilities.

  19. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Spring 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare dam passage survival, at two spill treatment levels, of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at John Day Dam during spring 2010. The two treatments were 30% and 40% spill out of total project discharge. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. However, by agreement among the stakeholders, this study was not an official BiOp compliance test because the long-term passage measures at John Day Dam have yet to be finalized and another year of spill-treatment testing was desired.

  20. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  1. Deep boundary current disintegration in Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, J. Alexander; Sheen, Katy L.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Smeed, David A.; Speer, Kevin G.; Thurnherr, Andreas M.; Meredith, Michael P.; Waterman, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The fate of a deep boundary current that originates in the Southeast Pacific and flows southward along the continental slope of South America is elucidated. The current transports poorly ventilated water of low salinity (a type of Pacific Deep Water, PDW), into Drake Passage. East of Drake Passage, the boundary current breaks into fresh anticyclonic eddies, nine examples of which were observed in mooring data from December 2009 to March 2012. The observed eddies appear to originate mainly from a topographic separation point close to 60°W, have typical diameters of 20-60 km and accompanying Rossby numbers of 0.1-0.3. These features are likely to be responsible for transporting PDW meridionally across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, explaining the near homogenization of Circumpolar Deep Water properties downstream of Drake Passage. This mechanism of boundary current breakdown may constitute an important process in the Southern Ocean overturning circulation.

  2. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-12

    The study estimated dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and provided additional performance measures as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. This summary report focuses on spring run stocks, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead.

  3. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dales Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-02-01

    The study estimated dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and provided additional performance measures as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. This summary report focuses on spring run stocks, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead.

  4. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  5. Distribution and survival of adult hatchery spring Chinook Salmon radio-tagged and released upstream of Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in 2008: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Warm Springs River supports the largest population of wild spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Deschutes River Basin. Located on the Warm...

  6. Path transformations of first passage bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoin, Jean

    2003-01-01

    We define the first passage bridge from 0 to $\\lambda$ as the Brownian motion on the time interval $[0,1]$ conditioned to first hit $\\lambda$ at time 1. We show that this process may be related to the Brownian bridge, the Bessel bridge or the Brownian excursion via some path transformations, the main one being an extension of Vervaat's transformation. We also propose an extension of these results to certain bridges with cyclically exchangeable increments.

  7. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  8. Stochastic domination for the last passage percolation model

    OpenAIRE

    Coupier, D.; Heinrich, P

    2008-01-01

    A competition model on $\\mathbb{Z}_+^{2}$ governed by directed last passage percolation is considered. A stochastic domination argument between subtrees of the last passage percolation is put forward.

  9. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John R.

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at The Dalles Dam during spring 2010. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay boat-restricted zone (BRZ) to the tailrace BRZ at The Dalles Dam, as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival at The Dalles Dam. The approach included releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam that contributed to the formation of a virtual release at the face of The Dalles Dam. A survival estimate from this release was adjusted by a paired release below The Dalles Dam. A total of 4,298 yearling Chinook salmon and 4,309 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation. The dam passage survival results are summarized as follows: Yearling Chinook Salmon 0.9641 (SE = 0.0096) and Steelhead 0.9535 (SE = 0.0097).

  10. SWALLOWED FISH BONES IN MALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacko HB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the different aspects, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic of 114 cases of fish bones in the upper digestive tract . Methods: One hundred fourteen patients with fish bones suspected in the upper digestive tract were admitted in our department between February 2010 and October 2012. Results: There was a predominance of the male: 66 men (58%. The average age of the patients was 26 years with extremes 3 to 62 years old. The tongue base and vallecula are constituted the principals locations 66.66%. In the majority of the cases the fish bones were removed by direct pharyngoscopy in 43.86 %. We have not notified any serious complications. Conclusion: Therefore this study shows the foreign fish bones are frequently just as well in children as adult. The fish bones are particularly lodged in tongue base. The classical methods of extraction are permit to remove the all foreign fish bones.

  11. A field evaluation of an external and neutrally buoyant acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon: implications for estimating hydroturbine passage survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Brown

    Full Text Available Turbine-passed fish are exposed to rapid decreases in pressure which can cause barotrauma. The presence of an implanted telemetry tag increases the likelihood of injury or death from exposure to pressure changes, thus potentially biasing studies evaluating survival of turbine-passed fish. Therefore, a neutrally buoyant externally attached tag was developed to eliminate this bias in turbine passage studies. This new tag was designed not to add excess mass in water or take up space in the coelom, having an effective tag burden of zero with the goal of reducing pressure related biases to turbine survival studies. To determine if this new tag affects fish performance or susceptibility to predation, it was evaluated in the field relative to internally implanted acoustic transmitters (JSATS; Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System used widely for survival studies of juvenile salmonids. Survival and travel time through the study reach was compared between fish with either tag type in an area of high predation in the Snake and Columbia rivers, Washington. An additional group of fish affixed with neutrally-buoyant dummy external tags were implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags and recovered further downstream to assess external tag retention and injury. There were no significant differences in survival to the first detection site, 12 river kilometers (rkm downstream of release. Travel times were also similar between groups. Conversely, externally-tagged fish had reduced survival (or elevated tag loss to the second detection site, 65 rkm downstream. In addition, the retention study revealed that tag loss was first observed in fish recaptured approximately 9 days after release. Results suggest that this new tag may be viable for short term (<8 days single-dam turbine-passage studies and under these situations, may alleviate the turbine passage-related bias encountered when using internal tags, however further research is needed to

  12. Monitoring of Juvenile Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; CH0) at John Day Dam (JDA) during summer 2010. This study was conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and the University of Washington (UW). The study was designed to estimate the effects of 30% and 40% spill treatment levels on single release survival rates of CH0 passing through two reaches: (1) the dam, and 40 km of tailwater, (2) the forebay, dam, and 40 km of tailwater. The study also estimated additional passage performance measures which are stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  13. Behaviour of adult and juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima) moving toward a power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted over a 3-year period during the downstream migration of adult and juvenile American shad to assess their behavior while moving toward Hydro-Quebec's Riviere-des-Prairies hydroelectric power station. Much of the information was obtained using hydroacoustic and radio tracking techniques. In the forebay, adult distribution was related to flow. Their abundance increased as they approached the facility. Adult shad explored the facility for an average of 19 h, after which time they continued their downstream migration. Shutting down the power station and opening the spillway allowed the passage of 75% of these fish. Juveniles tended to form dense schools less than 5 m from turbine intakes. Their distribution in the water column was strongly influenced by daylight which in turn influenced their entrainment through the turbines. Attempts to repel the fish with a sonic deterrent gave unsatisfactory results under normal conditions at the site. The short range of the deterrent, and the fact that the fish become accustomed to it, does not make this a practical solution to entrainment. 22 refs., 15 figs

  14. Last Passage Percolation and Traveling Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Comets, Francis; Ramirez, Alejandro F

    2012-01-01

    We consider a system of N particles with a stochastic dynamics introduced by Brunet and Derrida. The particles can be interpreted as last passage times in directed percolation on {1,...,N} of mean-field type. The particles remain grouped and move like a traveling wave, subject to discretization and driven by a random noise. As N increases, we obtain estimates for the speed of the front and its profile, for different laws of the driving noise. The Gumbel distribution plays a central role for the particle jumps, and we show that the scaling limit is a L \\'evy process in this case. The case of bounded jumps yields a completely different behavior.

  15. Should I Be Concerned about Eating Fish and Shellfish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be avoided by young children. Fish sticks and "fast food" sandwiches are commonly made from fish that are lower in mercury. Children should follow the same consumption recommendations as adults, but should consume smaller portions. ...

  16. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at John Day Dam during the spring and summer outmigrations in 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.96 for spring migrants and greater than or equal to 0.93 for summer migrants, estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 3 km downstream of the dam, as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords (Fish Accords). A virtual/paired-release design was used to estimate dam passage survival at John Day Dam. The approach included releases of smolts, tagged with acoustic micro-transmitters, above John Day Dam that contributed to the formation of a virtual release at the face of John Day Dam. A survival estimate from this release was adjusted by a paired release below John Day Dam. A total of 3376 yearling Chinook salmon, 5726 subyearling Chinook salmon, and 3239 steelhead smolts were used in the virtual releases. Sample sizes for the below-dam paired releases (R2 and R3, respectively) were 997 and 995 for yearling Chinook salmon smolts, 986 and 983 for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts, and 1000 and 1000 for steelhead smolts. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tags were manufactured by Advanced Telemetry Systems. Model SS300 tags, weighing 0.304 g in air, were surgically implanted in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon, and Model SS130 tag, weighing 0.438 g in air, were surgically implanted in juvenile steelhead for this investigation. The intent of the spring study was to estimate dam passage survival during both 30% and 40% spill conditions. The two

  17. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  18. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fischer, Eric S.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jin A.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-12-01

    The acoustic telemetry study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The purpose of the study was to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  19. Fish monitoring project -- Oregon: Smolt monitoring activities at Little Goose Dam in 1996. Annual Report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The juvenile fish facility at Little Goose Dam is operated seasonally to collect and bypass downstream migrating smolts and keep them from passing through the turbine blades. Fish are diverted from turbines by traveling screens as they sound in the forebay to pass the dam. A small percentage of the passing fish are sampled on a daily basis to provide information on fish condition, species composition, migration timing, and size distribution. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife personnel perform daily fish sampling and data collection. Physical operation of the facility is the responsibility of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Data is reported to the Fish Passage Center daily by means of electronic data transfer. Funding for this project was provided through the Smolt Monitoring Program administered by the Fish Passage Center. Overall, the number of fish collected and sampled in 1996 was a reduction from the previous years of operation. The 1996 migration season was characterized by higher than average flows and greater spill frequency at the dam. It was the first year that coho salmon were obtained in the sample. The predominant species collected was steelhead with hatchery fish outnumbering wild fish by a ratio of 8:1. An increased emphasis was placed on gas bubble trauma examination and a routine, consistent effort was implemented using a protocol established by the Fish Passage Center. The objective of the gas bubble trauma (GBT) examinations was to document the relative incidence of symptoms throughout the migration season

  20. Not All Inner Ears are the Same: Otolith Matrix Proteins in the Inner Ear of Sub-Adult Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Reveal Insights Into the Biomineralization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-02-01

    The fish ear stones (otoliths) consist mainly of calcium carbonate and have lower amounts of a proteinous matrix. This matrix consists of macromolecules, which directly control the biomineralization process. We analyzed the composition of this proteinous matrix by mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach. For this purpose, an enhanced protein purification technique was developed that excludes any potential contamination of proteins from body fluids. Using this method we identified eight proteins in the inner ear of Oreochromis mossambicus. These include the common otolith matrix proteins (OMP-1, otolin-1, neuroserpin, SPARC and otoconin), and three proteins (alpha tectorin, otogelin and transferrin) not previously localized to the otoliths. Moreover, we were able to exclude the occurrence of two matrix proteins (starmaker and pre-cerebellin-like protein) known from other fish species. In further analyses, we show that the absence of the OMP starmaker corresponds to calcitic otoliths and that pre-cerebellin-like protein is not present at any stage during the development of the otoliths of the inner ear. This study shows O. mossambicus does not have all of the known otolith proteins indicating that the matrix proteins in the inner ear of fish are not the same across species. Further functional studies of the novel proteins we identified during otolith development are required. PMID:26559654

  1. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  2. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  3. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucelick, J.; McMichael, G.; Chamness, M. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service [NMFS]) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  4. Passage with Sudden Expansion or Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Torii

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates rotational effects on secondary flow in rotating flow passages with sudden expansion or contraction. Consideration is given to laminar flow. The governing boundary-layer equations are discretized by means of a finite-difference technique and numerically solved to determine the distributions of velocity vector under the appropriate boundary conditions. The Reynolds number (Re and rotation rate are varied to determine their effects on the formation ofsecondary flows. It is disclosed from the study that: (i when laminar flow is introduced into an axially rotating pipe with expansion, the stretch ofthe secondary flow zone is amplified with an increase in the rotation rate and Re, and (ii in contrast, for axially rotating pipe flows with contraction, the secondary flow region is somewhat suppressed due to pipe rotation, and the change is slightly affected by the rotation rate and Re. Results may find applications in automotive and rotating hydraulic transmission lines.

  5. First-passage phenomena in hierarchical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study Markov processes and related first passage problems on a class of weighted, modular graphs which generalize the Dyson hierarchical model. In these networks, the coupling strength between two nodes depends on their distance and is modulated by a parameter $\\sigma$. We find that, in the thermodynamic limit, ergodicity is lost and the "distant" nodes can not be reached. Moreover, for finite-sized systems, there exists a threshold value for $\\sigma$ such that, when $\\sigma$ is relatively large, the inhomogeneity of the coupling pattern prevails and "distant" nodes are hardly reached. The same analysis is carried on also for generic hierarchical graphs, where interactions are meant to involve $p$-plets ($p>2$) of nodes, finding that ergodicity is still broken in the thermodynamic limit, but no threshold value for $\\sigma$ is evidenced, ultimately due to a slow growth of the network diameter with the size.

  6. Sublinear variance for directed last-passage percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, B T

    2009-01-01

    A range of first-passage percolation type models are believed to demonstrate the related properties of sublinear variance and superdiffusivity. We show that directed last-passage percolation with Gaussian vertex weights has a sublinear variance property. The proof makes use of Benaim and Rossignol's work on concentration, adapting an argument of Benjamini, Kalai and Schramm from undirected first-passage percolation. The proof can be adapted to handle other vertex weight distributions such as the gamma distribution.

  7. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  8. Texture Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  9. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  10. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C.; Knab, Amy M.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women. PMID:27187447

  11. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C; Knab, Amy M; Shanely, R Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40-70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F₂-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women. PMID:27187447

  12. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP, F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268, F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273, and cytokines (p > 0.05. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001. Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women.

  13. Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

    1992-10-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat

  14. The Role of FADS1/2 Polymorphisms on Cardiometabolic Markers and Fatty Acid Profiles in Young Adults Consuming Fish Oil Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitlin Roke; Mutch, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) known to influence cardiometabolic markers of health. Evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2) gene cluster may influence an individual’s response to n-3 FAs. This study examined the impact of a moderate daily dose of EPA and DHA fish oil supplements on cardiometabolic markers, FA levels in serum and red blood cells (RBC), and wheth...

  15. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  16. Fish dispersal in a seasonal wetland: influence of anthropogenic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hohausová, Eva; Lavoy, R. J.; Allen, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 682-694. ISSN 1323-1650. [Behaviour and Ecology of Freshwater Fish. Silkeborg, 22.08.2004-26.08.2004] Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : fish dispersal speed * sedentary and non-migratory species * minimum passage depth * freshwater marsh Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2010

  17. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  18. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  19. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  20. Sublinear variance for directed last-passage percolation

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, B. T.

    2009-01-01

    A range of first-passage percolation type models are believed to demonstrate the related properties of sublinear variance and superdiffusivity. We show that directed last-passage percolation with Gaussian vertex weights has a sublinear variance property. We also consider other vertex weight distributions. Corresponding results are obtained for the ground state of the `directed polymers in a random environment' model.

  1. Tick passage results in enhanced attenuation of babesia bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, and has been reported to result in a reversion to virulence following tick passage. This study provides ...

  2. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  3. 78 FR 68780 - Treatment of Income From Indian Fishing Rights-Related Activity as Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN-1545-BL61 Treatment of Income From Indian Fishing Rights-Related... adopted before passage of the Federal income tax, they often do not expressly address the question of whether income derived by Indians and ITGs from protected fishing activities is exempt from taxation....

  4. Designer Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  5. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed

  6. First Passage Percolation on Inhomogeneous Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kolossváry, István

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates first passage percolation (FPP) on inhomogeneous random graphs (IHRG). The random graph model $G(n,\\kappa)$ we first study is the so-called finite type case of the general model introduced by Bollob\\'as, Janson and Riordan. Each edge of $G(n,\\kappa)$ is given an independent exponential edge weight with rate 1. Our main assumption is that the average number of neighbors $\\wla_n+1$ of each vertex is independent of its type. We consider the cases where $\\wla_n\\to\\wla$ is finite or infinite. Afterwards the general model is also considered. The paper can be considered a generalization of the work of Bhamidi, van der Hofstad and Hooghimstra, where FPP is explored on the Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi random graphs, a special case where all the vertices are of the same type. We find analogous results for the minimal weight of the path between uniformly chosen vertices in the giant component and for the hopcount, i.e. the number of edges on this minimal weight path. The proofs make use of a direct relation...

  7. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  8. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed. PMID:3980281

  9. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including changes in pressure as they pass through turbines and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). To examine pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted specific tests using a hyperbaric chamber. Tests were designed to simulate Kaplan turbine passage conditions and to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes, with and without the complication of fish being acclimated to gas-supersaturated water.

  10. Laboratory studies of the effects of pressure and dissolved gas supersaturation on turbine-passed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, B. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Designing advanced turbine systems requires knowledge of environmental conditions that injure or kill fish such as the stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes fish experience during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. The study investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination.

  11. In-reservoir behavior, dam passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead from Detroit Reservoir and Dam to Portland, Oregon, February 2013-February 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Adams, Noah S.

    2015-01-01

    In the second year of 2 years of study, the movements of juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through Detroit Reservoir, passing Detroit Dam, and migrating downstream to Portland, Oregon, were studied during a 1-year-long period beginning in February 2013. The primary purpose of the study was to provide empirical data to inform decisions about future alternatives for improving downstream passage of salmonids at Detroit Dam. A secondary purpose was to design and assess the performance of a system to detect juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic transmitters migrating in the Willamette River. Inferences about fish migration were made from detections of juvenile fish of hatchery origin at least 95 millimeters in fork length surgically implanted with an acoustic transmitter and released during the spring (March–May) and fall (September–November) of 2013. Detection sites were placed throughout the reservoir, near the dam, and at two sites in the North Santiam River and at three sites in the Willamette River culminating at Portland, Oregon. We based most inferences on an analysis period up to the 90th percentile of tag life (68–78 days after release, depending on species and season), although a small number of fish passed after that period as late as April 8, 2014. Chinook salmon migrated from the tributaries of release to the reservoir in greater proportion than steelhead, particularly in the fall. The in-reservoir migration behaviors and dam passage of the two species were similar during the spring study, but during the fall study, few steelhead reached the reservoir and none passed the dam within the analysis period. Migrations in the reservoir were directed and non-random, except in the forebay. Depths of fish within 25 meters of the dam were deeper in the day than at night for Chinook salmon and similar in the day and night for steelhead; steelhead generally were at shallower depths

  12. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  14. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this...

  15. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this...

  16. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and...

  17. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    OpenAIRE

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish provide substantial benefits to both humans and ocean food webs, but these benefits may be in conflict unless there are effective policies governing human activities, such as fishing. Collapses of forage fish induce widespread ecological effects on dependent predators, but attributing collapses to fishing has been difficult because of natural fluctuations of these stocks. We implicate fishing in forage fish stock collapses by showing that high fishing rates are maintained when sto...

  18. The mean shape of transition and first-passage paths

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Won Kyu

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the mean shape of transition paths and first-passage paths based on the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation in an arbitrary free energy landscape including a general inhomogeneous diffusivity profile. The transition path ensemble is the collection of all paths that do not revisit the start position $x_A$ and that terminate when first reaching the final position $x_B$. In contrast, a first-passage path can revisit but not cross its start position $x_A$ before it terminates at $x_B$. Our theoretical framework employs the forward and backward Fokker-Planck equations as well as first-passage, passage, last-passage and transition-path time distributions, for which we derive the defining integral equations. We show that the mean time at which the transition path ensemble visits an intermediate position $x$ is equivalent to the mean first-passage time of reaching the starting position $x_A$ from $x$ without ever visiting $x_B$. The mean shape of first-passage paths is related to the mean shape of tra...

  19. Excess bottom radon 222 distribution in deep ocean passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon 222 and STD profiles were obtained as part of the Geosecs program in the Vema Channel in the southwest Atlantic Ocean and in the Samoan, Clarion, and Wake Island passages in the Pacific Ocean. The standing crop of excess radon 222 is higher in the passages than at other nearby locations. The most likely explanation for this is that there is a high flux of radon 222 from the floor of the passages. Since much of the floor is covered with manganese nodules and encrustations, the high flux of radon 222 may be attributable to the high concentrations of radium 226 in the outer few millimeters of such deposits. Laboratory measurements of radon 222 emissivity from maganese encrustations obtained in Vema Channel support this hypothesis. The excess radon 222 in the Vema Channel and Wake Island Passage is found in substantial quantities at heights above bottom greatly exceeding the heights at which excess radon 222 is found in nonpassage areas. The horizontal diffusion of radon emanating from the walls of the passages is unlikely to be the cause of the observed concentrations because the ratio of wall surface area to water volume is very low. The profiles must therefore be a result of exceptionally high apparent vertical mixing in the passages. Further work is needed to determine the nature of this apparent vertical mixing. The excess radon 222 and STD data in all four passages have been fit with an empirical model in which it is assumed that the bouyancy flux is constant with distance above bottom. The fits are very good and yield apparent buoyancy fluxes that are between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude greater than those obtained at nearby stations outside the passages for three of the four passages

  20. The mean shape of transition and first-passage paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Kyu; Netz, Roland R

    2015-12-14

    Based on the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation in an arbitrary free energy landscape including a general inhomogeneous diffusivity profile, we analytically calculate the mean shape of transition paths and first-passage paths, where the shape of a path is defined as the kinetic profile in the plane spanned by the mean time and the position. The transition path ensemble is the collection of all paths that do not revisit the start position x(A) and that terminate when first reaching the final position x(B). In contrast, a first-passage path can revisit its start position x(A) before it terminates at x(B). Our theoretical framework employs the forward and backward Fokker-Planck equations as well as first-passage, passage, last-passage, and transition-path time distributions, for which we derive the defining integral equations. We show that the mean shape of transition paths, in other words the mean time at which the transition path ensemble visits an intermediate position x, is equivalent to the mean first-passage time of reaching the position x(A) when starting from x without ever visiting x(B). The mean shape of first-passage paths is related to the mean shape of transition paths by a constant time shift. Since for a large barrier height U, the mean first-passage time scales exponentially in U, while the mean transition path time scales linearly inversely in U, the time shift between first-passage and transition path shapes is substantial. We present explicit examples of transition path shapes for linear and harmonic potentials and illustrate our findings by trajectories obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations. PMID:26671359

  1. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on biomarkers of kidney injury in adults with diabetes: results of the GO-FISH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edgar R; Juraschek, Stephen P; Anderson, Cheryl A; Guallar, Eliseo; Henoch-Ryugo, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Turban, Sharon; Bennett, Michael R; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplements may have renoprotective effects in patients with diabetes, but previous trials have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation on urine albumin excretion and markers of kidney injury in adults with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial to test the effects of 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of glomerular filtration and kidney injury in adults with adult-onset diabetes and greater than or equal to trace amounts of proteinuria. Each period lasted 6 weeks and was separated by a 2-week washout. The main outcome was urine albumin excretion and, secondarily, markers of kidney injury (kidney injury molecule-1, N-acetyl β-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and liver fatty acid-binding protein [LFABP]), serum markers of kidney function (cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, and creatinine), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS Of the 31 participants, 29 finished both periods. A total of 55% were male, and 61% were African American; mean age was 67 years. At baseline, mean BMI was 31.6 kg/m(2), median eGFR was 76.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and median 24-h urine albumin excretion was 161 mg/day. Compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA had nonsignificant effects on urine albumin excretion (-7.2%; 95% CI -20.6 to 8.5; P = 0.35) and significant effects on urine NGAL excretion (-16% [-29.1 to -0.5%]; P = 0.04). There was no effect on serum markers of kidney function or eGFR. In subgroup analyses, there were significant decreases in 24-h urinary excretion of albumin, NGAL, LFABP, and NAG among participants taking medications that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest a potential effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of kidney injury in patients with diabetes and early

  2. Evolution of the sensor fish device for measuring physical conditions in sever hydraulic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, J. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-03-01

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new “fish-friendly” turbines, and spillway designs and operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. This report discusses the development and field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River, which have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  3. WA - Investigation of contaminants in feeds and fish at FWS Pacific Region National Fish Hatcheries and the ramifications to human and ecological health

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Returning adult salmon and steelhead were sampled at three National Fish Hatcheries (NFHs); Warm Springs NFH (spring Chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Quilcene...

  4. Analysis of environmental issues related to small scale hydroelectric development. II. Design considerations for passing fish upstream around dams. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1567

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-08-01

    The possible requirement of facilities to move migrating fish upstream around dams may be a factor in determining the feasibility of retrofitting small dams for hydroelectric generation. Basic design considerations are reported that should be evaluated on a site-specific basis if upstream fish passage facilities are being considered for a small scale hydroelectric project (defined as an existing dam that can be retrofitted to generate 25 MW or less). Information on general life history and geographic distribution of fish species that may require passage is presented. Biological factors important in the design of upstream passage facilities are discussed: gas bubble disease, fish swimming speed, oxygen consumption by fish, and diel and photo behavior. Three general types of facilities (fishways, fish locks, and fish lifts) appropriate for upstream fish passage at small scale hydroelectric projects are described, and size dimensions are presented. General design criteria for these facilities (including fish swimming ability and behavior) and general location of facilities at a site are discussed. Basic cost considerations for each type of passage facility, including unit cost, operation and maintenance costs, and costs for supplying attraction water, are indicated.

  5. The birth of spacetime atoms as the passage of time

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, Fay

    2014-01-01

    The view that the passage of time is physical finds expression in the classical sequential growth models of Rideout and Sorkin in which a discrete spacetime grows by the partially ordered accretion of new spacetime atoms.

  6. First passage time statistics for two-channel diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Godec, Aljaz

    2016-01-01

    We present rigorous results for the mean first passage time and first passage time statistics for two-channel Markov additive diffusion in a 3-dimensional spherical domain. Inspired by biophysical examples we assume that the particle can only recognise the target in one of the modes, which is shown to effect a non-trivial first passage behaviour. We also address the scenario of intermittent immobilisation. In both cases we prove that despite the perfectly non-recurrent motion of two-channel Markov additive diffusion in 3 dimensions the first passage statistics at long times do not display Poisson-like behaviour if none of the phases has a vanishing diffusion coefficient. This stands in stark contrast to the standard (one-channel) Markov diffusion counterpart. We also discuss the relevance of our results in the context of cellular signalling.

  7. Flow-test device fits into restricted access passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J. J.; Oberschmidt, M.; Rosenbaum, B. J.

    1967-01-01

    Test device using a mandrel with a collapsible linkage assembly enables a fluid flow sensor to be properly positioned in a restricted passage by external manipulation. This device is applicable to the combustion chamber of a rocket motor.

  8. Laboratory Studies on the Effects of Shear on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Guensch, Greg R.

    2000-09-20

    The overall objective of our studies was to specify an index describing the hydraulic force that fish experience when subjected to a shear environment. Fluid shear is a phenomenon that is important to fish. However, elevated levels of shear may result in strain rates that injure or kill fish. At hydroelectric generating facilities, concerns have been expressed that strain rates associated with passage through turbines, spillways, and fish bypass systems may adversely affect migrating fish. Development of fish friendly hydroelectric turbines requires knowledge of the physical forces (injury mechanisms) that impact entrained fish and the fish's tolerance to these forces. It requires up-front, pre-design specifications for the environmental conditions that occur within the turbine system, in other words, determining or assuming that those conditions known to injure fish will provide the descriptions of conditions that engineers must consider in the design of a turbine system. These biological specifications must be carefully and thoroughly documented throughout the design of a fish friendly turbine. To address the development of biological specifications, we designed and built a test facility where juvenile fish could be subjected to a range of shear environments and quantified their biological response.

  9. Passage retrieval for question answering using sliding windows

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, M.A.; Verberne, S.

    2008-01-01

    The information retrieval (IR) community has investigated many different techniques to retrieve passages from large collections of documents for question answering (QA). In this paper, we specifically examine and quantitatively compare the impact of passage retrieval for QA using sliding windows and disjoint windows. We consider two different data sets, the TREC 2002-2003 QA data set, and 93 whyquestions against INEX Wikipedia. We discovered that, compared to disjoint windows, using sliding w...

  10. Comparison of Jump-Diffusion Parameters Using Passage Times Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khaldi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of this paper are two contributions: (1 it presents a new method, which is the first passage time generalized for all passage times (PT method, in order to estimate the parameters of stochastic jump-diffusion process. (2 It compares in a time series model, share price of gold, the empirical results of the estimation and forecasts obtained with the PT method and those obtained by the moments method applied to the MJD model.

  11. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management

    2009-06-26

    Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1992 (NMFS 1992). The Secesh River represents the only stream in the Snake River basin where natural origin (wild) salmon escapement monitoring occurs at the population level, absent a supplementation program. As such the Secesh River has been identified as a long term salmon escapement and productivity monitoring site by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management. Salmon managers will use this data for effective population management and evaluation of the effect of conservation actions on a natural origin salmon population. The Secesh River also acts as a reference stream for supplementation program comparison. Dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) was used to determine adult spring and summer Chinook salmon escapement in the Secesh River in 2008. DIDSON technology was selected because it provided a non-invasive method for escapement monitoring that avoided listed species trapping and handling incidental mortality, and fish impedance related concerns. The DIDSON monitoring site was operated continuously from June 13 to September 14. The first salmon passage was observed on July 3. DIDSON site total estimated salmon escapement, natural and hatchery fish, was 888 fish {+-} 65 fish (95% confidence interval). Coefficient of variation associated with the escapement estimate was 3.7%. The DIDSON unit was operational 98.1% of the salmon migration period. Adult salmon migration timing in the Secesh River occurred over 74 days from July 3 to September 14, with 5,262 total fish passages observed. The spawning migration had 10%, median, and 90% passage dates of July 8, July 16, and August 12, respectively. The maximum number of net upstream migrating salmon was above the DIDSON monitoring site on August 27. Validation monitoring of DIDSON target counts with underwater optical cameras occurred for species identification. A total of 860 optical

  12. Fish Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can harm the brain of your unborn baby even before he or she is conceived. Yet many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  13. Brain aromatase (Cyp19A2) and estrogen receptors, in larvae and adult pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis: Neuroanatomical and functional relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl-Mazzulla, P. H.; Lethimonier, C.; Gueguen, M.M.; Karube, M.; Fernandino, J.I.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patino, R.; Strussmann, C.A.; Kah, O.; Somoza, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Although estrogens exert many functions on vertebrate brains, there is little information on the relationship between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of two estrogen receptors, ?? and ??, in pejerrey. Both receptors' mRNAs largely overlap and were predominantly expressed in the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonads. Also brain aromatase and estrogen receptors were up-regulated in the brain of estradiol-treated males. In situ hybridization was performed to study in more detail, the distribution of the two receptors in comparison with brain aromatase mRNA in the brain of adult pejerrey. The estrogen receptors' mRNAs exhibited distinct but partially overlapping patterns of expression in the preoptic area and the mediobasal hypothalamus, as well as in the pituitary gland. Moreover, the estrogen receptor ??, but not ??, were found to be expressed in cells lining the preoptic recess, similarly as observed for brain aromatase. Finally, it was shown that the onset expression of brain aromatase and both estrogen receptors in the head of larvae preceded the morphological differentiation of the gonads. Because pejerrey sex differentiation is strongly influenced by temperature, brain aromatase expression was measured during the temperature-sensitive window and was found to be significantly higher at male-promoting temperature. Taken together these results suggest close neuroanatomical and functional relationships between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors, probably involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain and raising interesting questions on the origin (central or peripheral) of the brain aromatase substrate. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Survival and Passage of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, Spring 2011 - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Batten, G.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Hughes, James S.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Royer, Ida M.; Townsend, Richard L.; Woodley, Christa M.; Kim, Jeongkwon; Etherington, D. J.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Fisher, Erik J.; Greiner, Michael J.; Khan, Fenton; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.

    2012-10-01

    The study reported herein was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The PNNL and UW project managers were Drs. Thomas J. Carlson and John R. Skalski, respectively. The USACE technical lead was Mr. Brad Eppard. The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion (BiOp) and the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study is being documented in two types of reports: compliance and technical. A compliance report is delivered within 6 months of the completion of the field season and focuses on results of the performance metrics outlined in the 2008 BiOp and Fish Accords. A technical report is produced within the 18 months after field work, providing comprehensive documentation of a given study and results on route-specific survival estimates and fish passage distributions, which are not included in compliance reports. This technical report concerns the 2011 acoustic telemetry study at The Dalles Dam.

  15. Factors influencing the survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids through multiple dam passages: an individual-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Timothy; Woodley, Christa M; Weiland, Mark A; Strecker, Angela L

    2016-08-01

    Substantial declines of Pacific salmon populations have occurred over the past several decades related to large-scale anthropogenic and climatic changes in freshwater and marine environments. In the Columbia River Basin, migrating juvenile salmonids may pass as many as eight large-scale hydropower projects before reaching the ocean; however, the cumulative effects of multiple dam passages are largely unknown. Using acoustic transmitters and an extensive system of hydrophone arrays in the Lower Columbia River, we calculated the survival of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) passing one, two, or three dams. We applied a unique index of biological characteristics and environmental exposures, experienced by each fish individually as it migrated downstream, in order to examine which factors most influence salmonid survival. High outflow volumes led to involuntary spill in 2011 and created an environment of supersaturated dissolved gas concentrations. In this environment, migrating smolt survival was strongly influenced by barometric pressure, fish velocity, and water temperature. The effect of these variables on survival was compounded by multiple dam passages compared to fish passing a single dam. Despite spatial isolation between dams in the Lower Columbia River hydrosystem, migrating smolt appear to experience cumulative effects akin to a press disturbance. In general, Chinook salmon and steelhead respond similarly in terms of survival rates and responses to altered environmental conditions. Management actions that limit dissolved gas concentrations in years of high flow will benefit migrating salmonids at this life stage. PMID:27547362

  16. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  17. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  18. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  19. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development II: Design Consideration for Passing Fish Upstream Around Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, S. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, M. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, J. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richey, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parkhurst, Z. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide general information for use by potential developers of small scale hydroelectric projects that will include facilities to pass migrating fish upstream around dams. The document is not intended to be a textbook on design of fish passage facilities, but rather to be a general guide to some factors that are important when designing such facilities.

  20. Evaluation of the Fish Passage Effectiveness of the Bonneville I Prototype Surface Collector using Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Fish Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Moursund, Robert; Carlson, Thomas J.; Adams, Noah; Rhondorf, D.

    2001-05-01

    This report describes tests conducted at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the spring of 2000 using three-dimensional acoustic telemetry and computational fluid dynamics hydraulic modeling to observe the response of outmigrating juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook to a prototype surface collector installed at the Powerhouse. The study described in this report was one of several conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to prepare a decision document on which of two bypass methods: surface flow bypass or extended-length submersible bar screens to use to help smolts pass around Bonneville dams without going through the turbines.

  1. 75 FR 5626 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA INT-DES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... of Reclamation (Reclamation) published a notice in the Federal Register on April 8, 2009 (74 FR 16007... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Assistance for Public Meetings TTY users may dial 711 to obtain a toll free TTY relay. Requests for...

  2. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  3. Reduced Spill at Hydropower Dams: Opportunities for More Generation and Increased Fish Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, Charles C [ORNL; Mann, Roger [RMecon, Davis, California; Sale, Michael J [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    This report indicates that reduction of managed spill at hydropower dams can speed implementation of technologies for fish protection and achieve economic goals. Spill of water over spillways is managed in the Columbia River basin to assist downstream-migrating juvenile salmon, and is generally believed to be the most similar to natural migration, benign and effective passage route; other routes include turbines, intake screens with bypasses, and surface bypasses. However, this belief may be misguided, because spill is becoming recognized as less than natural, with deep intakes below normal migration depths, and likely causing physical damages from severe shear on spillways, high turbulence in tail waters, and collisions with baffle blocks that lead to disorientation and predation. Some spillways induce mortalities comparable to turbines. Spill is expensive in lost generation, and controversial. Fish-passage research is leading to more fish-friendly turbines, screens and bypasses that are more effective and less damaging, and surface bypasses that offer passage of more fish per unit water volume than does spill (leaving more water for generation). Analyses by independent economists demonstrated that goals of increased fish survival over the long term and net gain to the economy can be obtained by selectively reducing spill and diverting some of the income from added power generation to research, development, and installation of fish-passage technologies. Such a plan would selectively reduce spill when and where least damaging to fish, increase electricity generation using the water not spilled and use innovative financing to direct monetary gains to improving fish passage.

  4. Fish impingement at estuarine power stations and its significance to commercial fishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstraction of cooling water (CW) at power stations sited on tidal waters inevitably leads to mortalities of some fish which are drawn in with the CW supply and become impinged on the intake screens. These fish are predominantly 0- or 1-group juveniles which, owing to their small size, are unable to resist intake currents. Commercial fishermen often object to the fact that juvenile fish are killed in this way. Their concern stems from the fact that in order to protect stocks, commercial fishing is restricted to fish which are above a statutory minimum landing size, whereas the majority of fish killed by impingement are below this size. This Report considers the significance of impingement mortalities at four estuarine sites in Britain for six commercially important species. Life tables are used to establish expected survival trajectories for each species and to compute reproductive potential. Each fish killed on intake screens is then considered in terms of the fraction of the reproductive potential of a single adult at maturity, and is ascribed an 'adult equivalent' value. Total catches of mixed juveniles and adults are then presented as 'adult equivalent' values. (author)

  5. Fishing with Otters: a Traditional Conservation Practice in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mostafa Feeroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishing with otters has been practiced in Bangladesh for the last two hundred years. This traditional practice plays an important role in otter conservation in Bangladesh. Among the three species of otters found in Bangladesh, only Lutra perspicillata is currently used for fishing by the fishermen in and around the Sundarbans. Noraile and Khulna districts, near the Sundarbans, are the only districts in the country where this species is bred in captivity, tamed, and used for fishing by the fishermen. These fishermen are completely dependent on this technique for their livelihood. These tamed otters are used for fishing in rivers inside the Sundarbans during winter and pre-monsoon. Fishing occurs outside the Sundarbans only during monsoon. The whole fishing system is unique, involving three people, a boat, a net, two adult tamed otters, and an immature trainee otter. The tamed otters generally do not catch fish by themselves during fishing rather they chase fish towards a special fishing net placed in the water away from the boat. Otters start driving fish to the net from different directions and when they come close to the net, the fishermen pull the net into the boat. Fishing with otters occurs at night, mostly between 2100h and 0500h. Fish are captured during 8 to 12 periods by each fishing group per night. The total nightly weight of captured fish varies from 4 to 12 kg. We recorded 176 otters of different age and sex classes in captivity belonging to 46 fishermen groups in two districts. Among these, 138 adult otters are actively involved in fishing. The remaining animals are infants, juveniles, or very old. These otters breed successfully in captivity and maintain their population. Approximately 300 people are directly involved in this fishing technique and another 2,000 people indirectly depend on this method of fishing for their livelihood. This species of otter is conserved traditionally both in captivity and in the wild in this area.

  6. Automated passage control for security, cost efficiency, and convenience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new methods of passage control through automatic computer processes and electromechanical identity and surveillance devices. It is now possible for a person to be identified with objective certainty by computer without interaction of a guard or duty officer. In addition, the presence of just one person is also confirmed automatically BEFORE passage is allowed into a secured area. There can be no tailgating of intruders during a valid, authorized entry process. The advantage to the facility using this new equipment is improved security through elimination of the subjective decision process of guards who may be right on or who may be off that day. The objective decisions of the automated passage control computers determine a positive identity and passage authority, or else interdicts the passage attempt. There can be no indecision, argument, or waffling about authorization to enter. Each person's Logical Presence is known at all times, and a permanent audit trail is maintained. There is an almost immediate return on investment through the furloughing of expensive guards and inspectors at entry points

  7. Evaluation of a Behavioral Guidance Structure at Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse including Passage Survival of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead using Acoustic Telemetry, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summarizes research conducted at Bonneville Dam in 2008 to evaluate a prototype Behavioral Guidance Structure, that was deployed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in an effort to increase survival of outmigrating smolts at Bonneville Dam. In 2008, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to evaluate a newly deployed 700-ft-long and 10-ft-deep behavioral guidance structure (BGS) located in the forebay of the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) and to estimate the survival of yearling Chinook salmon, subyearling Chinook salmon, and juvenile steelhead passing downstream through this powerhouse. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector, a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. Fish longer than 95 mm were surgically implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, held overnight in tanks supplied with continuous flow of river water to allow time for recovery from surgery and released upstream as part of two concurrent survival studies that were evaluating survival at John Day Dam and the Bonneville spillway. Tagged fish were released at or downstream of Arlington, Oregon, approximately 156 km upstream on the Columbia River. Additional release points included the tailwaters of John Day Dam and The Dalles Dam. The volitional movements of the tagged migrants were subsequently tracked through the B2 forebay to their eventual route of passage. Passage location was recorded and incorporated with detections from three downstream survival arrays to produce survival estimates. The tracked positions of fish in the forebay and passage distribution at B2 were evaluated to determine behavior relative to the BGS location.

  8. Passage performance of long-distance upstream migrants at a large dam on the Paraná River and the compounding effects of entry and ascent

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Luiz Wagner; Sergio Makrakis; Theodore Castro-Santos; Maristela Cavicchioli Makrakis; João Henrique Pinheiro Dias; René Fuster Belmont

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a fishway evaluation performed at the Engenheiro Sérgio Motta Hydroelectric Power Plant (known as Porto Primavera) - CESP, Paraná River, Brazil. The evaluation was designed to quantify entry and passage proportions of 4 long-distance migratory fish species: Brycon orbignyanus (piracanjuba), Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu), Prochilodus lineatus (curimba), and Rhinelepis aspera (cascudo-preto). Proportions finding and entering the fishway differed between species, ...

  9. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project : Annual Report 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Charles D.

    1999-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Personnel of three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and

  10. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sear, Sheri

    2001-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  11. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Charles D.

    2000-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  12. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2012-February 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.

    2014-01-01

    The in-reservoir movements and dam passage of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were studied at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, near Detroit, Oregon, during 2012 and 2013. The goal of the study was to provide data to inform decisions about future downstream passage alternatives and factors affecting downstream passage rates with the existing dam configuration. In 2012, 468 juvenile Chinook salmon and 200 juvenile steelhead were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 514 juvenile Chinook salmon were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the fall. The fish were surgically implanted with a small acoustic transmitter with an expected life of about 3 months and a passive integrated transponder tag with an indefinite life, and were released into the two main tributaries several kilometers upstream of the reservoir. Juvenile Chinook salmon migrated from the release sites to the reservoir in a greater proportion than juvenile steelhead, but once in the reservoir, juvenile steelhead migrated to the forebay faster and had a higher dam passage rate than juvenile Chinook salmon. The routes available for passing water and fish varied throughout the year, with low reservoir elevations in winter and high reservoir elevations in summer in accordance with the flood-control purpose of the dam. Most dam passage was through the spillway during the spring and summer, when the reservoir elevation was high and the spillway and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation, and via the powerhouse during the fall and winter period, when the reservoir elevation was low and the regulating outlet and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation. Few tagged fish passed when the powerhouse was the only route in operation. Dam passage rates during the spring and summer were greatest at night, increased with dam discharge, and were greater when water was passed freely over the

  13. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  14. Sustainable fishing of inland waters

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppe Kolding; Paul van Zwieten

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability in fisheries has over the past decades evolved from a single species maximization concept to covering ecosystem and biodiversity considerations. This expansion of the notion, together with increased evidence that the targeted removal of selected components of the fish community may have adverse ecological consequences, poses a serious dilemma to the conventional fisheries management approach of protecting juveniles and targeting adults. Recently, the idea of balanced harvest, i...

  15. Does habitat complexity influence fish recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHEMINÉE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities facilitate coastal habitat transformation and homogenization. The spread of marine invasive species is one example. This in turn may influence fish recruitment and the subsequent replenishment of adult assemblages. We tested habitat complexity effect on fish (Teleostei recruitment by experimentally manipulating meadows of the habitat-forming invasive macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta. Among the fourteen fish species recorded during the experiment, only two labrids (Coris julis and Symphodus ocellatus settled in abundance among these meadows. Patterns in the abundance of these juveniles suggested that reduced tri-dimensional meadow complexity may reduce habitat quality and result in altered habitat choices and / or differential mortality of juveniles, therefore reducing fish recruitment and likely the abundance of adults.

  16. An Efficient Passage Ranking Technique For a QA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering (QA systems provide an intuitive way of requesting concise information from a givendata source. An important stage of such a system is the passage ranking stage, which ranks the possibleanswers based on their relevance to the question. There has been a lot of previous work on passageranking, employing lexical, semantic or syntactic methods, but to our knowledge there has been no methodthat comprehensively combines all 3 features. In this paper, we present a passage ranking technique thatleverages lexical, semantic and syntactic features together to rank the answers efficiently and effectively.This paper highlights the differences and improvements of the proposed technique over existing state-ofthe-art techniques like SSTK and IBM Model. The passage ranking technique has been evaluated withTREC QA dataset and is observed to give a significant 26.5% improvement in MRR over the existing stateof-the-art SSTK technique.

  17. The effect of cell passage number on osteogenic and adipogenic characteristics of D1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwist, K; Bridges, W C; Burg, K J L

    2016-08-01

    Cell line passage number is an important consideration when designing an experiment. At higher passages, it is generally understood that cell health begins to decline and, when this occurs, the result can be variable data. However, there are no specific guidelines regarding optimal passage range, and this information is dependent on cell type. To explore these variabilities, low passage D1 cells were thawed (passage 3) and passaged serially until a much higher number (passage 34). Samples were taken every five passages and analyzed for alkaline phosphatase and triglyceride; also, the gene expression of both adipogenic and osteogenic markers was tested. The results indicate that the growth rate of these cells did slow down after passage 30. However, expression of the osteogenic characteristics seemed to cycle, with the highest levels seen at passage 4 and 24. The adipocyte expression levels remained the same throughout the study. PMID:26208915

  18. Radio-Tracking Studies of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead to Determine the Effect of ''Zero'' River Flow During Water Storage at Little Goose Dam on the Lower Snake River, Final Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscom, Kenneth

    1985-09-01

    Allowable instantaneous minimum river flows are established in the Columbia and Snake Rivers to ensure safe passage of anadromous fish during their migration to the spawning grounds. However, water storage during periods of low power demands (at night and on weekends) would be beneficial to the power producers. This storage procedure is called ''zero'' river flow and is now permitted on a limited basis when there are few if any actively migrating anadromous fish present in the river system. Requests were made to extend ''zero'' river flow into periods when anadromous fish were actively migrating and a study was initiated. Radio-tracking studies were conducted on the Snake River between Lower Monumental and Little Goose Dams to determine the effect of ''zero'' river flow on the migration of adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri. From July through September, 1981, a total of 258 steelhead and 32 chinook salmon were radio-tagged. The rate of migration was used to determine differences between test and control fish and a gamma distribution model was used to describe the migration rate for radio-tagged fish. Estimates of the parameters of the model were used to statistically compare ''zero'' flow and normal river flow conditions for the radio-tagged fish. The results show that the ''zero'' flow condition delays the migration of adult chinook salmon and steelhead; therefore, extended periods of ''zero'' flow to store water are not recommended when fish are actively migrating in the river system. 16 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  20. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  1. First passage failure of dynamical power systems under random perturbations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first-passage problem of dynamical power system of a single-machine-infinite-bus (SMIB) system under random perturbations is studied.First,the stochastic averaging method for quasi non-integrable generalized Hamiltonian systems is applied to reduce the equations of the SMIB system under random perturbations to a set of averaged It? equations.Then,the backward Kolmogorov equation governing the conditional reliability function and the Pontryagin equation governing the conditional mean of first passage time are established and solved numerically,respectively.Finally,the proposed method is verified by using the Monte Carlo simulation of the original system.

  2. FUNCTIONS OF VATA (BASED ON CHARAKA) A Passage from Vaatkalaakaleeyam

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Acharya Raghuvir Prasad

    1982-01-01

    The author has chosen 12th Chapter from the Sutra Sthana of this great epic containing 12,000 verses and passages which is replete with materials to revive the whole art of healing even if the whole medical literatures is lost. The passage puts in a nutshell the key role played by Vayu / Vata in the working of the tantra and yantra of the body. Though exploration of the humours is yet to be done by modern physiologists to explain the Ayurvedic Vata which is responsible to no less than 18 func...

  3. [Studies on the adaptation of various strains of orthomyxovirus type A, subtype A/equi 2, passaged either on bovine kidney cells or on chicken fibroblasts or on RK-13 cells or by those passages alternating with "in ovo" passages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaduce, D; Martone, F; De Caprio, L

    1975-10-20

    The Authors have researched to adapt Orthomyxovirus, subtype A/equi-2 (Naples/213/67, Andria/60/68 and Miami/63), by serial passages on kidney calf cells, chick embryo cells and RK-13 cell line or by one or two passages on these colture media alternated with one passage "in ovo". The results obtained show that only kidney calf cells are most suitable because the viruses replicate for eleven passages. On the chick embryo cells and RK-13 cell line the viruses replicate only for two passages and these results are not modified when one or two passages are alternated with one passage "in ovo". The Authors have observed the production of infectious but not haemadsorbing and haemagglutining virus. The phenomenon is discussed and integrated with collateral tests. PMID:1106726

  4. Reynolds shear-stress and velocity: positive biological response of neotropical fishes to hydraulic parameters in a vertical slot fishway

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Alan de Freitas Duarte; Isabella Cristina Resende Ramos; Hersília de Andrade e Santos

    2012-01-01

    The barriers created by dams can cause negative impacts to aquatic communities, and migratory fish species are directly affected. Fishways have been developed to allow the upstream passage of fishes through dams. In Brazil, after the implementation of environmental laws, these structures have been built based on European and American fishway designs. Studies have shown selectivity for different neotropical fishes in some Brazilian fishways, and the main challenge has been to promote upstream ...

  5. Fisheries oceanography of northern pelagic fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula

    People are familiar with marine fish species and the great variety of different species that are available in the market, such as herring, cod and sole. What may not be well known is that every individual fish goes through a long, risky journey during its life before reaching maturity. Most...... of the marine fish species are important prey for larger predators, such as larger fish in the ocean, marine mammals, birds and humans. Every individual female fish can produce many thousands to millions of eggs every year during the spawning season. The eggs (usually less than 2 mm in diameter) that live free...... in the environment, and depending on species, eggs either drift/float in the water or are attached to the bottom close to each other. The larvae that hatch from the eggs grow in size continuously until they reach a certain size and become adults. The first few weeks of its life are the riskiest and most of the eggs...

  6. Providing Aquatic Organism Passage in Vertically Unstable Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JanineM Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organism passage barriers have been identified as one of the key impediments to recovery of salmonids and other migratory aquatic organisms in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. As such, state and federal agencies invest millions of dollars annually to address passage barriers. Because many barriers function as ad hoc grade control structures, their removal and/or replacement can unwittingly set off a cascade of effects that can negatively impact the very habitat and passage that project proponents seek to improve. The resultant vertical instability can result in a suite of effects that range from floodplain disconnection and loss of backwater and side channel habitat, to increased levels of turbidity. Risk assessment, including an evaluation of both the stage of stream evolution and a longitudinal profile analysis, provides a framework for determining if grade control is warranted, and if so, what type of structure is most geomorphically appropriate. Potential structures include placement of large wood and roughness elements, and constructed riffles, step-pools, and cascades. The use of structure types that mimic natural reach scale geomorphic analogues should result in improved aquatic organism passage, increased structural resilience, and reduced maintenance.

  7. First Passage Times and Breakthrough Curves Associated with Interfacial Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Waymire, Edward C; Bokil, Vrushali A; Thomann, Enrique A; Wood, Brian D

    2011-01-01

    Advection and dispersion in highly heterogeneous environments involving interfacial discontinuities in the corresponding drift and dispersion rates are described through disparate examples from the physical and biological sciences. A mathematical framework is formulated to address specific empirical phenomena involving first passage time and occupation time functionals observed in relation to the interfacial parameters.

  8. On some special directed last-passage percolation models

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    We investigate extended processes given by last-passage times in directed models defined using exponential variables with decaying mean. In certain cases we find the universal Airy process, but other cases lead to non-universal and trivial extended processes.

  9. Preparing for Life's Passages: How Fantasy Literature Can Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlobin, Roger C.

    1979-01-01

    Maintains that fantasy literature, based on archetypal rites-of-passage, provides a context in which students can gain insight into their own struggles for growth and self-awareness and that this "link to life" is one of the genre's most attractive features. (FL)

  10. Nurse Educators' Leadership Styles and Nurse Graduates' Licensure Passage Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dianna Bailey

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to examine the relationship between leadership styles of community college nurse educators in Texas and licensure passage rates of nursing community college graduates in Texas. Surveys were conducted to obtain the nurse educators' demographic data. The Multifactor Leadership…

  11. Improving passage retrieval in question answering using NLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiedemann, J; Bento, C; Cardoso, A; Dias, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the integration of linguistic information in passage retrieval in an open-source question answering system for Dutch. Annotation produced by the wide-coverage dependency parser Alpino is stored in multiple index layers to be matched with natural language question

  12. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  13. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  14. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  15. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  16. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene neurotoxicity - Passage effect in immortalized astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Laura L; Latham, Jackelyn D; Landis, Rory W; Song, Dong Hoon; Epstein, Tamir; Philbert, Martin A

    2016-03-01

    Age-related disturbances in astrocytic mitochondrial function are linked to loss of neuroprotection and decrements in neurological function. The immortalized rat neocortical astrocyte-derived cell line, DI-TNC1, provides a convenient model for the examination of cellular aging processes that are difficult to study in primary cell isolates from aged brain. Successive passages in culture may serve as a surrogate of aging in which time-dependent adaptation to culture conditions may result in altered responses to xenobiotic challenge. To investigate the hypothesis that astrocytic mitochondrial homeostatic function is decreased with time in culture, low passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (LP; #2-8) and high passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (HP; #17-28) were exposed to the mitochondrial neurotoxicant 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB). Cells were exposed in either monoculture or in co-culture with primary cortical neurons. Astrocyte mitochondrial membrane potential, morphology, ATP production and proliferation were monitored in monoculture, and the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to buffer K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization was examined in co-cultures. In HP DI-TNC1 cells, DNB exposure decreased proliferation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and significantly decreased mitochondrial form factor. Low passage DI-TNC1 cells effectively attenuated K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization in the presence of DNB whereas HP counterparts were unable to buffer K(+) in DNB challenge. Following DNB challenge, LP DI-TNC1 cells exhibited greater viability in co-culture than HP. The data provide compelling evidence that there is an abrupt phenotypic change in DI-TNC1 cells between passage #9-16 that significantly diminishes the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to compensate for neurotoxic challenge and provide neuroprotective spatial buffering. Whether or not these functional changes have an in vivo analog in aging brain remains to be determined. PMID:26769196

  17. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  18. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  19. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  20. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  1. Trapping and transportation of adult and juvenile salmon in the lower Umatilla River in northeast Oregon, 1995--1996 -- Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program. Annual progress report, October 1995--September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from September 5, 1995 to July 1, 1996. A total of 2,081 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 603 adult, 288 jack, and 338 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 946 adult and 53 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,152 adult and 121 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from September 8 to October 13, 1995 and from March 18 to June 30, 1996. The juvenile trap was operated from July 1 to July 11. Daily operations at the facility were conducted by the ODFW Fish Passage Research project to monitor juvenile outmigration

  2. Fish length, water temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen data collected from Strawberry Creek, Redwood National Park, California from 2012-02-12 to 2016-02-25 (NCEI Accession 0148460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been several recent efforts to restore Strawberry Creek including reed canary grass removal, riparian plantings, increasing fish passage at the County...

  3. Embryonic and genetic manipulation in fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fishes, the biggest and most diverse community in vertebrates are good experimental models for studies of cell and developmental biology by many favorable charac teristics. Nuclear transplantation in fish has been thor oughly studied in China since 1960s. Fish nuclei of em bryonic cells from different genera were transplanted into enucleated eggs generating nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrids of adults. Most importantly, nuclei of cultured goldfish kid ney cells had been reprogrammed in enucleated eggs to support embryogenesis and ontogenesis of a fertile fish. This was the first case of cloned fish with somatic cells. Based on the technique of microinjection, recombinant MThGH gene has been transferred into fish eggs and the first batch of transgenic fish were produced in 1984. The behavior of foreign gene was characterized and the onset of the foreign gene replication occurred between the blas tula to gastrula stages and random integration mainly oc curred at later stages of embryogenesis. This eventually led to the transgenlc mosaicism. The MThGH-transferred common carp enhanced growth rate by 2-4 times in the founder juveniles and doubled the body weight in the adults. The transgenic common carp were more efficient in utilizing dietary protein than the controls. An “all-fish” gene construct CAgcGH has been made by splicing the common carpβ-actin gene (CA) promoter onto the grass carp growth hormone gene (gcGH) coding sequence. The CAgcGH-transferred Yellow River Carp have also shown significantly fast-growth trait. Combination of techniques * Corresponding author, Fax: 0086-27-87876624 E-mail: zyzhu@ihb.ac.cn of fish cell culture, gene transformation with cultured cells and nuclear transplantation should be able to generate ho mogeneous strain of valuable transgenic fish to fulfil human requirement in 21st century.

  4. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  5. Power stations and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the interactions of the CEGB's activities with aquatic life are outlined, and current research is highlighted. Fish impingement and entrainment, their significance, and the possible benefits of reducing fish ingress are discussed. The effect on fish of thermal discharges and the use of heated effluents for fish culture are considered. (author)

  6. Integrated polarization rotator/converter by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiao; Zou, Chang-Ling; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-07-15

    We proposed a polarization rotator inspired by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage model from quantum optics, which is composed of a signal waveguide and an ancillary waveguide. The two orthogonal modes in signal waveguide and the oblique mode in ancillary waveguide form a Λ-type three-level system. By controlling the width of signal waveguide and the gap between two waveguides, adiabatic conversion between two orthogonal modes can be realized in the signal waveguide. With such adiabatic passage, polarization conversion is completed within 150 μm length, with the efficiencies over 99% for both conversions between horizontal polarization and vertical polarization. In addition, such a polarization rotator is quite robust against fabrication error, allowing a wide range of tolerances for the rotator geometric parameters. Our work is not only significative to photonic simulations of coherent quantum phenomena with engineered photonic waveguides, but also enlightens the practical applications of these phenomena in optical device designs. PMID:23938558

  7. DNS of fully turbulent flow in a LPT passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work addresses the pattern of turbulent kinetic energy generated by distortion and the effect of external disturbances on boundary layer transition. This is investigated with direct numerical simulation of grid turbulence convected through a linear turbine blade cascade. Comparisons are made with results from earlier computations of flow through the same cascade with a turbulence free inflow and an inflow with migrating wakes. The distribution of turbulence in the passage strongly depends on the mean flow field and can partly be explained by the travel time needed for the inlet turbulence to drift to a certain location. This results in a local amplification of turbulence near the leading edge stagnation region and in the passage on the pressure side near the trailing edge. The penetration of disturbances into the blade boundary layers induces bypass transition. In particular, the transition pattern on the suction side of the blade differs significantly for the three types of inflow

  8. Effects of Drake Passage on a strongly eddying global ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Viebahn, Jan P; Bars, Dewi Le; Dijkstra, Henk A

    2015-01-01

    The climate impact of ocean gateway openings during the Eocene-Oligocene transition is still under debate. Previous model studies employed grid resolutions at which the impact of mesoscale eddies has to be parameterized. We present results of a state-of-the-art eddy-resolving global ocean model with a closed Drake Passage, and compare with results of the same model at non-eddying resolution. An analysis of the pathways of heat by decomposing the meridional heat transport into eddy, horizontal, and overturning circulation components indicates that the model behavior on the large scale is qualitatively similar at both resolutions. Closing Drake Passage induces (i) sea surface warming around Antarctica due to changes in the horizontal circulation of the Southern Ocean, (ii) the collapse of the overturning circulation related to North Atlantic Deep Water formation leading to surface cooling in the North Atlantic, (iii) significant equatorward eddy heat transport near Antarctica. However, quantitative details sign...

  9. First-passage and risk evaluation under stochastic volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoliver, Jaume; Perelló, Josep

    2009-07-01

    We solve the first-passage problem for the Heston random diffusion model. We obtain exact analytical expressions for the survival and the hitting probabilities to a given level of return. We study several asymptotic behaviors and obtain approximate forms of these probabilities which prove, among other interesting properties, the nonexistence of a mean-first-passage time. One significant result is the evidence of extreme deviations—which implies a high risk of default—when certain dimensionless parameter, related to the strength of the volatility fluctuations, increases. We confront the model with empirical daily data and we observe that it is able to capture a very broad domain of the hitting probability. We believe that this may provide an effective tool for risk control which can be readily applicable to real markets both for portfolio management and trading strategies.

  10. Entropy Minimization Design Approach of Supersonic Internal Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid machinery operating in the supersonic regime unveil avenues towards more compact technology. However, internal supersonic flows are associated with high aerodynamic and thermal penalties, which usually prevent their practical implementation. Indeed, both shock losses and the limited operational range represent particular challenges to aerodynamic designers that should be taken into account at the initial phase of the design process. This paper presents a design methodology for supersonic passages based on direct evaluations of the velocity field using the method of characteristics and computation of entropy generation across shock waves. This meshless function evaluation tool is then coupled to an optimization scheme, based on evolutionary algorithms that minimize the entropy generation across the supersonic passage. Finally, we assessed the results with 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes calculations.

  11. Efficient, Low-Cost Nucleofection of Passaged Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreno, Justin; Delve, Elizabeth; Andrejevic, Katarina; Paez-Parent, Sabrina; Wu, Po-Han; Kandel, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Nucleofection of chondrocytes has been shown to be an adequate method of transfection. Using Amaxa's nucleofection system, transfection efficiencies up to 89% were achievable for vector (pmaxGFP) and 98% for siRNA (siGLO) into passaged chondrocytes. However, such methods rely on costly commercial kits with proprietary reagents limiting its use in basic science labs and in clinical translation. Bovine-passaged chondrocytes were plated in serum reduced media conditionsand then nucleofected using various in laboratory-produced buffers. Cell attachment, confluency, viability, and transfection efficiency was assessed following nucleofection. For each parameter the buffers were scored and a final rank for each buffer was determined. Buffer denoted as 1M resulted in no significant difference for cell attachment, confluency, and viability as compared to non-nucleofected controls. Nucleofection in 1M buffer, in the absence of DNA vectors, resulted in increased col2, ki67, ccnd1 mRNA levels, and decreased col1 mRNA levels at 4 days of culture. Flow cytometry revealed that the transfection efficiency of 1M buffer was comparable to that obtained using the Amaxa commercial kit. siRNA designed against lamin A/C resulted in an average reduction of lamin A and C proteins to 19% and 8% of control levels, respectively. This study identifies a cost-effective, efficient method of nonviral nucleofection of bovine-passaged chondrocytes using known buffer formulations. Human-passaged chondrocytes could also be successfully nucleofected in 1M buffer. Thus this method should facilitate cost-efficient gene targeting of cells used for articular cartilage repair in a research setting. PMID:26958320

  12. Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages

    OpenAIRE

    José-Vicente López-Bao; Alejandro Rodríguez,; Joan Garcia-Haro; Pawel Kulakowski; Fernando Losilla; Felipe Garcia-Sanchez; Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez; Francisco Palomares

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures). This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal) tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to ...

  13. First-passage times in complex scale-invariant media

    OpenAIRE

    Condamin, S.; Benichou, O.; Tejedor, V.; Voituriez, R.; Klafter, J.

    2007-01-01

    How long does it take a random walker to reach a given target point? This quantity, known as a first passage time (FPT), has led to a growing number of theoretical investigations over the last decade1. The importance of FPTs originates from the crucial role played by first encounter properties in various real situations, including transport in disordered media, neuron firing dynamics, spreading of diseases or target search processes. Most methods to determine the FPT properties in confining d...

  14. Transovarian passage, visceral distribution, and pathogenicity of salmonella in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiodini, R J

    1982-01-01

    Transovarian passage of salmonella was evaluated in snakes by cesarean delivery and subsequent bacteriological examination of fetuses. In all cases, the same Salmonella serotype was isolated from the feces of gravid females and their fetuses. The visceral distribution of salmonella in normal snakes was found to involve almost all visceral organs. Of nonenteric organs examined, salmonella was recovered most often from the livers and ureters. Experimental infections with Salmonella typhimurium ...

  15. Effect of passages on the soil onto soil tillage quality

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Effect of passages on the soil onto soil tillage quality in this study was assessed by selected parameters of soil tillage quality, which were soil aggregates diameter, cross surface soil, soil surface roughness, level of incorporation of crop residues, cover the surface of plant residues and soil penetration resistance. Variants were evaluated with controlled traffic on land, option without traffic and the option with random traffic. The results revealed that traffic should primarily affect ...

  16. Reduction of blade passage tone by angle modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiagbedzi, Y. A.

    1982-05-01

    Blade staggering has been used in both centrifugal and axial flow fans to reduce discrete tones. Impeller hub resilience, causing fan torsional oscillations, appears to be equivalent to blade staggering in that both lead to angle modulation of the blade passage sound. By using Jacobi-Anger expansions, the sound reductions resulting from the angle modulation effects of these two equivalent techniques are predicted. Excellent agreement is found with published data.

  17. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2004-01-01

    ) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions. Additionally, as adult return information becomes available, as part of this study we will evaluate relationships between juvenile survival and subsequent adult returns for fish with different juvenile migration histories.

  18. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  19. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  20. Long-range last-passage percolation on the line

    CERN Document Server

    Foss, Sergey; Schmidt, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    We consider directed last-passage percolation on the random graph G = (V,E) where V = Z and each edge (i,j), for i 0. We are interested in the behaviour of w_{0,n}, which is the maximum weight of all directed paths from 0 to n, as n tends to infinity. We see two very different types of behaviour, depending on whether E[v_{i,j}^2] is finite or infinite. In the case where E[v_{i,j}^2] is finite we show that the process has a certain regenerative structure, and prove a strong law of large numbers and, under an extra assumption, a functional central limit theorem. In the situation where E[v_{i,j}^2] is infinite we obtain scaling laws and asymptotic distributions expressed in terms of a "continuous last-passage percolation" model on [0,1]; these are related to corresponding results for two-dimensional last-passage percolation with heavy-tailed weights obtained by Hambly and Martin.

  1. Fish barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to literature reviews laboratory experiments with both strobe light and different kinds of sound stimuli were carried out. In the experiments silver eel, brown trout, arctic char and salmon smolts were tested. The experiments showed that in darkness silver eel avoided strobe light with intensities between 0.4 and 8.7 lux with 80-90% avoidance in 8.7 lux. The avoidance reactions decreased when background light was raised to 9 lux. Brown trout did not show as strong avoidance reactions possibly due to aggressive behaviour between different individuals of brown trout. The avoidance reaction was however more pronounced in dim background lift with an intensity of 5 lux than in darkness. The experiments also showed that the avoidance reactions started within a few seconds after exposure to strobe light. The frequencies 6.0 and 15 Hz were more effective as triggers of avoidance reactions than were the frequencies 2.1 and 160 Hz. Arctic char did not show any avoidance reactions to strobe light. It was actually attracted to strobe light with the frequency 160 Hz in total darkness and indifferent in dim background light 10 lux. Experiments in running water also showed that salmon smolts could be diverted from an area exposed to strobe light with the frequency 15.0 Hz. The effect was more pronounced in darkness than in dim background light and also more pronounced when water current was 20 cm/s than when it was 40 or 60 cm/s. Experiments to test the avoidance reactions to sound was also performed. The evaluation of these results where however complicated by the fact that the fishes swam rapidly to and fro in the experimental chamber and thus by pure chance very frequently were close to the sound generator

  2. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    the efficacy of using an acoustic camera to count adult migrant Chinook salmon as they make their way to the spawning grounds on the Secesh River and Lake Creek. A phased approach to applying the acoustic camera was proposed, starting with testing and evaluation in spring 2003, followed by a full implementation in 2004 and 2005. The goal of this effort is to better assess the early run components when water clarity and night visibility preclude the use of optical techniques. A single acoustic camera was used to test the technology for enumerating adult salmon passage at the Secesh River. The acoustic camera was deployed on the Secesh at a site engineered with an artificial substrate to control the river bottom morphometry and the passage channel. The primary goal of the analysis for this first year of deployment was to validate counts of migrant salmon. The validation plan involved covering the area with optical video cameras so that both optical and acoustic camera images of the same viewing region could be acquired simultaneously. A secondary test was contrived after the fish passage was complete using a controlled setting at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in which we tested the detectability as a function of turbidity levels. Optical and acoustic camera multiplexed video recordings of adult Chinook salmon were made at the Secesh River fish counting station from August 20 through August 29, 2003. The acoustic camera performed as well as or better than the optical camera at detecting adult Chinook salmon over the 10-day test period. However, the acoustic camera was not perfect; the data reflected adult Chinook salmon detections made by the optical camera that were missed by the acoustic camera. The conditions for counting using the optical camera were near ideal, with shallow clear water and good light penetration. The relative performance of the acoustic camera is expected to be even better than the optical camera in early spring

  3. Subgaussian rates of convergence of means in directed first passage percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    We consider directed first passage percolation on the integer lattice, with time constant $\\mu$ and passage time $a_{0n}$ from the origin to $(n,0,...,0)$. It is shown that under certain conditions on the passage time distribution, $Ea_{0n} - n\\mu = O(n^{1/2}(\\log\\log n)/\\log n)$.

  4. Laboratory studies on the effects of shear on fish: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mueller, R. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guensch, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2000-09-01

    The overall objective of these studies was to specify an index describing the hydraulic force that fish experience when subjected to a shear environment. Fluid shear is a phenomenon that is important to fish. However, elevated levels of shear may result in strain rates that injure or kill fish. At hydroelectric generating facilities, concerns have been expressed that strain rates associated with passage through turbines, spillways, and fish bypass systems may adversely affect migrating fish. Development of fish-friendly hydroelectric turbines requires knowledge of the physical forces (injury mechanisms) that impact entrained fish and the fish’s tolerance to these forces. It requires up-front, pre-design specifications for the environmental conditions that occur within the turbine system; in other words, determining or assuming conditions known to injure fish will assist engineers in the design of a fish-friendly turbine system. To address the development of biological specifications, this experiment designed and built a test facility where juvenile fish could be subjected to a range of shear environments and quantified their biological response. The test data reported here provide quantified strain rates and the relationship of these forces to direct and indirect biological effects on fish. The study concludes that juvenile salmonids and American shad should survive shear environments where strain rates do not exceed 500 cm/s/cm at a Dy of 1.8 cm. Additional studies are planned with a sensor fish to better link hydraulic conditions found within the laboratory and field environments.

  5. Movement of Fall Chinook Salmon Fry Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha : A Comparison of Approach Angles for Fish Bypass in a Modular Rotary Drum Fish Screen.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Blanton, S.L.; Abernethy, C. Scott; Daly, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed tests to determine whether a significant difference in fish passage existed between a 6-ft screening facility built perpendicularly to canal flow and an identical screening facility with the screen mounted at a 45-degree angle to the approach channel. A modular drum screen built by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife was installed at PNNL`s Aquatic Ecology research laboratory in Richland, Washington. Fall chinook salmon fry were introduced into the test system, and their movements were monitored. A total of 14 tests (400 fish per test) that lasted 20 hours were completed during April and May, 1996. There was no significant difference in fish passage rate through the two approach configurations. Attraction flow to the bypass across the face of the screen was more evident for the angled approach, although this did not appear to play a significant role in attracting fish to the bypass. Approach velocities at the face of the screen did not exceed the 0.4 fps criteria for either approach configuration and posed not threat to fish. No fish passed over, around, or through the drum screen during any test.

  6. A Preliminary Assessment of Barotrauma Injuries and Acclimation Studies for Three Fish Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walker, Ricardo W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Fish that pass hydro structures either through turbine passage, deep spill, or other deep pathways can experience rapid decreases in pressure that can result in barotrauma. In addition to morphology and physiology of the fish’s swim bladder, the severity of barotrauma is directly related to the volume of undissolved gas in fish prior to rapid decompression and the lowest pressure the fish experience as they pass hydro structures (termed the “nadir”). The volume of undissolved gas in fish is influenced by the depth of acclimation (the pressure at which the fish is neutrally buoyant); therefore, determining the depth where fish are neutrally buoyant is a critical precursor to determining the relationship between pressure changes and injury or mortality.

  7. The anaesthesia of fish by high carbon-dioxide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-01-01

    A practical and economical method for anaesthetizing adult salmon and steelhead trout in the fish trucks used in the Grand Coulee fish salvage program is described. The method consists in generating a predetermined carbon-dioxide concentration in the 1000-gallon tanks of the trucks through the successive addition of predissolved sodium bicarbonate and dilute sulphuric acid in proper quantities. Carbon-dioxide anaesthesia effectively solved the acute problem of species segregation in the fish salvage program and, with minor modifications, could be used with equal success in certain hatchery operations necessitating the handling of large fish.

  8. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucelick, Jessica; McMichael, Geoffrey; Chamness, Mickie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2006-02-01

    In 2004, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 25 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2004, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (4) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites. (5) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve passage conditions for juvenile fish. For example, Taylor has had problems meeting bypass flow and submergence operating criteria since the main river channel shifted away from the site 2 years ago, and Fruitvale consistently has had problems meeting bypass flow criteria when the water is low. (6) Continued problems at Gleed point to design flaws. This site should be considered for redesign or replacement.

  9. The Influence of Religion-Specific Background Knowledge on the Listening Comprehension of Adult Second-Language Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Paul; Latham, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Assesses the influence of religious-specific background knowledge on adult ESL listening comprehension. Sixteen Moslems, 20 Christians, and 28 religion-neutral students listened to two passages, one on prayer rituals of Islam and one on those of Christianity. Students better recalled and understood the passage related to their respective religious…

  10. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts during spring 2010 in a portion of the Columbia River that includes Bonneville Dam. The study estimated smolt survival from a virtual release at Bonneville Dam to a survival array 81 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. We also estimated median forebay residence time, median tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A single release design was used to estimate survival from Bonneville Dam to a primary array located 81 km downstream of Bonneville. The approach did not include a reference tailrace release. Releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam to Hood River contributed to the formation of virtual releases at a Bonneville Dam forebay entrance array and at the face of the dam. A total of 3,880 yearling Chinook salmon and 3,885 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation.

  11. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacy, William W; Leacock, William B; Eby, Lisa A; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (<15 m wide, <1 m deep) that uses both time-lapse photography and video in a model-based double sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn. PMID:27326378

  12. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts during spring 2010 in a portion of the Columbia River that includes Bonneville Dam. The study estimated smolt survival from a virtual release at Bonneville Dam to a survival array 81 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. We also estimated median forebay residence time, median tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A single release design was used to estimate survival from Bonneville Dam to a primary array located 81 km downstream of Bonneville. The approach did not include a reference tailrace release. Releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam to Hood River contributed to the formation of virtual releases at a Bonneville Dam forebay entrance array and at the face of the dam. A total of 3,880 yearling Chinook salmon and 3,885 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation.

  13. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, William B.; Eby, Lisa A.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn.

  14. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts during spring 2010 in a portion of the Columbia River that includes Bonneville Dam. The study estimated smolt survival from a virtual release at Bonneville Dam to a survival array 81 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. We also estimated median forebay residence time, median tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A single release design was used to estimate survival from Bonneville Dam to a primary array located 81 km downstream of Bonneville. The approach did not include a reference tailrace release. Releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam to Hood River contributed to the formation of virtual releases at a Bonneville Dam forebay entrance array and at the face of the dam. A total of 3,880 yearling Chinook salmon and 3,885 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation.

  15. Test investigation on hydraulic losses in the discharge passage of an axial-flow pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Baoyun; CAO Haihong; JIANG Wei; GAO Zhaohui; WANG Fei

    2007-01-01

    In a discharge passage with a guide blade dis- charge circulation and secondary flow because of bend pipe, the flow in a 1-channel discharge passage of an axial flow pump is a complicated spiral flow. For a 2-channel passage, the discharge in the left channel is bigger than that in the fight, and the passage hydraulic losses are abnormal. In this study, the section current energy of the passage is accurately mea- sured and determined with a 5-hole probe. The hydraulic loss characteristics are determined and analyzed. The methods deducing the hydraulic losses are investigated. The results indicate that the passage hydraulic losses are not proportional to the flow discharge. Compared with a circular pipe, the hydraulic losses of a divergent discharge passage are smaller and the pump assembly efficiency is 10%-30% higher. As for the 1-channel passage, the axial-flow pump outlet circulation is usually too big; the passage hydraulic losses are also big, but a small circulation can slightly reduce hydraulic losses. As for the 2-channel passage, discharges in the two channels are not equal and the hydraulic losses increase. The outlet guide blade with a small discharge circulation or without circulation could reduce discharge passage hydraulic losses and increase pump assembly efficiency by 6%-11%.

  16. Mean First Passage Time in Single File Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general scaling law of the mean first passage time (MFPT) in single file dynamics; the process where many real particles move in a channel of length L with absorbing boundaries, where the particles and the channel have about the same cross section. We derive the relation MFPT ˜ f(n)MFPTfree, here we compute the MFPT when the channel is free (all particles are absorbed, where the average is over many trajectories), n is the number of particles in the channel at initiation, f(n) is the many-particle effect and the quantity MFPTfree is the MFPT of the free particle. When at initiation the density is fixed in basic files f(n) ˜n and therefore e.g. MFPT ˜ L2.5 (basic stochastic dynamics). We also compute the MFPT in diverse files; for example, in a file with heterogeneous particles, in deterministic files, in slow files and in files with long-range interactions. When the particle density is not fixed yet scales with 1/length from the origin, f(n) files, MFPT ˜ L3 (in the number of jumps). We explain these valuable results with various methods and approaches, e.g., we derive a general mapping from the mean square displacement scaling law to the MFPT scaling law. We also connect the results with real life activities. Special Issue Comments: Mean first passage scaling law in single file dynamics and various particular results in files are derived in this project. The project is related to the Special Issue projects about heterogeneous files and slow files,27 expansions in files,26 files with force32 and the first passage time in files.23

  17. Digesta passage rates in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Iskande L V; Fowler, Vivienne F; Reep, Roger L

    2007-11-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Sirenia: Trichechidae), is an herbivorous marine mammal found within coastal areas throughout the state of Florida, which feeds on both fresh and salt water sea grasses. Manatees, like other Sirenians, are a tropical species with little tolerance for water temperatures below 20 degrees C, rely on a relatively poor nutritional food source, and have a low metabolic rate. Although manatees are hindgut fermenting herbivores, they are very efficient at extracting nutrients from the plants on which they feed. Slow passage rates of digesta have been suggested to be a factor in this increased efficiency. Two studies monitored the digesta passage times and mixing of particulate digesta within the manatee digestive tract using MicroGrits colored corncob grit as a fecal marker. Fecal samples were collected subsequently from four manatees in Study 1 and 3 manatees in Study 2, grit pieces removed, counted, and measured. The digesta passage times ranged from 6 and 10 days in Study 1, and 4.3 and 8.3 days in Study 2, supporting data presented in previous studies. When two different colored markers were administered on sequential days, minimal to no mixing was seen in recovered feces, suggesting that the digesta from a given day traveled through the tract as a bolus. Less than 1% of the marker fed was recovered and we hypothesize that perpendicular folds of the large intestine may be the major contributing factor, with pieces being retained and eventually digested. Zoo Biol 26:503-515, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360597

  18. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  19. First-passage and escape problems in the Feller process

    CERN Document Server

    Masoliver, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    The Feller process is an one-dimensional diffusion process with linear drift and state-dependent diffusion coefficient vanishing at the origin. The process is positive definite and it is this property along with its linear character that have made Feller process a convenient candidate for the modeling of a number of phenomena ranging from single neuron firing to volatility of financial assets. While general properties of the process are well known since long, less known are properties related to level crossing such as the first-passage and the escape problems. In this work we thoroughly address these questions.

  20. Heat transfer coefficient in serpentine coolant passage for CCDTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of heat transfer experiments were conducted to refine the cooling passage design in the drift tubes of a coupled cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL). The experimental data were then compared to numerical models to derive relationships between heat transfer rates, Reynold's number, and Prandtl number, over a range of flow rates. Data reduction consisted of axisymmetric finite element modeling where the heat transfer coefficients were modified to match the experimental data. Unfortunately, the derived relationship is valid only for this specific geometry of the test drift tube. Fortunately, the heat transfer rates were much better (approximately 2.5 times) than expected

  1. Fission fragment passage in a small-size single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a method of mathematical simulation the passage of a 100 MeV fission fragment with the mass 140 amu and charge 20 through an insulated solid hydrogen single crystal is investigated. The problem is reduced to the consideration of multiple scattering in a Coulomb field in terms of classical mechanics. It was found that for the time of the fragment flight through the microcrystallite 17% of electrons left the latter. Among the remaining electrons only 40 % of them have the energy lower than 10 eV (the work function for the given microcrystallite). Thus, the concept of the ''ion burst'' is confirmed with a greater probability

  2. Optimal Stochastic Restart Renders Fluctuations in First Passage Times Universal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi

    2016-04-01

    Stochastic restart may drastically reduce the expected run time of a computer algorithm, expedite the completion of a complex search process, or increase the turnover rate of an enzymatic reaction. These diverse first-passage-time (FPT) processes seem to have very little in common but it is actually quite the other way around. Here we show that the relative standard deviation associated with the FPT of an optimally restarted process, i.e., one that is restarted at a constant (nonzero) rate which brings the mean FPT to a minimum, is always unity. We interpret, further generalize, and discuss this finding and the implications arising from it.

  3. Numerical studies of optical forces from adiabatic rapid passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stack, Daniel; Elgin, John; Metcalf, Harold [Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Anisimov, Petr M. [Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We present a numerical study of the properties of optical forces on moving atoms derived from purely stimulated processes produced by multiple adiabatic rapid-passage sequences. The optical Bloch equations are solved for a carefully timed sequence of frequency-swept pulses that can produce a force much larger than the ordinary radiative force. We describe the effects of the sweep range, peak intensity, sweep direction, number of pulses, atomic velocity, and spontaneous emission. Since the momentum of thermal atoms is much larger than that transferred by a single absorption-stimulated emission cycle, multiple repetitions are needed to make a significant velocity change.

  4. Nanoscale resolution for fluorescence microscopy via adiabatic passage

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Juan Luis; Ahufinger, Verònica; Mompart, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    We propose the use of the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage technique for fluorescence microscopy with nanoscale resolution in the far field. This technique uses a {\\Lambda}-type medium coherently coupled to two laser pulses: the pump, with a node in its spatial profile, and the Stokes. The population of the {\\Lambda} system is adiabatically transferred from one ground state to the other except at the node position, yielding a narrow population peak. This coherent localization allows fluorescence imaging with nanometer lateral resolution. We derive an analytical expression to asses the resolution and perform a comparison with the coherent population trapping and the stimulated-emission-depletion techniques.

  5. Estimation of mean first passage time for bursty gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreshtha, Mayank; Surendran, Anudeep; Ghosh, Anandamohan

    2016-06-01

    Gene expression is an intrinsically noisy process, typically, producing mRNAs and proteins in bursts. An important description of such stochastic processes can be done in terms of the mean first passage time (MFPT), i.e., the time taken by mRNAs/proteins to reach a particular threshold. We study the role of burstiness on MFPT and obtain an analytical expression for different models of transcriptional and translational bursts. Our analytical results and numerical simulations confirm that MFPT monotonically decreases with burstiness.

  6. Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with selected model orientation for smooth or skewed trip walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.; Yeh, F. C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of model orientation as well as buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. Turbine blades have internal coolant passage surfaces at the leading and trailing edges of the airfoil with surfaces at angles which are as large as +/- 50 to 60 degrees to the axis of rotation. Most of the previously-presented, multiple-passage, rotating heat transfer experiments have focused on radial passages aligned with the axis of rotation. Results from serpentine passages with orientations 0 and 45 degrees to the axis of rotation which simulate the coolant passages for the mid chord and trailing edge regions of the rotating airfoil are compared. The experiments were conducted with rotation in both directions to simulate serpentine coolant passages with the rearward flow of coolant or with the forward flow of coolant. The experiments were conducted for passages with smooth surfaces and with 45 degree trips adjacent to airfoil surfaces for the radial portion of the serpentine passages. At a typical flow condition, the heat transfer on the leading surfaces for flow outward in the first passage with smooth walls was twice as much for the model at 45 degrees compared to the model at 0 degrees. However, the differences for the other passages and with trips were less. In addition, the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in the rotating passage were decreased with the model at 45 degrees, compared to the results at 0 degrees. The heat transfer in the turn regions and immediately downstream of the turns in the second passage with flow inward and in the third passage with flow outward was also a function of model orientation with differences as large as 40 to 50 percent occurring between the model orientations with forward flow and rearward flow of coolant.

  7. Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Vazquez, Erick J.; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I.; de la Parra, Isabel Abdo; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L.

    2012-01-01

    The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic (<1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions. PMID:22412804

  8. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  9. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  10. Compatibility Determination : Recreational Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It is determined in this document that recreational fishing of bass and brim on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge is consistent with Refuge Objectives. The...

  11. Umatilla - Rough Fish Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...

  12. Alaskan sport fishing waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a guide to newcomers and visitors, fishery biologists have compiled a list of some of the well-known fishing waters in Alaska. The list is merely a starting...

  13. A summary of 22 Years of Fish Screen Evaluation in the Yakima River Basin, Summary Report 1985-2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Mickie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-12-03

    Sixty fish screen facilities were constructed in the Yakima River basin between 1985 and 2006 as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council plan to mitigate the effects of federal hydroelectric projects on fish and wildlife populations. This report summarizes evaluations of some of those and other fish screen facilities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from 1985 through 2006. The objective of these studies was to determine if the newly designed and constructed fish screens were effective at providing juvenile salmonids safe passage past irrigation diversions. To answer that question, PNNL conducted release-and-catch studies at eight Phase I sites in the Yakima River basin. Increasing concerns about the impacts of hatchery fish releases on the wild fish population, as well as the cost and time necessary to perform these kinds of biological studies at more than 60 planned Phase II sites, required development of techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of the sites without releasing fish. The new techniques involved collecting information on screen design, operation, and effectiveness at guiding fish safely through the fish screen facility. Performance measures including water velocities and passage conditions provide a good alternative to biological studies at significantly lower cost and time. Physical techniques were used at all 10 Phase I and 28 Phase II sites evaluated by PNNL over the following 19 years. Results of these studies indicate the Phase I and II fish screen facilities are designed and capable of providing safe passage for juvenile salmonids so long as construction, maintenance, and operations meet the criteria used in the design of each site and the National Marine Fisheries Service criteria for juvenile fish screen design.

  14. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  15. Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) Among Degenerate-Level Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kis, Z; Shore, B W; Vitanov, N V; Kis, Zsolt; Karpati, Attila; Shore, Bruce W.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the conditions needed to accomplish stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) when the three levels (g, e and f) are degenerate, with arbitrary couplings contributing to the pump-pulse interaction (g - e) and to the Stokes-pulse interaction (e-f). We show that in general a sufficient condition for complete population removal from the g set of degenerate states for arbitrary, pure or mixed, initial state is that the degeneracies should not decrease along the sequence g, e and f. We show that when this condition holds it is possible to achieve the degenerate counterpart of conventional STIRAP, whereby adiabatic passage produces complete population transfer. Indeed, the system is equivalent to a set of independent three-state systems, in each of which a STIRAP procedure can be implemented. We describe a scheme of unitary transformations that produces this result. We also examine the cases when this degeneracy constraint does not hold, and show what can be accomplished in those cases. For example, fo...

  16. Intermediate-Level Crossings of a First-Passage Path

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, Uttam

    2015-01-01

    We investigate some simple and surprising properties of a one-dimensional Brownian trajectory with diffusion coefficient $D$ that starts the the origin and reaches $X$ either: (i) at time $T$ or (ii) for the first time at time $T$. We determine the most likely location of the first-passage trajectory from $(0,0)$ to $(X,T)$ and its distribution at any intermediate time $tpassage path typically starts out by being repelled from its final location when $X^2/DT\\ll 1$. We also determine the time when the trajectory first crosses and last crosses an arbitrary intermediate position $x

  17. Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Vicente López-Bao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures. This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to establish safe ways for animals to cross transportation infrastructures. In addition, it allows target identification through the use of video sensors connected to strategically deployed nodes. This deployment is designed on the basis of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, but it increases the lifetime of the nodes through an appropriate scheduling. The system has been evaluated for the particular scenario of wildlife monitoring in passages across roads. For this purpose, different schemes have been simulated in order to find the most appropriate network operational parameters. Moreover, a novel prototype, provided with motion detector sensors, has also been developed and its design feasibility demonstrated. Original software modules providing new functionalities have been implemented and included in this prototype. Finally, main performance evaluation results of the whole system are presented and discussed in depth.

  18. Effects of Drake Passage on a strongly eddying global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebahn, Jan P.; Heydt, Anna S.; Le Bars, Dewi; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2016-05-01

    The climate impact of ocean gateway openings during the Eocene-Oligocene transition is still under debate. Previous model studies employed grid resolutions at which the impact of mesoscale eddies has to be parameterized. We present results of a state-of-the-art eddy-resolving global ocean model with a closed Drake Passage and compare with results of the same model at noneddying resolution. An analysis of the pathways of heat by decomposing the meridional heat transport into eddy, horizontal, and overturning circulation components indicates that the model behavior on the large scale is qualitatively similar at both resolutions. Closing Drake Passage induces (i) sea surface warming around Antarctica due to equatorward expansion of the subpolar gyres, (ii) the collapse of the overturning circulation related to North Atlantic Deep Water formation leading to surface cooling in the North Atlantic, and (iii) significant equatorward eddy heat transport near Antarctica. However, quantitative details significantly depend on the chosen resolution. The warming around Antarctica is substantially larger for the noneddying configuration (˜5.5°C) than for the eddying configuration (˜2.5°C). This is a consequence of the subpolar mean flow which partitions differently into gyres and circumpolar current at different resolutions. We conclude that for a deciphering of the different mechanisms active in Eocene-Oligocene climate change detailed analyses of the pathways of heat in the different climate subsystems are crucial in order to clearly identify the physical processes actually at work.

  19. Accretion at the periastron passage of Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Kashi, Amit

    2016-01-01

    We present high resolution numerical simulations of the colliding wind system $\\eta$ Carinae, showing accretion onto the secondary star close to periastron passage. Our hydrodynamical simulations include self gravity and radiative cooling. The smooth stellar winds collide and develop instabilities, mainly the non-linear thin shell instability, and form filaments and clumps. We find that a few days before periastron passage the dense filaments and clumps flow towards the secondary as a result of its gravitational attraction, and reach the zone where we inject the secondary wind. We run our simulations for the conventional stellar masses, $M_1=120 ~\\rm{M_\\odot}$ and $M_2=30 ~\\rm{M_\\odot}$, and for a high mass model, $M_1=170 ~\\rm{M_\\odot}$ and $M_2=80 ~\\rm{M_\\odot}$, that was proposed to better fit the history of giant eruptions. As expected, the simulations results show that the accretion processes is more pronounced for a more massive secondary star.

  20. Fish Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For commercial success, a recirculating aquaculture operation must maintain fish at densities far greater than normally found in nature. At the same time, the producer must maintain an environment that supports good fish health. This chapter discusses various aspects of fish health management, inclu...

  1. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  2. Development of a more fish-tolerant turbine runner, advanced hydropower turbine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, T.C.; Hecker, G.E. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Holden, MA (United States). Alden Research Lab.; Faulkner, H.B.; Jansen, W. [Northern Research and Engineering Corp., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. (ARL) and Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (NREC) conducted a research program to develop a turbine runner which will minimize fish injury and mortality at hydroelectric projects. ARL?NREC have developed a runner shape which minimizes the number of blade leading edges, reduces the pressure versus time and the velocity versus distance gradients within the runner, minimizes or eliminates the clearance between the runner and runner housing, and maximizes the size of the flow passages, all with minimal penalty on turbine efficiency. An existing pump impeller provided the starting point for developing the fish tolerant turbine runner. The Hidrostal pump is a single bladed combined screw/centrifugal pump which has been proven to transport fish with minimal injury. The focus of the ARL/NREC research project was to develop a new runner geometry which is effective in downstream fish passage and hydroelectric power generation. A flow of 1,000 cfs and a head in the range of 75 ft to 100 ft were selected for conceptual design of the new runner. Conceptual design of the new runner began with a re-evaluation of studies which have been previously conducted to identify probable sources of injury to fish passing through hydraulic turbines. Criteria relative to hydraulic characteristics which are favorable for fish passage were prepared based on a reassessment of the available information. Important criteria used to develop the new runner design included low pressure change rates, minimum absolute pressures, and minimum shear. Other criteria which are reflected in the runner design are a minimum number of blades (only two), minimum total length of leading edges, and large flow passages. 86 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Development of a more fish-tolerant turbine runner, advanced hydropower turbine project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. (ARL) and Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (NREC) conducted a research program to develop a turbine runner which will minimize fish injury and mortality at hydroelectric projects. ARL?NREC have developed a runner shape which minimizes the number of blade leading edges, reduces the pressure versus time and the velocity versus distance gradients within the runner, minimizes or eliminates the clearance between the runner and runner housing, and maximizes the size of the flow passages, all with minimal penalty on turbine efficiency. An existing pump impeller provided the starting point for developing the fish tolerant turbine runner. The Hidrostal pump is a single bladed combined screw/centrifugal pump which has been proven to transport fish with minimal injury. The focus of the ARL/NREC research project was to develop a new runner geometry which is effective in downstream fish passage and hydroelectric power generation. A flow of 1,000 cfs and a head in the range of 75 ft to 100 ft were selected for conceptual design of the new runner. Conceptual design of the new runner began with a re-evaluation of studies which have been previously conducted to identify probable sources of injury to fish passing through hydraulic turbines. Criteria relative to hydraulic characteristics which are favorable for fish passage were prepared based on a reassessment of the available information. Important criteria used to develop the new runner design included low pressure change rates, minimum absolute pressures, and minimum shear. Other criteria which are reflected in the runner design are a minimum number of blades (only two), minimum total length of leading edges, and large flow passages. 86 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Influence of moderate energy restriction and seafood consumption on bone turnover in overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lucey, A.J. (Alice J.); Paschos, G.K. (George K.); Cashman, K. D.; J. A. Martinez; Thorsdottir, I; Kiely, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing in young adults. However, moderate energy restriction aimed at lowering body weight may promote bone turnover and bone loss. Inclusion of fish or fish oils in a weight-loss diet may attenuate these adverse skeletal effects. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of incorporating fish or fish oil into an energy-restricted diet on bone turnover markers in young overweight adults. DESIGN: While following a strict hypoenergetic (-30%...

  5. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  6. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    2007-01-01

    their proportions in the downriver stretch: fish samples in the ladder were clearly dominated by a few species, including some that do not need to be translocated. Thus, selectivity constitutes an important bottleneck to initiatives for translocating fish aimed at conserving their stocks or biodiversity. It is urgent to review the decision-making process for the construction of fish passages and to evaluate the functioning of those already operating.Dezenas de escadas de peixes foram construídas em barragens de reservatórios brasileiros, mas são raros os estudos acerca de suas eficiências como instrumentos de conservação da ictiofauna Neotropical, em especial de espécies migradoras. Neste contexto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade específica no ingresso e ascensão de peixes na escada localizada junto à barragem de Lajeado (UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, rio Tocantins. Amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente de novembro de 2002 a outubro de 2003 nos tanques de descanso da escada, utilizando tarrafas, e no trecho a jusante, utilizando redes de espera. A avaliação da seletividade no ingresso da escada foi realizada através da comparação da ocorrência, abundância relativa, dominância e congruência dos ranks de abundância de espécies migradoras e não migradoras na escada e no trecho imediatamente a jusante. A riqueza e abundância específica nos diferentes tanques de descanso foram utilizadas para avaliar a seletividade ao longo da escada. Os efeitos das variações temporais do nível hidrométrico de jusante e da velocidade de fluxo na seletividade foram também analisados. Das 130 espécies registradas a jusante, 63,2% foram capturadas na escada, com claro favorecimento das espécies migradoras. Entretanto, mais de 2/3 das capturas pertenceram a apenas três espécies (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica e Oxydoras niger. Embora a maioria das espécies que ingressa na escada possa alcançar seu topo, constatou

  7. Functional testing of a fish sluice, Buchholz small hydro plant - Final report; Funktionskontrolle Fischschleuse, KWKW Buchholz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhle, Ch. [Buero fuer Jagd- und Fischereifragen, Schmerikon (Switzerland); Scherrer, I. [Entegra Wasserkraft AG, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Since more than 100 years the diversion hydropower plant of Buchholz at the river Glatt (canton Saint Gall) has been out of operation. With its reactivation as run-of-river scheme, the river meadow, originated due to sedimentation in the former storage basin, with its beaver habitat, could be preserved. For the first time in Switzerland, a fish lock was implemented for the upstream passage way for fish. The fish lock was built directly into for stability reasons newly constructed secondary concrete at the downstream side of the old dam. At the upper lock opening a weir basked is installed, where the migrating fish are recorded. The examination proofed that the fish lock in principle is working for strong swimming fish species (qualitative proof of the performance control). In case of flood caused drift, the migrating fish seem to accept the fish passage. The attempt to quantify the proportion of the migrating willing fish which actually swim through the lock (quantitative proof of the performance control) did not produce satisfactory results. (authors)

  8. Effects of radiations on ornamental fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium or space. There are two distinct types of radiations: ionizing and non-ionizing. Ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays are some examples of radiation. 'Ornamental fish' is designed for aquatic hobbyists and the aquatic industry for several purposes. UV light has two primary uses in fish culture: Controlling green water and disinfecting the water supply. Many proponents of UV disinfection sometimes overlook the additional benefits relating to ornamental fish; those being that cleaner water reduces the stress on the fish by not having to fight off diseases, thus enhancing its immune system and leading to faster growth and more brilliant colors. Ultraviolet sterilizers are often used in aquaria to help control unwanted microorganisms in the water. UV radiation also ensures that exposed pathogens cannot reproduce, thus decreasing the likelihood of a disease outbreak in an aquarium. Despite of these benefits, the ill-effects of radiations cannot be ruled out. Ultraviolet Radiation-induced DNA Damage is seen in the skin of the Platyfish Xiphophorus. Higher radiation doses may cause the gastrointestinal syndrome that leads to defects of the intestinal mucosa barrier with successive contamination of musculature. Exposure to UV radiation can kill the fish and induce sublethal effects in embryos, larvae and adults. The change in skin includes irregularity of skin surface, epidermal oedema, necrosis etc. Irradiation may badly influence the textural attributes of fish muscle. (author)

  9. Changes in the fish community and water quality during seven years of stocking piscivorous fish in a shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Perrow, M.R.; Berg, Søren; Skovgaard, H.

    2002-01-01

    zooplanktivorous and benthivorous fish, with resultant effects on lower trophic levels and ultimately water quality. 2. The fish community and water quality parameters (Secchi depth, concentrations of total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and suspended solids) were monitored between 1996 and 2000 and relationships were...... evaluated between predatory fish and potential prey and between zooplanktivorous or benthivorous fish and water quality parameters. In addition, potential consumption of piscivorous fishes was calculated. 3. The density of fish feeding on larger zooplankton or benthos (roach >15 cm, crucian carp >15 cm......) declined distinctly during the study period. This effect was attributed to predation by large (>50 cm) pike. Based on scale readings, we cautiously suggest that the stocking of 0+ pike boosted the adult pike population to produce an unexpected impact in later years. Conversely, no direct impact of stocked...

  10. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  11. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Adult Strabismus En Español Read in Chinese Can anything be done for adults with strabismus (misaligned eyes)? Yes. Adults can benefit ...

  12. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Studies on the Developmental Potentiality of Cultured Cell Nuclei of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxi Chen, Yonglan Yi, Minrong Chen, Xingqi Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of the serial nuclear transplantation technique, the authors obtained a nuclear transplant fish from subcultured cell originated from the blastula cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus Linnaeus. This nuclear transplant fish survived for three years, but its sexual glands were undifferentiated. The authors have also obtained a sexually mature adult fish from short-term cultured kidney cell nucleus of an adult crucian carp. Results of the experiment implied that the subcultured cell nuclei of fish blastula cells and the specialized somatic cell nuclei of adult fish still retained their developmental totipotency, and thus, it indicated that there is a possibility of fish somatic cell breeding through the use of nuclear transplantation.

  14. The 2011 Periastron Passage of the Be Binary δ Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Pasechnik, A. V.; Manset, N.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, Th.; Štefl, S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Ribeiro, J.; Fernando, A.; Garrel, T.; Knapen, J. H.; Buil, C.; Heathcote, B.; Pollmann, E.; Mauclaire, B.; Thizy, O.; Martin, J.; Zharikov, S. V.; Okazaki, A. T.; Gandet, T. L.; Eversberg, T.; Reinecke, N.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system δ Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 ± 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 Å line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M ⊙) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the Hα line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R ⊙. Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that δ Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40° with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations. This paper is partially based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii, the 2.2 m MPG telescope operated at ESO/La Silla under program IDs 086.A-9019 and 087.A-9005, the IAC80 telescope in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide

  15. Are fish eaters healthier and do they consume less health-care resources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Sørensen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Regular dietary intake of fish is associated with reduced risk of developing cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, and may improve general well-being. If fish eaters are healthier, they may use fewer health-care resources. The present study aimed to describe the reported intake of...... fish and fish products in a Danish general population, and to investigate whether fish consumption is associated with generic measures of self-reported health and consumption of health-care resources. Design: Data on eating patterns and health status for 3422 Danish adults were obtained by telephone...... interview in the Funen County Health Survey. These data were merged with individual-level register data on health-care utilisation. Survey respondents were categorised into those consuming fish at least once weekly (fish eaters) and those consuming fish less frequently (non-fish eaters). Results: People who...

  16. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations...

  17. American Samoa ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set...

  18. Existence of the passage to the limit of inviscid fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2016-01-01

    With the dynamics of viscous fluid, the case of vanishing kinematic viscosity is actually the case of the Reynolds number tending to infinity. Hence, in the limit of vanishing viscosity the fluid flow is essentially turbulent. On the other hand, the Euler equation, which is conventionally adopted for description of flow of inviscid fluid, does not possess proper turbulent behaviour. The latter rises the question of existence of the passage to the limit of inviscid fluid for real low-viscosity fluids. To address this question, one should employ the theory of turbulent boundary layer near an inflexible boundary (e.g., rigid wall). On the basis of this theory, one can see how the solutions to the Euler equation become relevant for the description of flow of low-viscosity fluids, and obtain the small parameter quantifying accuracy of this description for real fluids.

  19. DETECTABILITY OF EXOPLANET PERIASTRON PASSAGE IN THE INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of exoplanets has matured in recent years, particularly through studies of exoplanetary atmospheres of transiting planets at infrared wavelengths. The primary source for such observations has been the Spitzer Space Telescope but these studies are anticipated to continue with the James Webb Space Telescope. A relatively unexplored region of exoplanet parameter space is the thermal detection of long-period eccentric planets during periastron passage. Here we describe the thermal properties and albedos of long-period giant planets along with the eccentricities of those orbits which allow them to remain within the habitable zone. We further apply these results to the known exoplanets by calculating temperatures and flux ratios for the IRAC passbands occupied by warm Spitzer, considering both low and high thermal redistribution efficiencies from the perspective of an observer. We conclude with recommendations on which targets are best suited for follow-up observations.

  20. Controlled Rapid Adiabatic Passage in a V-Type System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yunheung; Lee, Han-Gyeol; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook

    2016-05-01

    In chirped rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), chirp sign determines the final state to which the complete population transfer (CPT) occurs in a three-level V-type system. In this study, we show that laser intensity can be alternatively used as a control means in RAP, when the laser pulse is chirped and of a spectral hole resonant to one of the excited states. We verified such excitation selectivity in the experiment performed as-shaped femtosecond laser pulses interacting with the lowest three levels (5S, 5 P1/2, and 5 P3/2) of atomic rubidium. The successful demonstration implies that this intensity-dependent RAP in conjunction with laser beam profile programming may allow excitation selectivity for atoms or ions arranged in space.

  1. Le document brevet, un passage entre plusieurs mondes

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Brigitte; Normand, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    Linguistique et sociologie de l'information sont convoquées pour étudier la place d'un document dans le secteur de la propriété industrielle, en s'attachant à suivre l'activité d'écriture et de traduction d'un ingénieur-brevet. Elles montrent ce qui est impliqué dans le passage d'un « monde » scientifique à un monde juridique et industriel, par accumulation de signes et de valeurs. Elles montrent également la présence de formes organisationnelles dont est porteur ce « document-activité ». C'e...

  2. Parametric gamma-radiation at the anomalous passage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Abbas, E-mail: a.ahmadi@malayeriau.ac.ir [Physics Department, Malayer Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feranchuk, Ilya [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosty Ave., 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: •We consider radiation from electrons passing through a Mössbauer crystal. •We take into account nuclear resonance and electron scattering of the photons. •Influence of suppression of photoabsorption is considered. •The radiation intensity is drastically increased at such conditions. -- Abstract: Dynamical diffraction theory of the parametric gamma-radiation (PGR) from relativistic electrons in a thick crystal with Mössbauer nuclei is considered. A detailed analysis of the influence of suppression of photoabsorption for the radiated γ-quanta at an ideal single crystal is presented taking into account both nuclear resonance and electron scattering of the photons. The obtained results allow one to choose the optimal conditions for the observation of the γ-quanta anomalous passage at the Laue case. It is shown that the radiation intensity is drastically increased at such conditions.

  3. Dependence on the initial condition for equilibrium last-passage percolation models

    CERN Document Server

    Cator, Eric; Pimentel, Leandro P R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider an equilibrium last-passage percolation model on an environment given by a compound two-dimensional Poisson process. We prove an $\\LL^2$-formula relating the initial measure with the last-passage percolation time. This formula turns out to be a useful tool to analyze the fluctuations of the last-passage times along non-characteristic directions.

  4. Exact limiting shape for a simplified model of first-passage percolation on the plane

    OpenAIRE

    Seppäläinen, Timo

    1998-01-01

    We derive the limiting shape for the following model of first-passage bond percolation on the two-dimensional integer lattice: the percolation is directed in the sense that admissible paths are nondecreasing in both coordinate directions. The passage times of horizontal bonds are Bernoulli distributed, while the passage times of vertical bonds are all equal to a deterministic constant. To analyze the percolation model, we couple it with a one-dimensional interacting particle...

  5. Extended passaging increases the efficiency of neural differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koehler Karl R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs for the functional replacement of damaged neurons and in vitro disease modeling is of great clinical relevance. Unfortunately, the capacity of iPSC lines to differentiate into neurons is highly variable, prompting the need for a reliable means of assessing the differentiation capacity of newly derived iPSC cell lines. Extended passaging is emerging as a method of ensuring faithful reprogramming. We adapted an established and efficient embryonic stem cell (ESC neural induction protocol to test whether iPSCs (1 have the competence to give rise to functional neurons with similar efficiency as ESCs and (2 whether the extent of neural differentiation could be altered or enhanced by increased passaging. Results Our gene expression and morphological analyses revealed that neural conversion was temporally delayed in iPSC lines and some iPSC lines did not properly form embryoid bodies during the first stage of differentiation. Notably, these deficits were corrected by continual passaging in an iPSC clone. iPSCs with greater than 20 passages (late-passage iPSCs expressed higher expression levels of pluripotency markers and formed larger embryoid bodies than iPSCs with fewer than 10 passages (early-passage iPSCs. Moreover, late-passage iPSCs started to express neural marker genes sooner than early-passage iPSCs after the initiation of neural induction. Furthermore, late-passage iPSC-derived neurons exhibited notably greater excitability and larger voltage-gated currents than early-passage iPSC-derived neurons, although these cells were morphologically indistinguishable. Conclusions These findings strongly suggest that the efficiency neuronal conversion depends on the complete reprogramming of iPSCs via extensive passaging.

  6. Charm or Harm: Effect of Passage Content on Listener Attitudes toward American English Accents

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Hayley; Nygaard, Lynne C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how passage content influences attitudes towards American English Accents. Participants listened to passages differing in topic content spoken in an American Southern English or Standard American English accent. Although Southern-accented speakers were rated higher in sociality, but lower in status, than standard-accented speakers, sociality ratings varied as a function of passage topic only for Standard-accented speakers. Linguistic content appeared most likely to influen...

  7. Influence of design parameters of discharge passage on the performance of shaft tubular pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaft tubular pumping systems with straight discharge passage are more widely adopted because they possesses many advantages such as easier installation of pump sets, better ventilation for motor and transmission devices, open access to inspect pump sets and lower cost for maintenance. The design parameters of a straight discharge passage will directly affect hydraulic loss and energy performance of the shaft pumping system. The optimal hydraulic design of discharge passages is carried out under the guideline of Pump Station Design Code to satisfy optimal design objectives. Computational fluid dynamics is applied to simulate the internal flow of a shaft pumping system the influence of its design parameter on the system performance is investigated. Keeping the shaft and suction box unchanged, six discharge passage design schemes with different length and outlet width are compared based on CFD to analyze the internal flow fields and their energy performances are predicted. The computed results indicate that when the outlet width of discharge passage is fixed, the longer the discharge passage, the better the internal flow fields with smaller backflow and vortex zone inside the passage. When the length of discharge passage is determined, the axial velocity distribution uniformity and bias angle in the outlet section will vary with the value of the outlet width. Optimal hydraulic design of discharge passages can achieve better internal flow and higher pumping efficiency

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Internal Flow Field of Rotating Impeller Passage with Inlet Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuKeqi; HuShengli

    1995-01-01

    Using PDA and its measurement system.the flow fields at the different peripheral locations of rotating impeller passage of a diagonal fan with inlet box are measured.The results are compared with the flow field of the rotating impeller passage of the same fan without inlet box.The differences of the flow characteristics of the rotating passage at the different peripheral locations are revealed.The effects of the complex flow in the inlet box on the internal folw of the rotaing impell passage are investigated.

  9. Optimization of transport passage with dragline system in thick overburden open pit mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weishi; Cai Qingxiang; Chen Shuzhao

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of opencast coal resources and dragline technology system application in China, the structure and shifting step of transport passage are optimized in this paper. Typical coal trans-port passage is analyzed in aspects such as the internal dump occupation, dragline operation efficiency, coal transport distance, upper stripping distance and shifting quantities. The middle passage should be given priority in thick overburden open pit mine because the dragline system is only responsible for part stripping task. According to characteristics of middle passage, the transport passage is divided into par-allel climbing, vertical climbing and horizontal transport. In addition, the transport passage structure optimization model and shifting distance optimization model are established in this paper. The case study in Heidaigou open pit mine shows that, the parallel climbing height is accounted for about 60%of the total height, and reasonable shifting distances of the first mining area and the second mining area are 240 and 320 m. Sensitivity analysis shows that, the total passage height has important influence on the shifting step, so it is with the stripping height and passage construction cost to the passage structure.

  10. The early stress responses in fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mola, Lucrezia

    2016-05-01

    During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied. Indeed the immune system of this species is the best known among marine teleosts. In this review the data on main signal molecules of stress carried out on larvae of fish are considered and discussed. For sea bass active roles in the early immunological responses of some well-known molecules involved in the stress, such as ACTH, nitric oxide, CRF, HSP-70 and cortisol have been proposed. These molecules and/or their receptors are biologically active mainly in the gut before complete differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), probably acting in an autocrine/paracrine way. An intriguing idea emerges from all results of these researches; the molecules involved in stress responses, expressed in the adult cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, during the larval life of fish are present in several other localizations, where they perform probably the same role. It may be hypothesized that the functions performed by hypothalamic-pituitary system are particularly important for the survival of the larva and therefore they comprises several other localizations of body. Indeed the larval stages of fish are very crucial phases that include many physiological changes and several possible stress both internal and environmental. PMID:26968620

  11. Mediterranean Passages: Abjection and Belonging in Contemporary Italian Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    O'Healy, Aine

    2010-01-01

    Due to the confluence of economic and geopolitical circumstances, in the early 1990s Italy became a destination or transit point for large numbers of asylum seekers, refugees, and other aspiring immigrants who found their way to Italian shores aboard fishing trawlers, rafts, speedboats, or rusty cargo ships. Reversing the country's status as an emigrant nation, this phenomenon rapidly changed the demographic face of Italy and drew attention to the porousness of its maritime boundary. Although...

  12. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  13. Fish protein hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes now available in commercial quantities can be used to liquefy the fish and fish waste presently considered suitable for conversion to fish meal. The products obtained are readily dispersed or dissolved in water and have a high nutritional value. They have been satisfactorily used as substitutes for milk proteins in milk replacers for young animals. Further research is necessary on means of controlling the degree of hydrolysis to give protein preparations with acceptable functional properties as human food supplements. (Refs. 21).

  14. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species

  15. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  16. ChillFish: A Respiration Game for Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate the possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a rel...

  17. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Delannoy Christian MJ; Crumlish Margaret; Fontaine Michael C; Pollock Jolinda; Foster Geoff; Dagleish Mark P; Turnbull James F; Zadoks Ruth N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmi...

  18. High-flow, low-head pumps provide safe passage for Pacific salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of 29 ultra-low head, high capacity submersible pump and auxiliary equipment at the Rocky Reach Dam in Washington State to allow juvenile salmon safe passage on their journey down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean is described. The reputed cost of the project is US$160 million; its purpose is to get juvenile salmon safely around the Rocky Reach Dam without interfering with the dam's original mission of generating electric power. The project is the most expensive fish bypass on any Columbia River dam. Getting the salmon safely around the dam is intended to reduce the impact of hydroelectric power projects on the basin's salmon stocks which are now estimated at less than 10 per cent of their historic size, despite major hatchery programs. The Columbia River has the second largest volume flow of any river in the United States, and millions of people depend on it for employment in water-related industries, and for transportation. The new horizontally installed propeller pump was developed by ITT Flygt; it utilizes planetary gear reduced to match the motor speed with the propeller rpm. Each 90 kW propeller pump has a flow rate of seven cubic meters per second at a head of 0.55 metres. The auxiliary equipment includes 10 racks of flap gates to prevent reverse flow, electric controls, remote supervision, testing, installation and maintenance facilities. It is anticipated that the new bypass will allow the Chelan County Public Utility Department, owners of the facility, to phase out all current spills, except for a 16 per cent spill for 40 days each spring for Sockeye salmon which tend to travel too deep to use the bypass. Prior to installation of this new facility, 60 to 70 per cent of average daily flow in the spring and summer had to be sacrificed to accommodate all species of salmon and steelhead, with corresponding losses of power generating capacity

  19. Fish pass assessment by remote control: a novel framework for quantifying the hydraulics at fish pass entrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Blackburn, Kim; Gill, Andrew; Breckon, Toby; Everard, Nick; Wright, Ros; Rivas Casado, Monica

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation of aquatic habitats can lead to the extinction of migratory fish species with severe negative consequences at the ecosystem level and thus opposes the target of good ecological status of rivers defined in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). In the UK, the implementation of the EU WFD requires investments in fish pass facilities of estimated 532 million GBP (i.e. 639 million Euros) until 2027 to ensure fish passage at around 3,000 barriers considered critical. Hundreds of passes have been installed in the past. However, monitoring studies of fish passes around the world indicate that on average less than half of the fish attempting to pass such facilities are actually successful. There is a need for frameworks that allow the rapid identification of facilities that are biologically effective and those that require enhancement. Although there are many environmental characteristics that can affect fish passage success, past research suggests that variations in hydrodynamic conditions, reflected in water velocities, velocity gradients and turbulences, are the major cues that fish use to seek migration pathways in rivers. This paper presents the first steps taken in the development of a framework for the rapid field-based quantification of the hydraulic conditions downstream of fish passes and the assessment of the attractivity of fish passes for salmonids and coarse fish in UK rivers. For this purpose, a small-sized remote control platform carrying an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), a GPS unit, a stereo camera and an inertial measurement unit has been developed. The large amount of data on water velocities and depths measured by the ADCP within relatively short time is used to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of water velocities. By matching these hydraulic features with known preferences of migratory fish, it is attempted to identify likely migration routes and aggregation areas at barriers as well as hydraulic features that

  20. Improved intake design for downstream migrating fish at hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on hydroelectric power projects on the Columbia River which provided low-cost electricity to the Pacific Northwest. However, they are detrimental to anadromous fisheries resources. Anadromous fish are migratory. They begin their life in shallow mountain streams. After several months, they migrate to the ocean, where the fish grow to maturity before their return migration. Remarkably, most anadromous fish return to spawn in their natal streams. At dams, the upstream migration of grown salmon and steelhead is accomplished through fishways. The downstream migration of juveniles remains a serious problem. Juvenile fish follow the water flow during their sea-ward migration. When passing through a turbine, fish can be severely injured due to the sudden pressure drop, high velocity shear zones, and rotating turbine blades. Stunned fish that survive the gauntlet of the turbine are easy prey for sea gulls and squawfish in the tailrace of the powerhouse. Fish mortality per turbine passage is estimated at 15 percent. With nine hydropower projected on the main steam of the Columbia River, their combined mortality is very serious. The historical Columbia River anadromous run of about 12 million fish has declined to 2.5 million in recent years. Modern high-output hydraulic turbines are designed to be placed at a lower elevation to minimize cavitation damage to turbine blades. The modern design trend of deep intake submergence has caused parallel and unsteady vortex flow patterns in the forebay, resulting in a decrease in the guiding efficiency of the screens, such as at Bonneville Second Powerhouse and at Rocky Reach Project

  1. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Benjamin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  2. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....

  3. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Volume II of IV, Results of Laboratory and Field Research on New Concepts in Weir and Pool Fishways, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaserude, Robert G.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A comprehensive review of fishway design practice led to new design concepts that had previously been untested. This concept was based on the observation that fish can be stimulated to leap when presented with certain hydraulic conditions. A laboratory test program was conducted to develop this concept into a new fishway configuration. Field testing revealed that components of the new design improved fish passage. Verification of the initial premise that fish can be stimulated to leap needs further study.

  4. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  5. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, James W.

    1990-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  7. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  8. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van, T.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  9. Six-degree-of-freedom Sensor Fish design - Governing equations and motion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The Sensor Fish device is being used at Northwest hydropower projects to better understand the conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines and other dam bypass alternatives. Since its initial development in 1997, the Sensor Fish has undergone numerous design changes to improve its function and extend the range of its use. The most recent Sensor Fish design, the three degree of freedom (3DOF) device, has been used successfully to characterize the environment fish experience when passing through turbines, in spill, or in engineered fish bypass facilities at dams. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of redesigning the current 3DOF Sensor Fish device package to improve its field performance. Rate gyros will be added to the new six degree of freedom (6DOF) device so that it will be possible to observe the six linear and angular accelerations of the Sensor Fish as it passes the dam. Before the 6DOF Sensor Fish device can be developed and deployed, governing equations of motion must be developed in order to understand the design implications of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. The report describes a fairly general formulation for the coordinate systems, equations of motion, force and moment relationships necessary to simulate the 6DOF movement of an underwater body.

  10. Damped trophic cascades driven by fishing in model marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Pedersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The largest perturbation on upper trophic levels of many marine ecosystems stems from fishing. The reaction of the ecosystem goes beyond the trophic levels directly targeted by the fishery. This reaction has been described either as a change in slope of the overall size spectrum or as a trophic...... cascade triggered by the removal of top predators. Here we use a novel size- and trait-based model to explore how marine ecosystems might react to perturbations from different types of fishing pressure. The model explicitly resolves the whole life history of fish, from larvae to adults. The results show...... as it comes further away from the perturbed trophic level. Fishing on several trophic levels leads to a disappearance of the signature of the trophic cascade. Differences in fishing patterns among ecosystems might influence whether a trophic cascade is observed....

  11. Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kochzius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S, cytochrome b (cyt b, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of "DNA barcoding" and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the "position of label" effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90% renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products.

  12. Ontogeny of numerical abilities in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Bisazza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that human adults, infants, and non-human primates share two non-verbal systems for enumerating objects, one for representing precisely small quantities (up to 3-4 items and one for representing approximately larger quantities. Recent studies exploiting fish's spontaneous tendency to join the larger group showed that their ability in numerical discrimination closely resembles that of primates but little is known as to whether these capacities are innate or acquired. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the spontaneous tendency to join the larger shoal to study the limits of the quantity discrimination of newborn and juvenile guppies. One-day old fish chose the larger shoal when the choice was between numbers in the small quantity range, 2 vs. 3 fish, but not when they had to choose between large numbers, 4 vs. 8 or 4 vs. 12, although the numerical ratio was larger in the latter case. To investigate the relative role of maturation and experience in large number discrimination, fish were raised in pairs (with no numerical experience or in large social groups and tested at three ages. Forty-day old guppies from both treatments were able to discriminate 4 vs. 8 fish while at 20 days this was only observed in fish grown in groups. Control experiments showed that these capacities were maintained after guppies were prevented from using non numerical perceptual variables that co-vary with numerosity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our results suggest the ability of guppies to discriminate small numbers is innate and is displayed immediately at birth while discrimination of large numbers emerges later as a result of both maturation and social experience. This developmental dissociation suggests that fish like primates might have separate systems for small and large number representation.

  13. "The Caterpillar": A Novel Reading Passage for Assessment of Motor Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupal; Connaghan, Kathryn; Franco, Diana; Edsall, Erika; Forgit, Dory; Olsen, Laura; Ramage, Lianna; Tyler, Emily; Russell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A review of the salient characteristics of motor speech disorders and common assessment protocols revealed the need for a novel reading passage tailored specifically to differentiate between and among the dysarthrias (DYSs) and apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: "The Caterpillar" passage was designed to provide a contemporary, easily read,…

  14. Teaching Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability Who Are Emergent Readers to Comprehend Passages of Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Diane M.; Hudson, Melissa E.; Wood, Alyson Leah

    2013-01-01

    A modified system of least intrusive prompting was used to teach middle school students with moderate intellectual disability who were emergent readers to comprehend short passages of text. Text passages were summaries of the chapters of age-appropriate novels rewritten for a beginning reading level. Time delay was used to teach the participants…

  15. On the Time Constant in a Dependent First Passage Percolation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Scholler, Julie

    2011-01-01

    We pursue the study of a random coloring first passage percolation model introduced by Fontes and Newman. We prove that the asymptotic shape of this first passage percolation model continuously depends on the law of the coloring. The proof uses several couplings, particularly with greedy lattice animals.

  16. Introducing Intertextuality-Aware Instruction as a Novel Approach of Teaching Reading Passages in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saber

    2014-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the possible effect of intertextuality-aware instruction of reading passages on a sample of intermediate EFL learners of both genders. First, the intertextuality deployed through the reading passages of the study's course-book was focused inspired by Fairclough's (192) framework in terms of genre,…

  17. Fluid flow in rotating low-specific-speed centrifugal impeller passage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, F.C.; Brouwers, J.J.H.; Jonker, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Results from experimental investigations of the blade passage flow in a model pump impeller of low specific speed are described. It is found that the flow inside the rotating impeller passages is well described by the flow distribution postulated by potential-flow arguments and boundary-layer consid

  18. Effects of Repeated Reading and Listening Passage Preview on Oral Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristine D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Conley, Perry

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined the effectiveness of three fluency interventions (i.e., repeated reading, audio listening passage preview and teacher modeled listening passage preview) with a fifth grade student struggling with fluency skills. When compared to baseline, each intervention increased oral reading fluency by the end of the 7 weeks of…

  19. Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Silbernagel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis. We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish.

  20. Toxicology across scales: Cell population growth in vitro predicts reduced fish growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman

    2015-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is essential but often relies on ethically controversial and expensive methods. We show that tests using cell cultures, combined with modeling of toxicological effects, can replace tests with juvenile fish. Hundreds of thousands of fish at this developmental stage are annually used to assess the influence of chemicals on growth. Juveniles are more sensitive than adult fish, and their growth can affect their chances to survive and reproduce. Thus, to reduce the number of fish used for such tests, we propose a method that can quantitatively predict chemical impact on fish growth based on in vitro data. Our model predicts reduced fish growth in two fish species in excellent agreement with measured in vivo data of two pesticides. This promising step toward alternatives to fish toxicity testing is simple, inexpensive, and fast and only requires in vitro data for model calibration. PMID:26601229

  1. Small nonnative fishes as predators of larval razorback suckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Mueller, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), an endangered big-river fish of the Colorado River basin, has demonstrated no sustainable recruitment in 4 decades, despite presence of spawning adults and larvae. Lack of adequate recruitment has been attributed to several factors, including predation by nonnative fishes. Substantial funding and effort has been expended on mechanically removing nonnative game fishes, typically targeting large predators. As a result, abundance of larger predators has declined, but the abundance of small nonnative fishes has increased in some areas. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine if small nonnative fishes would consume larval razorback suckers. We tested adults of three small species (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis; fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas) and juveniles of six larger species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; yellow bullhead, Ameiurus natalis; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; bluegill, L. macrochirus). These nonnative fishes span a broad ecological range and are abundant within the historical range of the razorback sucker. All nine species fed on larval razorback suckers (total length, 9-16 mm). Our results suggest that predation by small nonnative fishes could be responsible for limiting recovery of this endangered species.

  2. Passage of Time Judgments Are Not Duration Judgments: Evidence from a Study Using Experience Sampling Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relations between passage of time judgments and duration judgments (DJs) in everyday life, in young and elderly people, with an Experience Sampling Method. The DJs were assessed by verbal estimation and interval production measures. The results showed no difference between young and elderly people in judgments of rate of passage of time, a result contrary to the conventional idea that time passes more quickly as we get older. There were also no significant relation between the judgment of passage of time and the judgments of durations. In addition, the significant predictors of individual differences in the judgment of passage of time (emotion states and focus of attention on the current activity) were not predictors of judgment of durations. In sum, passages of time judgments are not related to DJs. PMID:26925006

  3. Conducting the rowing training using the blade passage time through the water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Ciosici

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This present paper aims to present an original method, never before encountered in the specialised literature, of a long-time conducting (during a competition, a macro cycle the training of rowers. The method is called: The method of conducting the sportive training of rowing using the blade passage time through the water. This method consists of the using the blade passage rate through the water as an indicator of the intensity of the effort. By knowing the optimal time of passage of the blade through the water according to each type of effort desired to be achieved, the time of passage of the blade through the water will be planned according to each monocycle, so that the desired parameters will be reached until the competition. A blueprint of the projection of the time of passage of the blade through the water during the competition of an M4 team is presented in the paper.

  4. Spark PRM: Using RRTs within PRMs to efficiently explore narrow passages

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Kensen

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) have been successful for many high-dimensional motion planning problems. However, they encounter difficulties when mapping narrow passages. While many PRM sampling methods have been proposed to increase the proportion of samples within narrow passages, such difficult planning areas still pose many challenges. We introduce a novel algorithm, Spark PRM, that sparks the growth of Rapidly-expanding Random Trees (RRTs) from narrow passage samples generated by a PRM. The RRT rapidly generates further narrow passage samples, ideally until the passage is fully mapped. After reaching a terminating condition, the tree stops growing and is added to the roadmap. Spark PRM is a general method that can be applied to all PRM variants. We study the benefits of Spark PRM with a variety of sampling strategies in a wide array of environments. We show significant speedups in computation time over RRT, Sampling-based Roadmap of Trees (SRT), and various PRM variants.

  5. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  6. Formation of hydrate plug within rectangular natural gas passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, K.; Song, M.H.; Ahn, J.H.; Yoo, K.S. [Dong Guk Univ., Joong-ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Oil and gas reservoirs in off-shore shallow areas are being depleted. At the same time, the industry is expanding its production sites into deeper waters resulting in higher pressure and lower temperature and more isolated locations. In response, connecting pipelines have been extended, but because of these pressure, temperature and distance changes in pipelines, a more favorable condition for hydrate formation is created, making the problem of flow assurance more critical for safe and economic operations at deep off-shore oil and gas production sites. Another challenge in flow assurance lies in hydrate formation and potential blockage due to hydrate plugs in gas pipelines, where no free water phase is present. This paper presented an experimental study that examined the formation and the growth of hydrates from a gas mixture of methane and propane with different moisture concentrations. The hydrates were formed in a rectangular passage cooled to temperatures below equilibrium hydrate formation temperature. The paper described the experimental procedure and apparatus that was designed and fabricated for the study. A schematic layout of the hydrate formation and plug test experimental apparatus was illustrated. The paper also described the results of two sets of experiments that were conducted. It was concluded that with enough moisture content, hydrates formed without a fresh water phase under equilibrium conditions. It was also concluded that the results of the study could be used in verifying numerical models developed to predict hydrate plugging of natural gas pipelines. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  7. First-passage times, mobile traps, and Hopf bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Justin C; Xie, Shuangquan; Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    2014-12-01

    For a random walk on a confined one-dimensional domain, we consider mean first-passage times (MFPT) in the presence of a mobile trap. The question we address is whether a mobile trap can improve capture times over a stationary trap. We consider two scenarios: a randomly moving trap and an oscillating trap. In both cases, we find that a stationary trap actually performs better (in terms of reducing expected capture time) than a very slowly moving trap; however, a trap moving sufficiently fast performs better than a stationary trap. We explicitly compute the thresholds that separate the two regimes. In addition, we find a surprising relation between the oscillating trap problem and a moving-sink problem that describes reduced dynamics of a single spike in a certain regime of the Gray-Scott model. Namely, the above-mentioned threshold corresponds precisely to a Hopf bifurcation that induces oscillatory motion in the location of the spike. We use this correspondence to prove the uniqueness of the Hopf bifurcation. PMID:25615075

  8. Xenakis et le passage vers l'universel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paparigopulos Kostas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (fra La recherche de l'identité culturelle, notamment aux pays qui sont menacés ou se sentent menacés par une culture dominante, peut conduire, bien des fois, au nationalisme et l'isolement. Elle peut aussi, peutêtre plus rarement, conduire à des chemins inattendus qui ouvrent de nouveaux horizons non seulement au niveau local mais aussi au niveau universel. Le cas de Iannis Xenakis s'insère dans la deuxième catégorie. De 1949 jusqu'aux Metastaseis (1953-54, sa première oeuvre 'officielle', Xenakis écrit des pièces dans lesquelles il essaie de marier le folklore grec avec l'avant-garde européenne. En 1955, il écrit un article consacré à ce 'mariage', premier et en même temps dernier texte publié sur ce sujet. D'ores et déjà, sa musique se déplace du cadre local et s'étend vers l'universel avec l'ambition d'inclure toutes les musiques du monde. Dans cette communication, nous allons essayer de suivre ce passage et clarifier certains aspects de cette trajectoire.

  9. The passage of Florida's Statute on Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maun, A R; Williams, R S; Graber, B; Myers, W G

    1994-11-01

    Until 1993, there were no statutes in the United States covering gestational surrogacy contracts, disposition of stored embryos and gametes, parentage of children born from donated gametes and embryos, and the inheritance rights of cryopreserved embryos of deceased donors. In March 1993, the Florida Assisted Reproductive Technology Act was passed to address some of these issues and to minimize the expense and emotional cost of related courtroom proceedings. Authors of the bill believed that motherhood of a newborn in the eyes of the law should be determined by two factors: genetic inheritance and the original intent of the woman to become the parent of record. The bill included the assumption that, in the cases of children born of gestational surrogacy, the commissioning genetic parents would be the "natural parents" of the child. Some of the reasons for legislative success of the statute include: 1) clear need for statutory guidance in cases involving reproductive technology, 2) relevance of the issue to cost containment (ie, judicial costs) in an era of health care reform, 3) careful use of scientific terminology and the support of the medical community, 4) involvement of a skilled legislative team, 5) participation of physician specialists in the development of the bill (ie, practicing gynecologists in assisted reproductive technology programs), 6) participation of the State of Florida legislative staff, and 7) consultation with appropriate lobbying groups (eg, Florida Catholic Conference). The successful legislative process that was followed to achieve passage of this bill can serve as an example for other states to emulate. PMID:7936533

  10. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  11. Stress in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress in fish involves a condition disruptive of physiological homeostasis that occurs in response to unfavorable external influences and is capable of adversely affecting fish. Any stimulus that provokes stress responses is known as a stressor, disrupting a stable condition and causing a response....

  12. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421...

  13. Minutes of Fish Barrier Workshop

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Minutes of Fish Barrier Workshop held 27 May 2009 at DOC Waikato Area Office. Lists attendees and highlights topics to be covered in Fish Barrier Workshop.

  14. Effect of ramp length and slope on the efficacy of a baffled fish pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C F

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of ramp length and slope on fish passage over baffled ramps with 15° and 30° gradients. Three fish species indigenous to New Zealand were tested: the redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, the common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus and the inanga Galaxias maculatus with ramp lengths of 3, 4·5 and 6 m. As slope and ramp length increased, passage success rate decreased for G. maculatus and G. cotidianus. At a slope of 15°, both G. maculatus and G. cotidianus could pass all ramp lengths tested with the highest success rate on the 3 m ramp. As the gradient increased to 30°, G. maculatus could only pass the 3 m ramp, and G. cotidianus were incapable of passing any ramp. Gobiomorphus huttoni were the only test species capable of climbing the wetted margin of the ramps. Increasing ramp slope significantly reduced passage success for G. huttoni, but ramp length, up to the maximum used in this study, had no significant influence on successful passage. PMID:24417428

  15. Movement and Injury Rates for Three Life Stages of Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha : A Comparison of Submerged Orifices and an Overflow Weir for Fish Bypass in a Modular Rotary Drum Fish Screen : Annual Report 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C. Scott; Neitzel, Duane A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated the effectiveness of 6-in. and 2-in. submerged orifices, and an overflow weir for fish bypass at a rotary drum fish screening facility. A modular drum screen built by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) was installed at PNNL`s Aquatic Ecology research laboratory in Richland, Washington. Fry, subyearlings, and smolts of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyacha) were introduced into the test system, and their movement and injury rates were monitored. A total of 33 tests (100 fish per test) that lasted from 24 to 48 hr were completed from 1994 through 1995. Passage rate depended on both fish size and bypass configuration. For fry/fingerling spring chinook salmon, there was no difference in passage rate through the three bypass configurations (2-in. orifice, 6-in. orifice, or overflow weir). Subyearlings moved sooner when the 6-in. orifice was used, with more than 50% exiting through the fish bypass in the first 8 hr. Smolts exited quickly and preferred the 6-in. orifice, with over 90% of the smolts exiting through the bypass in less than 2 hr. Passage was slightly slower when a weir was used, with 90% of the smolts exiting in about 4 hr. When the 2-in. orifice was used in the bypass, 90% of the smolts did not exit until after 8 hr. In addition, about 7% of the smolts failed to migrate from the forebay within 24 hr, indicating that smolts were significantly delayed when the 2-in. orifice was used. Few significant injuries were detected for any of the life stages. However, light descaling occurred on about 15% of chinook salmon smolts passing through the 2-in. orifice. Although a single passage through the orifice did not appear to cause significant scale loss or other damage, passing through several screening facilities with 2-in. orifices could cause cumulative injuries.

  16. Limites, passages et transformations en jeu dans l’architecture / Limits, passages and transformations involved in Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younès, Chris

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La manière de tracer des limites et d’opérer des passages par transferts, incursions, interférences notamment, rend compte du mode d’expression propre à l’architecture et de sa façon d’agencer le stable et l’instable, le délimité et l’illimité, la mesure et l’incommensurable, la continuité et la discontinuité. L’art de les mettre en œuvre par le projet architectural, urbain et paysager est une des problématiques de recherche du laboratoire interdisciplinaire Gerjau (philosophie architecture urbain qui a conduit différentes études sur ce sujet et en particulier du point de vue des rapports entre nature et culture./The way in which limits are drawn and passageways are operated for transfers, incursions, and specially interferences, show how architecture has it’s own way of expression that deals with the stable and the unstable, the limited and the unlimited, etc.

  17. Development of a more fish tolerant turbine runner advanced hydropower turbine project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, T.C.; Hecker, G.E. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Holden, MA (United States). Alden Research Lab.; Faulkner, H.B.; Jansen, W. [Northern Research and Engineering Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Hidrostal pump is a single bladed combined screw/centrifugal pump which has been proven to transport fish with minimal injury. The focus of the ARL/NREC research project was to develop a new runner geometry which is effective in downstream fish passage and hydroelectric power generation. A flow of 1,000 cfs and a head in the range of 75 ft to 100 ft were selected for conceptual design of the new runner. Criteria relative to hydraulic characteristics which are favorable for fish passage were prepared based on a reassessment of the available information. Important criteria used to develop the new runner design included low pressure change rates, minimum absolute pressures, and minimum shear. Other criteria which are reflected in the runner design are a minimum number of blades (only two), minimum total length of leading edges, and large flow passages. Flow characteristics of the new runner were analyzed using two- dimensional and three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models. The basic runner geometry was initially selected using the two-dimensional model. The three-dimensional model was used to investigate the flow characteristics in detail through the entire runner and to refine the design by eliminating potential problem areas at the leading and trailing edges. Results of the analyses indicated that the runner has characteristics which should provide safe fish passage with an overall power efficiency of approximately 90%. The size of the new runner, which is larger than conventional turbine runners with the same design flow and head, will provide engineering, fabrication, and installation.challenges related to the turbine components and the civil works. A small reduction in the overall efficiency would reduce the size of the runner considerably, would simplify the turbine manufacturing operations, and would allow installation of the new turbine at more hydroelectric sites.

  18. Fish assemblages in a western Iowa stream modified by grade control structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvan, M.E.; Pierce, C.L.; Stewart, T.W.; Larson, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Over 400 riprap grade control structures (GCSs) have been built in streams of western Iowa to reduce erosion and protect bridges, roads, and farmland. In conjunction with a companion study evaluating fish passage over GCSs in Turkey Creek, we evaluated the differences in fish assemblage and habitat characteristics in reaches immediately downstream from GCSs (GCS sites) and reaches at least 1 km from any GCS (non-GCS sites). The GCS sites were characterized by greater proportions of pool habitat, maximum depths, fish biomass, and abundance of juvenile largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides than were non-GCS sites. Index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores were poor or fair (structures is vital to the conservation and management of fish assemblages in this and other regions where GCSs or similar structures are used. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Ebola virus genome plasticity as a marker of its passaging history: a comparison of in vitro passaging to non-human primate infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Kugelman

    Full Text Available To identify polymorphic sites that could be used as biomarkers of Ebola virus passage history, we repeatedly amplified Ebola virus (Kikwit variant in vitro and in vivo and performed deep sequencing analysis of the complete genomes of the viral subpopulations. We then determined the sites undergoing selection during passage in Vero E6 cells. Four locations within the Ebola virus Kikwit genome were identified that together segregate cell culture-passaged virus and virus obtained from infected non-human primates. Three of the identified sites are located within the glycoprotein gene (GP sequence: the poly-U (RNA editing site at position 6925, as well as positions 6677, and 6179. One site was found in the VP24 gene at position 10833. In all cases, in vitro and in vivo, both populations (majority and minority variants were maintained in the viral swarm, with rapid selections occurring after a few passages or infections. This analysis approach will be useful to differentiate whether filovirus stocks with unknown history have been passaged in cell culture and may support filovirus stock standardization for medical countermeasure development.

  20. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. PMID:25969502

  1. Rosetta Mission Status: Toward and From Perihelion Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since the deployment and subsequent touchdown of its Philae Lander on the surface of comet C67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014, the Rosetta spacecraft has left bound orbits around the comet and passed a number of milestones contributing to further achieving the science return goals of the mission. It performed two very close flybys in February and March of this year, allowing for the collection of data and high-resolution images of the nucleus and its close environment at a time of increasing cometary activity. Such increase in activity actually led to orbiter operational issues as the star tracker navigation was seriously impacted by the presence of dust particles, and since then the spacecraft had to be moved further away from the nucleus so as to guarantee its safety. This has meant a complete redesign of the operational scheme for the mission, whose science planning implementation is now being uplinked to the spacecraft much closer to execution onboard, with the Flight Dynamics team defining trajectories as late and as close as possible to the comet. In addition to science data acquired from the northern hemisphere of the comet while it progresses toward perihelion, attempts are being made to communicate with the Lander since renewed signal with Philae was obtained in mid-June. The aim is to be able to achieve as much of the Long Term Science goals as possible during the remaining lifetime of the Lander, albeit within the orbiter safety constraints. With perihelion within reach, orbiter science of the southern hemisphere is taking on more importance, and the combination of such science with continued Lander contact attempts will mark Rosetta's passage across the perihelion for C67P.

  2. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  3. Why do fish school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized movements (schooling emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO of a predator. Moreover, prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators. The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling. The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey, possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal, but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish, resulting in size homogeneity and, accordingly, an increased capacity for moving in synchrony. Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming, such as neighbour body-size, speed, and location. When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex. Quiet intervals will be few. Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously, providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals. Besides, synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL. Turning preference bias, well-functioning sense organs, good health, and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors and aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery. Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formation, reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms, which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1: 116–128, 2012].

  4. Enzymatic passaging of human embryonic stem cells alters central carbon metabolism and glycan abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badur, Mehmet G.; Zhang, Hui; Metallo, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    To realize the potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in regenerative medicine and drug discovery applications, large numbers of cells that accurately recapitulate cell and tissue function must be robustly produced. Previous studies have suggested that genetic instability and epigenetic changes occur as a consequence of enzymatic passaging. However, the potential impacts of such passaging methods on the metabolism of hESCs have not been described. Using stable isotope tracing and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, we have explored how different passaging reagents impact hESC metabolism. Enzymatic passaging caused significant decreases in glucose utilization throughout central carbon metabolism along with attenuated de novo lipogenesis. In addition, we developed and validated a method for rapidly quantifying glycan abundance and isotopic labeling in hydrolyzed biomass. Enzymatic passaging reagents significantly altered levels of glycans immediately after digestion but surprisingly glucose contribution to glycans was not affected. These results demonstrate that there is an immediate effect on hESC metabolism after enzymatic passaging in both central carbon metabolism and biosynthesis. HESCs subjected to enzymatic passaging are routinely placed in a state requiring re-synthesis of biomass components, subtly influencing their metabolic needs in a manner that may impact cell performance in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:26289220

  5. Reservoir to river passage of age-0+ year fishes, indication of a dispersion pathway for a non-native species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel; Kružíková, L.; Roche, Kevin Francis; Prášek, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2013), s. 994-1010. ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Abramis brama * drift * entrainment * invasive species * Proterorhinus semilunaris * Sander lucioperca Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.734, year : 2013

  6. Selection drivers of life-history traits in marine coastal fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Alós Crespí, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Humans can induce contemporary evolution through harvesting wild animals. This thesis provides evidence of this process for recreational fishing at surprisingly small geographical scales. Marine fish populations are characterized by high variability in heritable individual life‐history traits which are exposed to biased fishing mortality. The life histories strategies of actual populations, which collectively reduce adult body size, mirror such biased mortality in populations exposed to limit...

  7. Consequences of fish introductions on paedomorphic newts (Triturus alpestris and T. helveticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Denoël, Mathieu; Dzukic, Georg; Kalezic, Milos

    2005-01-01

    Fish stocking is largely recognized as a major thread to amphibian populations. Although it acts at a local level, it is widespread at a world scale. Despite this good knowledge, the effect of fish on alternative phenotypes has only been described in a few local studies. Our aim was to report on the loss of intraspecific heterochrony as a loss to diversity in determining the consequences of fish introductions on paedomorphs (morphs retaining gills at the adult stage) of two European species o...

  8. An alternative expression for the Black-Scholes formula in terms of Brownian first and last passage times

    OpenAIRE

    Madan, D.; Roynette, Bernard; Yor, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The celebrated Black-Scholes formula which gives the price of a European option, may be expressed as the cumulative function of a last passage time of Brownian motion. A related result involving first passage times is also obtained.

  9. All Fish for China?

    OpenAIRE

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A.; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China’s seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961–2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish...

  10. Commercial production of fish meal from fish waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of fish meal production as a means of reducing fish waste currently being experienced in the fisheries subsector is discussed. Cost estimate for Nigeria establishing a fish meal manufacturing plant and suggestions on rational execution of the project are presented. If properly located and well managed, the project will serve to convert fish waste to cash in the industrial fishery

  11. Adult Neurogenesis: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempermann, Gerd

    2016-02-01

    When adult neurogenesis was discovered in the mammalian brain it was often considered an atavism and, even today, many people are convinced that there has been a "phylogenetic reduction" away from lifelong neurogenesis, favoring stability for complex brains. Adult neurogenesis is found throughout the animal kingdom but varies to a large extent. Mammals might have fewer neurogenic zones than, for example, fish, but within their remaining neurogenic zones, the new neurons are highly functional. Especially, humans have very substantial quantities of neurogenesis in their hippocampus. At least for the mammalian dentate gyrus, one can thus argue that there has been evolution toward neurogenesis-based plasticity rather than away from it. PMID:26684183

  12. Benefits and risks of fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish consumption. However, the balance between health benefits and risks, due to the intake of chemical contaminants, is not well characterized. In the present study, edible samples of 14 marine species were analyzed for the concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as a number of metals and organic pollutants. Daily intakes were specifically determined for a standard adult of 70 kg, and compared with the tolerable/admissible intakes of the pollutants, if available. Salmon, mackerel, and red mullet were the species showing the highest content of omega-3 fatty acids. The daily intakes of cadmium, lead, and mercury through fish consumption were 1.1, 2.0, and 9.9 μg, respectively. Dioxins and furans plus dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) intake was 38.0 pg WHO-TEQ/day, whereas those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 20.8, 39.4, 1.53, and 1.50 ng/day, respectively. In turn, the total intake of 16 analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was 268 ng/day. The monthly fish consumption limits for human health endpoints based on the intake of these chemical contaminants were calculated for a 70 years exposure. In general terms, most marine species here analyzed should not mean adverse health effects for the consumers. However, the type of fish, the frequency of consumption, and the meal size are essential issues for the balance of the health benefits and risks of regular fish consumption

  13. Fast and accurate calculations for cumulative first-passage time distributions in Wiener diffusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, Steven Paul; Kesselmeier, M.; Gondan, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We propose an improved method for calculating the cumulative first-passage time distribution in Wiener diffusion models with two absorbing barriers. This distribution function is frequently used to describe responses and error probabilities in choice reaction time tasks. The present work extends...... related work on the density of first-passage times [Navarro, D.J., Fuss, I.G. (2009). Fast and accurate calculations for first-passage times in Wiener diffusion models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53, 222-230]. Two representations exist for the distribution, both including infinite series. We...

  14. A meta-analysis of passage rate estimated by rumen evacuation with cattle and evaluation of passage rate prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, S J; Ahvenjärvi, S; Huhtanen, P

    2010-12-01

    A meta-analysis of studies using the flux/compartmental pool method with indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) as internal marker was conducted to study the effect of extrinsic characteristics and forage type on particle passage rate (k(p)) in cattle. Further, the k(p) prediction equations in the National Research Council (NRC) and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) were evaluated. Data comprised 172 treatment means from 49 studies conducted in Europe and the United States. In total, 145 diets were fed to dairy cows and 27 to growing cattle. A prerequisite for inclusion of an experiment was that dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), proportion of concentrate in the diet, body weight, and diet chemical composition were determined or could be estimated. Mixed model regression analysis including a random study effect was used to generate prediction equations of k(p) and to investigate the relationships between NRC and CNCPS predictions and observed k(p) of iNDF. Prediction equations were evaluated by regressing residual values on the predicted values. The best-fit model when forage type was not included was k(p) (%/h) = 1.19+0.0879 × NDF intake (g/kg of body weight)+0.792 × proportion of concentrate NDF of total NDF+1.21 × diet iNDF:NDF ratio (adjusted residual mean square error = 0.23%/h). The best general equation accounting for an effect of forage type was as follows: k(p) (%/h) = F+1.54+0.0866 × NDF intake (g/kg of body weight) (adjusted residual mean square error = 0.21%/h), where F is the forage adjustment factor of the intercept. The value of F for grass silage, fresh grass, mixes of alfalfa and corn silage, and dry or ensiled alfalfa as sole forage component were 0.00, -0.91, +0.83, and +0.24, respectively. Relationships between predicted and observed k(p) were y = 0.53(± 0.187)+0.41( ± 0.0373) × predicted k(p) and y = 0.58(± 0.162)+0.46(± 0.0377) × predicted k(p) for the NRC and CNCPS models, respectively

  15. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that...

  16. Logy Bay Fishing Settlement

    OpenAIRE

    S H Parsons and Sons

    2003-01-01

    202 x 151 mm. Showing the small inlet with moored rowing boats and rough wooden shacks built on the cliffside. Lying about seven miles from St. John's, Logy Bay was used as a summertime fishing station.

  17. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment...

  18. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ciguatera poisoning, the poisonous ingredient is ciguatoxin. This is a poison made in small amounts by certain algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae ...

  19. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  20. 76 FR 54531 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... to pipeline facilities caused by the passage of Hurricanes. ADDRESSES: This document can be viewed on...-related issues that can result from the passage of hurricanes. That includes the potential for damage...

  1. Europa Passage, Hamburg. Pumps ensure thermal comfort at all levels; Die Europa Passage in Hamburg. Pumpen sorgen fuer Komfort auf allen Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teders, Klaus

    2009-07-01

    The Europa Passage at Hamburg is a new shopping mall located directly on the Binnenalster river. It was constructed in 2006 and has 30,000 m{sup 2} of shop floor on five levels, which makes it one of Germany's biggest shopping malls. It is frequented every day by up to 40,000 visitors and more than 50,000 visitors on saturdays. In order to ensure optimum comfort even in peak times, the passage is equipped with state-of-the-art technical facilities. Energy-efficient pumps ensure reliable supply of all technical facilities. (orig.)

  2. Welfare in farmed fish

    OpenAIRE

    Damsgård, Børge; Juell, Jon-Erik; Braastad, Bjarne Olai

    2006-01-01

    The interest of fish welfare is increasing, both in Norway and internationally, leading to an increasing need for scientific knowledge about basic and applied questions related to how farmed fish are produced. The strategic institute programme (SIP) ”Welfare in farmed fish” was financed by the Research Council of Norway, for the five years period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. The core partners in the SIP were the Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (Fiskerifor...

  3. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is th...

  4. Improved fish smoking: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fish is an important source of food and income to many people in the developing world. In Africa, some 5 percent of the population, about 35 million people, depend wholly or partly on the fisheries sector, mostly artisanal fisheries, for their livelihood. Various traditional methods are employed to preserve and process fish for consumption and storage. These include smoking, drying, salting, frying and fermenting and various combinations of these. In Ghana, smoking is the mo...

  5. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  6. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: edclotfelter@amherst.edu; Rodriguez, Alison C. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, {beta}-sitosterol, and the positive control 17{beta}-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17{beta}-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish.

  7. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery during 2003-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery traditionally operates an adult ladder, without closure, from the start of the tule fall Chinook salmon run in late August until...

  8. Influence of a Weak Field of Pulsed DC Electricity on the Behavior and Incidence of Injury in Adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa, Matthew

    2009-02-13

    electrofishing operations typically use high voltage and amperage settings and a variety of waveforms, pulse widths (PW), and pulse frequencies (PF), depending on conditions and target species. For example, when backpack electrofishing for trout in a small stream, one might use settings such as 500 V pulsed DC, a PW of 1 ms, and a PF of 60 Hz. In contrast, the electrical barrier proposed by SRI will produce electrical conditions significantly lower than those used in electrofishing, particularly for PW and PF (e.g., PW ranging from 300-1,000 {micro}s and PF from 2-3 Hz). Further, voltage gradients (in V/cm) are predicted to be lower in the electric barrier than those produced during typical electrofishing. Although the relatively weak, pulsed DC electric fields to be produced by the barrier may be effective at deterring pinnipeds, little, if anything, is known about the effects of such low intensity electrical fields on fish behavior. For this research, we evaluated the effects of weak, pulsed DC electric currents on the behavior of adult steelhead and Pacific lamprey and the incidence of injury in steelhead only. In a series of laboratory experiments, we: (1) documented the rate of passage of fish over miniature, prototype electric barriers when they were on and off; (2) determined some electric thresholds beyond which fish would not pass over the barrier; and (3) assessed the incidence and severity of injury in steelhead exposed to relatively severe electrical conditions. The results of this study should be useful for making decisions about whether to install electrical barriers in the lower Columbia River, or elsewhere, to reduce predation on upstream migrating salmonids and other fishes by marine pinnipeds.

  9. Passage Distribution and Federal Columbia River Power System Survival for Steelhead Kelts Tagged Above and at Lower Granite Dam, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Harnish, Ryan A.; Jones, Bryan W.; Hanson, Amanda C.; Trott, Donna M.; Greiner, Michael J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Brown, Richard S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Li, X.; Fu, Tao

    2014-03-28

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations have declined throughout their range in the last century and many populations, including those of the Snake River Basin are listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The reasons for their decline are many and complex, but include habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, and dam construction. The 2008 Biological Opinion calls for an increase in the abundance of female steelhead through an increase in iteroparity (i.e., repeat spawning) and this can be realized through a combination of reconditioning and in-river survival of migrating kelts. The goal of this study is to provide the data necessary to inform fisheries managers and dam operators of Snake River kelt migration patterns, survival, and routes of dam passage. Steelhead kelts (n = 487) were captured and implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tags at the Lower Granite Dam (LGR) Juvenile Fish Facility and at weirs located in tributaries of the Snake and Clearwater rivers upstream of LGR. Kelts were monitored as they moved downstream through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by 15 autonomous and 3 cabled acoustic receiver arrays. Cabled receiver arrays deployed on the dam faces allowed for three-dimensional tracking of fish as they approached the dam face and were used to determine the route of dam passage. Overall, 27.3% of the kelts tagged in this study successfully migrated to Martin Bluff (rkm 126, as measured from the mouth of the Columbia River), which is located downstream of all FCRPS dams. Within individual river reaches, survival per kilometer estimates ranged from 0.958 to 0.999; the lowest estimates were observed in the immediate forebay of FCRPS dams. Steelhead kelts tagged in this study passed over the spillway routes (spillway weirs, traditional spill bays) in greater proportions and survived at higher rates compared to the few fish passed through powerhouse routes (turbines and juvenile

  10. Passage Distribution and Federal Columbia River Power System Survival for Steelhead Kelts Tagged Above and at Lower Granite Dam, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison H.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harnish, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Bryan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, Amanda C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Trott, Donna M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcmichael, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Richard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xinya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations have declined throughout their range in the last century and many populations, including those of the Snake River Basin are listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The reasons for their decline are many and complex, but include habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, and dam construction. The 2008 Biological Opinion calls for an increase in the abundance of female steelhead through an increase in iteroparity (i.e., repeat spawning) and this can be realized through a combination of reconditioning and in-river survival of migrating kelts. The goal of this study is to provide the data necessary to inform fisheries managers and dam operators of Snake River kelt migration patterns, survival, and routes of dam passage. Steelhead kelts (n = 487) were captured and implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tags at the Lower Granite Dam (LGR) Juvenile Fish Facility and at weirs located in tributaries of the Snake and Clearwater rivers upstream of LGR. Kelts were monitored as they moved downstream through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by 15 autonomous and 3 cabled acoustic receiver arrays. Cabled receiver arrays deployed on the dam faces allowed for three-dimensional tracking of fish as they approached the dam face and were used to determine the route of dam passage. Overall, 27.3% of the kelts tagged in this study successfully migrated to Martin Bluff (rkm 126, as measured from the mouth of the Columbia River), which is located downstream of all FCRPS dams. Within individual river reaches, survival per kilometer estimates ranged from 0.958 to 0.999; the lowest estimates were observed in the immediate forebay of FCRPS dams. Steelhead kelts tagged in this study passed over the spillway routes (spillway weirs, traditional spill bays) in greater proportions and survived at higher rates compared to the few fish passed through powerhouse routes (turbines and juvenile

  11. Mismatch between fishway operation and timing of fish movements: a risk for cascading effects in partial migration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Casper H A; Museth, Jon; Sandlund, Odd T; Qvenild, Tore; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2016-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a growing problem worldwide. Particularly in river systems, numerous dams and weirs hamper the movement of a wide variety of species. With the aim to preserve connectivity for fish, many barriers in river systems are equipped with fishways (also called fish passages or fish ladders). However, few fishways provide full connectivity. Here we hypothesized that restricted seasonal opening times of fishways can importantly reduce their effectiveness by interfering with the timing of fish migration, for both spring- and autumn-spawning species. We empirically tested our hypothesis, and discuss the possible eco-evolutionary consequences of affected migration timing. We analyzed movements of two salmonid fishes, spring-spawning European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and autumn-spawning brown trout (Salmo trutta), in Norway's two largest river systems. We compared their timing of upstream passage through four fishways collected over 28 years with the timing of fish movements in unfragmented river sections as monitored by radiotelemetry. Confirming our hypothesis, late opening of fishways delayed the migration of European grayling in spring, and early closure of fishways blocked migration for brown trout on their way to spawning locations during late autumn. We show in a theoretical framework how restricted opening times of fishways can induce shifts from migratory to resident behavior in potamodromous partial migration systems, and propose that this can induce density-dependent effects among fish accumulating in lower regions of rivers. Hence, fragmentation may not only directly affect the migratory individuals in the population, but may also have effects that cascade downstream and alter circumstances for resident fish. Fishway functionality is inadequate if there is a mismatch between natural fish movements and fishway opening times in the same river system, with ecological and possibly evolutionary consequences for fish populations. PMID

  12. Latent mortaliy (A study to evaluate latent mortality associated with passage through Snake River dams)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This BPA funded project that began in 2005 evaluates the amount of latent or extra mortality caused by passage through three of the four Snake River Dams. Latent...

  13. Model Runs (COMPASS model of juvenile passage through the Snake and Columbia River hydrosystem)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Comprehensive Passage (COMPASS) model was developed by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) in collaboration with scientists from other federal...

  14. Using Magnetic Stir Bars To Determine Digestive Passage Rate in an Ectotherm, the Garter Snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, John G.

    2002-01-01

    Details how students, working under the guidance of an instructor, design an experiment to test the relationship of temperature and digestive passage rate in garter snakes. Allows students to formulate and test hypotheses. (DDR)

  15. Markov Decision Processes with Distribution Function Criterion of First-Passage Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss MDP with distribution function criterion of first-passage time. Some properties of several kinds of optimal policies are given. Existence results and algorithms for these optimal policies are given in this paper

  16. Rediscovering Rites of Passage: Education, Transformation, and the Transition to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Adam Lertzman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on rites of passage as a model for wilderness programs. It draws on my experience in the field, particularly with Native youth in a community-based program called "Rediscovery." The Rediscovery program is discussed, along with concepts of traditional indigenous knowledge and education. Foundational concepts of rites of passage are described in terms of their relevance to youth, outdoor education, and the Rediscovery program in particular. Using Rediscovery as a model, rites of passage are put forward as an educational process for youth from various cultural backgrounds. In this context, the purpose of education is to cultivate self-knowledge and to foster core personal development: the making of whole human beings. The paper closes with a reflection on my work with traditional indigenous people and the significance of rites of passage for education, cultural transformation, and the transition to ecological sustainability.

  17. Passage of downstream migrant American eels through an airlift-assisted deep bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Noreika, John

    2016-01-01

    Traditional downstream guidance and bypass facilities for anadromous fishes (i.e., surface bypasses, surface guidance structures, and behavioral barriers) have frequently been ineffective for anguillid eels. Because eels typically spend the majority of their time near the bottom in the vicinity of intake structures, deep bypass structures with entrances near the bottom hold promise for increased effectiveness, thereby aiding in the recovery of this important species. A new design of a deep bypass system that uses airlift technology (the Conte Airlift Bypass) to induce flow in a bypass pipe was tested in a simulated intake entrance environment under controlled laboratory conditions. Water velocities of 0.9–1.5 m s−1 could be generated at the bypass entrance (opening with 0.073 m2 area), with corresponding flows through the bypass pipe of 0.07–0.11 m3 s−1. Gas saturation and hydrostatic pressure within the bypass pipe did not vary appreciably from a control (no air) condition under tested airflows. Migratory silver-phase American eels (Anguilla rostrata) tested during dark conditions readily located, entered, and passed through the bypass; initial avoidance rates (eels approaching but not entering the bypass entrance) were lower at higher entrance velocities. Eels that investigated the bypass pipe entrance tended to enter headfirst, but those that then exited the pipe upstream did so more frequently at lower entrance velocities. Eels appeared to swim against the flow while being transported downstream through the pipe; median transit times through the bypass for each test velocity ranged from 5.8 to 12.2 s, with transit time decreasing with increasing entrance velocity. Eels did not show strong avoidance of the vertical section of the pipe which contained injected air. No mortality or injury of bypassed eels was observed, and individual eels repeatedly passed through the bypass at rates of up to 40 passes per hour, suggesting that individuals do not

  18. Radionuclide accumulation by aquatic biota exposed to contaminated water in artificial ecosystems before and after its passage through the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to investigate the comparative accumulation of radionuclides from contaminated water in artificial ecosystems before and after the water's passage through the ground. Fish, clams, algae, and an emergent vascular plant were experimentally exposed to mixtures of radionuclides in three aqueous streams. Two streams consisted of industrial water discharged directly into a leaching trench, and the same water after it had migrated through the ground for a distance of 260 meters. The third stream was river water, which served as a background or control. Biota exposed to river water in the control stream had very low concentrations of 60Co, less than 3 pCi per gram dry weight (pCi/g DW). Other radionuclides were essentially unmeasurable. Biota exposed to trench water accumulated very high relative concentrations of 60Co. Biota exposed to trench water also had measurable concentrations of 155Eu, 144Ce, 141Ce, 125Sb, 124Sb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 137Cs, 95Zr, 95Nb, 58Co, 54Mn, 59Fe, 65Zn, 90Sr, /sup 239,240/Pu, and 238Pu. Biota exposed to ground water had concentrations of 60Co that ranged between 50 and 1200 pCi/g DW. Fish flesh had the lowest concentration of 60Co and algae the highest. Strontium-90 was measured in the tissues of aquatic biota at concentrations ranging between 360 pCi/g DW in clam flesh to 3400 pCi/g DW in leaves and stems of Veronica. Leaves and fruits of tomato plants rooted in the ground water accumulated 90Sr at concentrations of 160 pCi in fruits and 4200 pCi in leaves. Data indicate that 60Co and 90Sr migrated through the ground along with ground-water flow and were available to all classes of aquatic biota and tomato plants rooted in the water via root uptake, sorption, and food chain transfers. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Barcoding of fresh water fishes from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Asma; Iqbal, Asad; Akhtar, Rehan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Amar, Ali; Qamar, Usman; Jahan, Shah

    2016-07-01

    DNA bar-coding is a taxonomic method that uses small genetic markers in organisms' mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) for identification of particular species. It uses sequence diversity in a 658-base pair fragment near the 5' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene as a tool for species identification. DNA barcoding is more accurate and reliable method as compared with the morphological identification. It is equally useful in juveniles as well as adult stages of fishes. The present study was conducted to identify three farm fish species of Pakistan (Cyprinus carpio, Cirrhinus mrigala, and Ctenopharyngodon idella) genetically. All of them belonged to family cyprinidae. CO1 gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatic software. Conspecific, congenric, and confamilial k2P nucleotide divergence was estimated. From these findings, it was concluded that the gene sequence, CO1, may serve as milestone for the identification of related species at molecular level. PMID:25980661

  20. Persistence of chicken herpesvirus and retroviral chimeric molecules upon in vivo passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenshtain, R; Witter, R L; Davidson, I

    2003-01-01

    Mareks disease virus (MDV), a herpesvirus, and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), a retrovirus, were used for experimental coinfection of chickens. Chimeric molecules having sequences of both viruses were detected by the hotspot-combined polymerase chain reaction (HS-cPCR) system. The detection of chimeric molecules provided evidence for avian retroviral inserts in the herpesvirus genome. The persistence of chimeric molecules on in vivo passage served to indicate the infectivity of the recombinant virus. The evaluation of formation and persistence of the chimeric molecules was performed in two trials involving three in vivo passages. The chimeric molecules were identified according to the primer sets, their product length, and pattern. The persistence of chimeric molecules on in vivo passages served as an indication of their ability to replicate in and infect chickens. In the first experimental passage, MDV and ALV-J prototype strains, MD11 and HC-1, were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected into 1-day-old chicks. The second trial included two passages. Passage II chicks were injected i.p. and passage III chickens were in contact with the chickens of passage II. For passage II, enriched white blood cells from blood samples of chickens from the first trial that had chimeric molecules were injected i.p. into 1-day-old chicks. For passage III, uninfected chicks were included together with the infected chicks. Synthesis evidence for the various species of chimeric molecules was assessed in the tissues of birds of the second trial. DNA was extracted from blood and feathers and analyzed by the hotspot-combined PCR and by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. To overcome the limits of detection, three amplification assays followed by hybridization of the products to specific viral probes were conducted. A variety of chimeric molecules were detected in low concentrations. Five species of chimeric molecules were characterized in blood, tumors, and feathers. Chimeric