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Sample records for adult female rats

  1. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  2. Spontaneous inflammatory pelvic disease in adult non-castrated female rats treated with estrogen

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    Aristóteles M G Ramos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune response of the genital tract is under the control of sexual steroids; however, the influence of sex hormones on innate immune mechanisms of the genital mucosa are only beginning to be understood. We found that long-term estrogen treatment increases the risk for inflammatory pelvic diseases in adult non-castrated female rats. Female rats (110 g to 130 g received estrogen (10 rats; 17-beta estradiol, 50 mg pellet; 10 rats: subcutaneous weekly injection of estradiol valerate 0.166 mg/kg. Ten rats received a pellet of 17-beta estradiol and were treated with amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg after the 90th day of exposure to estrogen. Three control groups of ten rats were also used. The estrogen-treated rats developed an inflammatory pelvic disease, with abscess formation after the third month of hormonal treatment. All the surviving animals were killed after six months of hormonal exposure. Among 15 survivors of the two groups that received estrogen 13 animals presented tuboovarian abscesses. Among eight survivors of the group treated with amoxicillin, six had tuboovarian abscesses. None of the 30 control rats presented macro or microscopic signs of inflammatory disease in the uterus, tubes or ovaries. We conclude that estrogen impairs the defense mechanisms of the genital tract of non-castrated female rats, enhancing bacterial growth in the vagina and ascending infection to the uterus, tubes and ovaries.

  3. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of 14C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  4. Exposure to repeated maternal aggression induces depressive-like behavior and increases startle in adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2011-01-01

    The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adult female rats. Adult (pos...

  5. Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- v...

  6. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

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    Jodi L. Pawluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1 cookie and (2 osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.

  7. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga Odusoga Adewale; Osonuga Ifabunmi Oduyemi; Osonuga Ayokunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats.Methods:moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum.Result:Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively.Conclusion:Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  8. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

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    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  9. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  10. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  11. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

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    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  12. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F0) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F1) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  13. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  14. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-01-01

    Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

  15. Decreased duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis in immature and adult female rats prenatally exposed to cimetidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of prenatal cimetidine exposure (PreCM) on the duration of pentobarbital-induced narcosis (DPN) was assessed in immature (14- and 28-day old) and adult (50-60-day old) male and female rats. PreCM exposure was accomplished by treating mothers with cimetidine (CM) (20 mg/kg, ip) daily for the last two days of gestation and then (0.01% in drinking water) throughout lactation. Pregnant mothers of untreated offspring (Con) received saline. PreCM decreased DPN to 505 +/- 33 min (from 611 +/- 23 min in Con) and 393 +/- 190 min (from 686 +/- 44 min in Con) in 14-day old male and female rats, respectively. Similarly, PreCM decreased DPN to 88 +/- 15 min (from 134 +/- 3 min in Con) and 102 +/- 19 min (from 171 +/- 44 min in Con) in 28-day old male and female rats, respectively. At 21 days, PreCM did not alter DPN in either sex. At 50-60 days, however, it decreased DPN to 144 +/- 41 min (from 238 +/- 7 min in Con) in females but had no effect in males; PreCM also increased the plasma clearance of administered 14C-pentobarbital more in females than in males. The effects of PreCM, particularly the long-term effects, were most prominent in female rats and were the opposite of those of postnatal treatment with CM. The results together with those of studies with hepatic microsomes suggest that PreCM may have resulted in the induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes during the perinatal period

  16. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  17. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on thyrotropin secretion in adult and old female rats

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    Moreira R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones have been implicated in the modulation of TSH secretion; however, there are few and controversial data regarding the effect of progesterone (Pg on TSH secretion. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA is a synthetic alpha-hydroxyprogesterone analog that has been extensively employed in therapeutics for its Pg-like actions, but that also has some glucocorticoid and androgen activity. Both hormones have been shown to interfere with TSH secretion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of MPA or Pg administration to ovariectomized (OVX rats on in vivo and in vitro TSH release and pituitary TSH content. The treatment of adult OVX rats with MPA (0.25 mg/100 g body weight, sc, daily for 9 days induced a significant (P<0.05 increase in the pituitary TSH content, which was not observed when the same treatment was used with a 10 times higher MPA dose or with Pg doses similar to those of MPA. Serum TSH was similar for all groups. MPA administered to OVX rats at the lower dose also had a stimulatory effect on the in vitro basal and TRH-induced TSH release. The in vitro basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release was not significantly affected by Pg treatment. Conversely, MPA had no effect on old OVX rats. However, in these old rats, ovariectomy alone significantly reduced (P<0.05 basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release in vitro, as well as pituitary TSH content. The results suggest that in adult, but not in old OVX rats, MPA but not Pg has a stimulatory effect on TSH stores and on the response to TRH in vitro.

  18. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  19. Characterization of Fiber Types in Different Muscles of the Hindlimb in Female Weanling and Adult Wistar Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed lesser diameter and distribution of fiber types in different skeletal muscles from female Wistar rats using a histoenzymology Myofibrillar Adenosine Tri-phosphatase (mATPase) method. Fragments from muscles were frozen and processed by mATPase in different pH. Adult and weanling rat soleus muscles presented a predominance of type I fibers and larger fiber diameters. In the plantar muscle in adult rats, the type IIB fibers demonstrated greater lesser diameter while in the weanling animals, types I and IIB fibers were larger. The plantar muscle of animals of both ages was composed predominantly of the type IID fibers. The type IID fibers were observed in similar amounts in the lateral gastrocnemius and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. Type IIB fibers showed predominance and presented higher size in comparison with other types in the EDL muscle. The present study shows that data on fiber type distribution and fiber lesser diameter obtained in adult animals cannot always be applied to weanling animals of the same species. Using the mATPase, despite the difficult handling, is an important tool to determine the different characteristics of the specific fibers in the skeletal muscle tissue

  20. Adolescent chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical hypo-responsiveness and depression-like behavior in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P

    2016-03-01

    Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968

  1. Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M D; Cadete-Leite, A; Andrade, J P; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1991-12-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism upon the structure of the central nervous system of adult rats are poorly understood in spite of evidence that the mature brain is vulnerable to this condition. Existing developmental studies show that the morphological changes induced by thyroid hormone deficiency are related to alterations in neurogenesis. We studied the granular layer of the dentate gyrus under different experimental conditions of hypothyroidism, because in rodents the neurogenesis of the granule cells continues during adulthood. The following groups of rats were analysed: 1) control; 2) hypothyroid from day 0 until day 180 (hypothyroid group); 3) hypothyroid until day 30 and henceforth maintained euthyroid (recovery group); and 4) hypothyroid since day 30 (adult hypothyroid group). Groups of 6 male rats and 6 female rats were analysed separately. The volume of the dentate gyrus granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were evaluated, so we were able to estimate the total number of granule cells. Because in the experimental groups the volume of the granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were reduced, the total number of granule cells was decreased. In the hypothyroid and recovery groups the alterations were identical and more striking than in the adult hypothyroid groups. The total number of granule cells displayed sexual differences in all groups studied except in the hypothyroid groups. The present results support the view that thyroid hormone deficiency interferes with the process of cell acquisition by reducing neuronal proliferation and that it also leads to increased cell death. These events underlie the irreversible morphological changes observed in the brain of hypothyroid rats, either during development or at maturity. The referred structural alterations are probably related to the functional deficits observed in this condition. PMID:1797872

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  4. Effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid on spatial learning and memory in adolescent and adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sircar, Ratna; Basak, Ashim; Sircar, Debashish; Wu, Li-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been reported to disrupt spatial learning and memory in adolescent male rats. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of GHB on the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats, and to investigate age specificity of the behavioral impairments. Adolescent female rats were subjected to repeated GHB or saline administrations, and tested in the Morris water maze. Compared to age-matched saline controls, adolescent GHB-treated rats took ...

  5. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats.

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    Paula Duarte-Guterman

    Full Text Available Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol's effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17β-estradiol (10 μg, G1 (0.1, 5, 10 μg, G15 (40 μg, G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO. After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 μg decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus.

  6. Effect of ormeloxifene, a nonsteroidal once-a-week oral contraceptive, on systemic hemodynamics in adult female rats

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    Hiralal Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the short-term effects of ormeloxifene on systemic hemodynamics, coagulation profile, and serum antioxidant activity in vivo in comparison with raloxifene. Materials and Methods: Colony-bred adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 19 groups of 10 each and received either ormeloxifene or raloxifene (0.25, 1.25, or 3 mg/kg/day for 7, 15, or 30 days by the oral route. Animals of control group received vehicle (gum-acacia in distilled water alone in a similar manner. Systemic hemodynamics and serum total antioxidant activity were assessed 24 h after the last treatment. Results: There was no significant effect of ormeloxifene administered at these doses and schedules on hemodynamic parameters or antioxidant activity, except for increase in amplitude of R wave in rats treated with 3 mg/kg/day dose for 30 days. This effect with raloxifene was evident only 7 days after treatment at this dose. Overall response was, however, almost similar with both the agents. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate comparable pharmacological profile of ormeloxifene and raloxifene on short-term administration to rats. Based on changes observed in the ECG (R wave, long-term studies may lead to justifiable comparison of beneficial and harmful effects of ormeloxifene and raloxifene in relation to cardiovascular effects.

  7. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. PMID:25725425

  8. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

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    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  9. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  10. Some of the Regenerative Properties of the Aqueos Extract of Ocimum sanctum on the Cytoarchitecture of the Liver of Adult Female Wistar Rats Following Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage

    OpenAIRE

    S.B. Mesole; Y.G. Mohammed; C. Nyaribo; J. Olusakin; A.O. Okpanachi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate some of the regenerative properties of Ocimum sanctum on the cytoarchitecture of the liver of adult female wistar rats following paracetamol induced liver damage. There is a lack of good hepatoregenerative drugs in modern medicine to aleviate and treat drug-induced liver damage. Leaves of sacred holy basil, also called Green Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), belonging to family Lamiaceae are used traditionally for their hepatoregenerative effect. We wanted...

  11. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

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    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental. The control group (n=8 received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12 received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna, once every 5 days for 6 times, and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injection. Experimental group 2; E2 (n=12 were injected as in group E1 then left for 15 days. Uterine tissue was used for various techniques; histological (H&E & Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemical (staining of progesterone receptors, using Labeled-Streptavidin method. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of uterine affection. Quantitative measurements (optical density, color area percentage, line distance & cells count were performed using the image analyzer. Mesigyna injection showed increased endometrial folding (91.6% of the animals with decreased endometrial thickness. Luminal epithelium showed proliferation with pseudostratification of its nuclei (75% of animals, necrotic changes (31.3% of animals, hyperplasia (epithelial tufting; in 25% of animals and desquamation (8.3%of animals. Increased gland size and stromal hypercellularity were also observed. Polymorphonuclear cellular infiltration in both endometrium and myometrium, Vascular congestion and increased myometrial thickness were respectively seen in 83.33%, 63.5 %, 83.5% of E1 group animals. Mesigyna also caused reduction in the amount of collagen fibers. Immunostaining revealed decreased number and optical density of progesterone receptors in nuclei of surface epithelium, glandular epithelium and stromal cells while they were increased in nuclei of smooth muscle fibers. Image analysis

  12. Neonatal exposure to estradiol in female rats influences neuroactive steroid concentrations and behaviour in the adult rat

    OpenAIRE

    Berretti, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The gonadal steroids, in particular estradiol, exert an important action during perinatal period in the regulation of sexual dimorphism and neuronal plasticity, and in the growth and development of nervous system. Exposure of the developing female to estrogens during perinatal period may have long-lasting effects that are now regarded as “programming” the female neuroendocrine axis to malfunction in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of a single administration of ...

  13. Activation of the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves tamoxifen-induced memory retrieval impairment in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Azam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Sardari, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has frequently been used in the treatment of breast cancer. In view of the fact that cognitive deficits in women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is a common health problem, using female animal models for investigating the cognitive effects of TAM administration may improve our knowledge of TAM therapy. Therefore, the present study assessed the role of dorsal hippocampal cholinergic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the effect of TAM administration on memory retrieval in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX female rats using a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that pre-test administration of TAM (2-6mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.5μg/rat) reversed TAM-induced memory impairment. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.1-0.3μg/rat) plus 2mg/kg (an ineffective dose) of TAM impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of nicotine and mecamylamine by themselves had no effect on memory retrieval. In OVX rats, the administration of TAM (6mg/kg) produced memory impairment but pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.5μg/rat) had no effect on TAM response. Moreover, the administration of an ineffective dose of TAM (2mg/kg) had no effect on memory retrieval in OVX rats, while pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.3μg/rat) impaired memory retrieval. Taken together, it can be concluded that the impairing effect of TAM on memory formation may be modulated by nAChRs of the CA1 regions. It seems that memory impairment may be considered as an important side effect of TAM. PMID:27072849

  14. Extensive juvenile "babysitting" facilitates later adult maternal responsiveness, decreases anxiety, and increases dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase-2 expression in female laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kaitlyn M; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy and parturition can dramatically affect female neurobiology and behavior. This is especially true for laboratory-reared rodents, in part, because such rearing prevents a host of developmental experiences that females might undergo in nature, including juvenile alloparenting. We examined the effect of chronic exposure to pups during post-weaning juvenile life (days 22-36) on adult maternal responsiveness, anxiety-related behaviors, and dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) levels in nulliparous rats. Adult females with juvenile alloparental experience showed significantly faster sensitized maternal responsiveness, less anxiety, and more dorsal raphe TPH2. Juvenile alloparenting did not affect females' later social novelty and preference behaviors toward adults, suggesting their increased interest in pups did not extend to all social partners. In a second experiment, suckling a pregnant dam (achieved by postpartum estrus reinsemination), interacting with her after standard laboratory weaning age, and a 3-day exposure to younger siblings also reduced juvenile females' later anxiety but did not affect maternal responsiveness or TPH2. Thus, extensive juvenile "babysitting" can have long-term effects reminiscent of pregnancy and parturition on maternal responsiveness and anxiety, and these effects may be driven by upregulated serotonin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 492-508, 2016. PMID:26806471

  15. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

  16. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

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    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  17. Effects of ethanol during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, W A; Sadowski, R N; Sherrill, L K; Gulley, J M; Juraska, J M

    2012-07-23

    Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, the number of neurons and glia is changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the adult mPFC and BLN in Long-Evans male and female rats. Saline or 3g/kg ethanol was administered between postnatal days (P) 35-45 in a binge-like pattern, with 2days of injections followed by 1 day without an injection. Stereological analyses of the ventral mPFC (prelimbic and infralimbic areas) and the BLN were performed on brains from rats at 100 days of age. Neuron and glia densities were assessed with the optical disector and then multiplied by the volume to calculate the total number of neurons and glia. In the adult mPFC, ethanol administration during adolescence resulted in a decreased number of glia in males, but not females, and had no effect on the number of neurons. Adolescent ethanol exposure had no effects on glia or neuron number in the BLN. These results suggest that glia cells in the prefrontal cortex are particularly sensitive to binge-like exposure to ethanol during adolescence in male rats only, potentially due to a decrease in proliferation in males or protective mechanisms in females. PMID:22627163

  18. Fructose Rich Diet-Induced High Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 Production in the Adult Female Rat: Protective Effect of Progesterone

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    Eduardo Spinedi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of progesterone (P4 on fructose rich diet (FRD intake-induced metabolic, endocrine and parametrial adipose tissue (PMAT dysfunctions was studied in the adult female rat. Sixty day-old rats were i.m. treated with oil alone (control, CT or containing P4 (12 mg/kg. Rats ate Purina chow-diet ad libitum throughout the entire experiment and, between 100 and 120 days of age drank ad libitum tap water alone (normal diet; CT-ND and P4-ND or containing fructose (10% w/v; CT-FRD and P4-FRD. At age 120 days, animals were subjected to a glucose tolerance test or decapitated. Plasma concentrations of various biomarkers and PMAT gene abundance were monitored. P4-ND (vs. CT-ND rats showed elevated circulating levels of lipids. CT-FRD rats displayed high (vs. CT-ND plasma concentrations of lipids, leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Lipidemia and adiponectinemia were high (vs. P4-ND in P4-FRD rats. Although P4 failed to prevent FRD-induced hyperleptinemia, it was fully protective on FRD-enhanced plasma PAI-1 levels. PMAT leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were high in CT-FRD and P4-FRD rats. While FRD enhanced PMAT PAI-1 mRNA abundance in CT rats, this effect was absent in P4 rats. Our study supports that a preceding P4-enriched milieu prevented the enhanced prothrombotic risk induced by FRD-elicited high PAI-1 production.

  19. The effects of prepubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethano...

  20. The effects of prepubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5–20% w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood. PMID:20816899

  1. The effects of pre-pubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K; Koss, Wendy A; Foreman, Emily S; Gulley, Joshua M

    2011-01-20

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long-Evans rats around post-natal day (P) 20. From P35-45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5-20%, w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood. PMID:20816899

  2. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during late embryogenesis results in diminished locomotor activity and amphetamine response in females and spatial cognition impairment in males in adult, but not adolescent rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, Bojan; Santrač, Anja; Divović, Branka; Timić, Tamara; Stanković, Tamara; Obradović, Aleksandar Lj; Joksimović, Srđan; Savić, Miroslav M

    2016-02-15

    Numerous basic and epidemiological studies have connected prenatal maternal immune activation with the occurrence of schizophrenia and/or autism. Depending on subtle differences in protocols of the used animal model, a variety of behavioral abnormalities has been reported. This study investigated behavioral differences in Wistar rat offspring of both genders, exposed to the 100 μg/kg per day dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in late embryogenesis (embryonic days 15 and 16), while tested at their adolescent and young adult age (postnatal days 40 and 60, respectively). Immune activation was confirmed by detecting high levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in dam blood withdrawn 2h after the first dose of LPS. The animals were assessed in three consecutive trials of locomotor activity (novelty exploration, response to i.p. saline injection and challenge with 0.5mg/kg amphetamine), Morris water maze and social interaction tests. Overt behavioral dysfunction was perceived in adult rats only, and these changes were gender-distinctive. When compared with control rats, LPS females displayed baseline hypolocomotion and a decreased reactivity to amphetamine, while LPS males exhibited spatial learning (acquisition trials) and memory (probe trial) impairments. Prenatal treatment did not affect the time spent in social interaction. As maternal exposure to LPS in late gestation resulted in behavioral changes in offspring in early adulthood, it may model schizophrenia-like, but not autism-like endophenotypes. However, lack of a potentiated response to amphetamine testified that this model could not mimic positive symptoms, but rather certain traits of cognitive dysfunction and deficit symptoms, in males and females, respectively. PMID:26620494

  3. Estrogen receptor β and oxytocin interact to modulate anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine stress reactivity in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudwa, Andrea E; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2014-04-22

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated in response to stressors and is controlled by neurons residing in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Although gonadal steroid hormones can influence HPA reactivity to stressors, the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is known, however, that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) inhibits HPA reactivity and decreases anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Since ERβ is co-expressed with oxytocin (OT) in neurons of the PVN, an ERβ-selective agonist was utilized to test the whether ERβ decreases stress-induced HPA reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors via an OTergic pathway. Adult gonadectomized male and female rats were administered diarylpropionitrile, or vehicle, peripherally for 5days. When tested for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), diarylpropionitrile-treated males and females significantly increased time on the open arm of the EPM compared to vehicle controls indicating that ERβ reduces anxiety-like behaviors. One week after behavioral evaluation, rats were subjected to a 20minute restraint stress. Treatment with diarylpropionitrile reduced CORT and ACTH responses in both males and females. Subsequently, another group of animals was implanted with cannulae directed at the lateral ventricle. One week later, rats underwent the same protocol as above but with the additional treatment of intracerebroventricular infusion with an OT antagonist (des Gly-NH2 d(CH2)5 [Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4)] OVT) or VEH, 20min prior to behavioral evaluation. OT antagonist treatment blocked the effects of diarylpropionitrile on the display of anxiety-like behaviors and plasma CORT levels. These data indicate that ERβ and OT interact to modulate the HPA reactivity and the display of anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:24631553

  4. Neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β modulates tumour necrosis factor alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in brain and also in ovaries of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharan, Radhika Nagamangalam; Krishnagiri, Harshini; Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Sarangi, SitiKantha; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-02-01

    The sexually dimorphic organization in perinatal rat brain is influenced by steroid hormones. Exposure to high levels of estrogen or endocrine-disrupting compounds during perinatal period may perturb this process, resulting in compromised reproductive physiology and behavior as observed in adult In our recent observation neonatal exposure of the female rats to estradiol-17β resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α, up-regulation of COX-2 and increase in SDN-POA size in pre-optic area in the adulthood. It is known that the control of reproductive performance in female involves a complex interplay of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. The present study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism involved in changes observed in the ovarian morphology and expression of selected genes in the ovary. Administration of estradiol-17β (100 μg) on day 2 and 3 after birth revealed up-regulation of ER-α, ER-β, COX-2 and down-regulation of TNF-α expression. Also the decrease in the ovarian weight, altered ovarian morphology and changes in the 2D protein profiles were also seen. This is apparently the first report documenting that neonatal estradiol exposure modulates TNF-α and COX-2 expression in the ovary as seen during adult stage. Our results permit us to suggest that cues originating from the modified brain structure due to neonatal exposure of estradiol-17β remodel the ovary at the molecular level in such a way that there is a disharmony in the reproductive function during adulthood and these changes are perennial and can lead to infertility and changes of reproductive behavior. PMID:26872318

  5. Effect of magnesium deficiency on bone metabolism in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Al-Khshab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study undertakes the deficiency effect of dietary magnesium on bone metabolism and some biochemical parameters in female rats. Experimental diets included control diet (65 mg magnesium / 100 g and the deficient magnesium (3 mg/100g diet. Deionized water was supplied for drinking. Forty six albino female rats were divided into two main groups, the first group included 18 adult female rats, divided into 9 control and 9 animals given magnesium deficient diet. The second group included young female rats divided into two groups, the first group was treated from dams،and included 14 young female rats. They were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. The other one was treated at 28 days old and included 14 young female rats, which were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. Blood samples were obtained at specific times from each group for biochemical parameters: magnesium, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP, albumin, calcium and phosphorus were estimated. At the end of the experimental period, rats were anesthetized and killed. The right femurs were obtained for mineral analysis in bone ash (Ca, Mg. The results of adult female (Mg deficient group showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP activity, albumin, calcium (within normal range. Both young female rat groups showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP and albumin compared with control group. The mineral analysis in bone ash showed no significant differences in calcium level where a significant decrease in magnesium level was observed compared with the control groups. It was concluded from this study, that magnesium deficiency could be used for detection of osteoporosis and defect of bone formation in adult and young female rats, respectively.

  6. Treadmill Intervention Attenuates the Cafeteria Diet-Induced Impairment of Stress-Coping Strategies in Young Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa, Igor; Lalanza, Jaume F.; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M.; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    The current prevalence of diet-induced overweight and obesity in adolescents and adults is continuously growing. Although the detrimental biochemical and metabolic consequences of obesity are widely studied, its impact on stress-coping behavior and its interaction with specific exercise doses (in terms of intensity, duration and frequency) need further investigation. To this aim, we fed adolescent rats either an obesogenic diet (cafeteria diet, CAF) or standard chow (ST). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the type of treadmill intervention as follows: a sedentary group receiving no manipulation; a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill; a low-intensity treadmill group trained at 12 m/min; and a higher intensity treadmill group trained at 17 m/min. Both the diet and treadmill interventions started at weaning and lasted for 8 weeks. Subjects were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and for coping strategies in the two-way active avoidance paradigm at week 7 and were sacrificed at week 8 for biometric and metabolic characterization. CAF feeding increased the weight gain, relative retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT %), and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin and decreased the insulin sensitivity. Treadmill intervention partially reversed the RWAT% and triglyceride alterations; at higher intensity, it decreased the leptin levels of CAF-fed animals. CAF feeding decreased the motor activity and impaired the performance in a two-way active avoidance assessment. Treadmill intervention reduced defecation in the shuttle box, suggesting diminished anxiety. CAF feeding combined with treadmill training at 17 m/min increased the time spent in the center of the open field and more importantly, partially reversed the two-way active avoidance deficit. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that at doses that decreased anxiety-like behavior, treadmill exercise partially improved the coping strategy

  7. Proteomic identification of non-erythrocytic alpha-spectrin-1 down-regulation in the pre-optic area of neonatally estradiol-17β treated female adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that sexually dimorphic brain regions, which are critical for reproductive physiology and behavior, are organized by steroid hormones during the first 2 weeks after birth in the rodents. In our recent observation, neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β (E2) in the female rat revealed increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) level, sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN)-pre-optic area (POA) size and down-regulation of synaptogenesis related genes in POA in the adult stage. In the present study, using the same animal model, the protein profile of control and neonatally E2-treated POA was compared by 1D-SDS-PAGE, and the protein that shows a change in abundance was identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Results indicated that there was a single protein band, which was down-regulation in E2-treated POA and it was identified as spectrin alpha chain, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTAN1). Consistently, the down-regulation of SPTAN1 expression was also confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The SPTAN1 was identified as a cytoskeletal protein that is involved in stabilization of the plasma membrane and organizes intracellular organelles, and it has been implicated in cellular functions including DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. The evidence shows that any mutation in spectrins causes impairment of synaptogenesis and other neurological disorders. Also, protein-protein interaction analysis of SPTAN1 revealed a strong association with proteins such as kirrel, actinin, alpha 4 (ACTN4) and vinculin (VCL) which are implicated in sexual behavior, masculinization and defeminization. Our results indicate that SPTAN1 expression in the developing rat brain is sexually dimorphic, and we suggest that this gene may mediate E2-17β-induced masculinization and defeminization, and disrupted reproductive function in the adult stage. PMID:27166725

  8. Repeated ethanol exposure affects the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sircar, Ratna; Basak, Ashim K.; Sircar, Debashish

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol has been reported to disrupt spatial learning and memory in adolescent male rats. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of ethanol on the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats. Adolescent female rats were subjected to repeated ethanol or saline treatments, and spatial learning was tested in the Morris water maze. For comparison, adult female rats were subjected to similar ethanol treatment and behavioral assessments as for adolescent rats. Ethanol...

  9. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Tanghetti, Emil A.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesi...

  10. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Duarte-Guterman; Lieblich, Stephanie E.; Carmen Chow; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol's effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized ad...

  11. Effects of estrogens and bladder inflammation on mitogen-activated protein kinases in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia from adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keast Janet R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition associated with bladder inflammation and, like a number of other chronic pain states, symptoms associated with interstitial cystitis are more common in females and fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogens could directly modulate signalling pathways within bladder sensory neurons, such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. These signalling pathways have been implicated in neuronal plasticity underlying development of inflammatory somatic pain but have not been as extensively investigated in visceral nociceptors. We have focused on lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons projecting to pelvic viscera (L1, L2, L6, S1 of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and performed both in vitro and in vivo manipulations to compare the effects of short- and long-term changes in estrogen levels on MAPK expression and activation. We have also investigated if prolonged estrogen deprivation influences the effects of lower urinary tract inflammation on MAPK signalling. Results In studies of isolated DRG neurons in short-term (overnight culture, we found that estradiol and estrogen receptor (ER agonists rapidly stimulated ER-dependent p38 phosphorylation relative to total p38. Examination of DRGs following chronic estrogen deprivation in vivo (ovariectomy showed a parallel increase in total and phosphorylated p38 (relative to β-tubulin. We also observed an increase in ERK1 phosphorylation (relative to total ERK1, but no change in ERK1 expression (relative to β-tubulin. We observed no change in ERK2 expression or phosphorylation. Although ovariectomy increased the level of phosphorylated ERK1 (vs. total ERK1, cyclophosphamide-induced lower urinary tract inflammation did not cause a net increase of either ERK1 or ERK2, or their phosphorylation. Inflammation did, however, cause an increase in p38

  12. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel;

    2010-01-01

    theca interna thickness in atretic antral follicles. Adult estradiol-injected rats also had malformed vaginal openings and lacked corpora lutea, confirming anovulation. Estradiol markedly reduced parametrial adipose tissue mass. Adipocyte size was unchanged, suggesting reduced adipocyte number...... expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased...

  13. Efeitos dos esteroides anabólicos androgênicos sobre o útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids on the uterus and reproductive parameters of adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos da administração de dois esteroides sintéticos sobre a morfologia do útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas. MÉTODOS: quarenta ratas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos grupos experimentais: controle (C; solução fisiológica; tratados com decanoato de nandrolona (DN; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; composto de ésteres de testosterona (T; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; e, simultaneamente, com DN e T (7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo de cada esteroide, em uma única dose/semana, intraperitoneal, durante oito semanas. Cinco fêmeas de cada grupo foram sacrificadas e os cornos uterinos foram coletados, pesados e preparados para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. As ratas restantes foram acasaladas com machos normais para avaliação dos parâmetros reprodutivos, constituindo os grupos tratados durante o período pré-gestacional. Outro grupo de 20 ratas recebeu os tratamentos durante o período gestacional (7º-14º dias. Foi aplicada a análise de variância não paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, complementada com o teste de Dunn ou de Student-Newman-Kleus para análise dos dados (5% de significância. RESULTADOS: houve aumento significativo no peso corpóreo das fêmeas androgenizadas (DN: 305±50; T: 280±35; DN+T: 275±30 versus C: 255±22 g (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of the administration of two synthetic steroids in the uterus morphology and in the reproductive parameters of adult female rats. METHODS: divided into four experimental groups: control (C; physiological solution; treated with nandrolone decanoate (DN; 7.5 mg/kg of body weight; with a testosterone esters compound (T; 7.5 mg/kg; and simultaneously with DN and T (7.5 mg/kg of each steroid, in a single intraperitoneal weekly dose, for eight weeks. Five females of each group were sacrificed and the uterine horns were collected, weighted and prepared for histological and morphometrical evaluation. The remaining rats were mated with

  14. ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE RESISTANCE IN ADULT FEMALE RATS EXPOSED TO POTASSIUM DICHROMATE (Cr VI IN UTERO, DURING SUCKLING AND PRE-PUBERTY PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to relieve the impact of chromium hexavalent ions on the resistance of erythrocyte membrane in female rats at sexual maturity but exposed “in utero”or during the suckling or pre-puberty period. Concrete objectives were to establish the effect of 25 ppm (E1 group, 50 ppm (E2 groupt and 75 ppm (E3 group chromium doses on haemoglobin (Hb and erythrocyte membrane resistance (R.O. (in terms of haemolysis degree in NaCl hypotonic solutions. The consequence of Cr(VI exposure was the high significant decrease (p<0,01 of Hb in all E groups compared to control (C (E1/C:-24.66%; E2/C: - 37.36%; E3/C: - 42.67%, under physiologic limits in E2 and E3 groups and at the lowest physiologic limit in E1. Maxim R.O. was equal in all groups and in physiologic limits. Minim R.O. decreased to 0.7% NaCl in E1 and to 0.8% NaCl in E2 and E3. It was asserted the increase of haemolyse degree in direct relation with the dose. Increasing the chromium intake level a haemolytic effect was induced.

  15. Testosterone and muscle hypertrophy in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.

  16. Effects of interaction of an early experience of reward through maternal contact or its denial with social stress during adolescence on the serotonergic system and the stress responsiveness of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftogianni, A; Diamantopoulou, A; Alikaridis, F; Stamatakis, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2012-05-01

    Experiences during critical periods, such as the neonatal and adolescence, play a critical role in determining adult stress-coping behavior. Based on the aforementioned we developed an experimental protocol, which included a neonatal experience and a social stress during adolescence. The serotonergic system is known as an important modulator of coping ability and, in general, emotional balance in both normal and pathological states, such as depression and anxiety, for which females are more vulnerable. Thus in the present work we used female rats and determined 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala (AMY). During postnatal days 10-13 (PND 10-13) rat pups were exposed to a T-maze, one arm of which lead to the mother. One group of animals was allowed contact with the mother (rewarded-receiving expected reward (RER)), whereas the other was denied the expected reward (DER). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that in both the PFC and in AMY, adult RER animals had higher basal 5-HT levels. Furthermore, in the AMY of this group of animals, higher levels of 5-HT(1A) receptors were detected by Western blot analysis. In adulthood rats were exposed to the Forced Swimming Test/Stress (FST/S). RER animals not exposed to the adolescent stress exhibited longer immobility time during both the first and second day of FST. Corticosterone levels following the FST fell faster in the DER animals. Adolescent stress affected the responses to the adult FSS only in the DER animals, which had decreased 5-HT in the AMY and increased immobility time on both days of the FST, compared with the DER, not stressed in adolescence. The phenotype of the DER animals is in line with the "match-mismatch" hypothesis, which states that if two events during critical periods of life "match" in being mildly stressful, their interaction can be adaptive. PMID

  17. Black Cohosh Ameliorates Metabolic Disorders in Female Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Yu, Qiuxiao; Shen, Qiyang; Bai, Wenpei; Kang, Jihong

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency is associated with metabolic derangements in menopausal women. Black cohosh has been widely used as an alternative therapy in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. However, its role in metabolism needs to be defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effect of black cohosh on glucose and lipid metabolism in a rat model of post-menopause. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were sham operated (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX with the treatment of estradiol valerate (OVX + E), or OVX with the treatment of isopropanolic black cohosh extract (OVX + iCR). Body weight, body composition, and blood glucose levels of the animals were monitored. The rats were then sacrificed after 3 months of the treatments. At the end of the experiment, OVX + iCR and OVX + E rats exhibited a significant decrease in body weight gain, body and abdominal fat mass, serum triglycerides levels, hepatic fat accumulation, and adipocyte hypertrophy compared with OVX rats. In addition, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were improved in OVX + iCR but not in OVX + E rats. No hepatotoxicity was detected in OVX + iCR animals. Furthermore, western blot analysis suggested the increased lipolysis in adipose tissue of OVX + iCR and OVX + E rats. Data from in vitro experiments using cultured primary rat adipocytes also showed that black cohosh could affect lipolysis of adipocytes. In conclusion, the long-term treatment of black cohosh at a proper dosage ameliorated metabolic derangements in OVX rats. Thus, this drug is promising for the treatment of metabolic disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal women. PMID:26414761

  18. Behavioral daily rhythmic activity pattern of adolescent female rat is modulated by acute and chronic cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Min J. Lee; Keith D. Burau; Dafny, Nachum

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is one of well-known drugs of abuse, and many children experience early exposure to cocaine. Because of an immature neuronal system in adolescents, they may react differently to repeated cocaine administration compared to adults. Most of the published papers report the effect of cocaine on adult male rats and this paper focused on the effects of cocaine on the 24 h locomotor activity rhythm patterns activity of adolescent Sprague Dawley (SD) female rats. Changes in the locomotor activ...

  19. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

  20. Functional adaptation in female rats: the role of estrogen signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah J Sample

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex steroids have direct effects on the skeleton. Estrogen acts on the skeleton via the classical genomic estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ, a membrane ER, and the non-genomic G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER. GPER is distributed throughout the nervous system, but little is known about its effects on bone. In male rats, adaptation to loading is neuronally regulated, but this has not been studied in females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the rat ulna end-loading model to induce an adaptive modeling response in ovariectomized (OVX female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated with a placebo, estrogen (17β-estradiol, or G-1, a GPER-specific agonist. Fourteen days after OVX, rats underwent unilateral cyclic loading of the right ulna; half of the rats in each group had brachial plexus anesthesia (BPA of the loaded limb before loading. Ten days after loading, serum estrogen concentrations, dorsal root ganglion (DRG gene expression of ERα, ERβ, GPER, CGRPα, TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, and load-induced skeletal responses were quantified. We hypothesized that estrogen and G-1 treatment would influence skeletal responses to cyclic loading through a neuronal mechanism. We found that estrogen suppresses periosteal bone formation in female rats. This physiological effect is not GPER-mediated. We also found that absolute mechanosensitivity in female rats was decreased, when compared with male rats. Blocking of adaptive bone formation by BPA in Placebo OVX females was reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen acts to decrease periosteal bone formation in female rats in vivo. This effect is not GPER-mediated. Gender differences in absolute bone mechanosensitivity exist in young Sprague-Dawley rats with reduced mechanosensitivity in females, although underlying bone formation rate associated with growth likely influences this observation. In contrast to female and male rats, central neuronal signals had a diminished effect on

  1. Effect of prenatal stress on the expression of Parvalbuminand Calretinin in adult female rat offspring%孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后钙结合蛋白Parvalbumin和Calretinin表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍校琼; 王岐本; 蔡维君; 罗明英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后钙结合蛋白阳性神经元表达的影响。方法6只SD孕鼠随机分为孕期应激组(PS组)和对照组(CON组)。PS组孕鼠在妊娠晚期接受限制性应激,CON组不给予孕期应激。子代成年后,PS组和CON组雌性子代随机分别又分为PS-S组,PS-NS组,CON-S组和CON-NS组(n均=6)。PS-S组和CON-S组动物先后接受限制性应激和冰水应激。动物在接受应激后均给与水和酒精喂养,用Western blot检测海马钙结合蛋白Parvalbumin(PV)和Calretinin(CR)蛋白的表达,进一步结合共聚焦免疫荧光组织化学方法检测PV和CR在海马CA1、CA3区和齿状回(dentate gyrus, DG)的表达。结果与CON-NS组相比,海马区PV和CR的蛋白表达在CON-S,PS-NS和PS-S组下降,以PS-S组表达最低。PV在海马CA1、CA3区和DG的免疫荧光结果与PV的蛋白表达呈一致性,免疫阳性细胞明显减少;而CR的表达除了在海马CA1区的PS-NS组略有升高外,在其余各组的表达均较减少。与CON-NS组相比,PV和CR在其它各组的蛋白表达和免疫阳性细胞计数差异有统计学意义,其中以PS-S组的表达降低最为有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论孕期应激可影响子代雌鼠成年后海马结构钙结合蛋白PV和CR的表达。%Objective To observe the effect of prenatal stress on the expression of Parvalbumin(PV) and Calretinin(CR)in adult female rat offspring. Methods Six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into a prenatal stress (PS) group and a control group (CON). Rats in PS group were subjected to restraint stress during the late gestational periods, while rats in the control group were not given prenatal stress. The adult female offspring were randomly divided into PS plus stress group (PS-S) and PS without stress group (PS-NS), CON plus stress group (CON-S) and CON plus no stress group (CON-NS). The rats in PS-S and CON-S were subjected to

  2. Effects of ethanol during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koss, W.A.; Sadowski, R.N.; Sherrill, L.K.; Gulley, J.M.; Juraska, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, neuron and glia number are changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of...

  3. Effects of estrogens and bladder inflammation on mitogen-activated protein kinases in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia from adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Keast Janet R; Cheng Ying

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition associated with bladder inflammation and, like a number of other chronic pain states, symptoms associated with interstitial cystitis are more common in females and fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogens could directly modulate signalling pathways within bladder sensory neurons, such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. The...

  4. Physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females

    OpenAIRE

    Gavneet K Pruthi; Nandita Babu

    2012-01-01

    Background : Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim : To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females. Settings and Design : This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods : Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, havi...

  5. Antifertility studies of curcumin and andrographolide combination in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nishant Shinde; Akhilesh S. Chauhan; Sanjay K Gupta; Bodakhe, Surendra H.; Devi Prasad Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifertility potential of curcumin and andrographolide combination in female rats by studying its effect on implantation and estrus cycle. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats (180 ± 30 g) were used for study. They were divided into groups and were treated as per schedule. The antifertility effect of curcumin and andrographolide was evaluated by measuring their effect on implantation and estrus cycle of rats. Also their antigonadotropic and antiestrogenic effects...

  6. Maternal lipopolysaccharide treatment differentially affects 5-HT(2A) and mGlu2/3 receptor function in the adult male and female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Dietz, Frank; Koch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. However, it is still not fully understood which biochemical mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms following prenatal immune activation. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and glutamate system have prominently been associated with the schizophrenia pathophysiology but also with the mechanism of antipsychotic drug actions. Here, we investigated the behavioral and cellular response to 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)2/3 receptor stimulation in male and female offspring born to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mothers. Additionally, we assessed protein expression levels of prefrontal 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors. Prenatally LPS-exposed male and female offspring showed locomotor hyperactivity and increased head-twitch behavior in response to the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI. In LPS-exposed male offspring, the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 failed to reduce DOI-induced prepulse inhibition deficits. In LPS-males, the behavioral changes were further accompanied by enhanced DOI-induced c-Fos protein expression and an up-regulation of prefrontal 5-HT2A receptors. No changes in either 5-HT2A or mGlu2 receptor protein levels were found in female offspring. Our data support the hypothesis of an involvement of maternal infection during pregnancy contributing, at least partially, to the pathology of schizophrenia. Identifying biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioral deficits may help to improve therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this mental illness. Since most studies in rodents almost exclusively include male subjects, our data further contribute to elucidating possible gender differences in the effects of prenatal infection on 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptor function. PMID:26051401

  7. Comparison of the Adulthood Chronic Stress Effect on Hippocampal BDNF Signaling in Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknazar, Somayeh; Nahavandi, Arezo; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Peyvandi, Hassan; Akhtari, Amin Shams; Karimi, Mohsen

    2016-08-01

    Studies show that gender plays an important role in stress-related disorders, and women are more vulnerable to its effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate differences in the change in expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its tyrosine intracellular kinase-activating receptor (TrkB) genes in the male and female rats' hippocampus (HPC) under chronic mild repeated stress (CMRS) conditions. In this experiment, male and female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the CMRS and the control group. To induce stress, a repeated forced swimming paradigm was employed daily for adult male and female rats for 21 days. At the end of the stress phase, elevated plus maze (EPM) was used for measuring the stress behavioral effects. Serum corticosterone level was measured by ELISA. BDNF and TrkB gene methylation and protein expression in the HPC were detected using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Chronic stress in the adolescence had more effects on anxiety-like behavior and serum corticosterone concentration in female rats than males. Furthermore, stressed female rats had higher methylation levels and following reduced protein expression of BDNF but not TrkB compared to stressed male rats. These findings suggest that in exposure to a stressor, sex differences in BDNF methylation may be root cause of decreased BDNF levels in females and may underlie susceptibility to pathology development. PMID:26189832

  8. High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulthinee Supaporn; Wyss J Michael; Jirakulsomchok Dusit; Roysommuti Sanya

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine dep...

  9. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne S.; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...... of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal...... females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin...

  10. Estradiol promotes the rewarding effects of nicotine in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rodolfo J; Pipkin, Joseph A; Uribe, Kevin P; Perez, Adriana; O'Dell, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    It is presently unclear whether ovarian hormones, such as estradiol (E2), promote the rewarding effects of nicotine in females. Thus, we compared extended access to nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA) in intact male, intact female, and OVX female rats (Study 1) as well as OVX females that received vehicle or E2 supplementation (Study 2). The E2 supplementation procedure involved a 4-day injection regimen involving 2 days of vehicle and 2 days of E2 administration. Two doses of E2 (25 or 250μg) were assessed in separate groups of OVX females in order to examine the dose-dependent effects of this hormone on the rewarding effects of nicotine. The rats were given 23-hour access to nicotine IVSA using an escalating dose regimen (0.015, 0.03, and 0.06mg/kg/0.1mL). Each dose was self-administered for 4 days with 3 intervening days of nicotine abstinence. The results revealed that intact females displayed higher levels of nicotine intake as compared to males. Also, intact females displayed higher levels of nicotine intake versus OVX females. Lastly, our results revealed that OVX rats that received E2 supplementation displayed a dose-dependent increase in nicotine intake as compared to OVX rats that received vehicle. Together, our results suggest that the rewarding effects of nicotine are enhanced in female rats via the presence of the ovarian hormone, E2. PMID:27059334

  11. Effects of perinatal ethinyl estradiol exposure in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Isling, Louise Krag;

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation and...... lactation with 0, 5, 15 or 50μg/kg bw/day of ethinyl estradiol.This potent estrogen was found to induce an increased number of nipples and reduced ovary weight in female offspring. Malformations of female genitalia were found in young as well as adult offspring, as an increased AGD was seen at birth and a...

  12. NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF OBESE ADULT FEMALES RESIDING IN URBAN SLUM

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama; Shams Khan; Amit; Sanjay Kumar; Nilam

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex and incompletely understood dis ease.It is a population problem and should be tackled as such. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of preobesity and obesity and nutritional profile of obe se urban adult females. METHOD: A community based cross sectional study was carried o ut from Nov 2011 to May 2012 Total 553 adult females were enrolled. The data was analyzed by epi-info version. RESULTS: Prevalence of...

  13. Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Paul F.; Ozias, Marlies K.; Carlson, Susan E.; Reed, Gregory A.; Winter, Michelle K; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Levant, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long–Evans rats. An α-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 20–22% ...

  14. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  15. Short-term and Long-term Effects of Repeated Social Defeat During Adolescence or Adulthood in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S.; Kelly, Geralyn; Luz, Sandra; Ghanshani, Serena; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that adolescence represents a sensitive period during which social stressors may serve to influence adult behavior and stress reactivity. However, relatively little is known about the impact of social stress in adolescence on behaviors or stress reactivity in females. In this study, we exposed adolescent or adult female rats to the repeated social stress of defeat for 7 consecutive days. Repeated defeat resulted in distinctly different behavioral repertoires dur...

  16. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  17. Comparative toxicology of carfene in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with daily oral administrations of carfene (2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days on protein level in liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues of male and female rats after 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of treatment. Evaluation of the trace elements, zinc and copper in serum, revealed that zinc level was decreased significantly while that of copper was increased in both male and female rats compared to controls. The incorporation rate of 14 C-isoleucine for synthesis of protein tended to decrease in liver tissues and increase in brain tissues of rats. Kidney and spleen tissues showed fluctuated changes. It was noticed in the present investigation that the incorporation rate of I4 C-radioactivity in different selected tissues under estimation was more pronounced in male than in female rats

  18. Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chambô-Filho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

  19. Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Malila, Pisamai; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery (fetal period; TDF or TSF) or from delivery until weaning (lactation period; TDL or TSL). I...

  20. Evidence of Uncultivated Bacteria in the Adult Female Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Alan J.; Toh, Evelyn; Shibata, Noriko; Rong, Ruichen; Kenton, Kimberly; FitzGerald, MaryPat; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Schreckenberger, Paul; Dong, Qunfeng; Nelson, David E; Brubaker, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Clinical urine specimens are usually considered to be sterile when they do not yield uropathogens using standard clinical cultivation procedures. Our aim was to test if the adult female bladder might contain bacteria that are not identified by these routine procedures. An additional aim was to identify and recommend the appropriate urine collection method for the study of bacterial communities in the female bladder. Consenting participants who were free of known urinary tract infection provid...

  1. Chronic exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide and high-fat feeding increases body mass without affecting glucose tolerance in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudele, Anete; Fischer, Christina W; Elfving, Betina;

    2015-01-01

    -related inflammation in females. Therefore, we addressed how experimentally induced chronic inflammation affects body mass, energy intake, and glucose metabolism in female rats. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with slow release pellets that delivered a constant daily dose of 53 or 207 μg of...... lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per rat for 60 days. Control rats were instrumented with vehicle pellets. Due to inflammatory nature of high-fat diet (HFD) half of the rats received HFD (60% of calories from lard), while the other half remained on control diet to detect possible interactions between two modes of induced...... inflammation. Our results showed that chronic LPS administration increased female rat body mass and calorie intake in a dose-dependent manner, and that HFD further exacerbated these effects. Despite these effects, no effects of LPS and HFD were evident on female rat glucose metabolism. Only LPS elevated...

  2. Possible mechanism for accelerated atherogenesis in male versus female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fat and cholesterol enter the circulation as chylomicrons. They are removed from the circulation by attachment to lipoprotein lipase located on the endothelial surfaces. As the result of lipoprotein lipase action, chylomicrons are partially hydrolyzed and then reenter the circulation as remnants, which are rapidly cleared by the liver. We investigated the fate of 3H-retinol- and 14C-cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons injected into male and female rats. The disappearance curves of chylomicrons from the circulation were not significantly different in males and females, which suggests that translocation from plasma to endothelium is similar for both sexes. However, in male rats, the dwell time of chylomicrons on the endothelium was significantly prolonged. At 10 and 20 minutes after chylomicron injection, more label was found in the livers of female than male rats. The opposite was true for hearts. Male hearts contained significantly more endothelium-bound chylomicrons when compared with female hearts. This increase in dwell time may allow greater cholesterol deposition in the endothelium of male rats. The more rapid processing of chylomicrons was associated with a 300% greater postheparin lipoprotein lipase in female rats, which suggests a greater enzyme density at chylomicron attachment points on endothelium

  3. Unilateral Ectopic Breast Tissue on Vulva in an Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Santoshkumar Nagnath; Maske, Audumbar N.; Deshpande, Akshay P.; Shende, Shweta P.

    2012-01-01

    Among the ectopic breasts, an ectopic breast tissue on vulva is an extremely rare case, especially in adult period. To our knowledge only 38 cases of ectopic breast tissue on vulva are documented in the world literature, out of which only 10 cases of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva has been reported. Because of its rarity here we report a case of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva in an adult female.

  4. Effects of Tobacco Smoke Constituents, Anabasine and Anatabine, on Memory and Attention in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Edward D.; Hao, Ian; Burke, Dennis; Cauley, Marty; Hall, Brandon J; Rezvani, Amir H.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine has been well characterized to improve memory and attention. Nicotine is the primary, but not only neuroactive compound in tobacco. Other tobacco constituents such as anabasine and anatabine also have agonist actions on nicotinic receptors. The current study investigated the effects of anabasine and anatabine on memory and attention. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a win-shift spatial working and reference memory task in the 16-arm radial maze or a visual signal dete...

  5. Age-Dependent Reductions in Mitochondrial Respiration are Exacerbated by Calcium in the Female Rat Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, J. Craig; Machikas, Alexandra M.; Korzick, Donna H.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality increases rapidly following menopause by poorly defined mechanisms. Since mitochondrial function and Ca2+ sensitivity are important regulators of cell death following myocardial ischemia, we sought to determine if aging and/or estrogen deficiency (ovx) increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity. Mitochondrial respiration was measured in ventricular mitochondria isolated from adult (6mo; n=26) and aged (24mo; n=25), intact or ovariectomized female rats using the ...

  6. Serotonergic projections from the caudal raphe nuclei to the hypoglossal nucleus in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Jessica R.; Cathy F Thomas; Behan, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The respiratory control system is sexually dimorphic. In many brain regions, including respiratory motor nuclei, serotonin (5HT) levels are higher in females than in males. We hypothesized that there could be sex differences in 5HT input to the hypoglossal nucleus, a region of the brainstem involved in upper airway control. Adult Fischer 344 rats were anesthetized and a retrograde transsynaptic neuroanatomical tracer, Bartha pseudorabies virus (PRV), was injected into the tongue. Sections thr...

  7. 青春期前不同时长脱氢表雄酮暴露对成年雌鼠生殖力的影响%Prepubal hyperandrogen exposure induces reproductive changes in adult female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婕; 谈勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective Androgen is an important precursor for the synthesis of estrogen in vivo and is involved in the regulation of female reproductive function.In this study, we explored the influence of different lengths of prepubertal exposure to hyperandrogen on the reproductive function of adult female rats. Methods Twenty-five 23-day-old female rats were equally randomized into five groups:oil control, 2-wk dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 4-wk DHEA, 6-wk DHEA, and 8-wk DHEA, injected with oil or DHEA daily for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks respectively, and mated at 80 days old.We detected serum concentrations of total testosterone (tT), estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH) and luteinizing hormone ( LH) by ELISA, observed the time of vaginal opening and changes of the estrous cycle, and recorded the rates of mating and pregnancy, the number of the offspring and their survival rate. Results The tT lev-el was elevated after 2 weeks of DHEA injection, fell to normal after drug withdrawal in the 2-wk and 4-wk DHEA groups, and remained at a high level in the 6-wk group.The E2 level was markedly increased in at 2 and 4 weeks but showed a falling trend at 6 and 8 weeks. DHEA injection did not change the level of FSH significantly but re-markably lifted that of LH with the increased concentration of tT.The vaginal opening time was significantly advanced in the 2-wk DHEA group as compared with the controls ([26.60 ±0.89] d vs [35.20 ± 2.49] d, P0.05). Conclusion Prepubertal expo-sure to hyperandrogen may advance adrenarche and gonadarche and affect the initiation of the sexual gland function in female rats.Impro-ving the hyperandrogen status in the early pubertal stage can reverse the disorder of the estrous cycle, while long-term exposure to DHEA may significantly reduce the fecundity at the childbearing age.%目的:雄激素是体内合成雌激素的重要前体,参与女性生殖功能的调控。文中探讨了青春期前接受不同时长的高雄激素刺激

  8. Acute predator stress impairs the consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Collin R Park; Zoladz, Phillip R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effects of an acute predator stress experience on spatial learning and memory in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. All rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. In the control (non-stress) condition, female rats were superior to the males in the accuracy and consistency of their spatial memory performance tested over multiple days of training. In the stress ...

  9. Antifertility studies of curcumin and andrographolide combination in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NishantShinde; AkhileshS Chauhan; SanjayK Gupta; SurendraH Bodakhe; DeviPrasad Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the potential of curcumin and andrographolide combination by studying its effect on implantation and oestrus cycle. Antigonadotropic and antiestrogenic effects were also evaluated using female rats.Methods:Female Sprague Dawley rats (180±30 g) were used for study. They were divided into groups and were treated as per schedule. The antifertility effect of curcumin and andrographolide was evaluated by measuring their effect on implantation and oestrus cycle of rats. Also their antigonadotropic and antiestrogenic effects were evaluated using suitable screening method.Results:The combination significantly reduced the number of implants and the size of the litters in rats compared to the normal control group. The combination also significantly altered the durations of each phase of oestrus cycle and synergized the effect to decrease the number of ovarian follicles. Conclusion:The results indicate that the combination produces greater antifertility effects and thus can play a vital role in fertility control.

  10. Neurotoxic effects induced by endosulfan exposure during pregnancy and lactation in female and male rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Anunciación; Pereiro, Natividad

    2013-09-01

    Possible neurotoxic effects induced by endosulfan exposure during pregnancy and lactation in striatum of Sprague-Dawley female and male offspring rats have been evaluated. Dams were treated orally with 0.61 or 6.12mg of endosulfan/kg/day from the beginning of gestation until weaning. At postnatal day 60 offspring were sacrificed. We studied variations of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin content in striatum by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in these animals. Dopamine and serotonin metabolism was also determined. Endosulfan inhibits the striatal aminergic systems in adult male rats by decreasing norepinephrine and serotonin concentration and dopamine and serotonin metabolism. However, in adult female rats, only a diminution of norepinephrine content and an increase of dopamine and serotonin content were observed after endosulfan administration at the dose of 6.12mg/kg/day, whereas the concentration and the metabolism of these biogenic amines were not with the dose of 0.61mg/kg/day. Gender differences emerge in the striatal aminergic system susceptibility to endosulfan exposure during the early life stages, being the neurotoxic effects of this organochlorine insecticide higher in male than in female rats. PMID:23702353

  11. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2h each day for 28days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults. PMID:26826605

  12. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall...

  13. NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF OBESE ADULT FEMALES RESIDING IN URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex and incompletely understood dis ease.It is a population problem and should be tackled as such. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of preobesity and obesity and nutritional profile of obe se urban adult females. METHOD: A community based cross sectional study was carried o ut from Nov 2011 to May 2012 Total 553 adult females were enrolled. The data was analyzed by epi-info version. RESULTS: Prevalence of preobesity and obesity was found to be 17.18% and 6.5% respectively. CONCLUSION: As family is the first and most important of inculcatin g healthy habit and behavior, so particularly female should be made aware about causes and conseq uences of obesity from childhood level. KEYWORDS: Preobesity, obesity nutritional profile.

  14. Factors influencing fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Sarah; Heckard, Danyeal; Hassell, James; Uphouse, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, produces sexual side effects with low sexual desire being the most prevalent effect in females. In few studies have preclinical models for such antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction been fruitful. In the current manuscript, the effects of fluoxetine on multiple measures of female sexual motivation and sexual receptivity were examined. Ovariectomized, Fischer rats were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate and 500 μ...

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  11. Estrogen Abolishes Latent Inhibition in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrey, Barbara S.; Ben-Shahar, Osnat M.; Brake, Wayne G.

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen is frequently prescribed as a method of birth control and as hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women with varied effects on cognition. Here the effects of estrogen on attention were examined using the latent inhibition (LI) behavioral paradigm. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were given either estrogen benzoate (EB, 10 or…

  12. SWIMMING ENHANCES BONE MASS ACQUISITION IN GROWING FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing bones are most responsive to mechanical loading. We investigated bone mass acquisition patterns following a swimming or running exercise intervention of equal duration, in growing rats. We compared changes in bone mineral properties in female Sprague Dawley rats that were divided into three groups: sedentary controls (n = 10, runners (n = 8 and swimmers (n = 11. Runners and swimmers underwent a six week intervention, exercising five days per week, 30min per day. Running rats ran on an inclined treadmill at 0.33 m.s-1, while swimming rats swam in 25oC water. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans measuring bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and bone area at the femur, lumbar spine and whole body were recorded for all rats before and after the six week intervention. Bone and serum calcium and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Swimming rats had greater BMC and bone area changes at the femur and lumbar spine (p < 0.05 than the running rats and a greater whole body BMC and bone area to that of control rats (p < 0.05. There were no differences in bone gain between running and sedentary control rats. There was no significant difference in serum or bone calcium or PTH concentrations between the groups of rats. A swimming intervention is able to produce greater beneficial effects on the rat skeleton than no exercise at all, suggesting that the strains associated with swimming may engender a unique mechanical load on the bone

  13. MUSCULAR OXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS DISCUSSION ON THE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE ATHLETES WITH SPORTS-RELATED-AMENORRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuo Yasui

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on intramuscular energy metabolism in adult rats. Based on the results, we discussed the skeletal muscle metabolism in female athlete with sports related amenorrhea. Twenty-five adult (20-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were used. Fifteen rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX group, and the other ten rats were sham-operated (Sham group. One and four weeks after surgery, muscular oxidative capacity was measured using 31P-MR spectra of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (GPS muscles group at rest and during electric stimulation. Wet weight and maximum tension of the whole GPS muscles group were also measured. From the MRS measurements, the muscle oxidative capacity in the OVX group was significantly lower than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05 at both one and four weeks after surgery. The muscle's wet weight one week after surgery in the OVX group was the same as the Sham group, while four weeks after surgery it was significantly greater than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in maximum tension among the groups. In conclusion, in adult rats the oxidative capacity decreased due to ovariectomy despite the increase in muscle weight. It is suggested that the muscular endurance capacity in female adult athletes with sports related amenorrhea may deteriorate.

  14. Reproductive biology study of dynamics of female sexual hormones: a 12-month exposure to lead acetate rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Romeo Teodor CRISTINA; MUSELIN, FLORIN

    2014-01-01

    In human and animal organisms, lead can cause reproductive problems beginning with pregnant females. The reproductive axis is particularly sensitive to lead, its influence resulting in a delayed sexual maturity due to biosynthesis suppression of the sexual steroids. An animal model study was carried out on 28 white Wistar adult female rats, divided into 3 experimental (E) groups that were exposed for 12 months to lead acetate in drinking water as follows: 50 ppb Pb (E1), 100 ppb Pb (E2), and ...

  15. Reproductive alterations in hyperinsulinemic but normoandrogenic MSG obese female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Renato Simões; Benevides, Renata Ohana Alves; Fontelles, João Lucas de Lima; Vale, Caroline Castro; França, Lucas Martins; Barros, Paulo de Tarso Silva; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are the common causes of reproductive and fertility disorders in women. In particular, polycystic ovary syndrome, which is clinically characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and polycystic ovarian morphology, has been increasingly associated with metabolic disorders. However, given the broad interplay between metabolic and reproductive functions, this remains a field of intense research. In this study, we investigated the effect of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity on reproductive biology of female rats. Newborn female rats were subcutaneously injected with MSG (4g/kg/day) or equiosmolar saline (CTR) each 2 days up to postnatal day (pnd) 10. On pnd 60, estrous cycle was evaluated using vaginal smears twice a day for 15 days, which showed MSG rats to be oligocyclic. Thereafter, animals were killed on estrous phase for blood and tissue collection. MSG rats had increased body mass, accumulation of retroperitoneal and visceral fat pads, and visceral adipocyte hypertrophy compared with CTR rats. MSG rats were also dyslipidemic and hyperinsulinemic but were normoglycemic and normoandrogenic. Ovarian morphology analysis showed that MSG rats had a two-fold decrease in oocyte count but a six-fold increase on ovarian follicular cysts, along with a higher number of total primordial and atretic follicles. Moreover, MSG rats had a four-fold increase in anti-Müllerian hormone immunohistochemical staining on antral follicles. Taken together, data presented here characterize MSG obesity as a unique model to study the metabolic pathways underlying reproductive disorders in the absence of overactivated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:26952035

  16. Liquid fructose in pregnancy exacerbates fructose-induced dyslipidemia in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Lourdes; Panadero, María I; Rodrigo, Silvia; Roglans, Núria; Otero, Paola; Álvarez-Millán, Juan J; Laguna, Juan C; Bocos, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and related events. Nevertheless, consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose is not regulated in gestation. Previously, we found that maternal fructose intake produces in the progeny, when fetuses, impaired leptin signaling and hepatic steatosis and then impaired insulin signaling and hypoadiponectinemia in adult male rats. Interestingly, adult females from fructose-fed mothers did not exhibit any of these disturbances. However, we think that, actually, these animals keep a programmed phenotype hidden. Fed 240-day-old female progeny from control, fructose- and glucose-fed mothers were subjected for 3weeks to a fructose supplementation period (10% wt/vol in drinking water). Fructose intake provoked elevations in insulinemia and adiponectinemia in the female progeny independently of their maternal diet. In accordance, the hepatic mRNA levels of several insulin-responsive genes were similarly affected in the progeny after fructose intake. Interestingly, adult progeny of fructose-fed mothers displayed, in response to the fructose feeding, augmented plasma triglyceride and NEFA levels and hepatic steatosis versus the other two groups. In agreement, the expression and activity for carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a lipogenic transcription factor, were higher after the fructose period in female descendants from fructose-fed mothers than in the other groups. Furthermore, liver fructokinase expression that has been indicated as one of those responsible for the deleterious effects of fructose ingestion was preferentially augmented in that group. Maternal fructose intake does influence the adult female offspring's response to liquid fructose and so exacerbates fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. PMID:27142744

  17. Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bava Amadeo Javier Bava; Domnguez Cecilia; Troncoso Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods: The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1 500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results: It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions: The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient.

  18. Physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavneet K Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim : To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females. Settings and Design : This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods : Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, having (mild-to-moderate, acne, for two consecutive years, were interviewed using a semi-structured clinical interview of the Skindex, a quality-of-life measure for patients with skin disease, developed by Chren et al., along with some open-ended questions. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was done to analyze the data. Results : The results indicated a higher level of emotional and social impairment, in terms of the feelings of physical discomfort, anger, and the intermingling impact of these, among the participants. Conclusions : Acne is a common problem among adults and appears to have a considerable impact on the mental health, therefore, for the treatment to be successful, a sympathetic approach by doctors and significant others, with the basic psychosomatic treatment, are necessary.

  19. A Method for Recording Urethral Pressure Profiles in Female Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Xu

    Full Text Available Urethral pressure profile (UPP and leak-point pressure (LPP measurements as well as external urethral sphincter (EUS electromyography (EMG and videourodynamic analyses are the primary methods for evaluating urethral function in humans. However, UPP recording in female rats, a widely used animal model, is challenging due to their small body sizes. This study reports a novel method for recording UPP in female rats.Seventeen anesthetized female rats were studied. LPP data for 14 rats were included. The other 3 rats were excluded because of death or abnormal urogenital organs. UPP curves were recorded using a modified water-perfusion catheter system, with the lateral hole facing the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions in a randomized sequence. LPP, functional urethral length (FUL and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP were analyzed.The mean LPP was 64.39 ± 20.29 cm H2O. The mean FUL and MUCP values at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions were 12.90 ± 1.20, 16.70 ± 1.95, 13.90 ± 2.42, and 11.60 ± 0.97 mm, respectively, and 38.70 ± 11.85, 33.90 ± 11.82, 37.40 ± 11.95, and 71.90 ± 23.01 cm H2O, respectively. The FUL at the 6-o'clock position and MUCP at the 12-o'clock position were significantly greater than those at the other 3 positions. The FUL and MUCP of repeated UPP recordings were not significantly different than those of the first recordings.UPP recording using a modified method based on a water-perfusion catheter system is feasible and replicable in female rats. It produces UPP curves that sensitively and appreciably reflect detailed pressure changes at different points within the urethra and thus provides opportunity to evaluate urethral structures, especially the urethral sphincter, in detail. These results may enhance the utility of female rat models in research of urinary sphincter mechanisms.

  20. Exercise training attenuates acute hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Denise M.; Vitor E Valenti; Navega, Marcelo T

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of chronic (eight weeks) low- to moderate-intensity swimming training on thermal pain sensitivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n = 51) were divided into the following groups: trained streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [hyperglycemic trained (HT)], sedentary streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [hyperglycemic sedentary (HS)], normoglycemic trained rats (NT) and normoglycemic sedentary rats (NS). Diabetes ...

  1. Rapid and acute effects of estrogen on time perception in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen ePleil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the rapid and acute effects of estrodiol on time perception were investigated in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Because estrodiol has been shown to increase striatal dopamine release, it may be able to modify time perception and timed performance by increasing the speed of an internal clock in a manner similar to indirect dopamine agonists such as amphetamine and cocaine. Two groups of females (neonatally estradiol-treated/adult ovariectomized and neonatally oil-treated/adult ovariectomized and 2 groups of males (neonatally castrated and adult castrated were trained in a 2 s vs. 8 s duration bisection procedure and tested using intermediate signal durations. After obtaining oil-injected baseline psychometric functions over several days, rats were administered 5μg of estradiol for 4 days and behaviorally evaluated 30 min following each injection. This oil-estradiol administration cycle was subsequently repeated 3 times following the re-establishment of baseline training. Results revealed significant sex differences in the initial baseline functions that were not modifiable by organizational hormones, with males’ duration bisection functions shifted horizontally to the left of females’. Upon the first administration of estradiol, females, but not males, showed a significant, transient leftward shift in their bisection functions, indicative of an increase in clock speed. After extensive retraining in the duration bisection procedure, rats that were exposed to gonadal hormones during the first week of life showed a significant rightward shift in their bisection functions on the fourth day of estradiol administration during each cycle, suggesting a decrease in clock speed. Taken together, our results support the view that there are multiple mechanisms of estrogens’ action in the striatum that modulate dopaminergic activity and are differentially organized by gonadal steroids during early brain development.

  2. Sex Differences and Laterality in Astrocyte Number and Complexity in the Adult Rat Medial Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, RYAN T.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Jordan, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    The posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD) is sexually dimorphic in several rodent species. In several other brain nuclei, astrocytes change morphology in response to steroid hormones. We visualized MePD astrocytes using glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry. We compared the number and process complexity of MePD astrocytes in adult wildtype male and female rats and testicular feminized mutant (TFM) male rats that lack functional androgen receptors (ARs) to de...

  3. Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters the functional differentiation of the adult rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Vigezzi, Lucía; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2013-11-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupters and female reproductive tract disorders has not been totally clarified. The present study assessed the long-term effect of perinatal (gestation+lactation) exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the rat uterus and the effect of estrogen replacement therapy. DES (5μg/kg bw/day) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 9 until weaning and we studied the uterus of young adult (PND90) and adult (PND360) females. To investigate whether perinatal exposure to DES modified the uterine response to a long-lasting estrogen treatment, 12-month-old rats exposed to DES were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol for 3 months (PND460). In young adult rats (PND90), the DES treatment decreased both the proliferation of glandular epithelial cells and the percentage of glandular perimeter occupied by α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. The other tissue compartments remained unchanged. Cell apoptosis was not altered in DES-exposed females. In control adult rats (PND360), there were some morphologically abnormal uterine glands. In adult rats exposed to DES, the incidence of glands with cellular anomalies increased. In response to estrogens (PND460), the incidence of cystic glands increased in the DES group. We observed glands with daughter glands and conglomerates of glands only on PND460 and in response to estrogen replacement therapy, independently of DES exposure. The p63 isoforms were expressed without changes on PND460. Estrogen receptors α and β showed no changes, while the progesterone receptor decreased in the subepithelial stroma of DES-exposed animals with estrogen treatment. The long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to DES included the induction of abnormalities in uterine tissues of aged female rats and an altered response of the adult uterus to estradiol. PMID:23454116

  4. Effects of thyroid hormones on the antioxidative status in the uterus of young adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    KONG, Lingfa; WEI, Quanwei; FEDAIL, Jaafar Sulieman; Shi, Fangxiong; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones and oxidative stress play significant roles in the normal functioning of the female reproductive system. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), participates in the regulation of thyroid function and is also a good biomarker for assessment of the oxidative stress status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate effects of thyroid hormones on uterine antioxidative status in young adult rats. Thirty immature female Sprague-D...

  5. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Kraemer; Christian Wallwiener; Rajab, Taufiek K; Christoph Brochhausen; Markus Wallwiener; Ralf Rothmund

    2014-01-01

    Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1), brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2), sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3), isc...

  6. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arham Shabbir; Sadia Shamsi; Muhammad Shahzad; Hajra Ikram Butt; Khurram Aamir; Javed Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Guaifenesin possesses expectorant, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the promising data regarding the developmental toxicity of guaifenesin are scarce. The current study investigates the developmental toxic effects of guaifenesin in detail using female rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five dams were divided into five groups. Group 1 served as a control, while Group-2, -3, -4, and -5 were administered with 250, 350, 500, and 600 (mg...

  7. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  8. The cortical response to sensory deprivation in adult rats is affected by gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mowery, Todd M.; Elliott, Kevin S.; Preston E. Garraghty

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adult-onset sensory deprivation and gonadectomy. Adult male and female rats underwent unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve. Half of the subjects had been gonadectomized 1 week prior to the nerve injury. We found that the areas of deprived barrels were significantly reduced when compared to barrels in the contralateral control hemisphere, and that this shrinkage was independent of sex and gonadectomy. We also found significant reduction...

  9. Comparison of the validity of the use of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Daniel W; Perez, Maria C; Daniel, Jill M

    2015-06-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a commonly used and well-studied rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the cognitive symptoms of ADHD are reported. However, the female SHR rat is much less studied than its male counterpart. The goal of the current study was to assess the validity of the SHR rodent model of ADHD by examining attentional performance, inhibitory control, and hyperactivity in both male and female SHR rats. Adult SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto rats were trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task, a self-paced test of attention and inhibitory control. This task requires animals to identify the location of a brief light stimulus among five possible locations under several challenging conditions. Analyses of percent correct revealed that attentional performance in SHR females was not significantly different from control females, whereas attentional performance in SHR males was significantly different from control males. Analyses of the number of premature responses revealed that SHR rats made more inhibitory control errors than did control rats and that this decrease in inhibitory control was present in both SHR males and females. Analyses of activity in the open field revealed that SHR rats were more hyperactive than were control rats and that this increased hyperactivity was present in both SHR males and females. The current findings have implications for the study of sex differences in ADHD and for the use of SHR rats as a model of ADHD in females. PMID:25724583

  10. Fluoxetine disrupts food intake and estrous cyclicity in Fischer female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hensler, Julie G; Sarkar, Jhimly; Grossie, Bruce

    2006-02-01

    Adult, regularly cycling female Fischer rats were injected daily with 10 mg/kg fluoxetine for 12-23 days. In the first experiment, body weight and vaginal smears were monitored daily. Fluoxetine treatment reduced body weight within the first 24 h of treatment. Fluoxetine treatment also elongated the estrous cycle, reduced blood levels of progesterone, and eliminated lordosis behavior. In the second experiment, body weight and food intake were examined and a pair-fed group was included to determine if fluoxetine-induced anorexia contributed to the disturbance of the estrous cycle. In pair-fed rats, effects similar to fluoxetine treatment were present. These results lead to the suggestion that fluoxetine's anorectic properties could disrupt the female's normal endocrine cyclicity and that this disruption could be relevant to the reduction in sexual behavior and motivation. However, when the duration of fluoxetine treatment was extended beyond 16 to 17 days, fluoxetine-treated female rats reinitiated vaginal cyclicity and showed evidence of normal sexual receptivity. In contrast, the estrous cycles of their pair-fed counterparts remained disrupted. Thus, restricted food intake appears to contribute to the disruption of the estrous cycle and elimination of sexual receptivity during fluoxetine treatment. However, compensatory changes in the serotonergic system that are associated with chronic fluoxetine administration may contribute to the gradual recovery of estrous cyclicity and sexual receptivity of the fluoxetine-treated animals. PMID:16423328

  11. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  12. The percentage of pregnant female white rat that injected with 131-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the differences in number of pregnant white rats related to radioiodine response, adult female white rat (2-3 months old) were exposed to various single and ractionated (divided into two) doses of 131-I (Na 131-I). Injected quantities (t1) ranged from 0 to 12.0 uCi per gram body-weight (g bwt.), depending on the group of female rats. The female rats were devided into 3 groups and injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before (SbK=A) and after (SsK=B) mating (t2), with single dose of 131-I 0, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12.0 uCi/g bwt. and for fractioned doses 2 x 1.5, 2 x 3.0, 2 x 4.5, and 2 x 6.0 uCi/g bwt. respectively and in 8 days interval. Generally the percentage of pregnancy was decreased with increased dose of 131-I. The same dose of 131-I, such as threshold dose, was more effective when administered to the femal rat before than after mating, either single or fractionated doses. The threshold dose of 131-I which decreased the number of pregnant rat was estimated between 9.0-12.0 uCi/g bwt., either with single or fractionated doses, and for decreasing the number of offspring was between 6.0-9.0 uCi/g bwt. for single dose and between 2x1.5 - 2x3.0 uCi/g bwt. for fractionated doses. The number of pregnant rat decreased (highly significant, P<0.01) in rat treated with 12.0 and 2 x 6.0 uCi/g bwt when compared to controls. The difference in the average number of the control offspring was highly significant (P<=0.01) compared with that of trated ones (9.0, 12.0, 2 x 3.0, 2 x 4.5, and 2 x 6.0 uCi/g bwt.). (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Biological half-life analysis of radiocesium in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a study on the biological half-life of 137Cs in female Wistar rats (RIV Tox) are discussed. A group of 10 female rats were administered 200 kBq/kg body weight of a 137CsCl-solution intra-esophageally. Immediately after this administration the internally contaminated rats were scanned with a whole body scanner for γ radiation. This first value was called the 100% value and was regarded as the reference value for the following daily whole body scannings. By the results of these measurements the retention characteristics of 137Cs were determined for these rats. Out of these retention characteristics the biological half-life of 137Cs for each rat was calculated by means of a curve fitting program named MW-PHARM. The calculated half-lifes were respectively 11.3, 12.2 and 15.7 days with a duration of the experiment of 7, 14 and 21 days. A study duration of 7 or 14 days is too short to calculate the biological half-life of 137Cs reliable in these Wistar rats. Therefore a study with a duration of 42 days is planned, in which solely the biological half-life will be examined without the distribution and deposition pattern in the various tissues within the study duration limit. To investigate the proportional excretion of 137Cs the rats were kept in metabolism cages, in which the urine and the feces can be collected separately. The renal route is by far the most important, as could be confirmed by the results of the measurements of the radioactivity concentration of the collected 24 hour specimens of urine and feces. When the rats were killed, biopsies were taken to measure their radioactivity concentration in a γ-counter. It can be concluded that 137Cs is distributed and deposited throughout the whole body. The lowest values were measured in the blood and the highest in the skeletal muscles. There is a gradual decrease in time for all the examined organs/tissues. The skeletal musculature is the most important tissue of deposition, because of its relative

  14. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  15. Could adult female acne be associated with modern life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, R G R; Rocha, M A D; Bagatin, E; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of adult female acne has increased, but the reason for this increase remains unclear. Acne is one of the most common skin disorders. It can be triggered or worsened by endogenous and exogenous factors, including genetic predisposition, hormone concentrations, diet, smoke and stress; although the interaction with this last factor is not well understood. Modern life presents many stresses including urban noises, socioeconomic pressures and light stimuli. Women are especially affected by stress during daily routine. The recent insertion in the labor market is added to the duties of the mother and wife. Women also have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Sleep restriction is added to these factors, with several negative consequences on health, including on hormonal secretion and the immune system. This is further complicated by the natural variation in sleep architecture across the menstrual cycle. Recent studies have brought new data about the mechanisms and possible factors involved. This review aims to establish a connection between stress, sleep deprivation and adult female acne. PMID:24952024

  16. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy γ- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant

  17. Interactions between respiratory oscillators in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert Tr; Henderson, Lauren E; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Feldman, Jack L

    2016-01-01

    Breathing in mammals is hypothesized to result from the interaction of two distinct oscillators: the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) driving inspiration and the lateral parafacial region (pFL) driving active expiration. To understand the interactions between these oscillators, we independently altered their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized adult rats. Hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons decreased inspiratory activity and initiated active expiration, ultimately progressing to apnea, i.e., cessation of both inspiration and active expiration. Depolarizing pFL neurons produced active expiration at rest, but not when inspiratory activity was suppressed by hyperpolarizing preBötC neurons. We conclude that in anesthetized adult rats active expiration is driven by the pFL but requires an additional form of network excitation, i.e., ongoing rhythmic preBötC activity sufficient to drive inspiratory motor output or increased chemosensory drive. The organization of this coupled oscillator system, which is essential for life, may have implications for other neural networks that contain multiple rhythm/pattern generators. PMID:27300271

  18. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  19. Bladder function in female rats: effects of aging and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfehrt, H M; Carson, C C; Marson, L

    In vivo anesthetized cystometrograms and in vitro bladder tissue strip responses were examined in three groups of female rats: young virgins (3 month), older virgins (8 month), and retired breeders (8-9 month). Significant age-related in vivo changes were observed including greater resting pressures, but smaller voided volumes, void durations and void-to-void intervals in older versus young virgin rats. There were significant age-related changes in the in vitro responses. Greater peak and steady state contractions to high K+-modified Krebs (80 mM) depolarization were observed in young animals compared to older animals. Plus, young virgins exhibited greater sensitivity but smaller maximal, normalized contractions to acetylcholine (ACh) than older virgins. Diminished responses to adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) were detected in young versus older virgin rats. Pregnancy-related changes were compared between retired breeders and their age-matched controls, older virgin rats. In vivo voided volumes were greater in the retired breeders than in the older virgins. Smaller in vitro steady state contractions to high K+-modified Krebs depolarization and smaller normalized contractions to maximal concentrations of ACh were observed in the retired breeders than in the older virgins. Retired breeders exhibited diminished relaxation responses to norepinephrine compared to older virgins. ATP produced greater dose-dependent responses and greater maximal contractions in the retired breeders compared to the older virgins. In conclusion, age-related changes were present even prior to the onset of senescence, and multiple pregnancies altered bladder function. PMID:10627081

  20. Opiates inhibit neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Eisch, Amelia J.; Barrot, Michel; Schad, Christina A.; Self, David W; Nestler, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Recent work implicates regulation of neurogenesis as a form of plasticity in the adult rat hippocampus. Given the known effects of opiates such as morphine and heroin on hippocampal function, we examined opiate regulation of neurogenesis in this brain region. Chronic administration of morphine decreased neurogenesis by 42% in the adult rat hippocampal granule cell layer. A similar effect was seen in rats after chronic self-administration of heroin. Opiate regulation of neurogenesis was not me...

  1. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  3. Effects of Bak Foong Pills and Menoease Pills on white blood cell distribution in old age female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Alice Lok Sze; Gou, Yu Lin; Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the effects of Bak Foong Pills (BFP) and the new BFP-derived post-menopause formula, Menoease Pills (MBFP), on the distribution of peripheral white blood cells (WBC) between BFP/MBFP-treated and non-treated rats. Eighteen months old female SD rats were used to mimic post-menopausal and old age animal models. The percentage distribution of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes were measured using flow cytometry with and without treatments of BFP or MBFP. Results showed that WBC distribution in old age rats were significantly different from that of adult rats, suggesting that as the animal aged, their WBC distributions were altered. Old age rats were observed to have much lower percentages of lymphocytes, but higher percentages of granulocytes when compared to the adult rats, indicating possible attenuated immunity. Following treatment with BFP or MBFP, WBC populations were found to be redistributed back into the ranges observed in adult animals. Furthermore, MBFP, was found to alter WBC distribution in a dose-dependent manner. When compared to estrogen (E(2)), a well documented regulator of immune function, results showed that MBFP was able to show significantly greater effects on WBC redistribution compared to E(2). However, in ovariectomised (ovx) old age rats, neither MBFP nor E(2) treated groups showed any changes in WBC redistribution. These results indicate that MBFP may share similarities to E(2). Indeed, the effect of MBFP and E(2) seems to require intact ovaries, which are believed to be necessary for the modulation of WBC distributions and immune functions. Overall, our findings suggest that BFP and MBFP may be able to regulate WBC population in old age female rats, and thus, indicate their potential role on improving the attenuated immunity evident in post-menopausal and elderly women. PMID:14646184

  4. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration

  5. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  6. Bone turnover markers in medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Radojković Danijela; Pešić Milica; Ristić Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. There is a lack of data on the effects of prolactin on calcium metabolism and bone turnover in hyperprolactinemia of various origins. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia on bone turnover in female rats. Methods. Experimental animals (18 weeks old, Wistar female rats) were divided as follows: the group P - 9 rats, 3 weeks pregnant; the group M3-10 rats that were intramuscula...

  7. GARLIC AMELIORATES THE HEPATOTOXIC EFFECT INDUCED BY THIOACETAMIDE IN FEMALE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pretreatment effect of garlic on hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in female albino rats.Sixty female adult albino rats were assigned equally into four groups; control group: animals without treatment, group ?: rats given daily oral dose of 250 mg/ kg garlic for 28 days, group ??: rats injected intraperitonealy by thioacetamide 20 mg ? kg for two weeks and group III: rats given 250 mg / kg garlic orally for 28 day followed by intrapertoneal injection of 20 mg / kg thioacetamide for two weeks. Liver enzymes were evaluated by measurements of AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase and also trace elements (Cu and Zn) were estimated. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were assessed. Also, histological studies on liver and stomach were carried out. The results indicated that treatment with garlic significantly decreased liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP). Cu showed high significant increase in groups treated with garlic and also garlic + TAA, while Zn was increased significantly in TAA group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased significantly in group I while TAA decreased it significantly. Glutathione peroxidase was decreased significantly in group II while its level in group IV reached near the control value. Similarly, malondialdehyde was decreased significantly in garlic group and garlic ameliorated the thioacetamide effect in garlic + TAA group. The treatment with TAA led to significant increase in T3 and significant decrease in T4 hormones. Garlic ameliorated T3 level to reach the control level. Histologically, pre-treatment with garlic induced a prophylactic activity against the thioacetamide in liver and stomach tissues.According to the obtained results, it could be conclude that garlic treatment may act as antioxidant or pro-oxidant in TAA treated animals besides decreasing the TAA toxic effects on liver enzymes, liver and

  8. Effects of Neonatal Tactile Stimulation and Maternal Separation on the Anxiety and the Emotional Memory in Adult Female Rats%新生期触觉刺激和母婴分离对雌性大鼠成年后的焦虑和情绪记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 蔡景霞

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the long-lasting effects of early postnatal tactile stimulation (TS) and maternal separation (MS) on the emotional behaviors of adult female rats. A split-litter design was introduced to remove confusing factors such as maternal disturbance. Pups of the non-tactile stimulation (NTS) group did not receive any handling. Pups subjected to the TS treatment were handled and marked for approximately 30 s daily from postnatal days (PND) 2 - 9 or from PND 10 - 17. Pups subjected to the MS treatment were handled and marked in the same way as the TS pups and then individually placed in a cup with familiar nest bedding for 1 h daily. At the age of 3 months, female rats with different neonatal experiences were employed in the light/dark box test and the one-trial passive avoidance response. Both PND 2 - 9 TS and PND 10 - 17 TS groups exhibited more time spent in the illuminated chamber of the light/dark box, and longer step-through latencies in the passive avoidance response when compared to the NTS group, indicating that early life TS treatment reduced novelty-induced anxious emotion and facilitated the retention of emotional memory in adult female rats. No significant effects were found on any behavioral measures between the MS groups and the TS groups, suggesting that neonatal short-time MS treatment was not intensive enough to alter the emotional behaviors, at least in female rats. Infantile age was not an effective factor for these measures. This result supports the hypothesis that neonatal tactile stimulation and maternal separation lead to different effects on the neural development of postnatal pups.%采用split-litter法对仔鼠进行分组和处理,共5组:NTS组(未经实验人员抓握和标记),PND 2-9 TS组和PND 10-17 TS组(分别在仔鼠出生后的2-9天、10-17天,每天短暂抓握和标记仔鼠),PND 2-9 MS组和PND 10-17 MS组(分别在仔鼠出生后的2-9天、10-17天,除了按TS组相同方式抓握并在不同部位标记外,

  9. 孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后酒精摄取行为及脑内小白蛋白表达的影响%Effects of prenatal stress on voluntary ethanol intake and brain parvalbumin expression in adult female rat offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫晓叶; 李政; 贺礼理; 杨赛花; 黄菊芳; 童建斌; 李昌琪

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of prenatal stress on voluntary ethanol intake(EI) and brain parvalbumin (PV) expression in adult female rat offspring. Methods Six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into prenatal stress (PS, n= 3) and control group (CON, n=3). During the late gestational periods, rats in PS were subjected to restraint stress for consecutive 3 days. The adult female offspring in PS were randomly divided into PS plus stress group(PS-S, n=6) and PS without stress group(PS-NS, n=6). The adult female offspring in CON were randomly divided into stress(CON-S, n = 6) and no stress group(CON-NS, n = 6). The rats in PS-S and CON-S were subjected to restraint stress, and 3 weeks later ice-water stress. All the rats in each group were of fered free choice between water and ethanol solution. Then EI of every rat was assessed every day. The PV expression in hippocampns and frontal cortex were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results The basal El of PS-NS at the 1st, 4th and 6th week were significantly less than that of CON-NS(P<0.05). The EI of PS-S at the 1st week after restraint stress was significantly higher than that of CON-S (P<0.05). But EI of PS-S at the 3rd week after ice-water stress was much less than that of CON-S (P<0.05). The PV expression of PS-S offspring in the hippocampal CA2 and frontal cortex M1 were obviously lower than that of CON-S(P<0.05). Conclusion Prenatal stress could affect on alcohol preference of adult female rat offspring, which possibly is related to the reduction of PV expression in brain.%目的 探讨孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后酒精摄取行为以及脑内小白蛋白表达的影响.方法 6只SD孕鼠随机分为孕期应激组(PS组,n=3)和对照组(CON组,n=3).PS组孕鼠在妊娠晚期接受限制性应激,CON组孕鼠不给予孕期应激.子代成年后,PS组和CON组雌性子代分别随机分为PS-S组(n=6)和PS-NS组(n=6),CON-S组(n=6)和CON-NS组(n=6).PS-S组和CON-S组动物先后接受限制性应

  10. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation. PMID:27262980

  11. Bone status of adult female butyrylcholinesterase gene-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Malte; Kauschke, Vivien; Sender, Jonas; Kampschulte, Marian; Kovtun, Anna; Dürselen, Lutz; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) degrades acetylcholine in addition to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is involved in embryonic development of limbs. Since BChE is expressed by osteoblast-like cells we asked whether it is functional in adult bone remodeling. We addressed this issue by analyzing BChE gene-deficient mice (BChE-KO). Bones were extracted from 16-week old female BChE-KO and corresponding wild type mice (WT). Femoral bones were used for biomechanical testing and μCT evaluation of cancellous and cortical bone. Also vertebrae Th12 and L1 were investigated with μCT while L3 was used for tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) histomorphometry and Th10 for gene expression analysis by means of real-time RT-PCR. BChE-KO did not reveal significant differences in biomechanical bone strength and bone mineral density determined by μCT. Microarchitecture of cancellous and cortical bone showed an increase in μCT parameters like trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and relative cortical bone area of femoral BChE-KO bone compared to WT. In vertebrae no changes of microstructure and mRNA expression were detected. However, osteoclast histomorphometry with TRAP stained sections demonstrated a significant increase in relative osteoclast number. In conclusion, in adult murine bone the role of BChE is limited to bone specific changes in microarchitecture and to an increase in relative number of bone resorbing osteoclasts whereas the main collagen resorbing enzyme Cathepsin-K (CtsK) was stably expressed. Besides, AChE might be able to compensate the lack of BChE. Thus, further analyses using bone tissue specific AChE BChE cre-lox double knockout mice would be helpful. PMID:26138460

  12. Induction of abnormal oocyte division under the constant light in the young adult rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Fangxiong Shi

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of constant light on the ovary, 12 young adult female rats were exposed to constant light for 37 days and their estrous cycles were recorded by daily examination and the ovaries were examined histologically. The results showed that constant light induced in an abnormal and uncontrolled division of oocytes. In these divided-oocyte follicles (DOFs), two or more divided-oocytes shared one zona pellucida and usually floated freely in the follicular antrum. This fantastic phenomenon was discovered for the first time, and it was different from multioocyte follicles (MOFs) and polyovular follicles (POFs) founded in rats, humans, rabbits, mice and dogs.

  13. Correlation between lipid accumulation index and hyperuricemia in adult females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-sheng GUI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the relationship between lipid accumulation index (LAI and hyperuricemia in females. Methods  One hundred and seventy-four adult females were included in the cross-sectional study from Mar. to Sep. 2006 through a simple random sampling from a group of population subjected to routine physical examination in the Luohuang Community of Chongqing municipality. The anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP, uric acid (UA, lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels were measured. Lipid accumulation product (LAP, body mass index (BMI and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were calculated. Subjects were divided into normal group and hyperuricemia group based on their UA levels, and an independent-samples t test was performed for comparison between the two groups; one-factor analysis of variance was performed for multiple comparisons. The Student-Newman-Keuls test was performed for homogeneity of variance. The relationship between UA and other variables was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio of hyperuricemia in the highest quartile of LAP level. The analysis of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves was performed to identify the predictive ability of relevant variables to hyperuricemia. Results  Compared with normal group, the age, waist circumference (WC, triglyceride (TG, fasting insulin (FINS, HOMA-IR and LAP were higher in hyperuricemia group (P<0.05. The age, and levels of WC, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, fasting glucose (FPG, 2-hour postprandial glucose (2h-PPG, FINS, HOMA-IR and UA were higher as LAP increased (P<0.05, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C lowered as LAP increased (P<0.05. Pearson correlation

  14. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women. PMID:25051319

  15. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  16. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  17. Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Widén, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and female...

  18. Effects of Infantile Repeated Hyperglycemia on Behavioral Alterations in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Moghadami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety symptoms have been reported to be present in many patients with diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia in critical periods of the central nervous system development. We assessed locomotive, exploratory, and anxiety behaviors in adult rats that remained from infantile repeated hyperglycemia by the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Our findings showed significant hypo activity, reduced locomotive/exploratory activities, increased fear related behaviors, and anxiety state between hyperglycemic and control adult males and the same differences were observed among females. In addition, no significant behavioral alterations between male and female animals were observed. This study determined that repeated increments in daily blood sugar levels in newborns may affect neuronal functions and provide behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  19. TRIMETHYLTIN DISRUPTS ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONDING IN ADULT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a limbic-system toxicant which also produces sensory dysfunction in adult animals. In the present experiment, the authors examined the effects of TMT on the acoustic startle response. Adult male, Long-Evans rats (N=12/dose) received a single i.p. injection o...

  20. Follicle Development of Xenotransplanted Sheep Ovarian Tissue into Male and Female Immunodeficient Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadat Tahaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess follicle survival after xenotransplantation of sheep ovarian tissue into male and female immunodeficient rats. We evaluated the effects of gonadotropin treatment on follicular development in the transplanted tissue. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sheep ovarian cortical strips were transplanted into the neck back muscles of 8 male and 8 female immunodeficient, castrated rats. Fourteen days after surgery, each rat was treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG for 9 weeks. One day after the last injection, ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histology assessment. Histology analyses were performed before and after grafting. Estradiol (E2 levels were measured before and after gonadectomy, and at the end of the experiment. The control group consisted of 7 male and 7 female noncastrated/ non-grafted rats and the sham group comprised 7 male and 7 female castrated/ non-grafted rats for comparison of serum E2 concentrations. Results: The percentage of primordial follicles decreased after transplantation in male (25.97% and female (24.14% rats compared to the control group (ovarian tissue nongrafted; 37.51%. Preantral follicles increased in the male (19.5% and female (19.49% transplanted rats compared to the control group (11.4%. Differences in antral follicles between male (0.06 ± 0.0% and female (0.06 ± 0.0% rats were not noticeable compared to control (1.25 ± 0.0% rats. We observed a significantly higher percent of mean E2 secretion in grafted males compared to grafted females (P˂0.05. Conclusion: Despite significant differences in E2 secretion between xenografted male and female rats, we observed no statistical differences in terms of follicular development.

  1. Differential mesocorticolimbic responses to palatable food in binge eating prone and binge eating resistant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Culbert, Kristen M; Gradl, Dana R; Richardson, Kimberlei A; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is a key symptom of many eating disorders (e.g. binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type), yet the neurobiological underpinnings of binge eating are poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, is likely involved because this circuit mediates the hedonic value and incentive salience of palatable foods (PF). Here we tested the hypothesis that higher propensity for binge eating is associated with a heightened response (i.e., Fos induction) of the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex to PF, using an animal model that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given intermittent access to PF (high fat pellets) 3×/week for 3 weeks. Based on a pattern of either consistently high or consistently low PF consumption across these feeding tests, 8 rats met criteria for categorization as BEP, and 11 rats met criteria for categorization as BER. One week after the final feeding test, BEP and BER rats were either exposed to PF in their home cages or were given no PF in their home cages for 1h prior to perfusion, leading to three experimental groups for the Fos analysis: BEPs given PF, BERs given PF, and a No PF control group. The total number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and the cingulate, prelimbic, and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex was estimated by stereological analysis. PF induced higher Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex of BEP rats compared to No PF controls. Throughout the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, PF induced higher Fos expression in BEP than in BER rats, even after adjusting for differences in PF intake. Differences in the neural activation pattern between BEP and BER rats were more robust in prefrontal cortex

  2. Differences in the association between behavior and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in male and female rats after coronary artery ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouweleeuw, Leonie; Hovens, Iris B; Liu, Hui; Naudé, Petrus J W; Schoemaker, Regien G

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure is associated with an increased risk of developing depression and cognitive dysfunction, which negatively affects prognosis. Plasma levels of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) are increased in heart failure and depression. Moreover, NGAL levels are associated with depression in heart failure patients. Since women are at a higher risk of developing comorbid depression with heart failure, the aim of this study was to examine sex differences in the link between NGAL and behavior in a rat model of heart failure. In young adult male and female Wistar rats, myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by means of coronary artery ligation, while control rats received sham surgery. We analyzed aspects of cognition and depression/anxiety using various behavioral tests starting three weeks after surgery. Hemodynamic measurements were performed and hearts and lungs were weighed. NGAL levels in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue were analyzed. MI induced impairment in cardiac contractility and relaxation, and an increase in lung weight. NGAL correlated with signs of heart failure in male, but not female rats. Male MI rats displayed cognitive problems, but not depressive-like or anxiety-like behavior. No behavioral effects of MI were observed in female rats. Plasma NGAL levels were higher in male than female rats with higher concentrations in MI compared to sham. CSF NGAL was higher in MI rats compared to sham and higher in males compared to females. The number of NGAL positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) was only increased in male MI rats. In male, but not in female rats, NGAL levels correlated with depressive-like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. Data indicate that while MI increased NGAL levels in plasma, CSF and PVN, correlations of NGAL with behavior are sex-specific, but independent of whether sham or MI surgery was performed. This suggests that inflammatory processes related to thorax surgery

  3. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  4. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim;

    2015-01-01

    -like behavior as well as circadian patterning of motor activity in both male and female offspring. For this purpose, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to multiple stressors during gestational days 13-21. Subsequently, we monitored locomotor and rearing/climbing activities in home-like cages for 24 h and...... measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects...

  5. The developmental inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Thompson, Britta S; Freund, Nadja; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-03-01

    Increased locomotion, novelty-seeking, and impulsivity are risk factors associated with substance use. In this study, the inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, were examined across three stages: juvenile/early adolescence (postnatal Day [P] 15, 19, and 42 for activity, novelty, and impulsivity, respectively), adolescent/late adolescent (P28, 32, 73), and adult (P90, 94, 137) in male and female rats. Our estimates of impulsive choice, where animals were trained to criterion, revealed an age × sex interaction where early adolescent females had the lowest levels of impulsivity. The relationships of activity and novelty to impulsivity significantly changed across age within each sex. Early adolescent males with high activity, but low novelty preferences, were more impulsive; however, low activity and high novelty preferences were related to high impulsivity in adult males. Female activity gradually increased across age, but did not show a strong relationship with impulsivity. Novelty preferences are moderately related to impulsivity into adulthood in females. These data show that males and females have different developmental trajectories for these behaviors. Males show greater sensation-seeking (e.g., activity) and risky behavior (e.g., novelty preferences) earlier in life, whereas these behaviors emerge during adolescence in females. PMID:26419783

  6. Comparison of the acute hematotoxicity of 2-butoxyethanol in male and female F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanayem, B I; Ward, S M; Chanas, B; Nyska, A

    2000-03-01

    Administration of 2-butoxyethanol (BE) to rodents causes acute hemolytic anemia, and metabolic activation of BE to butoxyacetic acid (BAA) is required for the development of this effect. Recent studies have shown that female rats treated with BE exhibit a variety of histopathologic lesions that are absent in males and many of these lesions are attributed to the hemolytic effects of BE. Current studies were designed to compare the acute hematotoxicity of BE in male and female F344 rats. Rats were treated with 250 mg BE/kg body weight or water (control; 5 ml/kg) by gavage. At 4, 8, or 24 h after dosing, rats were anesthetized, blood was collected by cardiac puncture, and various blood parameters were measured. BE resulted in a time-dependent swelling of erythrocytes as evidenced by an early increase in hematocrit (Hct) and mean cell volume (MCV) in male rats. In contrast, increased Hct in female rats did not accompany an increase in MCV. It is likely that hemolysis was so severe at 4 h that Hct exhibited a decline in female rats at that time point. Subsequently, red blood cell (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), and Hct declined as hemolysis progressed. However, the onset of BE-induced hemolysis was faster in female compared to male rats. These effects were also associated with a significant increase in the spleen weight to body weight ratio. Blood smears were also prepared and morphological changes evaluated by light microscopy included stomatocytosis, spherocytosis, and schistocytosis. Furthermore, aggregation of RBCs in female rats as evidenced by increased formation of rouleaux was observed at 24 h after BE administration. These effects were observed earlier and more frequently in female rats. No differences in the sensitivity of RBCs obtained from male and female rats and exposed to butoxyacetic acid (BAA) in vitro was observed as determined by measuring the packed cell volume. In conclusion, these data suggest that female rats are more sensitive to

  7. The Role Of Melatonin In Aluminium Induced Genotoxicity In Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab E. Hanafy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work, In spite of the wide range of use of aluminium. With the increasing awareness of possible health hazards associated with their use, more attention have been focused on their biological and biochemical activity. Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant in under cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown. Aluminium is known to have genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects. Melatonin reduces the free radical generation and metal detoxification .This study was planned to determine the effects of melatonin on aluminium induced toxicity in the chromosomes of bone marrow cell . Material and Methods ,Forty female albino rats were used in the present work for the chromosomal analysis. Four groups of adult female albino rats were used in the following way: Group -I, control group; Group-II,50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally; Group-III, 50g / kg b.wt melatonin orally and Group- IV, 50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally (am +50 g / kg b.wt melatonin orally(pm. Doses were given 30 days. All animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow of femur bones was taken for subsequent cytogenetic studies. The results, Aluminium treatment induced a significant increase in the structural as well as numerical chromosomal aberrations . The frequency of chromosomal aberrations showed significant decrease when rats treated with melatonin and aluminium .In conclusion, the results indicated that melatonin showed a significant improvement of genetic damages induced by aluminium

  8. Ovariectomy ameliorates dextromethorphan--induced memory impairment in young female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Cho, Hee Jeong; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Nam Youl; Lee, Seoul; Lee, Yil Seob

    2006-01-01

    We have previously found that dextromethorphan (DM), over-the-counter cough suppressant, impairs memory retention in water maze task, when it is repeatedly administrated to adolescent female rats at high doses. In this study we examined first if ovariectomy ameliorates the DM-induced memory impairment in female rats, and then whether or not the DM effect is revived by estrogen replacement in ovariectomized female rats. Female rat pups received bilateral ovariectomy or sham operation on postnatal day (PND) 21, and then intraperitoneal DM (40 mg/kg) daily during PND 28-37. Rats were subjected to the Morris water maze task from PND 38, approximately 24 h after the last DM injection. In probe trial, goal quadrant dwell time was significantly reduced by DM in the sham operated group, however, the reduction by DM did not occur in the ovariectomy group. When 17beta-estradiol was supplied to ovariectomized females during DM treatment, the goal quadrant dwell time was significantly decreased, compared to the vehicle control group. Furthermore, a major effect of estrogen replacement was found in the escape latency during the last 3 days of initial learning trials. These results suggest that ovariectomy may ameliorate the adverse effect of DM treatment on memory retention in young female rats, and that estrogen replacement may revive it, i.e. estrogen may take a major role in DM-induced memory impairment in female rats. PMID:16563229

  9. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1, brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2, sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3, ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4, bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5, and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6. Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P<0.01. Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0% and 5 (4% were significantly less than the other groups (P<0.01. Furthermore, group 6 (69% was significantly higher than group 1 (48% (P<0.05 and group 4 (47% (P<0.05. There was no difference between group 3 (60% and group 6 (P=0.2. From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models.

  10. Concomitant Effects of Caffeine and Gamma Irradiation in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective potential of caffeine as an antioxidant (80 mg/kg b.w.) i.p. injected 1 hr before exposure to a dose of (7 Gy) gamma irradiation in female rats. Alterations in serum lipids, cholesterol, triacylglycerol and fatty acids as well as total proteins, urea and uric acid have been investigated 1, 3 and 7 days post irradiation and /or caffeine treatment. Histological and histochemical changes of the dorsal aorta have been studied 7 days post treatment. Results revealed elevated total lipids, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, beside distortion in fatty acids throughout the whole experimentation period by caffeine pre injection, irradiation application and by dual treatment. Protein and urea were elevated by caffeine or irradiation, while both treatments dropped their levels, whereas uric was decreased by all treatments. Histopathological changes and deposition of sudanophilic material in the dorsal aorta wall were detected by either one or both treatments, which point out a limitation in the protective potential of caffeine

  11. Effect of potassium dichromate intake on water consumption and toxic amount intake, in female rats, Rattus norvegicus (exposure on three generations)

    OpenAIRE

    Snejana Petrovici; Alexandra Trif; Milca Petrovici; Eugenia Dumitrescu; Romeo T. Cristina; Camelia Tulcan

    2010-01-01

    Material and methods: The study was carried out on three generations of female rats, eachgeneration comprising 28 white Wistar adult female rats, divided in three experimental (E) groups,exposed to 25 ppm Cr – LOAEL (E1), 50 ppm Cr (E2), 75 ppm Cr (E3) and one control (C) group - tapwater. Results: It pointed out significant decrease of water daily mean consumption in experimentalgroups comparative to C group, inversely, significantly correlated with the exposure level, in F0, F1 and F2genera...

  12. Soybean isoflavones alter parvalbumin in hippocampus of mid-aged normal female, ovariectomized female, and normal male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Koo HWANG; Moo Ho WON; Yoon-bok LEE; Ki-yeon YOO; Tae-cheon KANG; Soon Sung LIM; Sang Moo KIM; Heon-soo SOHN; Woo-jung KIM; Hyun Kyung SHIN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the long-term effect of soybean isoflavones on changes in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus in normal female, ovariectomized (OVX) female and normal male rats. Methods: Ten-month-old rats were assigned to one of 9 groups (n=7 in each group) based on body weight using arandomized complete-block design. The groups were: control diet-treated females,OVX females, and males; 0.3 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males; and 1.2 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males. The PV immunostaining was conducted by using the standard avidin-biotin complex method. Results: PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the groups after isoflavone treatment were significantly changed in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus, but not in the hippocampal CA2/3 region. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in the control diet OVX females were similar to those in the control diet, and were greater than those in the control diet normal females. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the isoflavone-treated groups decreased dose-dependently after isoflavone treatment. Conclusion: Long-term administration of isoflavones may induce a reduction of PV in interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus. The reduction of PV in these regions suggests that the long-term administration of isoflavones may cause a change in calcium homeostasis in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus.

  13. A role for puberty in water maze performance in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Jari; Drzewiecki, Carly M; Cuenod, Bethany A; Cortes, Laura R; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by neuroanatomical changes that coincide with increased cognitive performance. This developmental period is particularly important for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which mediates higher-order cognitive functioning. The authors' laboratory has shown that puberty is associated with sex-specific changes in neuron number and the dendritic tree in the rat mPFC, but the effects of pubertal onset on cognitive performance remain relatively unexplored. Here, we use a water maze task to assess spatial memory for the location of an escape platform, followed by a test of reversal learning, when the platform is moved to an alternate quadrant in the maze. For both males and females, 2 groups of prepubertal animals were tested (postnatal day [P]30 and P33 for females, P40 and P43 for males), along with 1 group of newly (2 days) postpubertal animals and 1 group of young adults (P60). There were no group differences in learning the initial location of the platform or when the platform location changed, although grouping pre- and postpubertal ages did result in significantly better performance in postpubertal animals. In addition after the platform location changed, individual prepubertal males and females spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the quadrant of the maze where the platform was formerly located than the postpubertal animals. This collectively implies that pubertal onset in both males and females coincides with improved performance on a reversal task, which may be linked with the neuroanatomical changes occurring in the mPFC during this time. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054406

  14. Lactogenic and Cytogenetic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Adult Male Rats and Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid A. Abbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic and cytogenic effects were studied for Ochratoxin (OTA dosed daily orally throughout lactation period to four groups each consist of newly parturated female rats at doses (0, 60, 120, 180 µg/Kg. BW representing control, T1, T2, T3 group. Micronucleus test results indicated significant increase in number of fragmented and budding nuclei of T1, T2, T3 adult rat bone marrow in dose dependent manner in comparison with control group. The lactating results show no significant change in weekly pup group’s weight gain or length throughout lactating period. Alough there were no changes recorded in viability index of all pups groups, lactating index recorded considerable decline in T1, T2, T3 pups groups according with their adult OTA doses with maximum pups death at the third lactating week. Different histopathological lesions observed in pups liver, kidney and spleen that increase in severity proportionally with their OTA mother doses.

  15. GLUTATHIONE DYNAMICS IN THE SECOND GENERATION YOUNG RATS BLOOD AS A CONSEQUENCE OF FEMALE EXPOSURE TO Cr(VI INTOXICATION DURING GESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA GRĂVILĂ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromium compounds are found in the environment, due to erosion of chromium containing rocks and can be distributed by volcanic eruptions in food, water. Metals being non-biodegradable persist in the environment for a long period and cause serious ecotoxicological problems. Chromium, which exists in nature mostly in the trivalent form (Cr+3, is essential for activating certain enzymes and for stabilizing proteins and nucleic acids. We have studied the influence of the glutathione dynamics in the second generation rats blood, as a consequence of females chromium (VI intoxication during the gestation. This study was carried out on 7 Wistar adult female rats, control group (C, 21 adult Wistar female rats, devided in three experimental groups (E and theire young rats. The rats were feet, durind the gestation, with 25ppm (LOAEL, 50ppm and 75ppm potassium dichromate, ad libitum, in drinking water. The control batch received tap water. Reduced glutathione (GSH was measured quantitatively after the wean using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer, through Beutler et al. method, at 412nm. The study reports also the depletion of young rats blood GSH.

  16. Additive effects of dietary glycotoxins and androgen excess on the kidney of a female rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Palimeri

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The above mentioned data suggest that dietary glycotoxins, in combination with increased androgen exposure, exert a more profound negative impact on the kidney of an androgenized female rat model that mimics the metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE SUPPRESSES IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental Atrazine Exposure Suppresses Immune Function in Male, but not Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Andrew A. Rooney,*,1 Raymond A. Matulka,? and Robert Luebke? *College of Veterinary Medicine, Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, NCSU, Raleigh, North...

  18. Effect of Central Antileptin Antibody on the Onset of Female Rat Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yanfeng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV antileptin antibody on the onset of puberty in the female rat and the relationship between serum leptin, luteinizing hormone (LH, and body weight were investigated. Antileptin antibody (group A was infused ICV from days 23–36 in prepubertal female rats whereas the control (group B received ICV goat immunoglobulin G (IgG. In the antileptin group, mean day of vaginal opening (VO was postponed (day 34 versus day 30, . Body weight trended higher after 30 days in the antileptin group but not significantly. However, there was no difference in serum leptin and LH between the two groups on the day of VO. Serum leptin was relatively constant from day 23 through day 31 and did not correlate with LH . These studies demonstrate that central leptin promotes the onset of female rat puberty as evidenced by VO. Finally, central leptin impacts female rat pubertal onset in distinction from serum leptin and body weight.

  19. Acne-Related Quality of Life Among Female Adults of Different Races/Ethnicities

    OpenAIRE

    Gorelick, Joe; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Degboe, Arnold; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Douse-Dean, Tracee

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Acne impairs quality of life, but its effect on different races/ethnicities is unclear. This study evaluated racial/ethnic differences in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms among female adults. Methods A Web-based survey was conducted with U.S. female adults (25–45 years old) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, acne-related quality of life (Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire),...

  20. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Quamrun; Arifeen, Shams El; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Method Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15–49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths t...

  1. "Mixed germ cell testicular tumor" in an adult female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasimath Shivakumarswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization syndrome was described by Morris in phenotypic females with 46XY karyotype, presenting with primary amenorrhea, adequate breast development, and absent or scanty pubic or axillary hair. Gonads consist usually of seminiferous tubules without spermatogenesis. These patients have a 5-10% risk of developing germ cell tumors, usually after the complete development of secondary female sexual characteristics. We hereby report a case considered as a female with married life of 15 years, who was operated for severe abdominal pain. Phenotype characters were that of female. Microscopic examination of the tumor from the abdomen revealed germinoma and yolk sac tumor with adjacent seminiferous tubules. Karyotyping showed 46XY. Final diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor in androgen insensitivity syndrome was made. Surveillance may be the most appropriate option when these conditions are initially diagnosed in adulthood to prevent development of germ cell tumors.

  2. Hypothalamus-hypophysical system of the rat females under conditions of the prolonged internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcuate and suprachiasmatic hypothalamus nuclei, median eminence and adenohypothysis in female rats under prolonged inner irradiation conditions were studied by the electron-microscopic method. Changes in secretory neurocytes accumulation of secretory granules and neural terminals of median eminence, intensive formation of thyrotropin and prolactin secretion with productive hypothysis cells have been discovered. Develapment mechanisms of remote sequences of the ionizing radiation effect on the genital system of female rats are discussed

  3. Function of the Serotonin Transporter in Vasculature of the Female Rat: comparison with the male

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, A. Elizabeth; Davis, Robert Patrick; Burnett, Robert; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) handles serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and is blocked by the antidepressant SERT inhibitors fluoxetine and fluvoxamine. While the importance of SERT in the central nervous system is clear, SERT also functions in the peripheral vasculature. We tested the hypothesis that vasculature from female rats has increased SERT function compared to male rats because females are more responsive to SERT inhibitors.In addition to in vitro experiments, we imposed the c...

  4. Oestradiol and IGF1 reduce cell loss after global ischemia in middle-aged female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Traub, Michael L.; De Butte-Smith, Maxine; Zukin, R. Suzanne; Etgen, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the ability of oestradiol and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) to afford neuroprotection against ischemia-induced neuronal death in young female and male rodents is well established, the impact of IGF1 in middle-aged animals is largely unknown. This study assessed the efficacy of oestradiol and IGF1 in reducing neuronal death after transient global ischemia in middle-aged female rats following an 8-week hormone withdrawal. Rats were ovariohysterectomized (OVX) and implanted 8 weeks...

  5. Comparison of Dexamethasone Pharmacokinetics in Female Rats after Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Samtani, Mahesh N.; Jusko, William J.

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks a route of drug administration that would produce a pharmacokinetic profile for dexamethasone not significantly different from the intravenous route in female rats and would offer reproducible drug input with minimal stress to the animals. The intramuscular (IM) route of drug administration vs intravenous (IV) injection were compared in three female Wistar rats administered 1 mg/kg dexamethasone phosphate. Dexamethasone plasma concentrations were measured by a normal phase HP...

  6. Simvastatin-induced cardiac autonomic control improvement in fructose-fed female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Juliana da Silva; Nathalia Bernardes; Janaina de O. Brito; Iris Callado Sanches; Maria Cláudia Irigoyen; Kátia de Angelis

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8), fructose (n=8), and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8). Fructose overload was induced...

  7. Orexin-1 Receptor Mediation of Cocaine Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; Chan, Clifford; Lin, Li; Cameron, Michael D.; Kenny, Paul J.; See, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that female rats exhibit enhanced cocaine seeking during multiple phases of cocaine addiction compared with males. The orexin/hypocretin system recently has been implicated in drug addiction in male rats. Based on the known sex differences in cocaine addiction, in the current study we examined orexin-mediated cocaine seeking during self-administration, extinction, and reinstatement in age-matched male (initial weight 250–300 g) and female (initial weight 175–225 g)...

  8. Effect of Central Antileptin Antibody on the Onset of Female Rat Puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Ruimin Chen; Gail J. Mick; Rongxian Xu; Daoxin Zheng; Yanfeng Fan; Xiangquan Lin; McCormick, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) antileptin antibody on the onset of puberty in the female rat and the relationship between serum leptin, luteinizing hormone (LH), and body weight were investigated. Antileptin antibody (group A) was infused ICV from days 23–36 in prepubertal female rats whereas the control (group B) received ICV goat immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the antileptin group, mean day of vaginal opening (VO) was postponed (day 34 versus day 30, P<.01 ). Body weig...

  9. Cadmium causes delayed effects on renal function in the offspring of cadmium-contaminated pregnant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquillet, G; Barbier, O; Rubera, I; Tauc, M; Borderie, A; Namorado, M C; Martin, D; Sierra, G; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P; Cougnon, M

    2007-11-01

    In the adult rat, chronic cadmium intoxication induces nephropathy with Fanconi-like features. This result raises the question of whether intoxication of pregnant rats has any deleterious effects on renal function in their offspring. To test this hypothesis, we measured the renal function of 2- to 60-day-old postnatal offspring from female rats administered cadmium chloride by the oral route (0.5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) throughout their entire gestation. Investigations of rat offspring from contaminated pregnant rats showed the presence of cadmium in the kidney at gestational day 20. After birth, the cadmium kidney concentration increased from postnatal day 2 to day 60 (PND2 to PND60), presumably because of 1) milk contamination and 2) neonatal liver cadmium content release. Although the renal parameters (glomerular filtration, U/P inulin, and urinary excretion rate) were not significantly affected until PND45, renal failure appeared at PND60, as demonstrated by a dramatic decrease of the glomerular filtration rate associated with increased excretion of the main ions. In parallel, an immunofluorescence study of tight-junction protein expression of PND60 offspring from contaminated rats showed a disorganization of the tight-junction proteins claudin-2 and claudin-5, specifically expressed in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, respectively. In contrast, expression of a distal claudin protein, claudin-3, was not affected. In conclusion, in utero exposure of cadmium leads to toxic renal effects in adult offspring. These results suggest that contamination of pregnant rats is a serious and critical hazard for renal function of their offspring. PMID:17686954

  10. SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION IN AN ADULT FEMALE WITH OBSESSIVE SEXUAL THOUGHTS: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Awana, Sunil; Jena, Shivananda

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of an adult married Muslim female from an orthodox background having sexual obsessions about males other than her husband and her 7 year-old son. She developed diminished sexual desire to have sex with her husband as a result of her obsessions. The role of sexual obsessions in sexual dysfunction in females is discussed.

  11. Premature reproductive aging in female rats after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Long-lasting and delayed reproductive effects of developmental exposure to mixtures of environmental chemicals were investigated in female rats. Wistar rats were dosed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of endocrine disrupters, and effects in offspring were studied. The mixtures consisted...

  12. Pelvic Organ Distribution of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected Intravenously after Simulated Childbirth Injury in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Cruz; Charuspong Dissaranan; Anne Cotleur; Matthew Kiedrowski; Marc Penn; Margot Damaser

    2011-01-01

    The local route of stem cell administration utilized presently in clinical trials for stress incontinence may not take full advantage of the capabilities of these cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate if intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) home to pelvic organs after simulated childbirth injury in a rat model. Female rats underwent either vaginal distension (VD) or sham VD. All rats received 2 million GFP-labeled MSCs intravenously 1 hour after injury. Four or 10 days...

  13. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heekyung; Kang, Eunchai; GoodSmith, Douglas; Yoon, Do Yeon; Song, Hongjun; Knierim, James J; Ming, Guo-Li; Christian, Kimberly M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, soma hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function. PMID:26161071

  14. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekyung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1, the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, somatic hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function.

  15. Female cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) develop chronic anemia with renal inflammation and cystic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Daisuke; Nakamura, Saori; Sato, Shinobu; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-01

    The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a laboratory rodent that has been used for studies on human infectious diseases. In the present study, we observed that female cotton rats, not the male cotton rats, developed chronic anemia characterized by reduced red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels from 5 to 9 months of age without any changes in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and volume levels. In peripheral blood, the reticulocyte count did not increase in response to anemia in female cotton rats, and no extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed in the liver or spleen. Further, the serum levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine increased from 5 to 9 months of age in female cotton rats compared to male cotton rats, and these increases became more prominent from 10 months of age onward, indicating chronic kidney disease. Histopathologically, female cotton rats manifested tubulointerstitial lesions characterized by the infiltration of mononuclear cells, including plasma cells and CD3(+) T-cells, as well as the dilation of calbindin-D28k(+) distal tubules from 5 to 9 months of age. The severity of these lesions progressed from 10 months of age onward, and renal fibrotic features and numerous tubular cysts appeared without any obvious glomerular lesions. A significant decrease in the erythropoietin protein levels was observed in the kidney of aged female cotton rats, and significant correlations were detected between anemia and tubulointerstitial damage. These results suggest that aged female cotton rats chronically develop renal anemia, and this rodent may serve as a novel model to elucidate its pathogenesis. PMID:27099161

  16. Neural mechanisms of female sexual behavior in the rat; comparison with male ejaculatory control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential organization of sexual behavior of the female rat is described, eventually leading to the lordotic posture, shown during mating. A complex set of signals: olfactory, cutaneous sensory as well as genitosensory, is guiding the female to this specific posture, eventually. Genitosensory s

  17. Differences in behavior associated to anxiety in male and Female rats exposed to a chronic stress protocol: Early maternal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas Gómez, Zulma Janeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the first stages of life, the environment and maternal interactions are essential for normal mammalian neuronal maturity and behavior. In fact, it has been demonstrated that disruption of mother-pup interaction during early life exert long-lasting effects on the development of central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and behavioral responses. The principal aim of our work was to study the consequences of early maternal separation (EMS on adult male and female anxiety. The behaviors was evaluated using the Elavated Plus-Maze (EPM. Separation procedure was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21 twice daily: three hours in the morning and three hours in the afternoon. As a control group we used animals that stayed with the mother but were manipulated daily for one minute in the morning and in the afternoon. In postnatal day 22, animals were distributed by sex and then kept in standard lab conditions. Behavioral testing in the EPM was performed at 90/95 days of age. All subjects were videotaped. Records included number of entries, time spent in each arm, and the frequency and time stretching, deeping, rearing, and grooming. Our results showed that separated females have more open arm entries and spent more time there, and exhibit more deeping and less grooming compared to females in the control group and males of the experimental and control group. Thus, based on the anxiolytic profile that female rat shows in the EPM, these data suggest that EMS affects differentially male and female adult rats

  18. Hippocampal long-term potentiation is reduced in mature compared to young male rats but not in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, P; Felipo, V

    2007-05-11

    Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive function which could be due to reduced synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity-dependent form of increased transmission efficacy at synapses that is considered the basis for some forms of learning and memory. We studied the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-dependent LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampus in young (2 months) and mature (8 months) male and female rats. We have found that in young male rats the tetanus increased the magnitude of excitatory post-synaptic potentials to 204+/-10% of basal while in mature male rats the magnitude of the LTP was significantly lower reaching only 153+/-11% of basal. This decrease did not occur in female rats. Similar changes occurred in the content of the NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in hippocampus. The amount of both subunits was reduced significantly (15-16%) in hippocampus of 8-month-old compared with 2-month-old male rats. This decrease was not observed in female rats. Moreover, there is a significant correlation between the content of NR1 subunit and the magnitude of the potentiation. These data suggest that some of the neurobiological changes induced in hippocampus by aging are different in males and females. PMID:17395392

  19. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse

  20. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL, estradiol (0.05 mg/mL, progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  1. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Couto-Pereira, N.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nin, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Porto Alegre, Centro Metodista do Sul, Curso de Farmácia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Curso de Farmácia, Centro Metodista do Sul, Instituto Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gomez, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Farmacologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barros, H.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  2. Antenatal hypoxia induces programming of reduced arterial blood pressure response in female rat offspring: role of ovarian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaLiao Xiao

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to adverse environmental factors increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The present study tested the hypothesis that antenatal hypoxia causes a gender-dependent programming of altered arterial blood pressure response (BP in adult offspring. Time-dated pregnant rats were divided into normoxic and hypoxic (10.5% O2 from days 15 to 21 of gestation groups. The experiments were conducted in adult offspring. Antenatal hypoxia caused intrauterine growth restriction, and resulted in a gender-dependent increase Angiotensin II (Ang II-induced BP response in male offspring, but significant decrease in BP response in female offspring. The baroreflex sensitivity was not significantly altered. Consistent with the reduced blood pressure response, antenatal hypoxia significantly decreased Ang II-induced arterial vasoconstriction in female offspring. Ovariectomy had no significant effect in control animals, but significantly increased Ang II-induced maximal BP response in prenatally hypoxic animals and eliminated the difference of BP response between the two groups. Estrogen replacement in ovariectomized animals significantly decreased the BP response to angiotensin II I only in control, but not in hypoxic animals. The result suggests complex programming mechanisms of antenatal hypoxia in regulation of ovary function. Hypoxia-mediated ovary dysfunction results in the phenotype of reduced vascular contractility and BP response in female adult offspring.

  3. Neurons and Glial Cells Are Added to the Female Rat Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus During Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Margaret A; Garcia, Francisca L; DonCarlos, Lydia L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-06-01

    The anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) orchestrates the neuroendocrine-positive feedback response that triggers ovulation in female rodents. The AVPV is larger and more cell-dense in females than in males, and during puberty, only females develop the capacity to show a positive feedback response. We previously reported a potential new mechanism to explain this female-specific gain of function during puberty, namely a female-biased sex difference in the pubertal addition of new cells to the rat AVPV. Here we first asked whether this sex difference is due to greater cell proliferation and/or survival in females. Female and male rats received the cell birthdate marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 200 mg/kg, ip) on postnatal day (P) 30; brains were collected at short and long intervals after BrdU administration to assess cell proliferation and survival, respectively. Overall, females had more BrdU-immunoreactive cells in the AVPV than did males, with no sex differences in the rate of cell attrition over time. Thus, the sex difference in pubertal addition of AVPV cells appears to be due to greater cell proliferation in females. Next, to determine the phenotype of pubertally born AVPV cells, daily BrdU injections were given to female rats on P28-56, and tissue was collected on P77 to assess colocalization of BrdU and markers for mature neurons or glia. Of the pubertally born AVPV cells, approximately 15% differentiated into neurons, approximately 19% into astrocytes, and approximately 23% into microglia. Thus, both neuro- and gliogenesis occur in the pubertal female rat AVPV and potentially contribute to maturation of female reproductive function. PMID:27145006

  4. Aldosterone metabolism in the isolated perfused liver of female and male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sex-dependent metabolism of aldosterone has been reported in intact rats. To further characterize the hepatic elimination of aldosterone and its sex dependence, the metabolism of d-[4-14C]aldosterone was studied in isolated perfused liver from male and female Wistar rats, from male rats castrated 3 weeks before experiments, and from younger male rats (same body weight as the female rats). The livers were perfused at a constant flow rate in a recirculating mode with a hemoglobin-free medium containing aldosterone at initially 1 nM. Perfusate aldosterone was measured by a specific RIA. Total 4-14C radio-activity in perfusate and bile was determined. The perfusate [4-14C]aldosterone radiometabolite concentration was calculated. The radiometabolite pattern in additional experiments was studied by HPLC. The male rats exhibited 10% higher systolic blood pressure (P less than 0.05) and 51% higher fasting values of plasma aldosterone (P less than 0.05) compared to those in the female rats. In female rats the hepatic clearance rate of aldosterone per 100 g BW was 72% higher than that in male rats (11.2 +/- 2.7 to 6.5 +/- 1.8 ml/min: P less than 0.01), and that expressed per g liver wet wt was 75% higher (3.5 +/- 1.0 to 2.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min; P less than 0.01). When female rats were compared to younger male rats with the same body weight, 33% higher hepatic aldosterone clearance rates were still found in female rats (21.0 +/- 5.4 to 15.8 +/- 3.2 ml/min; P less than 0.05), and 51% higher values when expressed per g liver wet wt (3.5 +/- 1.0 to 2.3 +/- 0.5 ml/min; P less than 0.01). No difference in the aldosterone clearance rate was observed in castrated male rats compared to that in noncastrated male rats. 4-14C-Labeled radiometabolite levels accumulated similarly in the perfusate of livers of both sexes

  5. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2012-01-01

    , Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 5, 15 or 50 μg/kg of ethinyl oestradiol per day during gestation and lactation. A wide range of morphological parameters were evaluated in whole mounts of mammary glands from male and female offspring PD21–22. This study showed that in both male and female pre......, indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study......‐pubertal Wistar rats, mammary gland development was accelerated after perinatal oestrogen exposure with increase in size, density and number of terminal end buds (TEBs). In female rats, the most sensitive parameters were the distance to the fifth gland, the relative growth towards the lymph node and the overall...

  6. Gender and estrous cycle influences on behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adult rats neonatally administered ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célia Moreira Borella, Vládia; Seeman, Mary V; Carneiro Cordeiro, Rafaela; Vieira dos Santos, Júnia; Romário Matos de Souza, Marcos; Nunes de Sousa Fernandes, Ethel; Santos Monte, Aline; Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Silvânia; Quinn, John P; de Lucena, David F; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in rodents triggers schizophrenia (SCZ)-like alterations during adult life. SCZ is influenced by gender in age of onset, premorbid functioning, and course. Estrogen, the hormone potentially driving the gender differences in SCZ, is known to present neuroprotective effects such as regulate oxidative pathways and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, the aim of this study was to verify if differences in gender and/or estrous cycle phase during adulthood would influence the development of behavioral and neurochemical alterations in animals neonatally administered ketamine. The results showed that ketamine-treated male (KT-male) and female-in-diestrus (KTF-diestrus, the low estrogen phase) presented significant deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and spatial working memory, two behavioral SCZ endophenotypes. On the contrary, female ketamine-treated rats during proestrus (KTF-proestrus, the high estradiol phase) had no behavioral alterations. This correlated with an oxidative imbalance in the hippocampus (HC) of both male and KTF-diestrus female rats, that is, decreased levels of GSH and increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitrite. Similarly, BDNF was decreased in the KTF-diestrus rats while no alterations were observed in KTF-proestrus and male animals. The changes in the HC were in contrast to those in the prefrontal cortex in which only increased levels of nitrite in all groups studied were observed. Thus, there is a gender difference in the adult rat HC in response to ketamine neonatal administration, which is based on the estrous cycle. This is discussed in relation to neuropsychiatric conditions and in particular SCZ. PMID:26215537

  7. The Effect of Diazinon on Cholinesterase Activity in Plasma and Erythrocytes of Male and Female Rats and the Protective Role of Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rahimi Anbarkeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diazinon (DZN is an organophosphate insecticide that one of the mechanisms of toxicity is the inhibition of cholinesterase. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diazinon on cholinesterase activity in blood serum and erythrocytes of male and female rats and to assess the protective role of vitamin E. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 60 adult wistar rats including 30 male and 30 female rats were selected and divided into 5 groups (n = 6: control group (without any intervention, sham group (received only pure olive oil daily, experimental group 1 (DZN daily, 60 mg/kg, experimental group 2 (received DZN+ vitamin E daily, with the same dose and experimental group 3(received vitamin E daily 200 mg/kg. Diazinon and solvent were injected intraperitoneally and vitamin E was given by gavage. After 2 weeks 3 ml blood was taken from the heart tissue, and titrimetric and Ellman’s method respectively were used for serum and erythrocyte cholinesterases activity assay. Results: In both genders, due to administration of diazinon, we observed significant reduction in serum and erythrocytes cholinesterase activity. The use of vitamin E increased serum and erythrocytes cholinesterase activity in experimental group 2 of female rats but inhibition in erythrocyte and serum cholinesterase activity was not recovered in experimental group 2 of male rats. Conclusion: According to a further reduction of these enzymes activity in female rats with the use of diazinon, it can be concluded that female rats are more sensitive than male rats and it seems that vitamin E as an antioxidants has a protective effect on cholinesterase activity and reduces the toxicity of DZN. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21 (4:294-303

  8. Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

  9. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...... studies suggests that the choroid plexus in embryonic brain plays a major role in supplying the developing brain with essential nutrients.......The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and...... in the adult plexus were expressed at higher levels than in embryos. These results are compared with earlier published physiological studies of amino acid and monocarboxylate transport in developing rodents. This comparison shows correlation of high expression of some transporters in the developing...

  10. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats produces limited effects on endocrine, behavioral, or gene expression measures in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Olson, Darin E.; Owens, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Stress and/or antidepressants during pregnancy have been implicated in a wide range of long-term effects in the offspring. We investigated the long-term effects of prenatal stress and/or clinically relevant antidepressant exposure on male adult offspring in a model of the pharmacotherapy of maternal depression. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that delivered clinically relevant exposure to the antidepressant escitalopram throughout gestation. Subsequently, preg...

  11. Effects of testosterone on sexual behavior and morphology in adult female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Ross, J; Crews, D

    1999-10-01

    The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, is a species in which testosterone (T) is the primary circulating sex hormone in adults of both sexes. There are, however, sex differences in T physiology. Whereas males have prolonged periods with high T levels, T levels cycle in accord with follicular development in females. Specifically, T concentration increases during vitellogenesis, drops after ovulation, and then remains at previtellogenic levels until eggs are laid and the next follicular cycle begins. To determine the function of T in females, we manipulated both the level and the duration of T elevation using Silastic implants in intact, adult female leopard geckos. Females had low ( approximately 1 ng/ml), medium ( approximately 100 ng/ml), or high ( approximately 200 ng/ml) T levels for either a short (8 days) or a long (35 days) duration. Behavior tests with males were conducted on days 1-5 in the short-duration group or on days 29-33 in the long-duration group. For both short- and long-duration groups, T treatment decreased attractivity in females with medium and high T levels compared to females with low T levels. In contrast, females with a medium T level were more receptive than females with a low T level in the short-duration group. Females in the long-duration group were unreceptive regardless of T level. Females treated for a long duration also displayed more aggression toward and evoked more aggression from males than short duration females. Short-duration T treatment had no masculinizing effect on female morphology, whereas medium and high T levels for a long duration induced development of hemipenes. Overall, these results suggest that T can both increase and decrease sexual behaviors in the female leopard gecko. PMID:10506536

  12. Nutritional and antioxidant status by skin types among female adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun Sook; Choi, Sung Im; Ahn, Hong Seok

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze the relationship among sebum · hydration content of the skin and nutritional intake, serum antioxidant minerals and antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxide concentration in 50 female subjects in their 20s. The skin type was divided into Dry Skin, Mixed Skin, and Oily Skin, and the dry skin group was 14%, the mixed skin group was 56%, and the oily skin group was 30% of all subjects. The average age of the subjects was 20.54 ± 1.43 years and BMI was 20.66. Th...

  13. Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in Female Rats in a Pediatric Model of Controlled Cortical Impact Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available We recently showed that progesterone treatment can reduce lesion size and behavioral deficits after moderate-to-severe bilateral injury to the medial prefrontal cortex in immature male rats. Whether there are important sex differences in response to injury and progesterone treatment in very young subjects has not been given sufficient attention. Here we investigated progesterone's effects in the same model of brain injury but with pre-pubescent females.Twenty-eight-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats received sham (n = 14 or controlled cortical impact (CCI (n = 21 injury, were given progesterone (8 mg/kg body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, and underwent behavioral testing from PID 9-27. Brains were evaluated for lesion size at PID 28.Lesion size in vehicle-treated female rats with CCI injury was smaller than that previously reported for similarly treated age-matched male rats. Treatment with progesterone reduced the effect of CCI on extent of damage and behavioral deficits.Pre-pubescent female rats with midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex have reduced morphological and functional deficits following progesterone treatment. While gender differences in susceptibility to this injury were observed, progesterone treatment produced beneficial effects in young rats of both sexes following CCI.

  14. How various drugs affect anxiety-related behavior in male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macúchová, E; Ševčíková, M; Hrebíčková, I; Nohejlová, K; Šlamberová, R

    2016-06-01

    Different forms of anxiety-related behavior have been reported after a single drug use of many abused substances, however, less is known about how males and females are affected differently from exposure to various drugs. Furthermore, chronic prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure was shown to predispose the animal to an increased sensitivity to drugs administrated in adulthood. Using the Elevated plus-maze test (EPM), the first aim of the present study was to examine how male and female rats are affected by acute drug treatment with subcutaneously (s.c.) administrated (a) MA (1mg/kg); (b) drugs with a similar mechanism of action to MA: amphetamine (AMP, 1mg/kg), cocaine (COC, 5mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 5mg/kg); and (c) drugs with different mechanisms of action: morphine (MOR, 5mg/kg), and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 2mg/kg). The second aim was to determine if prenatally MA-exposed (5mg/kg) animals show an increased sensitivity to adult drug treatment. The parameters analyzed were divided into two categories: anxiety-related behavior and anxiety-unrelated/exploratory behavior. Our results showed in female rats a decreased percentage of the time spent in the closed arms (CA) after MA, and an increased percentage of the time spent in the open arms (OA) after MA, AMP, and COC treatment, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. In females, MDMA and THC treatment increased the percentage of the time spent in the CA. An increased percentage of the time spent in the CA was also seen after MOR treatment in females as well as in males, indicating an anxiogenic-like effect. As far as the interaction between prenatal MA exposure and adult drug treatment is concerned, there was no effect found. In conclusion, it seems that: (a) in some cases female rats are more vulnerable to acute drug treatment, in terms of either anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects; (b) prenatal MA exposure does not sensitize animals to the anxiety-related effects of any of the

  15. Partner preference behavior of estrous female rats affected by castration of tethered male incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, M; de Bruin, M; Smeenk, J; Slob, A K; van der Schoot, P

    1988-09-01

    Estrous female rats were allowed to interact with either of two tethered intact male rats or to stay in an empty middle part of a three-compartment observation cage during a 60-min test. Sexual interactions occurred with both males (resulting in one to five ejaculations) but most time was spent in the empty compartment. After castration of one of the males, females spent more time with this male than with the intact male, although sexual interactions continued with both incentive animals. This "preference" for the castrated male persisted through the second hour of observation in a second experiment (total test time 115 min) although sexual interactions had virtually ceased during this period. Females' preference for castrated males seemed largely the consequence of aversion to genital stimulation received during intromissions by intact animals: (a) when intromissions were prevented through vaginal occlusion, intact males became by far the preferred partners for the whole 2-hr period of testing while sexual behavior continued to occur throughout the test; (b) when choice was allowed between a testosterone-treated ovariectomized female and an intact male, sexual interaction occurred with both tethered incentive rats but the female became the preferred animal. The results suggest that two opposite tendencies play a role in sexual motivation of estrous female rats: attraction resulting from the action of ovarian hormones on the central nervous system and rejection resulting from genital sensory stimulation through the male's genitalia. PMID:3169698

  16. Physical and motor development in male and female rat offspring prenatally exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on physical and motor development of male and female rats exposed to ionizing radiation in utero were studied. Rats were exposed to three different doses of radiation (150 rad, 15 rad and 6.8 rad, considered as high, moderate and low doses of radiation respectively) on the 20th day of prenatal life. Exposure to 150 rad contributed to significantly lower body weights of both male and female rat offspring. Upper jaw tooth eruption was delayed in 150 rad treated male offspring, as well as in 15 rad and 150 rad treated female offspring. Cliff-avoidance response was delayed in 6.8 rad, 15 rad, and 150 rad treated male offspring; and 150 rad treated female offspring. Lower jaw tooth eruption, eye opening, and crawling were not affected by radiation in male or female animals. Results indicate that radiation affected the developmental parameters of both male and female rat offspring, and sex of the offspring played no role in the magnitude of radiation induced damages

  17. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  18. /sup 20/neon ion- and x-ray-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shellabarger, C.J.; Baum, J.W.; Holtzman, S.; Stone, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    One of the proposed uses of heavy ion irradiation is to image lesions of the human female breast. The rat model system was chosen to assess the carcinogenic potential of heavy ion irradiation in the belief that data obtained from rat studies would have a qualitatively predictive value for the human female. Accordingly, female rats were exposed to /sup 20/Ne ions at the BEVALAC and studied for the development of mammary neoplasia for 312 +- 2 days at Brookhaven along with rats exposed concurrently to x-irradiation or to no irradiation. As the dose of either type of radiation was increased the percent of rats with mammary adenocarcinomas, and the percent of rats with mammary fibroadenomas, tended to increase. At a prevalence of 20%, the RBE for /sup 20/Neon ions for mammary adenocarcinomas was estimated to be larger than 5 and for mammary fibroadenomas the RBE was estimated to be less than 2. No conclusion was reached concerning whether or not the RBE might vary with dose. We suggest that /sup 20/Ne ions do have a carcinogenic potential for rat mammary tissue and that this carcinogenic potential is likely to be greater than for x-irradiation. (DT)

  19. Modulation of Steroidogenic Pathway in Rat Granulosa Cells with Subclinical Cd Exposure and Insulin Resistance: An Impact on Female Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskaan Belani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle lead to insulin resistance (IR in females ultimately predisposing them towards infertility. In addition, cadmium (Cd, an environmental endocrine disruptor, is reported for detrimental effects on granulosa cells, thus leading to ovarian dysfunction. A combination of these factors, lifestyle and environment, seems to play a role in etiology of idiopathic infertility that accounts for 50% amongst the total infertility cases. To address this issue, we made an attempt to investigate the extent of Cd impact on insulin-resistant (IR granulosa cells. We exposed adult female Charles Foster rats to dexamethasone and confirmed IR condition by fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI. On treatment of IR rats with Cd, the preliminary studies demonstrated prolonged estrous cyclicity, decrease in serum estradiol concentrations, abnormal histology of ovary, and increased granulosa cell death. Further gene and protein expression studies of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD, and cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1 were performed. Protein expression studies demonstrated significant decrease in treated groups when compared with control. Study revealed that, in spite of the molecular parameters being affected at varied level, overall ovarian physiology is maximally affected in IR and Cd coexposed group, thus mimicking the condition similar to those prevailing in infertile females.

  20. Diffuse hair loss in an adult female: Approach to diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Telogen effluvium (TE) is the most common cause of diffuse hair loss in adult females. TE, along with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and chronic telogen effluvium (CTE), accounts for the majority of diffuse alopecia cases. Abrupt, rapid, generalized shedding of normal club hairs, 2-3 months after a triggering event like parturition, high fever, major surgery, etc. indicates TE, while gradual diffuse hair loss with thinning of central scalp/widening of central parting line/frontotemporal rece...

  1. BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kanna; Mikawa, Sumiko; Sato, Kohji

    2016-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3) is a very unique member of the TGF-β superfamily, because it functions as an antagonist to both the canonical BMP and activin pathways and plays important roles in multiple biological events. Although BMP3 expression has been described in the early development of the kidney, intestine and bone, little information is available for BMP3 expression in the central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated BMP3 expression in the adult rat CNS using immunohistochemistry. BMP3 was intensely expressed in most neurons and their axons. Furthermore, we found that astrocytes and ependymal cells also express BMP3 protein. These data indicate that BMP3 is widely expressed throughout the adult CNS, and its abundant expression in the adult brain strongly supports the idea that BMP3 plays important roles in the adult brain. PMID:27130896

  2. Induction of liver monooxygenases by annatto and bixin in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.A.X. De-Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Annatto or urucum is an orange-yellow dye obtained from Bixa orellana seeds. It has been used as a natural dye in a variety of food products, drugs and cosmetics, and also in Brazilian cuisine as a condiment ('colorau'. Bixin, a carotenoid devoid of provitamin A activity, is the main pigment found in annatto. Some carotenoids (canthaxanthin, astaxanthin and ß-Apo-8'-carotenal are known to be potent inducers of CYP1A1, a property not shared by others (ß-carotene, lycopene and lutein. Little is known, however, about the CYP1A1-inducing properties of bixin and annatto. The present study was performed to determine the effects of an annatto extract (28% bixin and bixin (95% pure on rat liver monooxygenases. Adult female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with daily doses of annatto (250 mg/kg body weight, which contains approximately 70 mg bixin/kg body weight, bixin (250 mg/kg body weight or the vehicle only (corn oil, 3.75 g/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days, or were not treated (untreated control. The activities of aniline-4-hydroxylase (A4H, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD, ethoxy- (EROD, methoxy- (MROD, pentoxy- (PROD and benzyloxy- (BROD resorufin-O-dealkylases were measured in liver microsomes. Annatto (250 mg/kg containing 70 mg bixin/kg induced EROD (3.8x, MROD (4.2x, BROD (3.3x and PROD (2.4x. Bixin (250 mg/kg was a weaker inducer of EROD (2.7x, MROD (2.3x and BROD (1.9x and did not alter PROD, A4H or ECOD activities. These results suggest that constituents of the extract other than bixin play an important role in the induction of CYP1A and CYP2B observed with annatto food colorings.

  3. Gender-Related Differences in Sensitivity to Diazinon in Gonads of Adult Rats and the Protective Effect of Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Sargazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diazinon (DZN is an organophosphate pesticide which is known to induce oxidative stress in the target tissues such as the reproductive system. The aim of present study was to compare and evaluate the effects of DZN on Malondialdehyde (MDA and Glutathione (GSH levels in testis and ovary of rats and to assess the protective role of vitamin E. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 adult Wistar rats including 30 male and 30 female rats. Each of male and female groups included 30 rats and were divided into 5 groups: control (without any intervention, sham group (received only pure olive oil daily, treatment group 1 (received DZN+olive oil daily, 60 mg/kg, treatment group 2 (received DZN, 60 mg/kg + vitamin E, 200 mg/kg daily and treatment group 3 (received vitamin E daily, 200 mg/kg. MDA and GSH levels were determined in gonads. Results: In both genders, due to administration of DZN, we found significant reduction in GSH content and increase in MDA level. The use of vitamin E plus DZN increased GSH content while decreased MDA level of ovary and testis compared with DZN treated rats. Gonad of female rats compared with male rats showed more increase in MDA level and further decline in GSH content in treatment groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: Oxidative stress contributes to DZN-induced sexual organ toxicity. Our results concluded that vitamin E may have a protective role in this toxicity. Female rats are likely more vulnerable to oxidative stress and its damages.

  4. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Shirk, Paul D

    2009-04-01

    Commercial shipments of Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller). To determine whether modified dietary conditions might improve predation, newly eclosed adult female Orius pumilio (Champion) were fed on E. kuehniella eggs plus encapsulated water, encapsulated 5% sucrose solution only, or encapsulated water only for periods of 24, 48, or 72 h. Feeding activity was assessed by measuring the area of a crop in digital images of dissected digestive tracts. Adult females fed continuously on eggs had larger crops than did females fed on encapsulated sucrose solution. When females were prefed encapsulated water or sucrose and then fed 3 h on eggs, their crops became highly engorged and were larger than those in females fed continuously on eggs for the same periods. In behavioral choice tests, adult females prefed on encapsulated water or 5% sucrose solution spent a larger portion of time in contact with eggs, presumably feeding, whereas females prefed on eggs showed no preference between eggs or encapsulated water. After overnight shipping, females prefed on water or sucrose and held for 48 h total consumed 3.6- and 4.3-fold, respectively, more western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in 3 h than those prefed on eggs. Survival rates when prefed on sugar or water were comparable with prefeeding on eggs. Thus, inundative releases of Orius can be enhanced by starvation, because females initially feed much more voraciously after shipment with no apparent reduction in fitness. PMID:19449628

  5. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  6. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  7. Leptin differentially increases sympathetic nerve activity and its baroreflex regulation in female rats: role of oestrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhigang; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-04-01

    Obesity and hypertension are commonly associated, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system is considered to be a major contributor, at least in part due to the central actions of leptin. However, while leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in males, whether leptin is equally effective in females is unknown. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) leptin increases lumbar (LSNA) and renal (RSNA) SNA and baroreflex control of LSNA and RSNA in α-chloralose anaesthetized female rats, but only during pro-oestrus. In contrast, i.c.v. leptin increased basal and baroreflex control of splanchnic SNA (SSNA) and heart rate (HR) in rats in both the pro-oestrus and dioestrus states. The effects of leptin on basal LSNA, RSNA, SSNA and HR were similar in males and pro-oestrus females; however, i.c.v. leptin increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) only in males. Leptin did not alter LSNA or HR in ovariectomized rats, but its effects were normalized with 4 days of oestrogen treatment. Bilateral nanoinjection of SHU9119 into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), to block α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) type 3 and 4 receptors, decreased LSNA in leptin-treated pro-oestrus but not dioestrus rats. Unlike leptin, i.c.v. insulin infusion increased basal and baroreflex control of LSNA and HR similarly in pro-oestrus and dioestrus rats; these responses did not differ from those in male rats. We conclude that, in female rats, leptin's stimulatory effects on SNA are differentially enhanced by oestrogen, at least in part via an increase in α-MSH activity in the PVN. These data further suggest that the actions of leptin and insulin to increase the activity of various sympathetic nerves occur via different neuronal pathways or cellular mechanisms. These results may explain the poor correlation in females of SNA with adiposity, or of MAP with leptin. PMID:25398524

  8. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeja E; Joshi S; Jain D

    2009-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80), chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histologica...

  9. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeja, E.; Joshi, S.B.; D. C. Jain

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60–80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods: Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological ...

  10. Nephrocalcinosis in Female Rats Fed Diets Containing Either Pectin, Galacturonic Acid or Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, H.; A. Beynen; Mohamed, H. E.; A. Alhaidary; Beynen, A C

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In our earlier study, dietary pectin has been shown to promote nephrocalcinosis in rats when compared with the feeding of cellulose. It was not known whether this pectin effect relates to its structure or to its monosaccharide component, galacturonic acid. Approach: The effects of dietary pectin, galacturonic acid and glucose on kidney calcification were studied in female rats. The purified diets used had similar concentrations of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Results:...

  11. Nephrocalcinosis in Female Rats Fed Diets Containing Either Pectin or Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Alhaidary; Mohamed, H. E.; Beynen, A C

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: There is evidence that the type of fiber influences the development of nephrocalcinosis in rats, but the effect of pectin was unknown. Approach: The effects of dietary pectin and cellulose on kidney calcification were studied in female rats. The diets used contained either 0.4-0.6% phosphorus and either cellulose (10%, w/w) or pectin. The purified diets used were balanced for residual calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the fiber preparations. Results: Increasing the phosp...

  12. Interaction between ractopamine and growth hormone in the metabolism of hypophysectomized female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Sacramento Barros; Filipe Curti; Leonardo Rafael da Silva; Tauany Costa; Raquel Vieira Lobato; Luciano José Pereira; Márcio Gilberto Zangerônimo; Marcelo Eustáquio Silva; Raimundo Vicente de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Ractopamine and growth hormone have been extensively studied due to their ability to generate a better partition of nutrients in the body, providing an increased muscle protein synthesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Thus, this article aims to check the effects of interaction between these substances on the metabolism of hypophysectomized female rats, and their individual effects on the body composition of these animals. Thirty Fisher rats were distributed into five treatments, one of them...

  13. Plasma progesterone levels and cocaine-seeking in freely cycling female rats across the estrous cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.; See, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex and estrous cycle dependent differences in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking triggered by cocaine injections or drug-paired cues. However, the relationship between estradiol or progesterone levels and cocaine-seeking in a reinstatement model of relapse has not been explored. Thus, we examined changes in plasma hormone levels during cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behaviors in gonadally intact female rats. Rats self-administered cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infus...

  14. Effects of Artemisia lanata Extract on Reproductive Parameters of Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ainehchi Nava; Zahedi Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Until date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia lanata. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. lanata on reproduction of female rats. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated (i.p.) with vehicle or 200 and 400mg/kg of A. lanata hydroalcoholic extract from the 2-8 day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Furthermore, c...

  15. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lalanza, Jaume F.; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (s...

  16. Intermittent Brugada Syndrome Presenting with Syncope in an Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chavez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brugada syndrome accounts for 4–12% of all sudden deaths worldwide and at least 20% of sudden deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts. Case Report. A 48-year-old female presented to the emergency department after two witnessed syncopal episodes. While awaiting discharge had a third collapse followed by cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm. Initial electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex with left axis deviation, ST-segment elevation of 2 mm followed by a negative T wave with no isoelectric separation, suggestive of spontaneous intermittent Brugada type 1 pattern. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated neither structural heart disease nor abnormal myocardium. After placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator the patient was discharged. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Brugada syndrome is an infrequently encountered clinical entity which may have a fatal outcome. This syndrome primarily presents with syncope. It should be considered as a component of differential diagnosis in patients with family history of syncope and sudden cardiac death.

  17. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and...... characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution of...... epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  18. Factor analysis shows that female rat behaviour is characterized primarily by activity, male rats are driven by sex and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C; González, M I; Wilson, C A; File, S E

    1999-12-01

    This experiment explored sex differences in behaviour using factor analysis to describe the relationship between different behavioral variables. A principal component solution with an orthogonal rotation of the factor matrix was used, ensuring that the extracted factors are independent of one another, and thus reflect separate processes. In the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, in male rats factor 1 accounted for 75% of the variance and reflected anxiety, factor 2 represented activity, and accounted for 24% of the variance. This contrasted with the finding in female rats in which factor 1 was activity, accounting for 57% of the variance, with the anxiety factor accounting for only 34% of the variance. When behaviour in both the plus-maze and holeboard were analysed, a similar sex difference was found with anxiety emerging as factor 1 in males and holeboard activity as factor 1 in females. Locomotor activity in the inner portion of the holeboard loaded on the anxiety factor for males, but on activity for females. When behaviours in the plus-maze and sexual orientation tests were analysed, anxiety emerged as factor 1 in males, sexual preferences factor 2, and activity factor 3. In females, activity was factor 1, sexual preference factor 2, anxiety factor 3, and social interest factor 4. These results suggest caution should be exercised in interpreting the results from female rats in tests validated on males because the primary controlling factor may be different. PMID:10593196

  19. Estrogen in prefrontal cortex blocks stress-induced cognitive impairments in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Eunice Y; Wei, Jing; Yan, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Animal and human studies have found that males and females show distinct stress responses. Recent studies suggest the contribution of estrogen in the brain to this sexual dimorphism. Repeated stress has been found to impair cognitive behaviors via suppressing glutamatergic transmission and glutamate receptor surface expression in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in male rats. On the contrary, female rats exposed to the same stress paradigms show normal synaptic function and PFC-mediated cognition. The level of aromatase, the enzyme for the biosynthesis of estrogen, is significantly higher in the PFC of females than males. The stress-induced glutamatergic deficits and memory impairment are unmasked by blocking estrogen receptors or aromatase in females, suggesting a protective role of estrogen against the detrimental effects of repeated stress. PMID:26321384

  20. Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB153 or PCB126 impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrafita, Blanca; Erceg, Slaven; Cauli, Omar; Monfort, Pilar; Felipo, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants present in the food chain and in human blood and milk. Exposure to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment in children. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Some PCBs are endocrine disrupters. The aim of this work was to assess whether exposure of rats to PCB126 (dioxin-like) or PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) during pregnancy and lactation affects the ability of the pups to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task and/or the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo when the rats are young (3 months) or adult (7-8 months). After finishing the learning experiments, the function of the pathway was analysed in the same rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. The results obtained show that perinatal exposure to PCB153 or PCB126: (1) impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats, (2) impairs the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in cerebellum in vivo in young but not in adult rats and (3) affect these parameters in males and females similarly. PCB126 is around 10 000-fold more potent than PCB153. In control rats the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and learning ability are lower in adult than in young rats. These age-related differences are not present in rats exposed to PCBs. The impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function induced at young age by developmental exposure to the PCBs could be one of the mechanisms contributing to the cognitive impairment found in children whose mothers ingested PCB-contaminated food during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:18093177

  1. Impact of three endocrine disruptors, Bisphenol A, Genistein and Vinclozolin on female rat enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedeon, K; Berdal, A; Babajko, A

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the potential adverse effectsof endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been increasingover the last three decades. BisphenolA (BPA), genistein (G) and vinclozolin (V) arethree widely used EDs sharing similar effects.Since populations are exposed to many diverseEDs simultaneously, we demonstratedrecently their impact alone or combined onmale rat tooth enamel. The purpose of thisstudy was therefore to assess their effects onfemale rat tooth enamel in order to understandwhy they are differentially sensitive. Ratswere exposed daily in utero and after birth tolow doses of EDs during the critical fetal andsuckling periods when amelogenesis takesplace. Enamel of rats exposed to EDs presentedopaque areas of hypomineralization. Theproportion of affected rats was the highestin the groups of rats treated with BPA aloneand higher in males than in females (in all thegroups). Comparison of enamel key gene expressionlevels showed modulations of Klk4and Enamelin in males but no significant variationsin females. These findings show thatfemale rats are less affected than males bythe three EDs chosen in this study and suggestthat enamel hypomineralization may differbetween males and females. PMID:27352425

  2. Visual spatial memory is enhanced in female rats (but inhibited in males) by dietary soy phytoestrogens

    OpenAIRE

    Setchell Kenneth DR; Simmons Daniel L; Bu Lihong H; Tian Lilyan Y; West Timothy W; Lund Trent D; Adlercreutz Herman; Lephart Edwin D

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background In learning and memory tasks, requiring visual spatial memory (VSM), males exhibit superior performance to females (a difference attributed to the hormonal influence of estrogen). This study examined the influence of phytoestrogens (estrogen-like plant compounds) on VSM, utilizing radial arm-maze methods to examine varying aspects of memory. Additionally, brain phytoestrogen, calbindin (CALB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were determined. Results Female rats receivi...

  3. Alcohol-Induced Suppression of Gluconeogenesis is Greater in Ethanol Fed Female Rat Hepatocytes Than Males

    OpenAIRE

    Sumida, Ken D.; Cogger, Alma A.; Matveyenko, Aleksey V.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of alcohol-induced suppression on hepatic gluconeogenesis (HGN) after chronic ethanol consumption between males and females is unknown. To determine the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (8 weeks) on HGN, the isolated hepatocyte technique was employed on 24 hr fasted male and female Wistar rats. Livers were initially perfused with collagenase and the hepatocytes were isolated. Aliquots of the cell suspension were placed in Krebs-Henseleit buffer and incubated for 30 minutes wi...

  4. The Effects of Aqueous Extract of Celery Leaves (Apium Gravelens on the Delivery Rate, Sexual Ratio, and Litter Number of the Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazafkan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background For many centuries, the human has made a lot of efforts to determine sex ratios in different species and has proposed various theories. In this regard, the effect of several plants on sex ratio (female to male has been examined, but an empirical research about the effect of aqueous extracts from the leaves of celery on the sex ratio has not been carried out yet. Objectives Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of celery extract on the delivery rate, sex ratio, and the number of newborns in female rats. Patients and Methods A total of 45 adult Wistar rats (15 Males and 30 Females were prepared. The rats were divided into 3 groups; a control group and the 2 other experimental groups received celery extracts at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of their body weight. The extract was given orally to the female rats by gavage for 15 consecutive days. For mating, each male rat was placed with two female rats in separate cages for five days. After delivery, the percentage of rats that gave birth, as well as the number and sex ratio of the newborns were determined. The results were analyzed using SPSS version, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test, Tukey test, and post hoc LSD. Results The results showed that aqueous extracts of celery have significantly increased the mean percentage of delivery rate (extract, and control were 100 ± 60 vs. 60 ± 0.16, respectively, the average number of newborns (extract, and control were 7.8 ± 1.2 vs. 3.5 ± 1.2, respectively and the mean sex ratio (male to female ratio of newborns (extract and control were 1.26 ± 0.37 vs. 0.81 ± 0.13, respectively (P ≤ 0. 05. Conclusions The extract contains substances that are effective on the delivery rate, sex ratio, and the number of newborns in the female rats. It may affect through the ionic changes in the rats, by modifying the activity of follicle-stimulating and testosterone hormones, and/or changing the rate of fertilizing ability of sperms containing

  5. Early life stress enhancement of limbic epileptogenesis in adult rats: mechanistic insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life 'programming' of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2-14 to either maternal separation stress (MS or control brief early handling (EH, underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU. Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts and dentate gyrus (DG (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting. As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05, with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p = 0.002. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life

  6. Chronic stress and social housing differentially affect neurogenesis in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter

    2004-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for 3 weeks. Since rats are social animals we hypothesised that ‘social support’ might reduce the adverse effects of chronic stress. To test this hypothesis, male and female rats were housed individua...

  7. Premature reproductive aging in female rats after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2013-01-01

    Long-lasting and delayed reproductive effects of developmental exposure to mixtures of environmental chemicals were investigated in female rats. Wistar rats were dosed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of endocrine disrupters, and effects in offspring were studied. The mixtures consisted...... effects on ovary development may account for the observed effect. This study demonstrated that developmental exposure of rats to mixtures of endocrine disrupters can induce long-lasting adverse effects manifested as early reproductive senescence even though no effects on estrous cyclicity were observed in...

  8. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  9. On the adult female of Oiclus nanus Teruel et Chazal, 2010 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae: Diplocentrinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chazal, Léonard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult female of Oiclus nanus Teruel et Chazal, 2010 is herein described for the first time, on the basis of a topotypic specimen. Taxonomic diagnosis of this species endemic from Guadeloupe is emended, and the comparison to its closest relative is also improved.

  10. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  11. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  12. Correlates of Serious Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Female Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…

  13. High-fat diets promote insulin resistance through cytokine gene expression in growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Anne M; Brown, Jackie L; Santiago, Consuelo A; Aad, Pauline Y; Spicer, Leon J; Spicer, Maria T

    2008-08-01

    To determine if tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6 gene expression is influenced by amount and source of dietary fat, 30 weanling female rats were randomly assigned to a moderate-fat soybean oil (MFS; 22% of total energy fed as fat), high-fat (HF) soybean oil (HFS; 39% of total energy fed as fat), or HF tallow (HFT; 39% of total energy fed as fat) diet treatments. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were conducted serially over 10 weeks of treatment. HFT and HFS rats gained more weight and had greater body fat than the MFS rats fed similar amounts of energy. Both groups of HF-fed rats had greater (PHFT compared to HFS and MFS rats. There were positive correlations (PHFT group, after which, on Week 9, insulin secretion was diminished in response to the OGTT, suggesting impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. HFS rats exhibited insulin resistance on Week 9 OGTT. In summary, an HFT diet fed to growing female rats caused insulin resistance associated with increased hepatic TNF-alpha mRNA leading to pancreatic insufficiency. Early-onset insulin resistance related to the inflammatory process in obesity is influenced by the amount and type of fat in the diet. PMID:17904344

  14. Effects of Obesity on Bone Mass and Quality in Ovariectomized Female Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela G. Feresin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are two chronic conditions that have been increasing in prevalence. Despite prior data supporting the positive relationship between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD, recent findings show excess body weight to be detrimental to bone mass, strength, and quality. To evaluate whether obesity would further exacerbate the effects of ovariectomy on bone, we examined the tibiae and fourth lumbar (L4 vertebrae from leptin receptor-deficient female (Leprfa/fa Zucker rats and their heterozygous lean controls (Leprfa/+ that were either sham-operated or ovariectomized (Ovx. BMD of L4 vertebra was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and microcomputed tomography was used to assess the microstructural properties of the tibiae. Ovariectomy significantly (P<0.001 decreased the BMD of L4 vertebrae in lean and obese Zucker rats. Lower trabecular number and greater trabecular separation (P<0.001 were also observed in the tibiae of lean- and obese-Ovx rats when compared to sham rats. However, only the obese-Ovx rats had lower trabecular thickness (Tb.Th (P<0.005 than the other groups. These findings demonstrated that ovarian hormone deficiency adversely affected bone mass and quality in lean and obese rats while obesity only affected Tb.Th in Ovx-female Zucker rats.

  15. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, K.M.; J. C. Fannin; Gillette, C.; E. R. Blough

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into h...

  16. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity following chronic myocardial infarction in male, female, and ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Maximilian I; Whalley, Gillian A; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Malpas, Simon C; Barrett, Carolyn J

    2015-07-15

    There is controversy regarding whether the arterial baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in heart failure is altered. We investigated the impact of sex and ovarian hormones on changes in the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA following a chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Renal SNA and arterial pressure were recorded in chloralose-urethane anesthetized male, female, and ovariectomized female (OVX) Wistar rats 6-7 wk postsham or MI surgery. Animals were grouped according to MI size (sham, small and large MI). Ovary-intact females had a lower mortality rate post-MI (24%) compared with both males (38%) and OVX (50%) (P < 0.05). Males and OVX with large MI, but not small MI, displayed an impaired ability of the arterial baroreflex to inhibit renal SNA. As a result, the male large MI group (49 ± 6 vs. 84 ± 5% in male sham group) and OVX large MI group (37 ± 3 vs. 75 ± 5% in OVX sham group) displayed significantly reduced arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA (P < 0.05). In ovary-intact females, arterial baroreflex control of normalized renal SNA was unchanged regardless of MI size. In males and OVX there was a significant, positive correlation between left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction and arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA, but not absolute renal SNA, that was not evident in ovary-intact females. The current findings demonstrate that the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA post-MI is preserved in ovary-intact females, and the state of left ventricular dysfunction significantly impacts on the changes in the arterial baroreflex post-MI. PMID:25994953

  17. Effects of female gonadal hormones and LPS on depressive-like behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence shows an association of depression with the immune system and emphasizes the importance of gender in the etiology of the disease and the response to inflammatory stimuli. We examined the influence of immune-challenged systems on depressive-like behavior in female rats in the context of gonadal hormones. We used a neuroinflammatory model of depression elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration on naive and ovariectomized (OVX female rats, and examined the effects of estradiol (E2 and/or progesterone (P4 replacement therapy on animal behavior, as assessed by the forced swimming test (FST. We found that LPS and OVX increase immobility in the FST, while LPS also decreased body weight in naive female rats. Further, even though P4 application alone showed beneficial effects on the behavioral profile (it reduced immobility and increased climbing, supplementation of both hormones (E2 and P4 together to OVX rats failed to do so. When OVX rats were exposed to LPS-induced immune challenge, neither hormone individually nor their combination had any effect on immobility, however, their joint supplementation increased climbing behavior. In conclusion, our study confirmed that both LPS and OVX induced depressive-like behavior in female rats. Furthermore, our results potentiate P4 supplementation in relieving the depressive-like symptomatology in OVX rats, most likely through fine-tuning of different neurotransmitter systems. In the context of an activated immune system, the application of E2 and/or P4 does not provide any advantageous effects on depressive-like behavior.

  18. Exercise improves learning and memory impairments in sleep deprived female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Hakimeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Esmaeilpour, Khadije; Nazeri, Masoud; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Sheibani, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate sleep is a common problem in modern societies. It has been previously shown that female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functions. Physical exercise has been suggested to attenuate the cognitive impairments induced by sleep deprivation in male rats. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on cognitive functions of female rats following paradoxical sleep deprivation. Intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were used in the present study. The exercise protocol was 4 weeks of treadmill running. The multiple platform method was applied for the induction of 72h paradoxical sleep deprivation and the cognitive function was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM). Plasma corticosterone level was evaluated in separate groups of study. ANOVA and repeated measures were used to analyze the data and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Throughout the investigation, significant learning impairment was observed in sleep-deprived OVX rats compared to the intact and the other OVX groups. Short term memory impairment was observed in both sleep-deprived OVX and intact groups. Physical exercise alleviated the PSD-induced learning and memory impairments in both intact and OVX groups. Corticosterone levels were not statistically significant among the different groups. The results of our study confirmed the negative effects of PSD on cognitive functions in female rats and regular physical exercise seems to protect rats from these effects. Further studies are suggested to be carried out in order to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms, and also to evaluate the possible interactions between sex hormones and PSD-induced cognitive impairments. PMID:25447468

  19. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-κB expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  20. Role of Oestrogen α Receptors in Sociosexual Behaviour in Female Rats Housed in a Seminatural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeren, E M S; Antonio-Cabrera, E; Spiteri, T; Musatov, S; Ogawa, S; Pfaff, D W; Ågmo, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the role of oestrogen receptor (ER)α in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN), the preoptic area (POA), the medial amygdala (MePD) and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) in sociosexual behaviour in female rats. This was conducted in two sets of experiments, with the VMN and POA investigated in the first set, and the MePD and BNST in the second set. The VMN and POA received intense projections from the MePD and BNST. We used a short hairpin RNA encoded within an adeno-associated viral vector directed against the gene for ERα to reduce the number of ERα in the VMN or POA (first set of experiments) or in the BNST or MePD (second set of experiments) in female rats. The rats were housed in groups of four ovariectomised females and three males in a seminatural environment for 8 days. Compared with traditional test set-ups, the seminatural environment provides an arena in which the rats can express their full behavioural repertoire, which allowed us to investigate multiple aspects of social and sexual behaviour in groups of rats. Behavioural observation was performed after oestrogen and progesterone injections. A reduction of ERα expression in the VMN or POA diminished the display of paracopulatory behaviours and lordosis responses compared to controls, whereas the lordosis quotient remained unaffected. This suggests that ERα in the VMN and POA play an important role in intrinsic sexual motivation. The reduction in ERα did not affect the social behaviour of the females, although the males sniffed and pursued the females with reduced ERα less than the controls. This suggests that the ERα in the VMN and POA is involved in the regulation of sexual attractiveness of females. The ERα in the MePD and BNST, on the other hand, plays no role in sociosexual behaviour. PMID:26314929

  1. MDMA (ecstasy) effects in pubescent rats: Males are more sensitive than females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julie; Lazarus, Christine; Jeltsch, Hélène; Ben Hamida, Sami; Riegert, Céline; Kelche, Christian; Jones, Byron C; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2005-07-01

    In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on locomotor activity in pubescent male and female Long-Evans rats. Thirty-nine day old rats were injected ip with 10 mg/kg of MDMA (ambient temperature 25 degrees C) three times at 2 h intervals. Initially, females showed greater locomotor activation by the drug than males, however after the second injection, males showed greater hyperlocomotion. After the third injection, 3 of 10 females and all of the males died. In the surviving females, we observed serotonin depletion in cortex and hippocampus, but catecholaminergic markers were unaltered. In Experiment 2, male and female rats were repeatedly injected with saline or 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg MDMA and body temperature was measured (ambient temperature 21.5 degrees C). After the third injection of 10 mg/kg MDMA, the MDMA-induced hyperthermia was greater in males than in females (about +0.8 degrees C); at the lower dose, no difference was observed. Probably because of the lower ambient temperature, only 1 female and 2 males succumbed to the MDMA treatment, and MDMA induced less serotonin depletion than in the first experiment, with no difference between females and males. Thus, pubescent males appear to be more sensitive than females to locomotor and hyperpyretic effects of MDMA. This sex-dependent effect, which is at variance with previously reported dimorphisms in psychostimulant effects, is discussed in terms of possible differences in dopamine D1 and D2 receptors at pubescence, or other factors related to drug metabolism. PMID:15951008

  2. Ultrasonic vocalizations of female Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in response to social partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Annegret; Hjemdahl, Rebecca; Götz, Thomas; Brown, Gillian R

    2016-02-01

    In many species of animals, male vocalizations function to attract mating partners and coordinate sexual interactions. Whereas male vocalizations have been well studied in several species, the function of female vocalizations in mating contexts is not fully understood. In Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), both males and females produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during sexual encounters with opposite sex partners. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that female vocalizations play a role in sociosexual interactions by examining how rates of 50 kHz USV production vary in relation to the sex and gonadal status of the partner, and by examining whether the proportion of frequency modulated (FM) and constant frequency calls differs between these categories of social partner. The results showed that females produced a higher total number of 50 kHz USVs to intact males than castrated males, and produced similar numbers of calls to both categories of females. Females also produced a higher proportion of FM calls to male partners than to female partners, and spent more time in the vicinity of male than female partners, regardless of the partners' gonadal status. Female USVs therefore potentially provide a measure of sexual motivation and may function to promote female mate choice in this species with multimale mating and a high risk of infanticide. PMID:26689446

  3. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  4. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

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    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  5. Oxytocin Differentially Affects Sucrose Taking and Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. PMID:25647756

  6. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the presen

  7. 17ß-Estradiol Is Necessary for Extinction of Cocaine Seeking in Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Robert C.; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Doncheck, Elizabeth M.; Frick, Karyn M.; Mueller, Devin

    2013-01-01

    Human and preclinical models of addiction demonstrate that gonadal hormones modulate acquisition of drug seeking. Little is known, however, about the effects of these hormones on extinction of drug-seeking behavior. Here, we investigated how 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) affects expression and extinction of cocaine seeking in female rats. Using a…

  8. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome##

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phen...

  9. In Utero Phthalate Effects in the Female Rat: A Model for MRKH Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly define etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthlate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero. a phenome...

  10. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

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    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  11. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

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    Carmody J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John Carmody1, Raghunath P Misra1,2, Marlyn P Langford1, William A Byrd1, Lauren Ditta1, Bryan Vekovius1, Donald E Texada11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a "starry sky" appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients.Keywords: B-cells, Burkitt lymphoma, cancer, diabetes, eye, Epstein–Barr virus, orbit, tumor

  12. Effects of group size and gentling on behaviour, selected organ masses and blood constituents in female Rivm : TOX rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergeijk, J P; van Herck, H; de Boer, S.F.; Meijer, G W; Hesp, A P; van der Gugten, J; Beynen, A C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of group size (individually versus 3 in a cage) and gentling on behaviour and blood constituents were studied in female rats. Gentled rats showed less freezing and/or escaping when approached in an objective handling test than non-gentled rats; the type of caging had no significant influ

  13. Sensitization enhances acquisition of cocaine self-administration in female rats: Estradiol further enhances cocaine intake after acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Wei; Becker, Jill B.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine self-administration in rodents has been used widely as a preclinical model of cocaine use in humans. In laboratory animals, estradiol enhances behavioral sensitization to cocaine and the acquisition of cocaine self-administration in female rats. The rewarding effect of cocaine has been shown to be enhanced following behavioral sensitization in male rats. This experiment examined whether behavioral sensitization to cocaine would promote cocaine-taking behavior in female rats, and wheth...

  14. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on fertility in pregnant female albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lilaram; R Nazeer Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) on fertility in female Wistar albino rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into two groups containing eight animals in each group. Control group rats were orally administered with 1 mL/100 g b.wt of distilled water while rats in second group received 300 mg/kg of the seed extract from gestation day 1-7, once daily. The animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last dose on gestation day 12. Results:A significant reduction in implantation index and a contrasting significant increase in resorption index, pre-implantation and post-implantation loss was recorded in the seed extract treated rats. Progesterone level declined significantly in rats treated with seed extract. Ovary revealed degenerated corpora lutea in treated rats. The embryos were noticed with craniofacial deformities in extract treated group. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that the seeds of C. bonducella possess antifertility activity probably due to its antiprogesterogenic hormonal properties that can modulate the reproductive function of the experimental rats.

  15. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Sieglinde Zelzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (n = 30 and high-fat diet (n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE, the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats.

  16. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelzer, Sieglinde; Mangge, Harald; Pailer, Sabine; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Kieslinger, Petra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Prüller, Florian; Weghuber, Daniel; Datz, Christian; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Trummer, Christian; Gostner, Johanna; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (n = 30) and high-fat diet (n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:26006242

  17. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy minimizes the deleterious effect of nicotine in female rats with induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualberto, Erivan Clementino; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Longo, Mariellén; Novaes, Vivian Cristina Noronha; Nagata, Maria José Hitomi; Ervolino, Edilson; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of experimentally induced periodontitis in female rats that were systemically treated with or without nicotine. Female rats (n = 180) were divided into two groups: vehicle administration (Veh) and nicotine administration (Nic). Mini-pumps containing either vehicle or nicotine were implanted in the rats 30 days before the induction of experimental periodontitis (EP). EP was induced by placing a cotton ligature around the left mandibular first molar. After 7 days, the ligature was removed, and the rats were randomly divided into three treatment subgroups: SRP (only SRP), DL (SRP plus diode laser), and aPDT (SRP plus aPDT). The aPDT consisted of phenothiazine photosensitizer deposition followed by diode laser irradiation. Ten rats from each subgroup were euthanized at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatment. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) in the furcation region was evaluated using histological, histometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. The rats that were treated with nicotine showed more ABL compared to those treated with vehicle. In both the Veh and Nic groups, SRP plus aPDT treatment resulted in reduced ABL, smaller numbers of both TRAP- and RANKL-positive cells, and higher numbers of PCNA-positive cells compared to SRP treatment alone. aPDT was an effective adjunctive therapy for the treatment of periodontitis in female rats regardless of whether they received nicotine. PMID:26545755

  18. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  19. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. ...

  20. EFFECT OF GLUTAMATE MANGANESE ON THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION AND EMBRYOGENESIS OF FEMALE RATS

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    Shtapenko O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with increased nutritional needs due to the physiologic changes of the female and the metabolic demands of the embryo/fetus. The use of chelating compounds with high biological activity increased the fertility of female rats by stimulation metabolism and functional activity of the reproductive system. Manganese is an essential element utilized by antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, and others metalloenzymes that take part in reduction reactions, in multiple physiological processes including reproductive system. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of subcutaneous injections of Mn glutamate in liposomal forms on the reproductive system and the process of embryogenesis of experimental female rat. The study was conducted on female rats aged 2.5-3 months with body weight of 180-200 g. Rats with dated gestation were divided into three groups: two experimental and control. Female rabbits of the 1th experimental group were subcutaneous injected of 2 mg/ml for Mn glutamate in liposomal form one week before fertilization and the animals of the 2th group were obtained the same preparation during fertilization. Rats were euthanized on the twentieth day, ovariens were singled out of fiber, visual inspection and counting the number of yellow bodies were performed, absolute and relative mass indexes were determined, Mn glutamate influence index was calculated. Experimental results showed that the administration of Mn glutamate 7 days before fertilization and during fertilization significant increased the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy (p<0,001, number of live fetuses (p<0,001 due to the decrease in general and pre-implantation embryonic mortality compared with the control group. The experimental results showed improvement in key indicators of embryonic development. We observed significant increase in the number of implanted embryos on 1 female at 10,7±0,26 and 11,3±0,21 (p<0,001 (9,4±0,16 vs

  1. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  2. The Effects of Female Sex Steroids on Gastric Secretory Responses of Rat Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective(sGastric ulceration is induced by various forms of stress like surgery, ischemia and trauma. The female sex has more resistance to stress and the gastrointestinal lesions happen fewer than male sex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and progesterone on the gastric acid and pepsin levels following traumatic brain injury (TBI induction.Materials and MethodsDiffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method in female rats. Rats randomly assigned into 9 groups: intact, OVX (ovarectomized rat, Sham+OVX, TBI (intact rats under TBI, TBI+OVX (ovarectomized rats under TBI and treated OVX rats with vehicle (sesame oil, E2 (estradiol, P4 (progesterone or E2+P4 combination. The acid content and pepsin levels of each gastric washout sample were measured 5 days after the TBI induction.ResultsThere was no significant difference in gastric acid output between groups either after TBI induction or after treatment with E2 or P4 or E2+P4. Gastric pepsin levels were increased in Sham+OVX, TBI (P< 0.001 and TBI+OVX (P< 0.05 compared to intact group. Gastric pepsin levels were significantly lower in E2 and E2+ P4 treated rats than vehicle treated group (P< 0.01. P4 treatment increased gastric pepsin level compared to TBI+OVX group (P< 0.05 and this increment was higher than rats that were treated with the E2 and E2+P4 (P< 0.01.ConclusionThese results suggest that protective effect of estradiol and E2+P4 combination against mucosal damage after TBI, might be mediated by inhibition of pepsin secretion.

  3. Effect of potassium dichromate intake on water consumption and toxic amount intake, in female rats, Rattus norvegicus (exposure on three generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snejana Petrovici

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Material and methods: The study was carried out on three generations of female rats, eachgeneration comprising 28 white Wistar adult female rats, divided in three experimental (E groups,exposed to 25 ppm Cr – LOAEL (E1, 50 ppm Cr (E2, 75 ppm Cr (E3 and one control (C group - tapwater. Results: It pointed out significant decrease of water daily mean consumption in experimentalgroups comparative to C group, inversely, significantly correlated with the exposure level, in F0, F1 and F2generations, the mean daily water intake decreasing with the increase of the number of generationsexposed, the lowest being found in the case of F2 generation, followed by F1 generation and F0, thedifferences being insignificant. Also hexavalent chromium intake was calculated, F2 generation having thepoorest appetite for water, received the smallest amount of toxic, but yet not undermining the gravity ofexposure in F2 generation, due to parental exposure factors.

  4. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  5. Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Trunk in a Mildly Symptomatic Adult Female

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    Kevin Fan-Ying Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, also known as Garland-Bland-White syndrome, is an extremely rare but potentially fatal congenital cardiovascular anomaly, and it often exists as an isolated condition. We hereby report an adult female who was admitted for mild chest discomfort and was accidentally diagnosed to have anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. This anomaly was simply repaired by using a bovine pericardial patch to obliterate the anomalous opening in the pulmonary trunk and a single coronary artery bypass graft. This report highlights the characteristic events of the anomaly in an adult with only mild symptoms.

  6. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenda, María M.; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm2 in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management. PMID:26568145

  7. Prolactin regulates kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus to suppress LH secretion in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Lopes, Roberta; Crampton, Jessica R; Aquino, Nayara S S; Miranda, Roberta M; Kokay, Ilona C; Reis, Adelina M; Franci, Celso R; Grattan, David R; Szawka, Raphael E

    2014-03-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to suppress LH secretion. Kisspeptin neurons regulate LH secretion and express PRL receptors. We investigated whether PRL acts on kisspeptin neurons to suppress LH secretion in lactating (Lac) and virgin rats. Lac rats displayed high PRL secretion and reduced plasma LH and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Bromocriptine-induced PRL blockade significantly increased ARC kisspeptin and plasma LH levels in Lac rats but did not restore them to the levels of non-Lac rats. Bromocriptine effects were prevented by the coadministration of ovine PRL (oPRL). Virgin ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with either systemic or intracerebroventricular oPRL displayed reduction of kisspeptin expression in the ARC and plasma LH levels, and these effects were comparable with those of estradiol treatment in OVX rats. Conversely, estradiol-treated OVX rats displayed increased kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, whereas oPRL had no effect in this brain area. The expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 was used to determine whether kisspeptin neurons in the ARC were responsive to PRL. Accordingly, intracerebroventricular oPRL induced expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in the great majority of ARC kisspeptin neurons in virgin and Lac rats. We provide here evidence that PRL acts on ARC neurons to inhibit kisspeptin expression in female rats. During lactation, PRL contributes to the inhibition of ARC kisspeptin. In OVX rats, high PRL levels suppress kisspeptin expression and reduce LH release. These findings suggest a pathway through which hyperprolactinemia may inhibit LH secretion and thereby cause infertility. PMID:24456164

  8. Influence of Stem Cell Therapy on Statin-induced Myopathy of Skeletal Muscle in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Allah Farouk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Objective: this work is a trial to visualize the role of transplanted BM- MSCs in skeletal muscle regeneration after induction of myopathy using a model of statin induced myopathy. The study was carried on eighty female and ten male albino rats, male rats for isolation of MSCs and female rats were divided to 8 groups. METHODS: Materials and Methods: : Group I: Rats were administered 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (solvent, 25 mg/kg b.w./day, as a control group. Group II: Rats were administered simvastatin, 80 mg/kg b.wt./day, for 16 days, then were sacrificed immediately. Group III: Simvastatin, was administered for 16 days, and then rats were sacrificed after 14 days of stoppage of simvastatin. Group IV: Simvastatin was administered for 16 days, then rats were sacrificed after 30 days of stoppage of simvastatin. Group V: Simvastatin, was administered for 30 days, then rats were sacrificed immediately. Group VI: Simvastatin was administered for 30 days, with intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells at 16th day of the experiment. Group VII: Simvastatin was administered for 46 days, then rats were sacrificed immediately. Group VIII: Simvastatin was administered for 46 days, with intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells at 16th day of the experiment. On the morning of the last day of each experimental period needle EMG and NC were recorded in gastrocnemius muscle and sciatic nerve. Then rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. The gastrocnemius muscles of both limbs were dissected. The right gastrocnemius was processed for histological study and the left one was used for examination of MSCs homing by detection of sry gene using PCR technique. RESULTS: Results: Stoppage of simvastatin for 14 and 30 days after induction of myopathy caused marked improvement and regeneration of skeletal muscle as manifested by significant improvement in EMG findings. However, there was persistence of mild myopathic changes after

  9. Effects of perinatal methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on postweaning behaviors of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Delbert Law, C; Sahin, Leyla; Montenegro, Susan V

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a common treatment for adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, little information exists regarding its safety during pregnancy and thus, women with ADHD face difficult decisions regarding continued use during pregnancy. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated 3×/day with 0 (control), 6 (low), 18 (mid), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg/day (i.e., 0, 2, 6, or 14mg/kg at each treatment time) on gestational days 6-21. All offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose their dam had received on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21. After weaning, offspring were assessed for adolescent play behavior, locomotor activity, motor coordination, Barnes maze performance, acoustic startle response, novel object recognition, residential running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, home cage behavior, water maze performance, elevated plus maze behavior, locomotor response to an MPH challenge, and passive avoidance. At euthanasia, whole brain and striatal weights as well as serum hormone levels were measured. Body weights of the high MPH group were reduced in both sexes. Males of the high MPH group were less active than control males in open field assessments on PNDs 40-42. Latency to maximum acoustic startle was significantly altered in females of the medium and high MPH groups and residential running wheel activity of females of the low and medium MPH groups was lower than control females. Open arm entries in the elevated plus maze were increased in subjects of the medium MPH group. Females of the low MPH group were less sensitive to the locomotor-increasing effects of an acute 5mg/kg MPH challenge. Serum hormone levels and whole brain and striatal weights were not altered by prior MPH treatment. These results indicate that MPH treatment during development has sporadic effects on postweaning behaviors and those effects were generally exhibited by females. PMID:25514582

  10. Development and application of the Chinese adult female computational phantom Rad-HUMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad-HUMAN is a whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult woman which contains 46 organs and tissues and was created by MCAM6 software using the color photographs of the Chinese Visible Human dataset. This dataset was obtained from a 22-year old Chinese female cadaver judged to represent normal human anatomy as much as possible. The density and elemental composition recommended in the ICRP Publication 89 and in the ICRU report 44 were assigned to the organ and tissue in Rad-HUMAN for radiation protection purpose. The last step was to implement the anatomical data into a Monte Carlo code. Rad-HUMAN contains more than 28.8 billion tiny volume units, which produces an accurately whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult female

  11. Inhibition of tryptophan pyrrolase activity in restraint female rats following medroxyproge-sterone administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of Medroxyprogesterone (hormonal contraceptive) in restraint stressed female rats in relation to tryptophan metabolism. Female Albino Wistar rats (150-200 gm body wt) were selected and divided into four groups (n=5 in each group). Rats were injected intraperitoneally either vehicle or Medroxyprogesterone (25mg/kg/ml) and were immediately subjected to 2 hours restraint stress while respective controls remained in their home cages. In restraint stress group, hepatic holo and total tryptophan pyrrolase activities were increased. Liver tryptophan, total serum tryptophan and albumin concentration were decreased. Brain tryptophan, 5HT and 5HIAA concentrations were increased. Medroxyprogesterone administration in unrestraint rats inhibited holo, total and apo enzyme activities with increases in liver tryptophan concentrations. Effect of restraint stress following Medroxyprogesterone administration when compared with drug injected unrestrained group showed increase in holo and total tryptophan pyrrolase activities with decrease in liver tryptophan concentrations. Brain tryptophan, 5HT and 5HIAA levels were increased. Results when compared with vehicle injected stressed-rats showed that total and apo tryptophan pyrrolase activities were decreased. Liver tryptophan, serum tryptophan and albumin concentrations were increased but brain tryptophan metabolism was not effected. It is concluded that Medroxyprogesterone inhibits stress induce increases in peripheral tryptophan metabolism and increases plasma tryptophan. Although stress induced increases in brain indoles were not effected by the drug at two hours, further studies on time course effects of this drug will be needed to explore its possible anxiolytic effects. (author)

  12. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  13. Effects of Prenatal Dexamethasone on the Rat Pituitary Gland and Gonadotropic Cells in Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Nataša; Severs, Walter; Nestorović, Nataša; Jarić, Ivana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Trifunović, Svetlana; Pendovski, Lazo; Milosević, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have a strong influence on growth and maturation of fetal organ systems, but overexposure to exogenous glucocorticoids may retard fetal growth and alter developmental processes in sensitive tissues. The aim of this study was to specifically determine whether prenatal exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) altered normal development and function of pituitary gonadotropic cells in neonatal, infant and peripubertal female offspring. On day 16 of pregnancy, rat dams received 1.0 mg Dx/kg body weight (BW) s.c., followed by 0.5 mg Dx/kg BW on days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control gravid females received the same volume of saline. Female offspring were sacrificed on days 5, 16 and 38 after delivery. The volume of the pituitary gland estimated using Cavalieri's principle was significantly reduced (p programming of the female reproductive system at the pituitary cellular level, which may be associated with impaired reproductive function. PMID:26950885

  14. Protocol for studying extinction of conditioned fear in naturally cycling female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Cover, Kara K; Landau, Aaron J; Milad, Mohammed R; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

    2015-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

  15. In utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine delays puberty onset in female rats offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alice Hartmann; Vieira, Milene Leivas; de Azevedo Camin, Nathália; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Ceravolo, Graziela Scalianti; Pelosi, Gislaine Garcia; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Mesquita, Suzana de Fátima Paccola; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2016-07-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent disorders in the world and may occur during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Fluoxetine (FLX) has been widely prescribed for use during depression in pregnancy and lactation. This study aimed to investigate if in utero and lactational exposure to FLX could compromise reproductive parameters in female offspring. Wistar rats received, by daily gavage, FLX 5mg/kg or 0.3ml of water (control group) from the first gestational day until weaning (21 days). Assessments in the female offspring included: body weight, anogenital distance, vaginal opening, first estrus, estrous cycle, reproductive organs weight, uterine morphometric analyses, ovarian follicle and corpora lutea counting, estradiol plasmatic concentration, sexual behavior, maternal behavior and fertility test. Exposure to FLX delayed the puberty onset in female pups. The present study demonstrated that developmental exposure to FLX can deregulate the neuroendocrine hormonal control of female offspring during prepubertal and pubertal periods. PMID:27094375

  16. A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Chuan Lai; Lombardo, Michael V.; Greg Pasco; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A; Bhismadev Chakrabarti; Simon Baron-Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (h...

  17. Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection Leading to Severe Aplastic Anemia in a Previously Healthy Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    Rajput, Rajesh; Sehgal, Ashish; Jain, Deepak; Sen, Rajeev; Gupta, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 has been linked to a variety of diseases. One of the most common complications is transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia. Very few case reports have implicated this virus as a putative etiology behind hepatitis and severe aplastic anemia in immuno competent individuals. We report a case of severe aplastic anemia in a previously healthy adult female due to acute parvovirus B19 infection. Laboratory examination showed pancytopenia in peripheral ...

  18. NO EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ESTROGEN RECEPTOR LIGANDS ON COGNITION IN ADULT FEMALE MONKEYS

    OpenAIRE

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Wilson, Mark E.; Herndon, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies in women and animal models suggest that estrogens affect cognitive function. Yet, the mechanisms by which estrogens may impact cognition remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of different estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on cognitive function in adult ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were tested for 6 weeks on a battery of memory and attentional tasks administered on a touchscreen: the object, face, and spatial versions of the Dela...

  19. UNILOCULAR OMENTAL CYST IN ADULT FEMALE PRESENTING AS HUGE ABDOMINAL LUMP: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himansu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omental cysts are rare entity with a prevalence of 1: 1,000,000 in adults and in 1: 20, 000 in children. We are reporting a case of a 30 year female patient with abdominal lump over epigastrium and left hypochondrium for 6 months; diagnosed on laparotomy as uniloculated omental cyst originating from lesser omentum. Omental cyst is a challenging diagnostic entity with varied presentations and a wide range of differential diagnosis has to be kept in mind.

  20. Patterns of coping preferences for male and female caregivers of frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, H M; Hamilton, D W; Lovett, S; Gallagher-Thompson, D

    1997-06-01

    The similarities and differences in male and female caregivers' preferred strategies for coping and the perceived helpfulness of these strategies in managing caregiving stressors were examined in this study. Respondents were 170 caregivers (139 women and 31 men) who were primary caregivers for an elderly adult relative who was either cognitively impaired or physically frail. Results provide preliminary evidence that gender is related to frequency of use but not to the perceived helpfulness of specific coping strategies. PMID:9189986

  1. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Feiou

    2015-01-01

    Linjie Yao,1 Xingqiao Xu,2 Zhenyu Ni,3 Minling Zheng,3 Feiou Lin3 1Department of Pedodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female p...

  2. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Linjie Yao,1 Xingqiao Xu,2 Zhenyu Ni,3 Minling Zheng,3 Feiou Lin3 1Department of Pedodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patients with respect to such treatment.Patients and methods: We conducted an explorative study using Q methodology among 40 adult female patients with different educational and social backgrounds in Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China. We asked participants to rank a set of 41 statements about seeking orthodontic treatment on an 11-point scale from “agree most” to “disagree most”. The collected data were analyzed using the PQ Method 2.35 program. We extracted significant viewpoints using centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation.Results: We identified major factors based on how the patients ranked statements. Patients in group 1 worried about lack of information about orthodontic treatment, and may have suffered from dental phobia; patients in group 2 were all single women, and they were worried that the braces might lower their chances of finding a partner; patients in group 3 worried about appearance and speech with braces; and patients in group 4 worried about cost, pain, and dental hygiene. The remaining participants who had other viewpoints did not load to any of these four groups.Conclusion: The concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. A significant feature of this study was using Q methodology to analyze the psychological characteristics of the patients. This study identified four typical characterizations that are associated with each group, and our findings may aid orthodontists in improving doctor

  3. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yao L; Xu X; Ni Z; Zheng M; Lin F

    2015-01-01

    Linjie Yao,1 Xingqiao Xu,2 Zhenyu Ni,3 Minling Zheng,3 Feiou Lin3 1Department of Pedodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patie...

  4. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  5. Vocal patterns of adult females and juveniles Caiman yacare (Crocodilia: Alligatoridae in Brazilian Pantanal wetland

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    Fernando L. Sicuro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paraguayan caiman (Caiman yacare is the main Caimaninae species occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland. Despite the relative availability of works focused on biology and conservation of the Paraguayan caiman, almost nothing is known about its vocal structure and behavior. We recorded aggressive calls of adult caiman females guarding nests and, afterwards, the distress calls of the new born juvenile caimans in seasonally flooded areas of the Nhecolândia (Southern Pantanal. The results of both observations and sonographic analyses diverged from studies with other crocodilian species. Aggressive vocalization of adult females of the Paraguayan caiman was longer and more complex than the same vocalization of larger Alligatoridae species. Vocalizations of the young caimans presented interspecific differences with other crocodilian offsprings. Moreover, we found statistically significant intraspecific variation in the distress call structure among different pods, even separated by few kilometers. Differences in distress call structure were tested by Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA. We obtained the squared Mahalanobis distances between the acoustic multivariate spaces of each pod provided by the CDA and compared with the geographic distance between the bays of origin of each pod through Mantel Test. The geographic distance by itself did not explain the differences found in the structure of the vocalization of young caimans from different pods. The adult females of Paraguayan caiman positively responded to playbacks of calls from juvenile caimans from pods of other regions, as well as to rough imitations of distress call. Since the adult caimans showed protective responses to quite heterogeneous vocalizations of distress by juveniles, we hypothesized that the variation in the distress call pattern may be associated to a low specificity in sound recognition by adult caimans.

  6. Measurement of Ca channel activity of isolated adult rat heart cells using 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated adult rat heart cells incubated with 5 microM Mn in a medium with 1 mM Ca showed a rapid phase of Mn binding plus a slow phase of Mn uptake. The rapid phase was extracellular binding, as judged by its temperature-insensitive removal by ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N, N'-tetraacetic acid. The slow linear phase represented cellular uptake, as judged by its release with digitonin plus the ionophore A23187. Isoproterenol increased the linear rate of Mn uptake and induced spontaneous beating activity in some cells. Both effects were inhibited by nitrendipine. Electrical stimulation of the cells in suspension increased the linear rate of cellular Mn uptake. The increase was potentiated by isoproterenol, and inhibited by nitrendipine or verapamil. Stimulation-dependent Mn uptake (per milligram protein) was greater for cells from 5- to 6-week-old rats than for 8- to 9-month-old female retired breeder rats, in the presence of isoproterenol. Ryanodine increased the stimulation-dependent Mn uptake in the presence of isoproterenol, but not in its absence. We conclude: (i) that cellular uptake of 54Mn is a good probe of Ca channel function; (ii) that isoproterenol promotes Mn influx by the channel in isolated heart cells; (iii) that cells from young rats (5-6 weeks) have a higher beta-adrenergically induced Ca channel activity than cells from mature rats (8-9 months); and (iv) that ryanodine promotes Ca channel activity (perhaps indirectly) in the presence of isoproterenol

  7. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Aloe vera on Antioxidant Status and Thyroid Functions in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant status and thyroid functions of female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) when exposed to 3.0 Gy of gamma ray (dose rats = 0.696 Gy/min.) as s single dose and the role of 0.25 ml Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate/kg body weight against the damage caused by gamma irradiation. Total number of 50 female albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups; normal control group, irradiated group, Aloe vera administered group, irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 1 week and the 5th group is the irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 2 weeks starting from 24 h post-irradiation. Total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured in serum of all groups. The results of this study revealed that 3.0 Gy of gamma irradiation resulted in a highly significant reduction in serum total antioxidant capacity (39.89%), highly significant increase in TBARs (29.19%) and a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels (8.21 and 25.51%, respectively) compared to control group. There was a non-significant change in serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs, and a highly significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels (31.00 and 36.57%) in rats administered Aloe vera alone. Concerning rats administered Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate post-irradiation, serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs were restored to the normal levels after 2 weeks. Serum levels of T3 and T4 (represent thyroid functions) were restored to the normal levels after 1 week and found to be inhibited (20.41 and 22.62%, respectively) after 2 weeks of administration. (author)

  8. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

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    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  9. Place Aversion by Morphine in Offspring Born of Female Morphine Administered Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Manizheh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    This research was designed to study sexual differences in place conditioning induced by morphine in offspring born of female Wistar rats mated with drug-naïve males. Mothers were exposed to morphine during the 14th-16th days of gestational. Control dams were simply saline-injected. Female and male virgin offspring born of morphine-treated or saline-treated mothers were separately housed until become fully matured. A 3-day schedule of an unbiased conditioning procedure was used to the induce c...

  10. The impact of beryllium chloride and oxide on sexual function and offspring development in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative study of the action of soluble chloride and difficultly soluble beryllium oxide on sexual cycle in female rats and their conception capability, revealing of embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of these compounds and determination of significance of terms of their impact on pregnant female as well as beryllium capability to penetrate through the placenta and accumulate in the offspring organism have been performed. A great potential danger of impact on animal reproductive function of soluble (chloride) beryllium compounds as compared with low soluble ones (oxide). In the genesis of embryotoxic teratonic effect probably along with beryllium impact on progeny through the maternal organism there occurs its direct impact on the offspring

  11. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    With the increased use of mobile phones, their biological and health effects have become more important. Usage of mobile phones near the head increases the possibility of effects on brain tissue. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. In both male radio-frequency radiation exposed groups, the permeability of blood-brain barrier found to be increased with respect to the controls (pmale animals (pfemale groups; dye contents in the whole brains were 0.14±0.01mg% in the control, 0.24±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.14±0.02mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. No statistical variance found between the control and 1800MHz exposed animals (p>0.01). However 900MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency exposure was found effective on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of female animals. Results have shown that 20min pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure of 900MHz and 1800MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats. For females, 900MHz was found effective and it could be concluded that this result may due to the physiological differences between female and male animals. The results of this study suggest that mobile phone radation could lead to increase the permeability of blood-brain barrier under non-thermal exposure levels. More studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of that breakdown. PMID:26723545

  12. TIN DISTRIBUTION IN ADULT RAT TISSUES AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRIMETHYLTIN AND TRIETHYLTIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time course of distribution of tin in the adult rat was determined in brain, liver kidney, heart, and blood following single ip administrations of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT) and triethyltin bromide (TET). Adult Long-Evans rats were killed 1 hr, 4 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr, 5 days, 1...

  13. Effects of NOS inhibitor on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury in the adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLi-Sha; XuJiang-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on dentate gyrus neurogenesis after diffuse brain injury (DBI) in the adult rat brain. Methods Adult male SD rats were subjected to diffuse brain injury (DBI) model. By using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we compared the proliferation rate of

  14. Effect of MDMA (ecstasy) on activity and cocaine conditioned place preference in adult and adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Maria; Wade, Dean; Wall, Erin; Izenwasser, Sari

    2006-01-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is a drug commonly used in adolescence, and many users of MDMA also use other illicit drugs. It is not known whether MDMA during adolescence alters subsequent responses to cocaine differently than in adults. This study examined the effects of MDMA in adolescent and adult rats on cocaine conditioned reward. At the start of these experiments, adolescent rats were at postnatal day (PND) 33 and adult rats at PND 60. Each rat was treated for seven days with MDMA (2 or 5 mg/kg/day or...

  15. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

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    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  16. Effect of exposure to diazinon on adult rat's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Lari, Parisa; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Diazinon (DZN), a commonly used agricultural organophosphate insecticide, is one of the major concerns for human health. This study was planned to investigate neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to DZN in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received corn oil as control and 15 and 30 mg/kg DZN orally by gastric gavage for 4 weeks. The cerebrum malondialdehyde and glutathione (GSH) contents were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and nonenzyme antioxidants, respectively. Moreover, activated forms of caspase 3, -9, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were evaluated as key apoptotic proteins. Results of this study suggested that chronic administration of DZN did not change lipid peroxidation and GSH levels significantly in comparison with control. Also, the active forms of caspase 3 and caspase 9 were not significantly altered in DZN-treated rat groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in Bax and Bcl-2 ratios. This study indicated that generation of reactive oxygen species was probably modulated by intracellular antioxidant system. In conclusion, subacute oral administration of DZN did not alter lipid peroxidation. Moreover, apoptosis induction was not observed in rat brain. PMID:24217015

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Cr (VI ADMINISTRATION DURATION ON GLOBULAR RESISTANCE IN FEMALE RATS

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    LETIŢIA STANA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The „in vivo” experiment has had as aim the study of different Cr(VI doses administration on globular resistance in female rats related to administration duration. Study was carried out on 56 female rats divided in 8 groups, 6 experimental and 2 control that received potassium dichromate in drinking water in doses of 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75ppm Cr(VI, for 3 months, respectively, 6 months. Decrease of globular resistance (in terms of haemolysis degree in hypotonic solutions at increasing dose (up to 0.8% NaCl at 75 ppm dose in all experimental groups, in direct relation with the duration of administration was registered. Control groups were in physiological limits. The results of the present study revealed the affecting of erythrocyte membrane in function of administration duration and chromium intake level, because of oxidative lesions produced by it.

  18. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade da Alta Paulista (FAP), Tupã, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension.

  19. Acute iron overload leads to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis abnormalities in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Emilly M; Marques, Vinicius B; Nunes, Dieli de O; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; dos Santos, Leonardo; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-01-01

    Iron plays a critical role in a mammal's physiological processes. However, iron tissue deposits have been shown to act as endocrine disrupters. Studies that evaluate the effect of acute iron overload on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that acute iron overload leads to HPG axis abnormalities, including iron accumulation and impairment in reproductive tract morphology. Female rats were treated with iron-dextran (Fe rats) to assess their HPG morphophysiology. The increasing serum iron levels due to iron-dextran treatment were positively correlated with higher iron accumulation in the HPG axis and uterus of Fe rats than in control rats. An increase in the production of superoxide anions was observed in the pituitary, uterus and ovary of Fe rats. Morphophysiological reproductive tract abnormalities, such as abnormal ovarian follicular development and the reduction of serum estrogen levels, were observed in Fe rats. In addition, a significant negative correlation was obtained between ovary superoxide anion and serum estrogen levels. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that acute iron overload is toxic for the HPG axis, a finding that may be associated with the subsequent development of the risk of reproductive dysfunction. PMID:26536400

  20. Estradiol Suppresses Recovery of REM Sleep Following Sleep Deprivation in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Michael D.; Mong, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep complaints such as insufficient sleep and insomnia are twice as prevalent in women. Symptoms of sleep disruption are often coincident with changes in the gonadal hormone profile across a women’s lifespan. Data from a number of different species, including humans, non-human primates and rodents strongly implicate a role for gonadal hormones in the modulation of sleep. In female rats, increased levels of circulating estradiol increase wakefulness and reduce sleep in the dark phase. In thi...

  1. Prolactin potentiates the activity of acid-sensing ion channels in female rat primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Ren, Cuixia; Gan, Xiong; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone produced and released from the pituitary and extrapituitary tissues. It regulates activity of nociceptors and causes hyperalgesia in pain conditions, but little is known the molecular mechanism. We report here that PRL can exert a potentiating effect on the functional activity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), key sensors for extracellular protons. First, PRL dose-dependently increased the amplitude of ASIC currents with an EC50 of (5.89 ± 0.28) × 10(-8) M. PRL potentiation of ASIC currents was also pH dependent. Second, PRL potentiation of ASIC currents was blocked by Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL, a PRL receptor antagonist, and removed by intracellular dialysis of either protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X, protein interacting with C-kinase 1(PICK1) inhibitor FSC-231, or PI3K inhibitor AS605240. Third, PRL altered acidosis-evoked membrane excitability of DRG neurons and caused a significant increase in the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Four, PRL exacerbated nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in female rats. Finally, PRL displayed a stronger effect on ASIC mediated-currents and nociceptive behavior in intact female rats than OVX female and male rats and thus modulation of PRL may be gender-dependent. These results suggest that PRL up-regulates the activity of ASICs and enhances ASIC mediated nociceptive responses in female rats, which reveal a novel peripheral mechanism underlying PRL involvement in hyperalgesia. PMID:26188144

  2. Maternal treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with pentaerythritol tetranitrate reduces blood pressure in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhixiong; Siuda, Daniel; Xia, Ning; Reifenberg, Gisela; Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2015-01-01

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate is devoid of nitrate tolerance and shows no reproductive or developmental toxicity in animal studies. Recently, pentaerythritol tetranitrate has been demonstrated to reduce the risk of intrauterine growth restriction and the risk of preterm birth in women with abnormal placental perfusion. This study was conducted to test the perinatal programming effect of pentaerythritol tetranitrate in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a rat model of genetic hypertension. Parental spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with pentaerythritol tetranitrate (50 mg/kg per day) during pregnancy and lactation periods; the offspring received standard chow without pentaerythritol tetranitrate after weaning. Maternal treatment with pentaerythritol tetranitrate had no effect on blood pressure in male offspring. In the female offspring, however, a persistent reduction in blood pressure was observed at 6 and 8 months. This long-lasting effect was accompanied by an upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase 1, and heme oxygenase 1 in the aorta of 8-month-old female offspring, which was likely to result from epigenetic changes (enhanced histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation) and transcriptional activation (enhanced binding of DNA-directed RNA polymerase II to the transcription start site of the genes). In organ chamber experiments, the endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation to acetylcholine was enhanced in aorta from female offspring of the pentaerythritol tetranitrate-treated parental spontaneously hypertensive rats. In conclusion, maternal pentaerythritol tetranitrate treatment leads to epigenetic modifications, gene expression changes, an improvement of endothelial function and a persistent blood pressure reduction in the female offspring. PMID:25385760

  3. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in female rats subjected to experimental sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of ethanol consumption by female rats with cytokines involved in the sepsis process and its correlation with mortality, the main outcome of sepsis. Female Wistar rats in estrus phase were evaluated in three experiments. Experiment 1 (n=40) was performed to determine survival rates. Experiment 2 (n=69) was designed for biochemical analysis, measurement of cytokine and estrogen levels before and after sepsis, and experiment 3 (n=10) was performed to evaluate bacterial growth by colony counts of peritoneal fluid. In all experiments, treated animals were exposed to a 10% ethanol/water solution (v/v) as the single drinking source, while untreated animals were given tap water. After 4 weeks, sepsis was induced in the rats by ip injection of feces. In experiment 1, mortality in ethanol-exposed animals was delayed compared with those that drank water (48 h; P=0.0001). Experiment 2 showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in septic animals exposed to ethanol compared to septic animals not exposed. Sepsis also increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both ethanol- and water-exposed groups. Biochemical analysis showed higher creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased glucose levels in septic animals that were exposed to ethanol. In experiment 3, septic animals exposed to ethanol showed decreased numbers of colony-forming units than septic animals exposed to water. These results suggest that ethanol consumption delays the mortality of female rats in estrus phase after sepsis induction. Female characteristics, most probably sex hormones, may be involved in cytokine expression

  4. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in female rats subjected to experimental sepsis

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    C.L. Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of ethanol consumption by female rats with cytokines involved in the sepsis process and its correlation with mortality, the main outcome of sepsis. Female Wistar rats in estrus phase were evaluated in three experiments. Experiment 1 (n=40 was performed to determine survival rates. Experiment 2 (n=69 was designed for biochemical analysis, measurement of cytokine and estrogen levels before and after sepsis, and experiment 3 (n=10 was performed to evaluate bacterial growth by colony counts of peritoneal fluid. In all experiments, treated animals were exposed to a 10% ethanol/water solution (v/v as the single drinking source, while untreated animals were given tap water. After 4 weeks, sepsis was induced in the rats by ip injection of feces. In experiment 1, mortality in ethanol-exposed animals was delayed compared with those that drank water (48 h; P=0.0001. Experiment 2 showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in septic animals exposed to ethanol compared to septic animals not exposed. Sepsis also increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both ethanol- and water-exposed groups. Biochemical analysis showed higher creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased glucose levels in septic animals that were exposed to ethanol. In experiment 3, septic animals exposed to ethanol showed decreased numbers of colony-forming units than septic animals exposed to water. These results suggest that ethanol consumption delays the mortality of female rats in estrus phase after sepsis induction. Female characteristics, most probably sex hormones, may be involved in cytokine expression.

  5. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in female rats subjected to experimental sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar-Nemer, A.S. [Departamento de Nutrição, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Castro-Faria-Neto, H.C. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, F.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, E.M.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Silva-Fonseca, V.A. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of ethanol consumption by female rats with cytokines involved in the sepsis process and its correlation with mortality, the main outcome of sepsis. Female Wistar rats in estrus phase were evaluated in three experiments. Experiment 1 (n=40) was performed to determine survival rates. Experiment 2 (n=69) was designed for biochemical analysis, measurement of cytokine and estrogen levels before and after sepsis, and experiment 3 (n=10) was performed to evaluate bacterial growth by colony counts of peritoneal fluid. In all experiments, treated animals were exposed to a 10% ethanol/water solution (v/v) as the single drinking source, while untreated animals were given tap water. After 4 weeks, sepsis was induced in the rats by ip injection of feces. In experiment 1, mortality in ethanol-exposed animals was delayed compared with those that drank water (48 h; P=0.0001). Experiment 2 showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in septic animals exposed to ethanol compared to septic animals not exposed. Sepsis also increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both ethanol- and water-exposed groups. Biochemical analysis showed higher creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased glucose levels in septic animals that were exposed to ethanol. In experiment 3, septic animals exposed to ethanol showed decreased numbers of colony-forming units than septic animals exposed to water. These results suggest that ethanol consumption delays the mortality of female rats in estrus phase after sepsis induction. Female characteristics, most probably sex hormones, may be involved in cytokine expression.

  6. Role of Some Antioxidants in Ameliorating Disturbances Caused by Gamma Radiation in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research is to investigate the role of supplemental antioxidant vitamins against some sex hormone and trace element disturbances in female rats 1 hour post exposure to 7.0 Gy of gamma radiation as a single dose using 60Co source. Vitamins C and E were orally administered daily for 2 weeks in doses of 100 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Total number of 48 female albino rats were equally divided into 4 groups; irradiated group (n = 12), vitamin C administered group (n = 12), vitamin E administered group (n = 12) and rats administered vitamin C followed immediately by vitamin E (n =12) post irradiation, in addition to the normal control group (n = 10). The results of this study revealed a significant reduction in serum estradiol level and highly significant reductions in serum progesterone level, zinc and selenium concentrations of female rats exposed to gamma rays, compared to control. Concerning groups administered vitamins, rats administered vitamin C showed a significant improvement in estradiol and progesterone levels, reaching the levels of control group and a non-significant improvement in serum zinc and selenium concentrations was recorded. Vitamin E administered group revealed a high significant increase in serum estradiol level accompanied with an improvement in progesterone, whereas a significant decrease in zinc was found and a significant amelioration in selenium concentration was recorded in comparison with control values. Administration of vitamin E followed immediately by vitamin C resulted in a significant increase in estradiol level and a remarkable improvement in the level of progesterone. Slight significant reduction in zinc was noticed, whereas selenium concentrations were reached normal levels in both E and C and and E groups in comparison with the other groups

  7. Effects of neonatal peripheral tissue injury on pain-related behaviors in adult rats

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    Meng-meng LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of peripheraltissueinjury in the developmental stage of newborn rats on pain-related behaviors in adult rats. Methods SD rats 1,4,7,14,21 and 28days after birth were selected in thepresent study(4litters at each time point and 10 rats per litter.Each litter of rats was randomly divided intoinjury group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl bee venomand control group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl normal saline, with20 in each group, and then raised for 2 months to adulthood. The baseline pain threshold was observed by measuring spontaneous paw flinching reflex,paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTLand paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT, then 50μl 0.4% bee venom was subcutaneously injected to each rat, and the changesinpa in reaction and pain threshold were determined. Results The baseline thermal pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom or normal saline at different time points after birth was similar,but baseline mechanical pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom at1,4,7and14 days after birth was decreased significantly compared with the adult rats receiving normal saline at corresponding time points(P0.05.Mechanical hyperalgesia was not induced in rats injected with bee venom but induced in adult ratsinjected with normal saline4-21days after birth.Injection of bee venom 21 and 28 days after birth could obviously enhance the bee venom-induced hyperalgesiain adult rats compared with control group(P<0.01. Conclusions Bee venom stimuli at different time points after birth could affect the baseline PWMT and mechanical pain hypersensitivityin adult rats but not the baseline PWTL and thermal pain hypersensitivity. The 21st day maybe a key time point of nervous system development in rats.

  8. Detecting Early Biomechanical Effects of Zoledronic Acid on Femurs of Osteoporotic Female Rats

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    Evandro Pereira Palacio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the biomechanical effects of zoledronic acid (ZA on femurs of female osteoporotic rats after follow-up periods of 9 and 12 months. Methods. Eighty female Wistar rats were prospectively assessed. At 60 days of age, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: bilateral oophorectomy (O (n=40 and sham surgery (S (n=40. At 90 days of age, groups O and S were randomly subdivided into four groups, according to whether 0.1 mg/kg of ZA or distilled water (DW was intraperitoneally administered: OZA (n=20, ODW (n=20, SZA (n=20, and SDW (n=20. The animals were sacrificed at 9 and 12 months after the administration of the substances, and then their right femurs were removed and analyzed biomechanically. Axial compression tests that focused on determining the maximum load (N, yield point (N, and stiffness coefficient (N/mm of the proximal femur were performed in the biomechanical study. Results. ZA significantly increased the maximum load and yield point, reducing the stiffness coefficient concerning the oophorectomy status and follow-up period. Conclusion. Zoledronic acid, at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, significantly increased the maximum loads and yield points and reduced the stiffness coefficients in the femurs of female rats with osteoporosis caused by bilateral oophorectomy.

  9. Tributyltin contributes in reducing the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine in isolated aortic rings from female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Samya Mere L; Ximenes, Carolina F; de Batista, Priscila R; Simões, Fabiana V; Coser, Pedro Henrique P; Sena, Gabriela C; Podratz, Priscila L; de Souza, Leticia N G; Vassallo, Dalton V; Graceli, Jones B; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2014-03-21

    Organotin compounds such as tributyltin (TBT) are used as antifouling paints by shipping companies. TBT inhibits the aromatase responsible for the transformation of testosterone into estrogen. Our hypothesis is that TBT modulates the vascular reactivity of female rats. Female Wistar rats were treated daily (Control; CONT) or TBT (100 ng/kg) for 15 days. Rings from thoracic aortas were incubated with phenylephrine (PHE, 10(-10)-10(-4) M) in the presence and absence of endothelium, and in the presence of N(G)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME), tetraethylammonium (TEA) and apocynin. TBT decreased plasma levels of estrogen and the vascular response to PHE. In the TBT group, the vascular reactivity was increased in the absence of endothelium, L-NAME and TEA. The decrease in PHE reactivity during incubation with apocynin was more evident in the TBT group. The sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was reduced in the TBT group. TBT increased collagen, reduced α1-smooth muscle actin. Female rats treated with TBT for 15 days showed morphology alteration of the aorta and decreased their vascular reactivity, probably due to mechanisms dependent on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, K(+) channels and an increase in oxidative stress. PMID:24468273

  10. Dietary quercetin exacerbates the development of estrogen-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that structurally mimic the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2). Despite intense investigation, the net effect of phytoestrogen exposure on the breast remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of quercetin on E2-induced breast cancer in vivo. Female ACI rats were given quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) for 8 months. Animals were monitored weekly for palpable tumors, and at the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, breast tumor and different tissues excised so that they could be examined for histopathologic changes, estrogen metabolic activity and oxidant stress. Quercetin alone did not induce mammary tumors in female ACI rats. However, in rats implanted with E2 pellets, co-exposure to quercetin did not protect rats from E2-induced breast tumor development with 100% of the animals developing breast tumors within 8 months of treatment. No changes in serum quercetin levels were observed in quercetin and quercetin + E2-treated groups at the end of the experiment. Tumor latency was significantly decreased among rats from the quercetin + E2 group relative to those in the E2 group. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was significantly downregulated in quercetin-exposed mammary tissue. Analysis of 8-isoprostane F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels as a marker of oxidant stress showed that quercetin did not decrease E2-induced oxidant stress. These results indicate that quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) does not confer protection against breast cancer, does not inhibit E2-induced oxidant stress and may exacerbate breast carcinogenesis in E2-treated ACI rats. Inhibition of COMT activity by quercetin may expose breast cells chronically to E2 and catechol estrogens. This would permit longer exposure times to the carcinogenic metabolites of E2 and chronic exposure to oxidant stress as a result of metabolic redox cycling to estrogen metabolites, and thus quercetin may exacerbate E2-induced breast tumors in female

  11. Accumulation of organotins in seafood leads to reproductive tract abnormalities in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; Sena, Gabriela C; Morozesk, Mariana; Bonomo, Marina M; Matsumoto, Silvia T; da Costa, Mércia B; Zamprogno, Gabriela C; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Miguel, Emilio de C; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2015-11-01

    Organotins (OTs) are environmental contaminants used as biocides in antifouling paints that have been shown to be endocrine disrupters. However, studies evaluating the effects of OTs accumulated in seafood (LNI) on reproductive health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that LNI leads to impairment in the reproductive tract of female rats, as the estrous cycle development, as well as for ovary and uterus morphology. Rats were treated with LNI, and their reproductive morphophysiology was assessed. Morphophysiological abnormalities, such as irregular estrous cycles, abnormal ovarian follicular development and ovarian collagen deposition, were observed in LNI rats. An increase in luminal epithelia and ERα expression was observed in the LNI uteri. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that LNI are toxic for reproductive morphophysiology, which may be associated with risks to reproductive function. PMID:26050607

  12. Pelvic Organ Distribution of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected Intravenously after Simulated Childbirth Injury in Female Rats

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    Michelle Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The local route of stem cell administration utilized presently in clinical trials for stress incontinence may not take full advantage of the capabilities of these cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate if intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs home to pelvic organs after simulated childbirth injury in a rat model. Female rats underwent either vaginal distension (VD or sham VD. All rats received 2 million GFP-labeled MSCs intravenously 1 hour after injury. Four or 10 days later pelvic organs and muscles were imaged for visualization of GFP-positive cells. Significantly more MSCs home to the urethra, vagina, rectum, and levator ani muscle 4 days after VD than after sham VD. MSCs were present 10 days after injection but GFP intensity had decreased. This study provides basic science evidence that intravenous administration of MSCs could provide an effective route for cell-based therapy to facilitate repair after injury and treat stress incontinence.

  13. Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: The Role of Sex Hormones in Gonadectomized Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity may be sex hormones related. The effects of sex hormones on GM induced nephrotoxicity in gonadectomized rats were investigated. Methods. Ovariectomized rats received 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg/week of estradiol (ES) alone or accompanied with 10 mg/kg/week of progesterone (Pro) for two weeks followed by GM (100 mg/kg/day) for 9 days. Castrated rats were also treated with 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/week of testosterone (TS) for two weeks and then received GM. In addition, a single castrated group received 0.25 mg/kg/week of ES plus GM. Results. GM increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P GM in female while neither TS nor ES had beneficial effect on nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male, although ES aggravated it.

  14. Effects of adult exposure to bisphenol a on genes involved in the physiopathology of rat prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Castro

    Full Text Available Several neurological and behavioral dysfunctions have been reported in animals exposed to bisphenol A (BPA. However, little is known about the impact of adult exposure to BPA on brain physiopathology. Here, we focused on prefrontal cortex (PFC of rats, because it is an important area for cognitive control, complex behaviors and is altered in many psychopathologies. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and serotonin (5-HT systems are essential for PFC function. Therefore, we examined the effects of adult exposure to BPA on 5α-Reductase (5α-R and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom, enzymes that synthesize GABAA receptor modulators, and tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph, the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis. To gain better understanding of BPA's action in the adult PFC, 84 genes involved in neurotoxicity were also analysed. Adult male and female rats were subcutaneously injected for 4 days with 50 µg/kg/day, the current reference safe dose for BPA. mRNA and protein levels of 5α-R, P450arom and Tph were quantified by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Genes linked to neurotoxicity were analyzed by PCR-Array technology. Adult exposure to BPA increased both P450arom and Tph2 expression in PFC of male and female, but decreased 5α-R1 expression in female. Moreover, we identified 17 genes related to PFC functions such as synaptic plasticity and memory, as potential targets of BPA. Our results provided new insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA action in the physiopathology of PFC, but also raise the question about the safety of short-term exposure to it in the adulthood.

  15. Testing Potential Effect of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors in Cow Milk on Reproductive Index in Female Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-MING LI; DAVAASAMBUU GANMAA; LI-QIANG QIN; AKIO SATO

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of endocrine disruptor chemicals in cow milk on female reproductive system. Methods A two-generation reproduction was conducted according to U. S. FDA standard. Milk was fed in special bottle to Wistar rats of both sexes through two successive generations (F0 and F1) in the milk group while artificial milk was fed to rats in the control group. Twenty-four rats of each sex were mated in each group. Measurements were made according to this guideline. Results Reproductive parameters in the milk group such as fertility index, gestation index, weights of uterus and ovary, days of vaginal opening, estrous cycles, histological morphological changes were comparable to those in the control group. However, the means of body weight had some differences. The body weight gains increased significantly in the milk-treated group in F1 and F2 generation compared with those in the control group. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in blood in the milk group was comparable to that in the control group, but the standard deviation changed greatly in the milk-treated rats. Conclusion Endocrine disruptor chemicals in milk have no severe effects on the female reproductive system.

  16. Impaired vascular responses to relaxin in diet-induced overweight female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Joris; van Koppen, Arianne; Pertijs, Jeanne; Gooi, Jonathan H; Parry, Laura J; Sweep, Fred C G J; Lotgering, Frederik K; Smits, Paul; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2012-03-01

    Relaxin mediates renal and mesenteric vascular adaptations to pregnancy by increasing endothelium-dependent vasodilation and compliance and decreasing myogenic reactivity. Diet-induced overweight and obesity are associated with impaired endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling leading to a reduction in arterial diameter. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that local vascular responses to relaxin are impaired in diet-induced overweight female rats on a high-fat cafeteria-style diet for 9 wk. Rats were chronically infused with either relaxin or placebo for 5 days, and vascular responses were measured in isolated mesenteric arteries and the perfused kidney. Diet-induced overweight significantly increased sensitivity to phenylephrine (by 17%) and vessel wall thickness, and reduced renal perfusion flow (RPFF; by 16%), but did not affect flow-mediated vasodilation, myogenic reactivity, and vascular compliance. In the normal weight rats, relaxin treatment significantly enhanced flow-mediated vasodilation (2.67-fold), decreased myogenic reactivity, and reduced sensitivity to phenylephrine (by 28%), but had no effect on compliance or RPFF. NO blockade by l-NAME diminished most relaxin-mediated effects. In diet-induced overweight rats, the vasodilator effects of relaxin were markedly reduced for flow-mediated vasodilation, sensitivity to phenylephrine, and myogenic response compared with the normal diet rats, mostly persistent under l-NAME. Our data demonstrate that some of the vasodilator responses to in vivo relaxin administration are impaired in isolated mesenteric arteries and the perfused kidney in diet-induced overweight female rats. This does not result from a decrease in Rxfp1 (relaxin family peptide receptor) expression but is likely to result from downstream disruption to endothelial-dependent mechanisms in diet-induced overweight animals. PMID:22174401

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously (s.c. for all 20 days of pregnancy (Group A, or for the first 10 days (Group B, or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C. Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2 ml/day s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D. The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring.

  18. Immunotoxicity evaluation of jet a jet fuel in female rats after 28-day dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Cynthia M; Peachee, Vanessa L; Trimmer, Gary W; Lee, Ji-Eun; Twerdok, Lorraine E; White, Kimber L

    2008-01-01

    The potential for jet fuel to modulate immune functions has been reported in mice following dermal, inhalation, and oral routes of exposure; however, a functional evaluation of the immune system in rats following jet fuel exposure has not been conducted. In this study potential effects of commercial jet fuel (Jet A) on the rat immune system were assessed using a battery of functional assays developed to screen potential immunotoxic compounds. Jet A was applied to the unoccluded skin of 6- to 7-wk-old female Crl:CD (SD)IGS BR rats at doses of 165, 330, or 495 mg/kg/d for 28 d. Mineral oil was used as a vehicle to mitigate irritation resulting from repeated exposure to jet fuel. Cyclophosphamide and anti-asialo GM1 were used as positive controls for immunotoxic effects. In contrast to reported immunotoxic effects of jet fuel in mice, dermal exposure of rats to Jet A did not result in alterations in spleen or thymus weights, splenic lymphocyte subpopulations, immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody-forming cell response to the T-dependent antigen, sheep red blood cells (sRBC), spleen cell proliferative response to anti-CD3 antibody, or natural killer (NK) cell activity. In each of the immunotoxicological assays conducted, the positive control produced the expected results, demonstrating the assay was capable of detecting an effect if one had occurred. Based on the immunological parameters evaluated under the experimental conditions of the study, Jet A did not adversely affect immune responses of female rats. It remains to be determined whether the observed difference between this study and some other studies reflects a difference in the immunological response of rats and mice or is the result of other factors. PMID:18338284

  19. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  20. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pirchl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux , blue (1.3–2.3 lux, and red light (0.8–1.4 lux affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. However, dim blue and red light significantly reduced spatial learning of female rats in the 8-arm radial maze in the last training session (session 5. In conclusion, we suggest that female Sprague Dawley rats show reduced learning under blue and red light.

  1. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  2. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  3. In vivo exposure of female rats to toxicants may affect oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Trish; Horner, Catherine M

    2003-01-01

    A potential endpoint for female reproductive toxicants is fertilizability of the oocytes. This endpoint has not been adequately examined for mammalian females. The objective of these studies was to evaluate fertilizability of rat oocytes following in vivo exposure to known male reproductive toxicants that exert effects via pathways that do not include endocrine disruption and to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide, known to interfere with early follicular development. Oocytes were obtained from females following exposure and quality assessed by in vitro fertilization rate. One study evaluated fertilizability following 2 weeks exposure of females to inhaled tetrachloroethylene (2h/day, 5 days/week). The remaining studies evaluated fertilizability immediately following 2 weeks exposure via drinking water to tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, the fuel oxidants methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), and a metabolite of the first two ethers 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol (2M2P), and to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide. The percentage of oocytes fertilized was reduced following inhalation exposure to tetrachloroethylene, or consumption of trichloroethylene or TAME. Fertilizability was not altered by exposures to the other reproductive toxicants or to the other fuel oxidants. Consistent with the reduced oocyte fertilizability following exposure to trichloroethylene, oocytes from exposed females had a reduced ability to bind sperm plasma membrane proteins. Female reproductive capability assessed by the endpoint, oocyte fertilizability, was reduced by exposure to trichloroethylene and inhaled tetrachloroethylene. PMID:12759095

  4. Chronic mild stressors and diet affect gene expression differently in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuwen; Byers, Donna M; Irwin, Louis N

    2007-01-01

    While depression is reportedly more prevalent in women than men, a neurobiological basis for this difference has not been documented. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a widely recognized animal model, which uses mild and unpredictable environmental stressors to induce depression. Studies of chronic stress, mainly in males, have reported an increase in the relative intake of "comfort food" as a means of counteracting the effects of stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that genes for certain neurotrophic factors, stress markers, and appetite regulators would be expressed differentially in male and female rats exposed to chronic, mild stressors with access to a preferred diet. Gene expression for neuropeptide Y was upregulated in females purely in response to stressors, whereas that for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in males and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in females responded primarily to diet. Genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), AVP, and the cocaine-amphetamine regulator of transcription (CART) in males, and leptin in females, showed a significant response to the interaction between stressors and diet. Every affected gene showed a different pattern of expression in males and females. This study confirms the intimate relationship between dietary intake and response to stress at the molecular level, and emphasizes the sex- and gene-specific nature of those interactions. Therefore, it supports a neurobiological basis for differences in the affective state response to stress in males and females. PMID:17917078

  5. Toxicological Features of Catha edulis (Khat) on Livers and Kidneys of Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Subchronic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsamad Alsalahi; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Mohammed Al-Mamary; Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin; Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab; Alabsi, Aied M.; Abdrabuh Shwter; Alshawsh, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-01

    Hepato- and nephrotoxicity of Khat consumption (Catha edulis Forskal) have been evoked. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate such possible hepatorenal toxicity in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) focusing primarily on liver and kidney. In addition, female and male rats were investigated separately. Accordingly, forty-eight SD-rats (100–120 g) were distributed randomly into four groups of males and female (n = 12). Normal controls (NCs) received distilled water, whereas...

  6. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on some biochemical functions in female albino rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan, F. L

    2007-01-01

    Background: Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause oxidative damage to biological molecules. The present study was carried out to investigate the synergestic effect of danazol and radiation exposure on certain functional disorders in female rats. Material and methods: Mature female rats weighing about 120-150g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals,...

  7. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  8. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  9. Knowledge about mammography and associated factors: population surveys with female adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge about mammography and to identify associated factors in female adults and elderly. Data were obtained from two population surveys, one with female adults and another with elderly women from Florianópolis (SC in 2009 - 2010. A descriptive analysis of the variables was carried out, the appropriate mean of responses about mammography was estimated and crude and adjusted Poisson regression was conducted to identify associated factors. Among adults, 23.1% answered all of the questions appropriately and the appropriate average responses was 7.2 (95%CI 7.1 - 7.3 in a total of 9. In the adjusted model, older age, higher education and income were associated with knowledge about mammography. For the elderly, 15.3% answered all questions appropriately and the average of appropriate responses was 6.4 (95%CI 5.2 - 6.5 and the factors associated with knowledge about mammography in the adjusted model were younger age groups, increased education and income, and identification of mammography as the main diagnostic method for breast cancer. Information about mammography can neither be transmitted in a clear way nor be easily understood; there are also demographic and socioeconomic differences concerning the knowledge about the exam.

  10. Visual spatial memory is enhanced in female rats (but inhibited in males by dietary soy phytoestrogens

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    Setchell Kenneth DR

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In learning and memory tasks, requiring visual spatial memory (VSM, males exhibit superior performance to females (a difference attributed to the hormonal influence of estrogen. This study examined the influence of phytoestrogens (estrogen-like plant compounds on VSM, utilizing radial arm-maze methods to examine varying aspects of memory. Additionally, brain phytoestrogen, calbindin (CALB, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 levels were determined. Results Female rats receiving lifelong exposure to a high-phytoestrogen containing diet (Phyto-600 acquired the maze faster than females fed a phytoestrogen-free diet (Phyto-free; in males the opposite diet effect was identified. In a separate experiment, at 80 days-of-age, animals fed the Phyto-600 diet lifelong either remained on the Phyto-600 or were changed to the Phyto-free diet until 120 days-of-age. Following the diet change Phyto-600 females outperformed females switched to the Phyto-free diet, while in males the opposite diet effect was identified. Furthermore, males fed the Phyto-600 diet had significantly higher phytoestrogen concentrations in a number of brain regions (frontal cortex, amygdala & cerebellum; in frontal cortex, expression of CALB (a neuroprotective calcium-binding protein decreased while COX-2 (an inducible inflammatory factor prevalent in Alzheimer's disease increased. Conclusions Results suggest that dietary phytoestrogens significantly sex-reversed the normal sexually dimorphic expression of VSM. Specifically, in tasks requiring the use of reference, but not working, memory, VSM was enhanced in females fed the Phyto-600 diet, whereas, in males VSM was inhibited by the same diet. These findings suggest that dietary soy derived phytoestrogens can influence learning and memory and alter the expression of proteins involved in neural protection and inflammation in rats.

  11. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  12. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  13. Penetration of Treosulfan and its Active Monoepoxide Transformation Product into Central Nervous System of Juvenile and Young Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Baumgart, Joachim; Böhm, Sonja; Główka, Franciszek K

    2015-12-01

    Treosulfan (TREO) is currently investigated as an alternative treatment of busulfan in conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The knowledge of the blood-brain barrier penetration of the drug is still scarce. In this paper, penetration of TREO and its active monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide (S,S-DEB) into the CNS was studied in juvenile (JR) and young adult rats (YAR) for the first time. CD rats of both sexes (n = 96) received an intravenous dose of TREO 500 mg/kg b.wt. Concentrations of TREO, S,S-EBDM, and S,S-DEB in rat plasma, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, in YAR only) were determined by validated bioanalytical methods. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed in WinNonlin using a noncompartmental analysis and statistical evaluation was done in Statistica software. In male JR, female JR, male YAR, and female YAR, the brain/plasma area under the curve (AUC) ratio for unbound TREO was 0.14, 0.17, 0.10, and 0.07 and for unbound S,S-EBDM, it was 0.52, 0.48, 0.28, and 0.22, respectively. The CSF/plasma AUC ratio in male and female YAR was 0.12 and 0.11 for TREO and 0.66 and 0.64 for S,S-EBDM, respectively. Elimination rate constants of TREO and S,S-EBDM in all the matrices were sex-independent with a tendency to be lower in the JR. No quantifiable levels of S,S-DEB were found in the studied samples. TREO and S,S-EBDM demonstrated poor and sex-independent penetration into CNS. However, the brain exposure was greater in juvenile rats, so very young children might potentially be more susceptible to high-dose TREO-related CNS exposure than young adults. PMID:26428246

  14. Tissue distribution and excretion of n-methyl-2-pyrolidone in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) belongs to solvents widely used in the petrochemical industry a well as in the production of pesticides, veterinary drugs and paint removers. NMP is easily absorbed from respiratory tract, digestive system and through the skin. It is a compound of slight acute toxicity that also displays moderate irritating activity. The aim of this study was to assess tissue distribution and excretion following a single intraperitoneal NPM administration. Tissue distribution and excretion of NMP following administration of a single dose of 250 mg/kg body weight (350 kBq/rat) was investigated using 14C. Blood plasma (6 rats per time point) were sampled up to 72 h after administration and determination of radioactivity. Male and female rats (4 animals per time point) were decapitated at appropriate time intervals and examined tissues were removed for determination of radioactivity. Excretion of 14C in urine and feces were also measured. All radioactivity measurements were carried out using a Rakbetta 1209 (LKB, Sweden) liquid scintillation counter. The highest in 14C activity in tissues and internal organs of female and male rats was observed 4 h after administration of the compound. The highest accumulation was in dected in the muscles and fat tissue as well as the liver and testicles. During 72 h following administration, approximately 80% of the dose was excreted in urine. Elimination of the compound in feces was far less significant: only about 5% of the dose was excreted at once. The results of the study indicate that there are no significant differences in 14C-NMP tissue distribution between male and female rats; NPM absorption from the peritoneal cavity to blood is rapid, disappearance from plasma is monophase and kidneys are the main route of excretion of NMP and/ or its metabolites from the rat body after administration of a dose equal to 10% of L50. The ability to accumulate NMP and/or its metabolites in testes and seminal vesicles may be the

  15. Changes in uptake of 3H-progesterone by female rat brain and pituitary from birth to sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3H-progesterone uptake by various parts of the brain, pituitary and skeletal muscle was compared in newborn, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-and 50-day-old female rats at 1 hr after a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 μCi/100 g body weight. High uptake values in newborn animals and in those aged 5 days were found in all tissues investigated. A sharp decrease in accumulation was observed from birth and/or 5th day of life. The uptake by the pituitary was higher than those by other tissues investigated. The ratio of radioactivity concentration between the tissues and the cerebellar cortex increased significantly only in the posterior hypothalamus of adult females (at the age of 50 days). In the pituitary the ratio tissue/cortex was already significantly higher in newborns. The high level of brain radioactivity in the youngest animals probably was a manifestation of high plasma concentrations of the tritiated progesterone. The striking decrease in the uptake of radioactivity by the brain and pituitary during the first two weeks of life most likely reflected a decreased level of plasma radioactivity, as shown indirectly by the concomitant decrease in the labelled progesterone uptake by the skeletal muscle. The increase in the tissue/cortex ratio in the posterior hypothalamus with the attainment of sexual maturity suggested the first appearance of a specific binding capacity for the progesterone which is present in the pituitary since birth. (author) assumed to be

  16. Prediction of seizure incidence probability in PTZ model of kindling through spatial learning ability in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Narges-Al-Sadat; Palizvan, Mohammad Reza; Sadegh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Zohre; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disease characterized by periodic seizures. Cognitive deficits and impairments in learning and memory are also associated with epilepsy. Neuronal changes and synaptic modifications in kindling model of epilepsy are similar to those occur during the learning procedure and memory formation. Herein we investigated whether seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model of kindling is predictable based on the learning ability in the Morris water maze (MWM) task in male and female rats. Allocentric learning was tested using MWM in present of light while egocentric learning was evaluated by MWM in dark room. The results indicated no significant differences in allocentric learning abilities between male and female rats. However, male rats were able to memorize the location of the platform more effectively compared to females in egocentric test. In addition, a statistically significant negative correlation between learning abilities (working memory) and seizure susceptibility in male rats was found while this correlation was positive in female rats. On the other hand, although there was no significant correlation between retrieval (reference memory) of spatial memories and seizure parameters in male rats, female rats showed a significant negative correlation. These findings may provide some evidences for prediction of seizure susceptibility according to learning ability and memory retention. PMID:27098273

  17. Toxicokinetic aspects of thiocyanate after oral exposure to cyanide in female Wistar rats in different physiological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Altamir Benedito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2014-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) is an ion that has been well studied in toxicology and has been associated with several intoxication episodes: the ingestion of contaminated foods and water, chemical war, suicides, homicides, occupational exposures and the use of certain medicines. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicokinetic parameters of thiocyante (SCN), the main metabolite of CN, after oral administration of potassium cyanide (KCN) to female rats at diestrus, gestational and lactational periods. Female Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups: virgins in the diestrus phase of the estrus cycle, females at the 14th day of gestation and females at the 14th day of lactation. Each group of rats received 3.0 mg of potassium cyanide per kilogram (KCN/kg body weight) by gavage, and blood was collected at several time points. We also collected amniotic fluid from pregnant rats and milk from the nursing rats to analyze thiocyanate concentration. The results showed that SCN levels were significantly increased in serum, milk and amniotic fluid after administration of KCN. In conclusion, the results of the present study evidence that the metabolism of CN varies greatly considering the physiologic state of the female rat, being females at estrus probably more exposed by these substances than at gestation and lactation because in these states there are other compartments, fetus and milk, which may capture these substances, as demonstrated by the V(d) values. PMID:23841473

  18. TAHU MENGHAMBAT KEHILANGAN TULANG LUMBAR TIKUS BETINA OVARIEKTOMI [Tofu Attenuates Lumbar Bone Loss of Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanto Pawiroharsono 4

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to examine the efeects of feed containing soybean tofu and tempeh on lumbar bone density and mass of ovariectomized female rats. Twenty four 17 weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four group, i.e.: (1 non-ovariectomized rats fed casein based diet (NonOvx, (2 ovariectomized rats fed casein based diet (OvxC, (3 ovariectomized rats fed diet containing soybean tofu (OvxH, and (4 ovariectomized rats fed diet containing soybean tempeh (OvxT; in three block based on their body weight. The result show that body weight gram of ovariectomized rats was greater than nonovariectomized. Ovariectomy caused atrophy of the uterus, and resulted in higher serum calcium level. The lower lumbar vertebrae density of ovariectomized rats was observed and the decrease was prevented by tofu.

  19. Female Flinders Sensitive Line rats show estrous cycle-independent depression-like behavior and altered tryptophan metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Amanda; Budac, David P; Sanchez, Connie;

    2016-01-01

    female Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic rat model of depression. FSL rats and controls (Flinders Resistant Line rats), 12-20weeks old, were subject to the forced swim test (FST), a commonly used measure of depression-like behavior. Open field was used to evaluate locomotor ability and......Clinical studies suggest a link between depression and dysfunctional tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Even though depression is twice as prevalent in women as men, the impact of the estrous cycle on TRP metabolism is not well-understood. Here we investigated 13 kynurenine and serotonin metabolites in...... male FSL and FRL rats. Female FSL rats showed a depression-like phenotype with increased immobility in the FST, not confounded by anxiety. In the brain, 3-hydroxykynurenine was increased whereas anthranilate and 5-hydroxytryptophan were decreased. In plasma, anthranilate and quinolinate levels were...

  20. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppen, Jurgen, E-mail: j.seppen@amc.uva.nl

    2012-11-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  1. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  2. Age-related changes in the percentage of oleate in adipose tissue of male and female Fischer rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, E.B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    weeks. Oestrogen injections twice a week to the castrated rats increased their oleate percentage within the same period to 23.4 ± 0.3%, partly reflecting the increase observed in the female rats. Stearic acid showed similar but less pronounced changes. The ratio oleic acid/stearic acid was constantly...

  3. Reproductive senescence, fertility and reproductive tumour profile in ageing female Han Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchard, Terri L; Klein, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A study using vehicle administration in 104 female rats investigated reproductive aging in Han Wistar rats as a useful tool to interprete carcinogenicity studies where hormonal patterns are perturbated. From 16 weeks of age oestrous cycles were monitored every 6 weeks to investigate reproductive ageing. A subset of 20 females was used to assess fertility at 21 months of age. The animals were necropsied after 106-107 weeks on study and female reproductive organs, mammary glands and pituitary glands were examined for hyperplasias and/or tumours. The majority of rats had regular oestrous cycles up to 6 months of age. After this age, there was a rapid decline in the number of rats with regular oestrous cycles and an increase in irregular cycles and cycles in persistent di-oestrus with an occasional pro-oestrus. By the end of the study, the majority of animals were acyclic and the few remaining cyclic animals had irregular cycles. In the fertility assessment, 19/20 animals mated but only four animals became pregnant. These pregnant animals had normal numbers of corpora lutea of pregnancy but had high pre-implantation losses and could not sustain a viable pregnancy. 65 animals (62.5%) showed adenomas and/or pituitary hyperplasia in the pituitary gland at necropsy. The pituitary tumours were likely to be prolactin secreting that give rise to pseudopregnancy and mammary tumours, demonstrated by the fact that 43/65 (66%) of the affected animals had histopathological signs of these conditions. Multiple corpora lutea were found in 61% of all animals at time of termination. Only one uterine tumour was seen in this study probably due to lack of persistent oestrus seen in these animals. PMID:26655996

  4. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  5. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  6. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  7. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torsten Meldgaard; Kristjansen, P.E.G.; Bolwig, Tom Gert;

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain...

  8. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  9. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  10. Equine Assisted Therapy and Changes in Gait for a Young Adult Female with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Coffey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of equine assisted therapy on selected gait parameters in a person with Down syndrome. One female participant with Down syndrome completed two therapeutic horseback riding programs, each consisting of six riding sessions. Specific gait characteristics were analyzed with a trend analysis of the data by examining the means of the different variables. The trend analysis revealed a difference in stride length as well as hip and knee angle. These results indicate that over the course of the two therapeutic horseback riding programs, changes in gait occurred. Therefore, therapeutic horseback riding may have the potential to benefit gait characteristics and stability in young adult females with Down syndrome; however, further research is warranted.

  11. COMPONENTS OF THE HEALTHY EATING INDEX IN NUTRITION OF ADULT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess and monitor the nutriton and dietary status, the U.S. Department of Agriculture developed the Healthy Eating Index - HEI. The index consists of 10 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutrition in adult females and to analyze the actual nutrition according to selected four components (no. 6-9 of the Healthy Eating Index. Components 6 and 7 measure total fat and saturated fat consumption, respectively, as a percentage of total food intake (maximal 30 % and 10 % of total energy daily content respectively; in case of 31,3 % and 58,62 % females respectively. Components 8 and 9 measure total cholesterol (daily maximal 300 mg in case of 69,54 % participants and sodium intake (maximal 2400 mg a day in case of 22,99 % probands. doi:10.5219/106

  12. N-acetylcysteine attenuates nicotine-induced kindling in female periadolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Adriana Mary Nunes Costa; Gomes, Patrícia Xavier L; de Oliveira, Gersilene V; Araújo, Fernanda Yvelize R de; Tomaz, Viviane S; Chaves Filho, Adriano José Maia; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa F; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; de Lucena, David Freitas; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-06-01

    Kindling is a form of behavioral sensitization that is related to the progression of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder. We recently demonstrated that female periadolescent rats are more vulnerable to nicotine (NIC)-induced kindling than their male counterparts. Furthermore, we evidenced that decreases in brain antioxidative defenses may contribute to this gender difference. Here we aimed to determine the preventive effects of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against NIC-kindling in female periadolescent rats. To do this female Wistar rats at postnatal day 30 received repeated injections of NIC 2mg/kg, i.p. every weekday for up to 19days. NAC90, 180 or 270mg/kg, i.p. was administered 30min before NIC. The levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lipid peroxidation (LP) and nitrite were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST). The development of kindling occurred at a median time of 16.5days with 87.5% of NIC animals presenting stage 5 seizures in the last day of drug administration. NAC270 prevented the occurrence of kindling. NIC-kindled animals presented decreased levels of GSH and increased LP in the PFC, HC and ST, while SOD activity was decreased in the ST. NAC180 or 270 prevented the alterations in GSH induced by NIC, but only NAC270 prevented the alterations in LP. Nitrite levels increased in the ST of NAC270 pretreated NIC-kindled animals. Taken together we demonstrated that NAC presents anti-kindling effects in female animals partially through the restoration of oxidative alterations. PMID:26812248

  13. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,2 ',3,4,4 ',5,5 '-Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viluksela; Päivi Heikkinen; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Filip Rendel; Robert Roos; Javier Esteban; Merja Korkalainen; Sanna Lensu; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Kari Savolainen; Satu Sankari; Hellmuth Lilienthal; Annika Adamsson; Jorma Toppari; Maria Herlin

    2014-01-01

    PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total...

  14. Distribution of bisphenol A into tissues of adult, neonatal, and fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA metabolites in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure in the range of 0.02-0.2 μg/kg bw/d (25th-95th percentiles). The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure placental transfer and concentrations of aglycone (receptor-active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats administered deuterated BPA (100 μg/kg bw) by oral and IV routes. In adult female rat tissues, the tissue/serum concentration ratios for aglycone BPA ranged from 0.7 in liver to 5 in adipose tissue, reflecting differences in tissue perfusion, composition, and metabolic capacity. Following IV administration to dams, placental transfer was observed for aglycone BPA into fetuses at several gestational days (GD), with fetal/maternal serum ratios of 2.7 at GD 12, 1.2 at GD 16, and 0.4 at GD 20; the corresponding ratios for conjugated BPA were 0.43, 0.65, and 3.7. These ratios were within the ranges observed in adult tissues and were not indicative of preferential accumulation of aglycone BPA or hydrolysis of conjugates in fetal tissue in vivo. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in GD 20 fetal brain were higher than in liver or serum. Oral administration of the same dose did not produce measurable levels of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues. Amniotic fluid consistently contained levels of BPA at or below those in maternal serum. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in tissues of neonatal rats decreased with age in a manner consistent with the corresponding circulating levels. Phase II metabolism of BPA increased with fetal age such that near-term fetus was similar to early post-natal rats. These results show that concentrations of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues are similar to those in other maternal and neonatal tissues and that maternal Phase II metabolism, especially following oral

  15. Bone turnover markers in medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is a lack of data on the effects of prolactin on calcium metabolism and bone turnover in hyperprolactinemia of various origins. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia on bone turnover in female rats. Methods. Experimental animals (18 weeks old, Wistar female rats were divided as follows: the group P - 9 rats, 3 weeks pregnant; the group M3-10 rats that were intramuscularly administrated sulpirid (10 mg/kg twice daily for 3 weeks, the group M6 - 10 rats that were intramuscularly administrated with sulpirid (10 mg/kg twice daily for 6 weeks, and age matched nulliparous rats as the control group: 10 rats, 18-week-old (C1 and 7 rats, 24 weeks old (C2. Laboratory investigations included serum ionized calcium and phosphorus, urinary calcium and phosphorous excretion, osteocalcin and serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP. Results. Experimental animals in the group P compared to the control group, displayed lower mean serum ionized calcium (0.5 ± 0.2 vs 1.12 ± 0.04 mmol/L; p < 0.001; higher mean serum phosphorus (2.42 ± 0.46 vs 2.05 ± 0.2 mmol/L; p < 0.05; increased urinary calcium (3.90 ± 0.46 vs 3.05 ± 0.58; p < 0.01 and significantly increased P1NP (489,22 ± 46,77 vs 361.9 ± 53,01 pg/mL; p < 0.001. Experimental animals in the group M3 had significantly decreased P1NP, compared to the control group. Prolongated medicamentous hyperprolactinemia (the group M6 induced increased serum ionized calcium (1.21 ± 0.03 vs 1.15 ± 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001; decreased serum phosphorus (1.70 ± 0.13 vs 1.89 ± 0.32 mmol/L; p < 0.001; decreased osteocalcin and P1NP. Conclusions. Physiological hyperprolactinemia does not have such harmful effect on bone metabolism as medicamentous hyperprolactinemia. Chronic medicamentous hyperprolactinemia produces lower serum levels of bone formation markers. Assessment of bone turnover markers in prolongated medicamentous

  16. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  17. The Experience of Resilience for Adult Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Phenomenological Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C

    2016-06-01

    While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention. PMID:26567293

  18. Effects of melatonin on the ovarian response to pinealectomy or continuous light in female rats: similarity with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Prata Lima

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between melatonin and chronic anovulation. Adult (3-4 months old female Wistar rats were submitted to pinealectomy: group I: pinealectomized ovariectomized melatonin-treated (N = 10; group II: pinealectomized ovariectomized placebo-treated (N = 12; group III: pinealectomized light-treated placebo-treated(N = 10 or maintained under continuous light; group IV: maintained under continuous light, ovariectomized melatonin-treated (N = 22; group V: maintained under continuous light, ovariectomized placebo-treated (N = 10; group VI: maintained under continuous light placebo-treated (N = 10. In order to assess ovarian modifications, unilateral ovariectomy was performed during the fourth month in groups I, II, IV, V and the other ovary was removed after 8 months. Ovariectomy was performed in groups III and VI only after eight months. Melatonin (200 µg/100 g body weight dissolved in 0.02 ml absolute ethanol was injected intramuscularly daily during the last 4 months into groups I and IV. The other groups were treated with placebo (NaCl. The ovarian cysts were analyzed and their area, perimeter and maximum diameter, as well as the thickness of the ovarian capsule were measured. Daily colpocytological smears were performed throughout the study. Persistent estrous condition and ovarian cysts were observed in all groups. In pinealectomized rats the ovarian and vaginal alterations disappeared at the end of the study and in rats maintained under continuous light the vaginal and ovarian polycystic aspect was reversed only in those treated with melatonin. We conclude that melatonin may act on the ovarian response reverting chronic anovulation induced by pinealectomy or continuous light.

  19. Development of motor coordination and cerebellar structure in male and female rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Baxter, M. G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the developing rat cerebellum is affected by exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that the changes in cerebellar structure in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates may affect their motor coordination. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravitational loading. To test this hypothesis, we compared motor behavior, cerebellar structure, and protein expression in rat neonates exposed to 1.5 1.75G on a 24-ft centrifuge daily for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10, through birth on G22/G23 and through postnatal day (P) 21. Exposure to hypergravity impacted the neurodevelopmental process as indicated by: (1) impaired righting response on P3, more than doubling the righting time at 1.75G, and (2) delayed onset of the startle response by one day, from P9 in controls to P10 in hypergravity-exposed pups. Hypergravity exposure resulted in impaired motor functions as evidenced by performance on a rotarod on P21; the duration of the stay on the rotarod recorded for 1.75G pups of both sexes was one tenth that of the stationary control (SC) pups. These changes in motor behavior were associated with cerebellar changes: (1) cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased by 7.5% in 1.5G-exposed male pups, 27.5% in 1.75G-exposed male pups, 17.5% in 1.5G-exposed female pups, and 22.5% in 1.75G female pups and (2) changes in the expression of glial and neuronal proteins. The results of this study suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development as evidenced by decreased cerebellar mass and altered cerebellar protein expression; cerebellar changes observed in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates are associated with impaired motor behavior. Furthermore, the response to hypergravity appears to be different in male and female neonates. If one accepts that the hypergravity paradigm is a useful animal model with which to predict those biological processes

  20. Androgen Receptor in Macrophages of Male Rat is Greater Than in Female

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    Kazem Ahmadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available he presence and possible sex differences of androgen receptor in peritoneal macrophages was investigated using immunomagnetic beads. Macrophages were incubated with different concentrations of [3H]-5αDHT in the presence or absence of a 100 fold excess of unlabelled 5α-DHT. Labelled cells were separated from unbound steroid by immunomagnetic beads coated with anti-rat macrophage antibody. The binding identified in the rat macrophages was highly selective towards androgenic compounds. The dissociation constant (kd value for the receptor was calculated to be 3.3X10-9M and 5X10-9M for macrophages of male and female rat respectively. The number of receptors in each cell was 792±3 and 120±1 for male and female respectively. Indicating a sex differences in androgen receptor (p<0.001. Taken together it can be concluded that part of sex differences in immune responses and also auto-immune disease could be related to sex differences in androgen receptor in macrophages.

  1. Effect of Ginger on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Changes in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty six female albino rats arranged equally into six groups were used in the present study for one month to evaluate the role of ginger intake on radiation induced biochemical and histological changes and to assess the role of ginger as hypocholesterolemic agent in rats fed high fat diet as well. These six groups are: control, ginger (2%.), irradiated (4.5 Gy), irradiated plus ginger, high fat diet and high fat diet plus ginger. Irradiation caused high significant decrease in T4 and high significant increase in cholesterol, total protein, albumin, fasting blood sugar. A/G ratio with loss of lobular architecture of liver and lymphocytic aggregation in the lung, On the other hand high fat diet caused high significant decrease of T4 and total globulins, significant increase of T3, blood sugar, A/G ratio and cholesterol with vacuolar degeneration changes of hepatic cells and moderate changes of peri bronchiolar area, ginger intake was able to bring most of irradiation induced biochemical and histological changes to non irradiated control level in female rats. It also had a hypocholesterolemic effect on animal fed high fat diet

  2. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on early sexual development in male and female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    influence of BPA on early sexual development in male and female rats at dose levels covering both regulatory no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) (5 and 50 mg/kg bw per day) as well as doses in the microgram per kilogram dose range (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg bw per day). Time-mated Wistar rats (n=22) were...... gavaged during pregnancy and lactation from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 with 0, 0.025, 0.25, 5 or 50 mg/kg bw per day BPA. From 0.250 mg/kg and above, male anogenital distance (AGD) was significantly decreased, whereas decreased female AGD was seen from 0.025 mg/kg bw per day and above. Moreover, the...... both sexes indicates effects on prenatal sexual development and provides new evidence of low-dose adverse effects of BPA in rats in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The NOAEL in this study is clearly below 5 mg/kg for BPA, which is used as the basis for establishment of the current tolerable...

  3. Neonatal androgenization exacerbates alcohol-induced liver injury in adult rats, an effect abrogated by estrogen.

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    Whitney M Ellefson

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD affects millions of people worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, fewer than 10% of heavy drinkers progress to later stages of injury, suggesting other factors in ALD development, including environmental exposures and genetics. Females display greater susceptibility to the early damaging effects of ethanol. Estrogen (E2 and ethanol metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, CYP450 are implicated in sex differences of ALD. Sex steroid hormones are developmentally regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, which controls sex-specific cycling of gonadal steroid production and expression of hepatic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine if early postnatal inhibition of adult cyclic E2 alters ethanol metabolizing enzyme expression contributing to the development of ALD in adulthood. An androgenized rat model was used to inhibit cyclic E2 production. Control females (Ctrl, androgenized females (Andro and Andro females with E2 implants were administered either an ethanol or isocalorically-matched control Lieber-DeCarli diet for four weeks and liver injury and CYP450 expression assessed. Androgenization exacerbated the deleterious effects of ethanol demonstrated by increased steatosis, lipid peroxidation, profibrotic gene expression and decreased antioxidant defenses compared to Ctrl. Additionally, CYP2E1 expression was down-regulated in Andro animals on both diets. No change was observed in CYP1A2 protein expression. Further, continuous exogenous administration of E2 to Andro in adulthood attenuated these effects, suggesting that E2 has protective effects in the androgenized animal. Therefore, early postnatal inhibition of cyclic E2 modulates development and progression of ALD in adulthood.

  4. Role of Corticotropin Releasing Factor 1 Signaling in Cocaine Seeking during Early Extinction in Female and Male Rats.

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    Angie M Cason

    Full Text Available Locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF neurons are involved in stress responses, including stress's ability to drive drug relapse. Previous animal studies indicate that female rats exhibit greater drug seeking than male rats during initial drug abstinence. Moreover, females are more sensitive to the effect of stress to drive drug seeking than males. Finally, LC-NE neurons are more sensitive to CRF in females compared to males. We hypothesized that increased drug seeking in females on extinction day one (ED1 is due to increased response to the stress of early withdrawal and is dependent upon the increased response of LC in females to CRF. We predicted that LC-NE neurons would exhibit Fos activation on ED1, and that blocking CRF1 signaling would decrease drug seeking on ED1 measured by responding on an active lever previously associated with cocaine self- administration. After chronic cocaine self-administration, female and male rats underwent a test for initial extinction responding by measuring lever pressing in the absence of cocaine. Prior to this Extinction Day 1 (ED1 session, rats were injected with vehicle or the selective CRF1 antagonist (CP to measure effects of CRF antagonism on drug seeking during early abstinence. ED1 increased corticosterone in female rats, in proportion to lever responding in male and female, indicating that ED1 was stressful. Pretreatment with CP decreased cocaine seeking on ED1 more effectively in female compared to male rats. This increase in responding was associated with an increase in activation of LC NE neurons. Together, these findings indicate that stress, and signaling at CRF receptors in LC, may be involved in the increased drug seeking during initial abstinence.

  5. Role of Corticotropin Releasing Factor 1 Signaling in Cocaine Seeking during Early Extinction in Female and Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Angie M.; Kohtz, Amy; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurons are involved in stress responses, including stress’s ability to drive drug relapse. Previous animal studies indicate that female rats exhibit greater drug seeking than male rats during initial drug abstinence. Moreover, females are more sensitive to the effect of stress to drive drug seeking than males. Finally, LC-NE neurons are more sensitive to CRF in females compared to males. We hypothesized that increased drug seeking in females on extinction day one (ED1) is due to increased response to the stress of early withdrawal and is dependent upon the increased response of LC in females to CRF. We predicted that LC-NE neurons would exhibit Fos activation on ED1, and that blocking CRF1 signaling would decrease drug seeking on ED1 measured by responding on an active lever previously associated with cocaine self- administration. After chronic cocaine self-administration, female and male rats underwent a test for initial extinction responding by measuring lever pressing in the absence of cocaine. Prior to this Extinction Day 1 (ED1) session, rats were injected with vehicle or the selective CRF1 antagonist (CP) to measure effects of CRF antagonism on drug seeking during early abstinence. ED1 increased corticosterone in female rats, in proportion to lever responding in male and female, indicating that ED1 was stressful. Pretreatment with CP decreased cocaine seeking on ED1 more effectively in female compared to male rats. This increase in responding was associated with an increase in activation of LC NE neurons. Together, these findings indicate that stress, and signaling at CRF receptors in LC, may be involved in the increased drug seeking during initial abstinence. PMID:27362504

  6. Role of Corticotropin Releasing Factor 1 Signaling in Cocaine Seeking during Early Extinction in Female and Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Angie M; Kohtz, Amy; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurons are involved in stress responses, including stress's ability to drive drug relapse. Previous animal studies indicate that female rats exhibit greater drug seeking than male rats during initial drug abstinence. Moreover, females are more sensitive to the effect of stress to drive drug seeking than males. Finally, LC-NE neurons are more sensitive to CRF in females compared to males. We hypothesized that increased drug seeking in females on extinction day one (ED1) is due to increased response to the stress of early withdrawal and is dependent upon the increased response of LC in females to CRF. We predicted that LC-NE neurons would exhibit Fos activation on ED1, and that blocking CRF1 signaling would decrease drug seeking on ED1 measured by responding on an active lever previously associated with cocaine self- administration. After chronic cocaine self-administration, female and male rats underwent a test for initial extinction responding by measuring lever pressing in the absence of cocaine. Prior to this Extinction Day 1 (ED1) session, rats were injected with vehicle or the selective CRF1 antagonist (CP) to measure effects of CRF antagonism on drug seeking during early abstinence. ED1 increased corticosterone in female rats, in proportion to lever responding in male and female, indicating that ED1 was stressful. Pretreatment with CP decreased cocaine seeking on ED1 more effectively in female compared to male rats. This increase in responding was associated with an increase in activation of LC NE neurons. Together, these findings indicate that stress, and signaling at CRF receptors in LC, may be involved in the increased drug seeking during initial abstinence. PMID:27362504

  7. Vulnerability versus resilience to prenatal stress in male and female rats; implications from gene expression profiles in the hippocampus and frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Hove, D L A; Kenis, G; Brass, A; Opstelten, R; Rutten, B P F; Bruschettini, M; Blanco, C E; Lesch, K P; Steinbusch, H W M; Prickaerts, J

    2013-10-01

    Adverse life events during pregnancy may impact upon the developing fetus, predisposing prenatally stressed offspring to the development of psychopathology. In the present study, we examined the effects of prenatal restraint stress (PS) on anxiety- and depression-related behavior in both male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, gene expression profiles within the hippocampus and frontal cortex (FC) were examined in order to gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms that mediate the behavioral effects of PS exposure. PS significantly increased anxiety-related behavior in male, but not female offspring. Likewise, depression-related behavior was increased in male PS rats only. Further, male PS offspring showed increased basal plasma corticosterone levels in adulthood, whereas both PS males and females had lower stress-induced corticosterone levels when compared to controls. Microarray-based profiling of the hippocampus and FC showed distinct sex-dependent changes in gene expression after PS. Biological processes and/or signal transduction cascades affected by PS included glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, neurotrophic factor signaling, phosphodiesterase (PDE)/ cyclic nucleotide signaling, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling, and insulin signaling. Further, the data indicated that epigenetic regulation is affected differentially in male and female PS offspring. These sex-specific alterations may, at least in part, explain the behavioral differences observed between both sexes, i.e. relative vulnerability versus resilience to PS in male versus female rats, respectively. These data reveal novel potential targets for antidepressant and mood stabilizing drug treatments including PDE inhibitors and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. PMID:23199416

  8. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

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    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

  9. Hypolipidemic effect of triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis on female albino rats

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    Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and / or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are extremely common in the general population and are regarded as a highly modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to the influence of cholesterol, one of the most clinically relevant lipid substances in atheroscterosis. Aim of the work: This study aimed to evaluate the possible treatment and protective effect of triphala on hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for other 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with triphala for another 3 weeks (25 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given triphala (25 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with triphala ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommended to use triphala in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  10. Pulmonary sensitivity to ozone exposure in sedentary versus chronically trained, female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher J; Phillips, Pamela M; Beasley, Tracey E; Ledbetter, A; Aydin, Cenk; Snow, Samantha J; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Johnstone, Andrew F

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased susceptibility for some environmental toxicants. We developed an animal model of active versus sedentary life style by providing female Sprague-Dawley rats with continuous access to running wheels. Sedentary rats were housed in standard cages without wheels. After training for 12 wks, rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm ozone [O3 for 5 h/d, 1 d/wk, for 6 wk (N = 10 per group)]. Body composition (%fat, lean and fluid) was monitored noninvasively over the course of the study. Ventilatory parameters [tidal volume, minute ventilation, frequency and enhanced pause (Penh)] were assessed using whole-body plethysmography prior to O3 and 24 h after the 5th O3 exposure. Trained rats lost ∼2% body fat after 12 wk of access to running wheels. Peak wheel activity was reduced by 40% after exposure to 1.0 ppm O3. After the 5th O3 exposure, body weight and %fat were reduced in sedentary but not trained rats. Penh was significantly elevated in sedentary but not trained rats the day after exposure to 1.0 ppm O3. However, lung lavage cell counts and biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation measured 1 day after the final exposure were inconsistently affected by training. Wheel running led to marked physiological responses along with some indication of improved pulmonary recovery from O3 exposure. However, wheel running with O3 exposure may also be a detriment for some pulmonary endpoints. Overall, a sedentary lifestyle may increase susceptibility to O3, but additional studies are needed. PMID:27160658

  11. The effect of supplemental food on the growth rates of neonatal, young, and adult cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) in northeastern Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, Maria A.; Slade, Norman A.; Doonan, Terry J.

    2003-09-01

    In food-limited populations, the presence of extra food resources can influence the way individuals allocate energy to growth and reproduction. We experimentally increased food available to cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) near the northern limit of their range over a 2-year period and tested the hypothesis that seasonal growth rates would be enhanced by supplemental food during winter and spring when natural food levels are low. We also examined whether additional food resources were allocated to somatic growth or reproductive effort by pregnant and lactating females. The effect of supplemental food on growth varied with mass and season, but did not influence the growth rates of most cotton rats during spring and winter. In winter, small animals on supplemented grids had higher growth rates than small animals on control grids, but females in spring had lower growth rates under supplemented conditions. Growth rates of supplemented cotton rats were enhanced in summer. Northern cotton rat populations may use season-specific foraging strategies, maximizing energy intake during the reproductive season and minimizing time spent foraging in winter. Adult females invest extra resources in reproduction rather than in somatic growth. Pregnant females receiving supplemental food had higher growth rates than control females, and dependent pups (≤ 1 month of age) born to supplemented mothers had higher growth rates than those born to control mothers. Increased body size seems to confer an advantage during the reproductive season, but has no concomitant advantage to overwinter survival.

  12. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nozhat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C and three experimental groups (I, II and III received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively.  Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration were measured, and reproductive tissues were examined histopathologically. To evaluate the effects of spearmint on fertility of male rats and growth of their offspring, male rats of the control and experimental groups mated with untreated female rats. Results: Results showed that spearmint did not affect the rats’ body and reproductive tissue weights. The sperm count, fast and slow progressive motility of sperm and serum testosterone concentration decreased while number of non-progressive sperm and immotile sperm increased in the experimental groups compared to the control group, but none of these changes were statistically significant. Histopathological studies showed no severe changes in reproductive tissues between control and experimental groups. Number and growth of offspring born from mating of male rats with untreated female rats showed no difference. Conclusion: We concluded that spearmint has no significant toxic effect on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats at the above  mentioned dose levels. However high levels of this extract may have adverse effects on male fertility.

  13. No effect of different estrogen receptor ligands on cognition in adult female monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2009-03-01

    Many studies in women and animal models suggest that estrogens affect cognitive function. Yet, the mechanisms by which estrogens may impact cognition remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of different estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on cognitive function in adult ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were tested for 6 weeks on a battery of memory and attentional tasks administered on a touchscreen: the object, face, and spatial versions of the Delayed Recognition Span Test (DRST) and a Visual Search task. Following a 2-week baseline period with oil vehicle treatment, monkeys were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups: estradiol benzoate (EB), selective ERbeta agonist (diarylpropionitrile DPN) or selective ER modulator tamoxifen (TAM). In each treatment group, monkeys received oil vehicle for 2 weeks and the drug for 2 weeks, in a cross-over design. After a 4-week washout, a subset of monkeys was re-tested on the battery when treated with a selective ERalpha agonist (propyl-pyrazole-triol, PPT) or oil vehicle. Overall, drug treatments had no or negligible effects on cognitive performance. These results support the contention that exogenous estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) do not significantly affect cognition in young adult female macaques. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the cognitive effects of estrogens in monkeys of more advanced age are mediated by ERbeta, ERalpha or complex interactions between the two receptors. PMID:19101578

  14. Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system. The margin of stability (MoS) at foot touchdown was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support (BoS) and extrapolated center of mass. Older participants showed lower MoS adaptation magnitude in the early adaptation phase (steps 1-3) compared to the young and middle-aged groups. However, in the late adaptation phase (steps 16-18) there were no significant differences in adaptation magnitude between the three age groups. After removing the resistance, all three age groups showed similar aftereffects (i.e. increased BoS). The current results suggest that in old age, the ability to recalibrate locomotion to control stability is preserved, but the rate of adaptive improvement in locomotor stability is diminished. PMID:26970886

  15. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  16. Effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on sexual motivation in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Mara Aparecida P; Marthos, Gabriela Cristina P; Oliveira, Liliane Gibram M; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy adversely affects prenatal and postnatal growth and increases the risk of behavioral deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of alcohol on sexual motivation during adulthood. Rats were prenatally exposed to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams a liquid diet containing 25% ethanol-derived calories on days 6 through 19 of gestation. The controls consisted of pair-fed dams (receiving an isocaloric liquid diet containing 0% ethanol-derived calories) and dams with ad libitum access to a liquid control diet. The sexual motivation of offspring was evaluated during adulthood. The results revealed that the male and female pups of dams treated with alcohol exhibited reduced weight gain, which persisted until adulthood. Both male and female adult animals from dams that were exposed to alcohol showed a reduction in the preference score in the sexual motivation test. Taken together, these results provide evidence of the damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on sexual motivation responses in adulthood. PMID:27565750

  17. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. PMID:26049017

  18. Estrous cycle affects the neurochemical and neurobehavioral profile of carvacrol-treated female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvacrol is the major constituent of essential oils from aromatic plants. It showed antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant properties. Although it was approved for food use and included in the chemical flavorings list, no indication on its safety has been estimated. Since the use of plant extracts is relatively high among women, aim of this study was to evaluate carvacrol effects on female physiology and endocrine profiles by using female rats in proestrus and diestrus phases. Serotonin and metabolite tissue content in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, after carvacrol administration (0.15 and 0.45 g/kg p.o.), was measured. Drug effects in behavioral tests for alterations in motor activity, depression, anxiety-related behaviors and endocrine alterations were also investigated. While in proestrus carvacrol reduced serotonin and metabolite levels in both brain areas, no effects were observed in diestrus phase. Only in proestrus phase, carvacrol induced a depressive-like behavior in forced swimming test, without accompanying changes in ambulation. The improvement of performance in FST after subchronic treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) suggested a specific involvement of serotonergic system. No differences were found across the groups with regard to self-grooming behavior. Moreover, in proestrus phase, carvacrol reduced only estradiol levels without binding hypothalamic estradiol receptors. Our study showed an estrous-stage specific effect of carvacrol on depressive behaviors and endocrine parameters, involving serotonergic system. Given the wide carvacrol use not only as feed additive, but also as cosmetic essence and herbal remedy, our results suggest that an accurate investigation on the effects of its chronic exposure is warranted. - Highlights: → Carvacrol induced a depressive-like phenotype in rats, depending on ovarian cyclicity. → Carvacrol selectively reduced serotonin content in female rats in proestrus phase. → Carvacrol reduced serotonin

  19. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Li-Shi; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zeng-Ming; Zhao, Jun; Peng, Shuang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of the present study

  20. Effects of estrogen on gastrocnemius muscle strain injury and regeneration in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin FENG; Guo-zhen LI; Sheng WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of estrogen on muscle damage and regeneration after acute passive gastrocnemius muscle strain injury in female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into 5 groups: ovariectomized,strained and treated with low-dosage estradiol (20 μg/d) (Elow), treated with high-dosage estradiol (200 μg/d) (Ehigh),treated with oil placebo (Oil), strained with no ovariectomy (Strain), and sham operated with no strain and no ovariectomy (Con). Muscle damage index [plasma creatine kinase (CK)], antioxidant indexes [glutathione (GSH),Vitamin E (Vit E), total antioxidant capability (TAC)], and muscle regeneration index (desmin) were investigated at7 d. RESULTS: The plasma CK activity increased but GSH, Vit E, and TAC levels decreased after muscle strain injury (Strain vs Con P<0.05). Plasma CK activity was the greatest while GSH, Vit E, and TAC were the lowest in the Oil group among the five groups (P<0.01). Plasma CK in the Ehigh and Strain groups was lower than that in the Elow group. Plasma GSH, Vit E, and TAC were higher in the Ehigh and Strain groups compared with the Elow group(P <0.05). The expression of desmin in the Ehigh and Strain groups was higher than that in the Elow group (P<0.01)while that in the Oil group was the lowest in all the five groups (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Endogenous estrogen in normal female rats or exogenous estrogen in ovariectomized rats could improve antioxidant capability in vivo, so that reduced muscle damage and accelerated muscle regeneration post gastronemius muscle strain injury.

  1. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  2. A roentgenocephalometric study for the evaluation of the facial esthetics in the Korean adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentofacial relationship of the Korean adult females who had excellent profile using roentgenocephalometry. The subjects were 35 females from 18 to 24 years of age selected among the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars. And, as the control group, 37 females from 18 to 23 years of age with normal occlusion and acceptable profile were selected. In both groups, each variable was measured and evaluated statistically introducing 24 reference points, 22 reference lines and 17 reference angles respectively. Conclusion from this study were as follows: 1. There was no significant difference between the two groups. But SNA and convexity angle which had indicated the maxillary protrusion were lesser in the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars than in the control group. 2. In the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars, the maxillary and mandibular incisors were more upright than in the control group. 3. The protrusion of the upper and lower lip was lesser in the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars than in the control group. 4. Professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars revealed more straight profile than the control group and were similar to that of the Caucasian. 5. Generally, it was the tendency that the straight profile was accepted as esthetics.

  3. Increased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness of glucose metabolism in adipocytes from female versus male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerre-Millo, M.; Leturque, A.; Girard, J.; Lavau, M

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there were sex-associated differences in the action of insulin on glucose metabolism in adipocytes. Insulin binding and the dose-response curves for glucose transport (assessed by measuring the cell-associated radioactivity after 15-s incubation with 50 microM [6-14C]glucose) and [U-14C]glucose (5 mM) metabolism into CO2 and lipids were compared in retroperitoneal adipocytes from age-matched (84 d) male and female rats. In addition, the activity of...

  4. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27. 12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  5. The food-conditioned place preference task in adolescent, adult and aged rats of both sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, Marisa J.; Hagerbaumer, Diana A.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    The rat basolateral amygdala shows neuroanatomical sex differences, continuing development after puberty and aging-related alterations. Implications for amygdala-dependent memory processes were explored here by testing male and female hooded rats in adolescence, adulthood and old age on the food-conditioned place preference task. While aged rats were unimpaired, adolescents failed to learn the task. This finding may be related to ongoing development of the basolateral amygdala and related mem...

  6. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  7. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis

  8. Behavioural response of sexually naïve and experienced male rats to the smell of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and female rat faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Birte L; Jerôme, Nathalie; Saint-Albin, Audrey; Rampin, Olivier; Maurin, Yves

    2013-08-15

    Sexually experienced male rats display penile erections when exposed to faeces from mammalian females in oestrus (Rampin et al., Behav Brain Res, 172:169, 2006), suggesting that specific odours indicate female receptiveness across species. However, it is unknown to what extent the sexual response observed results from an odorous conditioning acquired during sexual experience. We tested the behavioural response of male Brown Norway rats both when sexually naïve and experienced to four odours, including oestrous rat faeces and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (methylheptenone; a molecule found in higher concentrations during oestrus in female rats, foxes and horses). Odour had a significant effect on the sexual response of the naïve rats, with oestrus faeces provoking significantly more erections than herb odour, and with methylheptenone and di-oestrus faeces being intermediate. This indicates that sexually naïve male rats have an unconditioned ability to detect oestrous mediated via odour. After gaining sexual experience, the response to methylheptenone, di- and oestrus faeces was significantly higher than that observed with herb odour. These results strongly suggest that methylheptenone is part of the odorous bouquet of oestrus and contributes to the olfactory determination of female receptiveness. PMID:23911690

  9. Central estrogenic pathways protect against the depressant action of acute nicotine on reflex tachycardia in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously shown that acute exposure of male rats to nicotine preferentially attenuates baroreceptor-mediated control of reflex tachycardia in contrast to no effect on reflex bradycardia. Here, we investigated whether female rats are as sensitive as their male counterparts to the baroreflex depressant effect of nicotine and whether this interaction is modulated by estrogen. Baroreflex curves relating reflex chronotropic responses evoked by i.v. doses (1–16 μg/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP), were constructed in conscious freely moving proestrus, ovariectomized (OVX), and estrogen (50 μg/kg/day s.c., 5 days)-replaced OVX (OVXE2) rats. Slopes of the curves were taken as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRSPE and BRSSNP). Nicotine (100 μg/kg i.v.) reduced BRSSNP in OVX rats but not in proestrus or OVXE2 rats. The attenuation of reflex tachycardia by nicotine was also evident in diestrus rats, which exhibited plasma estrogen levels similar to those of OVX rats. BRSPE was not affected by nicotine in all rat preparations. Experiments were then extended to determine whether central estrogenic receptors modulate the nicotine–BRSSNP interaction. Intracisteral (i.c.) treatment of OVX rats with estrogen sulfate (0.2 μg/rat) abolished the BRSSNP attenuating effect of i.v. nicotine. This protective effect of estrogen disappeared when OVX rats were pretreated with i.c. ICI 182,780 (50 μg/rat, selective estrogen receptor antagonist). Together, these findings suggest that central neural pools of estrogen receptors underlie the protection offered by E2 against nicotine-induced baroreceptor dysfunction in female rats. -- Highlights: ► Estrogen protects against the depressant effect of nicotine on reflex tachycardia. ► The baroreflex response and estrogen status affect the nicotine–BRS interaction. ► The protection offered by estrogen is mediated via central estrogen receptors.

  10. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  11. Influences of olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 陈燕涛; 程志安

    2002-01-01

    To observe whether olfactory ensheathing cells could be used to promote axonal regeneration in a spontaneously nonregenerating system. Methods: After laminectomy at the lower thoracic level, the spinal cords of adult rats were exposed and completely transected at T10. A suspension of ensheathing cells was injected into the lesion site in 12 adult rats, and control D/F-12 (1∶1 mixture of DMEM and Hams F-12) was injected in 12 adult rats. Six weeks and ten weeks after cell transplantation, the rats were evaluated by climbing test and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring. The samples were procured and studied with histologicl and immunohistochemical methods. Results: At the 6th week after cell transplantation, all the rats in both the transplanted and control groups were paraplegic and the MEPs could not be recorded. At the 10th week after cell transplantation, of 7 rats in the control group, 2 rats had muscles contraction of the lower extremities, 2 rats had hips and/or knees active movement; and 5 rats MEPs could be recorded in the hind limbs in the transplanted group (n=7). None of the rats in the control group had functional improvement and no MEPs recorded (n=7). Numerous regenerating axons were observed through the transplantation and continued to regenerate into the denervated host tract. Cell labelling using anti-Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (anti-NGFR) indicated that the regenerated axons were derived from the appropriate neuronal source and that donor cells migrated into the denervated host tract. But axonal degeneration existed and regenerating axons were not observed within the spinal cords of the adult rats with only D/F-12 injection. Conclusions: The axonal regeneration in the transected adult rat spinal cord is possible after ensheathing cells transplantation.

  12. Influence of ovarian and non-ovarian estrogens on weight gain in response to disruption of sweet taste – calorie relations in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Katz, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of energy balance in female rats is known to differ along a number of dimensions compared to male rats. Previous work from our lab has demonstrated that in female rats fed dietary supplements containing high-intensity sweeteners that may disrupt a predictive relation between sweet tastes and calories, excess weight gain is demonstrated only when females are also fed a diet high in fat and sugar, and is evidenced primarily in animals already prone to gain excess weight. In contrast,...

  13. Isolation and characterization of progenitor cells in uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatos, Marie A; Haugaard-Kedstrom, Linda; Hodges, Robin R;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). METHODS: The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and α-smooth muscle actin...

  14. Influence of neonatally administered capsaicin on baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes in the adult rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, S. M.; Cervero, F; McQueen, D S

    1982-01-01

    1 Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex activity was studied in anaesthetized adult rats which had been treated neonatally with a single injection of capsaicin (50 mg/kg s.c.). 2 Pressor responses to bilateral carotid artery occlusion were significantly lower in capsaicin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Pressor responses to intravenously injected noradrenaline were similar in the two groups of rats. 3 Resting respiratory minute volume and tidal volume were lower in anaest...

  15. Effects of developmental methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on monoamine neurochemistry of male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panos, John J; O'Callaghan, James P; Miller, Diane B; Ferguson, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 4-5% of the adult human population (Kessler et al., 2006; Willcutt, 2012). Often prescribed to attenuate ADHD symptoms (Nair and Moss, 2009), methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) can have substantial positive effects. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding its use during pregnancy. Thus, adult women with ADHD face a difficult decision when contemplating pregnancy. In this study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated a total of 0 (water), 6 (low), 18 (medium), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg body weight/day (divided into three doses) on gestational days 6-21 (i.e., the low dose received 2 mg MPH/kg body weight 3×/day). Offspring were orally treated with the same daily dose as their dam (divided into two doses) on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21. One offspring/sex/litter was sacrificed at PND 22 or PND 104 (n=6-7/age/sex/treatment group) and the striatum was quickly dissected and frozen. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a Photo Diode Array detector (PDA) was used to analyze monoamine content in the striatum of one side while a sandwich ELISA was used to analyze tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from the other side. Age significantly affected monoamine and metabolite content as well as turnover ratios (i.e., DA, DOPAC, HVA, DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA, 5-HT and 5-HIAA); however, there were no significant effects of sex. Adult rats of the low MPH group had higher DA levels than control adults (peffect (i.e., higher DA or TH levels) exhibited an apparent dose-response. PND 22 subjects of the high MPH treatment group had higher ratios of HVA/DA and DOPAC/DA than same-age control subjects (peffects on monoamine system development, further studies are required to determine if these alterations manifest as functional changes in behavior. PMID:25132048

  16. Effects of Eucommia ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

    2015-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation. PMID:25087723

  17. Nonproliferative and proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse female reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Darlene; Alison, Roger; Bach, Ute; Colman, Karyn; Foley, George L; Harleman, Johannes H; Haworth, Richard; Herbert, Ronald; Heuser, Anke; Long, Gerald; Mirsky, Michael; Regan, Karen; Van Esch, Eric; Westwood, F Russell; Vidal, Justin; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the female reproductive tract of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of some lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. There is also a section on normal cyclical changes observed in the ovary, uterus, cervix and vagina to compare normal physiological changes with pathological lesions. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for female reproductive tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:25516636

  18. Silymarin BIO-C, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, induces hyperprolactinemia in intact female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Savino, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A; Lembo, Francesca; Borrelli, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged to have important health benefits for infants and mothers. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum fruits) has been recently proposed to be used by nursing mothers for stimulating milk production; however, the mode of action of this herbal drug is still unknown. In this paper, we have evaluated the effect of a micronized standardized extract of S. marianum (Silymarin BIO-C=Piùlatte) on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C (25-200mg/kg, given orally) increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels. Moreover, after a 66-day discontinuation of Silymarin BIO-C treatment, prolactin levels were still significantly elevated although we observed a trend to decrease that was counteracted by a further 7-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, (1-10mg/kg, os) significantly and in a dose dependent manner, reduced the serum prolactin levels; bromocriptine, at the dose of 1mg/kg, significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silymarin BIO-C. In conclusion, we have shown that an extract from S. marianum fruits significantly increases circulating prolactin levels in female rats; this effect seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D(2) receptors. PMID:19303749

  19. Influence Of Whey Protein For Abrogating Liver Injury In Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the possible benefits of whey protein concentrate (44% protein, 5% fat and 4.6% ash in dry weight) against liver injury induced by CCl4 . It was carried out by evaluating the effect of the daily feeding of female rats on diet containing 15% whey protein instead of soybean protein for four weeks on some biochemical and histological changes in liver of female rats.The data showed that injection with CCl4 (1 ml /kg body weight 3 times / week) caused significant decrease in body weight with disturbances in liver functions as significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and bilirubin and significant decrease in serum albumin, FT3 and an increase in AFP levels. A marked significant decrease in glutathione content and significant increase in lipid peroxidation was also observed in hepatic tissues. The histological examination revealed that CCl4 treatment showed marked degenerative changes in liver hepatocytes and sinusoids.The results also showed that feeding on diet containing whey protein for two or four weeks during CCl4 treatment minimized the disturbance of the liver functions and liver histology.

  20. Some biochemical and hematological changes in female rats under protein malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of low and high dietary protein on some biochemical and hematological parameters in blood of female albino rats. A total number of 75 albino female rats were equally divided into 3 groups, the first group was fed 20% protein diet and served as control and the second and third groups were fed 5% and 65% protein for 5 weeks and served as low and high protein dietary groups, respectively. The results showed high significant decreases in serum growth hormone, ferritin levels and iron concentration in group II and there was significant increase in unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) in group III, compared to control group. Studies of total protein and its fractions revealed high significant decreases in total protein, albumin, alpha-1-globulin, beta-globulin as well as gamma globulin in group II and significant increases in total protein, alpha-1- globulin, beta-globulin and gamma-globulin in group III, compared to normal control group. The hematological investigations in group II revealed significant decreases in hemoglobin value, total leukocyte count, platelets, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), erythrocytic count and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). On the other hand, there was significant increase in total leukocyte count in group III if compared to control group

  1. Tissue distribution of transdermal administration of tamoxifen citrate gel in female adult rats by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定枸橼酸他莫昔芬凝胶剂在大鼠组织内的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 邵彦江; 李敏; 崔文琪; 阿有梅; 高珊珊; 张振中

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究枸橼酸他莫昔芬凝胶剂经大鼠乳腺组织周围皮肤局部给药后在大鼠体内组织的分布.方法:SD大鼠50只,随机分成实验组和对照组,各组25只大鼠.对照组按10 mg/kg的剂量灌胃给予枸橼酸他莫昔芬丙二醇溶液,实验组按50 mg/kg的剂量将枸橼酸他莫昔芬凝胶剂均匀涂布于大鼠乳腺组织周围.2组大鼠均每24 h给药1次,连续给药3 d,并于末次给药后0、4、8、12、24 h处死大鼠,剖取乳腺、肝脏、子宫及卵巢等组织,采用HPLC法测定不同组织中枸橼酸他莫昔芬的分布.结果:2组大鼠乳腺组织中枸橼酸他莫昔芬到达峰值时间均为4 h,各时间点实验组浓度均高于对照组(t=7.183、7.788、8.078、5.804和5.442,P均<0.001);2组其他各组织不同时间点他莫昔芬浓度间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:枸橼酸他莫昔芬凝胶剂经乳腺组织周围皮肤局部给药后可显著增加乳腺组织对药物的吸收.%Aim:To study the tissue distribution of tamoxifen after transdermal administration of tamoxifen citrate gel on the breast skin of rats. Methods:Fifty female rats were randomly allocated into 2 groups( 25 in each group ). Experiment group received transdermal tamoxifen citrate gel once per day at 50 mg/kg for 3 days, and control group received tamoxifen citrate solution at 10 mg/kg for 3 days. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 h after the last administration. The concentrations of tamoxifen in breast, womb, ovary and liver were determined by HPLC. Results:Peak concentration ( Cmax ) of tamoxifen in breast of the two groups both occurred at 4 h following last administration. The Cmax of tamoxifen in breast of the experiment group was significantly higher than that in the control group at different time points( t = 7.183.7.788.8.078.5.804 and 5. 442,P 0.05 ). Conclusion:Tamoxifen has more satiafactory distribut ion the breast tissue after transdermal administration of tamoxifen citrate gel

  2. Dietary fat affects plasma prolactin in female F344 rats under conditions of ether stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosland, M C; Bunnik, G S; Wilbrink, B; de Bie, B T; Floor, B

    1994-01-01

    The influence of amount and type of dietary fat on circulating concentrations of prolactin and estradiol-17 beta in female F344 rats from which blood was sampled by decapitation under ether anesthesia was compared with that in rats from which blood was collected without anesthesia. The animals were fed isonutrient (adjusted for differences in energy density) semipurified diets containing 5% or 20% (by weight) sunflower seed oil or lard. Blood was sampled by decapitation with or without standardized ether anesthesia during the afternoon of proestrus-estrus or the morning of metestrus-diestrus, as determined by examination of vaginal smears. Plasma hormone concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Prolactin levels were lower during proestrus-estrus in rats fed a low-fat diet than in animals fed a high-fat diet, statistically independent of the type of dietary fat, but only when blood was sampled by decapitation under ether anesthesia [p = 0.0384, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. No such difference was found in rats decapitated without anesthesia. This effect of amount of dietary fat on prolactin in proestrus-estrus animals anesthetized with ether was predominantly present in animals fed polyunsaturated fat (p rats fed saturated fat diets. During metestrus-diestrus, prolactin levels were significantly lower in animals fed a high-saturated fat diet than in those fed low-saturated fat, low-unsaturated fat, or high-unsaturated fat diets, independent of the blood sampling conditions (p conversion efficiency was lower in animals fed low-fat diets than in those fed high-fat diets. This study confirms the hypothesis that effects of dietary fat, particularly polyunsaturated fat, on circulating prolactin occur only during (ether) stress. Because stress is a frequent and normal phenomenon, this observation implies that the mammary glands of animals with a high dietary intake of polyunsaturated fat are frequently exposed to higher circulating prolactin concentrations

  3. The effect of piroctone olamine on reproduction of male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, G S; Miller, J M; Schardein, J L

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of piroctone olamine, an antidandruff active, on reproductive performance, fertility, parturition, and neonatal viability and growth. Piroctone olamine was administered orally by gavage to three groups of 35 male Sprague-Dawley rats each beginning 64 days prior to mating and continuing until euthanized and to three groups of 35 female Sprague-Dawley rats each beginning 14 days prior to mating and continuing until euthanized. Animals in the treated groups received piroctone olamine in a combination of 1.0% methylcellulose and polyethylene glycol 400 as a single daily dose at levels of 0, 10, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day, at a volume of 2.5 ml/kg. The control group received the vehicle only. Ten randomly selected females/group were mated and underwent a uterine examination on Gestation Day 13; the remaining females were allowed to deliver. Because earlier studies reported hematological effects, blood samples were collected from all parental animals during acclimation and prior to euthanasia for hematological and blood chemistry (Gestation Day 13 females) characterization. The parental animals were necropsied and tissues were grossly examined. Systemic effects induced by the test article were seen at the mid- and high-dose levels but only among the male rats. These effects were reduced body weight and decreased liver weights. Hematological findings representative of anemia occurred at the high-dose level, as did rales in several animals. Offspring growth was inhibited for the high-dose group as evidenced by significantly reduced mean weight values throughout lactation. The remaining parameters assessed, including mating ability and reproductive performance, were not affected by treatment at any dosage level tested. In summary, the no observable effect level of piroctone olamine with respect to systemic toxicity was considered to be 10 mg/kg/day. Neonatal growth was not affected at 100 mg/kg/day or less, and the no

  4. Dynamic changes of beta-amyloid protein deposition in hippocampus of female ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqing Xie; Jianda Zhou; Shaodan Sun; Xuhong Li; Liming Deng; Fengmei Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate and summarize the effects of cerebral perfusion and vascular reserve on the treatment of SICAS. Recently, research on β-amyloid protein has focused on the regulatory effects of es-trogen or phytoestrogen on its deposition. However, there have been only a few reports on dynamic changes of β-amyloid protein deposition in hippocampus of ovariectomized rats.OBJECTIVE: To measureβ-amyloid protein deposition in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized rats by using immunohistochemistry; to observe time-dependent dynamic changes. DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Central Laboratory of the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from November 2005 to December 2006. Fifty healthy female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, weighing (293 ± 10) g, were provided by the Animal Laboratory of Xiangya Medical College, Central South University. All rats had neither a childbearing history nor hepatic or renal disease, or skeletal deformity. Β-amyloid protein immunohistochemical kit was provided by Wuhan Boster Company. The ex-periment was in accordance with animal ethics standards.METHODS: All rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal control group (n = 10), sham operation group (n = 10), and ovariectomized group (n = 30). After anesthesia in the ovariectomized group, the bilateral ovaries were separated and resected. The same volume of fat was resected in the sham operation group. Rats from the normal control group, however, did not receive any surgical treatments. Rats in the normal control group and sham operation group were sacrificed by anesthesia 7 weeks after surgery. Every ten rats from the ovariectomized group was respectively sacrificed at 7, 15, and 30 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemistry was used to detectβ-amyloid protein deposition in hippocampal sections. Cell counting and gray value

  5. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

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    Sheeja E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological studies of the uterus were carried out to confirm their estrogenic activity. Results : The acetone and ethanol extracts were most effective in interrupting the normal estrous cycle of the rats (P< 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.001. These later exhibited prolonged diestrous stage of the estrous cycle with consequent temporary inhibition of ovulation. The antiovulatory activity was reversible on discontinuation of treatment. Both the extracts showed significant estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Conclusion : The acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. rosea leaves have an antifertility activity.

  6. Oltipraz Ameliorizing the Oxidation and Hepatotoxicity Induced by the Anticancer Drug, Tamoxifen in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although tamoxifen has been under clinical investigation as a chemopreventive agent against breast cancer for at least a decade, yet its use is still debatable, since it showed to be able to induce liver tumor. Oltipraz as an organosulpher compound, naturally found in cruciferous plants was originally developed as an antischistosomal agent and showed to possess chemopreventive activity against different classes of carcinogens. Female Sprague Dawely rats were orally supplemented with tamoxifen (200 mg/kg body wt.) and oltipraz (30 mg/kg body wt.) daily up to 28 days. Blood samples were taken after one and 4 weeks of administration. The data revealed that tamoxifen administration resulted in significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gammaglutamyl transferase (gGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity levels indicating liver dysfunction, decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) indicating antioxidant depression associated with increased malondialdehyde, MDA (lipid peroxidation) and carbonyl (protein oxidation). The changes in the assayed parameters indicate dose and time dependent effect. Oltipraz alone caused non-significant changes in the assayed parameters except for the significant increase in GSH content indicating its safe use. The group of rats receiving both drugs showed changes in the assayed parameters less intensified than those recorded in rats received tamoxifen without oltipraz indicating a beneficial role of oltipraz in hindering the side toxic effects of tamoxifen

  7. Action of phyllanthus niruri on the hormones of pregnant female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phyllanthus niruri is used for treatment of renal diseases, among others. This work aims to evaluate the regulation of the thyroid and estrogenic hormones, under the influence of the extract of Phyllanthus niruri in pregnant female rats. Wistar rats, after copulation and verification of pregnancy, were divided into groups of 10 rats each and were administered 0,05-2,5 mg/mL of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri, intraperitoneally. All the animals after 14 days of treatment, were sacrificed under ether anesthesia, blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture for attainment of serum, concentrations of T3, T4, 17 β-estradiol, progesterone hormones were determined and macroscopical visualization of the embryos was evaluated. Those hormones serum levels were evaluated by RIA. The extract altered the serum concentration of T4 , and β-1,7 estradiol, which presented an increase of 333,3 % and more than 272,8%,respectively,when related to group. It is verified that progesterone is reduced of 82,9%,in related to control group. Probably extract of Phyllanthus niruri provokes alterations on the somatic-gonadal development, that modifies the corpus luteum function on synthesis and secretion of estrogenic hormones, a reduction in the number of embryos and morpho physiological dysfunctions are caused, which leads to miscarriage. Chemical study continues to determinate the structure of the active principles isolated. (author)

  8. Action of phyllanthus niruri on the hormones of pregnant female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, G.M.L; Bezerra, A.L; Carvalho, E.F.N.B; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia]. E-mail: mariajansem@hotmail.com; Galdino, M.F.S. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: egmoura@uerj.br

    2002-07-01

    Phyllanthus niruri is used for treatment of renal diseases, among others. This work aims to evaluate the regulation of the thyroid and estrogenic hormones, under the influence of the extract of Phyllanthus niruri in pregnant female rats. Wistar rats, after copulation and verification of pregnancy, were divided into groups of 10 rats each and were administered 0,05-2,5 mg/mL of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri, intraperitoneally. All the animals after 14 days of treatment, were sacrificed under ether anesthesia, blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture for attainment of serum, concentrations of T3, T4, 17 {beta}-estradiol, progesterone hormones were determined and macroscopical visualization of the embryos was evaluated. Those hormones serum levels were evaluated by RIA. The extract altered the serum concentration of T{sub 4} , and {beta}-1,7 estradiol, which presented an increase of 333,3 % and more than 272,8%,respectively,when related to group. It is verified that progesterone is reduced of 82,9%,in related to control group. Probably extract of Phyllanthus niruri provokes alterations on the somatic-gonadal development, that modifies the corpus luteum function on synthesis and secretion of estrogenic hormones, a reduction in the number of embryos and morpho physiological dysfunctions are caused, which leads to miscarriage. Chemical study continues to determinate the structure of the active principles isolated. (author)

  9. Role of Estrogen on Prevention of Morphine Addiction in Ovarectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rafati

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Evidence indicates that the biological response and the causes of drug abuse may be different between women and men. These sex differences in drug abuse may be due to socio-cultural factors or biological (hormonal differences. Estrogen is one of the hormones which involves in dopamine release in striatum and nucleus accumbency and also is one of the most important neurotransmitters in central nervous system which has critical role in morphine addiction. So, in this study we survey the role of estrogen on dependency and tendency to morphine in rat as a factor of sex differences in addiction. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was carried out in Yazd University of Medical Sciences. Behavioral changes like morphine craving was evaluated by self-administration as a criterion for tendency and for assessment of dependency. we evaluated withdrawal syndrome sings (e.g. jumping, wet dog shaking, etc in control group (ovarectomized female rats receiving morphine sulfate solution and test group (ovarectomized female rats, pretreated with estradiol benzoate before receiving daily morphine sulfate solution. Data obtained were analyzed by SPSS software, using T-test analysis Results: Results showed that although pretreatment with estradiol in test group might lead to a significant decline in withdrawal syndrome sings in comparison with control group, differences in morphine craving as a criterion for tendency was not significant between the two groups. Conclusion: According to our findings, it seems that estrogen, through central mechanisms and its effect on brain dopaminergic system, reduces the physical dependency to morphine.

  10. Ileo-Colic Burkitt Lymphoma in a Young Adult Female- A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangma, Mima Maychet B; Dasiah, Simon D; Ashok, Aju James

    2016-04-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an uncommon and aggressive type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and is one of the fastest growing cancer tumour in humans; growth fraction close to 100%. We report a case of a young adult female presented with acute pain abdomen with ileo-caecal mass. On clinical presentation, initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis with lump formation. Ultrasound reported as diffuse inflammatory changes and later CECT was done which reported as Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST). On laparotomy, a huge hard mass was found on ileo-caecal region and right hemicolectomy was done. Diagnosis was confirmed as Non-Hodgkins Burkitt's Lymphoma by HPE and immunohistochemistry testing. So, careful workup is the key to initiate early treatment. This patient had complete remission after the right hemicolectomy followed by multiagent chemotherapy. PMID:27190885

  11. The experiences and needs of female adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra

    2016-05-01

    There is limited large-scale research into the lived experiences of female adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on the findings of an Australia-wide survey, this report presents self-report data fromn = 82 women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder in the areas of health, education, employment, social and community activities. Where relevant, comparisons are provided with the male subset of the same study population; however, in the majority of analyses, no discernible gender differences emerged. The findings highlight the diverse and complex challenges faced by women with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, including high levels of mental health disorder, unmet support needs in education settings and the workplace, and social exclusion and isolation. PMID:26111537

  12. Delayed Recognition of an Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in a Young Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Schulman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A percentage of ureteropelvic junction obstruction cases are clinically silent in childhood and manifest symptoms in adults. Herein we present a 25-year-old female with several years of intermittent flank pain and abdominal symptoms with prior inconclusive diagnostic workup including abdominal imaging without hydronephrosis. Ultimately, a CT scan performed during an acute pain crisis clearly identified right-sided hydronephrosis. The keys to diagnosis are awareness of this entity, a detailed history, and obtaining imaging studies during a crisis. The patient subsequently underwent a right robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty with preservation of a lower pole crossing vessel. We highlight noteworthy features of the clinical presentation and surgical repair.

  13. Ibotenic acid-induced lesion of the peripeduncular area does not impair the lordosis reflex in the cyclic female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, P; Roger, M

    1990-12-01

    In the ovariectomized, hormone-primed rat the peripeduncular area (PPA) has been reported to play a key role in sexual receptivity by integrating the sensory and endocrine inputs necessary for the elicitation of the lordosis reflex. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of bilateral peripeduncular lesions induced by ibotenic acid on the lordosis behavior of the normal, cyclic rat. Sexually unexperienced females received a bilateral microinjection of either ibotenic acid (n = 14; lesion group) or phosphate buffer (n = 8; sham-operated group) in the PPA. Following recovery, the receptivity expressed as the lordosis quotient was controlled in the presence of a sexually active male. The results indicate that in both groups the females display a high lordosis quotient (LQ greater than 90%). Therefore, in the cyclic female rat, the manifestation of sexual receptivity does not seem to be affected following bilateral destruction of the PPA. PMID:2073353

  14. Urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction in female mice following early life and adult stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Angela N; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R; Eller, Olivia C; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M; Christianson, Julie A

    2016-05-15

    Early adverse events have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. Despite high clinical relevance and reports of stress-related symptom exacerbation, animal models investigating the contribution of early life stress to female urological pain are lacking. We examined the impact of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on bladder sensitivity and visceral neuroimmune status both prior-to, and following, water avoidance stress (WAS) in adult female mice. The visceromotor response to urinary bladder distension was increased at baseline and 8d post-WAS in NMS mice, while colorectal sensitivity was transiently increased 1d post-WAS only in naïve mice. Bladder micturition rate and output, but not fecal output, were also significantly increased following WAS in NMS mice. Changes in gene expression involved in regulating the stress response system were observed at baseline and following WAS in NMS mice, and WAS reduced serum corticosterone levels. Cytokine and growth factor mRNA levels in the bladder, and to a lesser extent in the colon, were significantly impacted by NMS and WAS. Peripheral mRNA levels of stress-responsive receptors were differentially influenced by early life and adult stress in bladder, but not colon, of naïve and NMS mice. Histological evidence of mast cell degranulation was increased in NMS bladder, while protein levels of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were increased by WAS. Together, this study provides new insight into mechanisms contributing to stress associated symptom onset or exacerbation in patients exposed to early life stress. PMID:26940840

  15. Assessment of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors among Young Adult Females

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    Swati Dhruv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Over the past two decades there has been a striking increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome in developing countries. The current study was thus undertaken to map the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS and to assess the cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adult females (n = 1303 aged 18-26y from four girls hostel of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Approach: The anthropometric analysis showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (20.8%, abdominal obesity (12.7% among the subjects. The clinical profile revealed that 12.1% were hypertensives. The prevalence of dyslipidemia revealed that no one had hypercholesterolemia and 4.1% had hypertriglyceridemia, 12.1% had elevated LDL-C and 40.3% had low levels of HDL-C. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.4 and 4.1% according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and World Health Organization (WHO criteria respectively. Lipid profile in relation to metabolic syndrome showed that VLDL-C and Triglyceride (TG values were non-significantly higher among the young adult females and HDL-C values were significantly (pResults: The three common and predominant risk factors (>80% identified were lower intake of fruits (81.5%, vegetables (96% and physical inactivity (88.7%. The other risk factors which were present between 30-50% were hypertension, lower HDL-C, Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. Among the non-modifiable factor heredity component was present in 34% of the subjects. Conclusion: The study highlights that lifestyle factors had equivalent risk for overweight and metabolic syndrome. Multiple risk factor scenario calls for lifestyle management to avert later consequences.

  16. Hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and infarction in male and female F344 rats following gavage exposure to 2-butoxyethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanayem, B I; Long, P H; Ward, S M; Chanas, B; Nyska, M; Nyska, A

    2001-06-01

    2-butoxyethanol (BE; ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) is used extensively in the manufacture of a wide range of domestic and industrial products which may result in human exposure and toxicity. BE causes severe hemolytic anemia in male and female rats and mice. In a recent report, female F344 rats exposed to 500 ppm BE by inhalation and sacrificed moribund on day 4 of treatment exhibited disseminated thrombosis associated with infarction in several organs. In contrast, no such lesions were observed in male rats similarly exposed to BE. Additional studies were therefore undertaken to compare the effects of BE in rats of both sexes. Rats received 250 mg BE/kg/day by gavage for 1, 2 or 3 days and were sacrificed 24 or 48 hr after the last dose. Control rats received 5 ml/kg water. Progressive time-dependent hemolytic anemia--macrocytic, hypochromic, and regenerative--was observed in both sexes of rats exposed to BE. Additionally, BE caused significant morphological changes in erythrocytes, first observed 24 hr after a single dose, including stomatocytosis, macrocytosis with moderate rouleaux formation, and spherocytosis. These morphological changes became progressively more severe as BE dosing continued and included the occasional occurrence of schistocytes and ghost cells, rouleaux formation in rats of both sexes, and an increased number of red blood cells with micronuclei in female rats. Overall, the progression of hemolytic anemia and morphological changes as a function of the number of days of exposure varied with gender and suggested a faster onset of hemolysis in female rats. The range of BE-related histopathological changes noted in both sexes was comparable; however, while these lesions were observed in female rats following a single dose, similar effects were first observed in males after 3 consecutive days of exposure to BE. Pathological changes involved disseminated thrombosis in the lungs, nasal submucosa, eyes, liver, heart, bones and teeth, with evidence

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (...

  18. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during...

  19. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

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    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  20. Differential expression of secretogranin II and chromogranin A genes in the female rat pituitary through sexual maturation and estrous cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secretogranin II (SgII) is a protein of pituitary secretory granules released by LHRH-stimulated gonadotrope cells. Estrogens and androgens are modulators of SgII release. Experiments were performed to determine the regulation of expression of the SgII gene in the female rat pituitary, during sexual maturation and according to the estrous cycle. Age- and cycle-related changes in SgII mRNA content were estimated through cytoplasmic slot blot; SgII content was determined by western blotting; maturation of the protein was controlled through [35S]sulfate labeling. Variations in chromogranin A (CgA), another protein of secretory granules, were analyzed in the same experimental conditions to assess the specificity of SgII regulation. The pituitary SgII concentration increased between days 7 and 21 (2.2-fold) and then declined to the initial 7-day-old value. Simultaneously, the CgA concentration went through a maximum between days 14 and 21 and then strongly dropped to barely detectable levels in the adult pituitary. The SgII mRNA concentration followed roughly the same pattern as the protein. Moreover, the sulfation level remained constant between days 14 and 60. These results demonstrated a regulatory mechanism operating, during sexual maturation, on the SgII gene and not on the protein processing or on storage/release steps. In the 4-day cycling females, the pituitary SgII mRNA and protein contents were the lowest during estrus. They then increased to their highest values in diestrus II. Moreover, the sulfation level of SgII was significantly higher during estrus than during any other stage. Due to its low content level, variations in pituitary CgA could not be demonstrated during the cycle

  1. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  2. Study of risk factors for carcinoma breast in adult female general population in Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate some of the established risk factors for the breast cancer in adult female population. It was a prospective study. This study was conducted in Oncology Department, Services Hospital, Lahore, from August 1999 to August, 2000. One hundred breast cancer patients and 100 control subjects enrolled for interview and the percentage of positives was analyzed. Performa containing demographic characteristics and established risk factors for breast cancer was established. All the female subjects, above 15 years of age, were subjected to the questions in this proforma. To keep uniformity medical officers were briefed for filling this proforma. The data gathered was analyzed statistically. Out of established risk factors, family history of breast cancer and use of oral contraceptive pills were proved significantly positive with a value of p0.05). This study showed that there is a family tendency for breast cancer and estrogenic hormones are playing some role. More possibility of breast cancer was found in infertile and those having early menarche. (author)

  3. Risk Factors And Impacts Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adult Females In Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. El-Moselhy; H. O. Khalifa ; K. M. Abd-Allah; F. A. Hassan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on ninety sexually transmitted disease (STD adult female patients, attending Dermato-Venereology and Gynaecology Clinics, Al-Hussein University Hospital and an equal number of females as controls. The aim of the study was to determine sociodemographic, sexual and health care behaviours risk factors for STDs and to determine their impacts on the studied females. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to perform this research. Vaginal, cervical and urethral swabs and smears were taken. Also, scrapes from any suspicious lesions together with blood samples were taken from STD patients for various laboratory examinations. The most common STD was candidiasis (35.6%. Shared house and unskilled occupations were the most important sociodemographic risk markers, odds ratio (OR =11.62 and 2.92, respectively. While, vaginal douche use and divorce were the most important gynaecological and reproductive risk factors, OR=7.16 and 4.06, respectively. Furthermore, premarital sexual practice and non-vaginal sexual practice were the most important sexual behaviours risk factors, OR=13.40 and 10.97, respectively. Also, previous infection with STDs and no partner referral were the most important health care behaviours risk factors, OR=6.45 and 4.93, respectively. Moreover, no religious obligation and drugs and/or alcohol use were the most important life style risk markers, OR=12.89 and 6.77, respectively. Lastly, history of pelvic inflammatory disease (18.9% and pregnancy wastage (17.8% were the most important impacts of STDs.

  4. Estradiol-mediated increases in the anorexia induced by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Nori; Asarian, Lori; Sheahan, James; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2004-09-15

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria causes a robust acute phase response (APR) that includes fever, anorexia, and many other elements. Because immune system function, including some models of illness anorexia, is sexually differentiated, we investigated the sexual differentiation of the anorexia induced by intraperitoneal LPS injections in rats. Cycling female Long-Evans rats tested either during diestrus or estrus ate less following 6.25 microg/kg LPS than did intact males. Following 12.5 microg/kg LPS, females in estrus ate less than either females during diestrus or males. Similarly, a more pronounced anorexia occurred following 12.5, 25, and 50 microg/kg LPS in ovariectomized females that received cyclic estradiol treatment and were tested on the day modeling estrus than in untreated ovariectomized rats. LPS also increased the length of the rats' ovarian cycles, usually by a day, especially when injected during diestrus. As in male rats, when LPS injections were repeated in the same rats, both estradiol-treated and untreated rats failed to display any significant anorexia. The inhibitory effects of LPS on eating in intact and ovariectomized rats were expressed solely as decreases in spontaneous meal frequency, without significant alteration of spontaneous meal size. These data indicate that anorexia following peripheral LPS administration is sexually differentiated and that estradiol is sufficient to produce this response. The mechanism of the pathophysiological effect of estradiol on meal frequency appears to be different from the physiological effect of estradiol on food intake because the latter is expressed solely as a change in meal size. PMID:15276786

  5. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sashank Srivastava; P. H. Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, ...

  6. Oestradiol reception in the cytosol of the liver and uterus cells of female rats on exposure to external gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytoplasmic oestradiol reception in the liver and the uterus of female rats after their exposure to acute external gamma irradiation at 1,0 Gy has been studied. The obtained data shown more pronounced decrease in the amount of oestradiol specific binding sites in the 6 months old rats as compared with the 20-22 months old animals. This proves, that young animals have an increased reactivity. (authors). 8 refs

  7. Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2008-01-01

    The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of s...

  8. Phosphide residue exposure as the cause of serum vitamin depletion in female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobola Abolape Iyanda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synthetic chemical preservatives have received much negative publicity in recent time, some of which include insect resistance and misapplication of fumigants as well as a myriad of clinical conditions that have been associated with grain consumption. Aluminum phosphide is widely employed for the fumigation of grains meant for both international and local markets. Although its manufacturers have discouraged contamination of grains with spent or unspent phosphide residue, contamination still does occur especially among many illiterate cowpea merchants. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of phosphide residue contaminated cowpea on serum vitamin levels. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental groups with each group consisting of 6 rats. They were fed unfumigated (control, fumigated-contaminated (group 1 and fumigated but uncontaminated (group 2 cowpea. Results: Vitamin analysis using high performance liquid chromatography technique showed significant differences in the levels of niacin, folic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamins A, C, D and E; but pantothenic acid and pyridoxine were not significantly different in group 1 rats compared with control. Moreover, compared with control none of the vitamins were significantly different in rats in group 2. Conclusion: Cowpea is a source of many vitamins among the teeming poor in many part of the developing world; therefore there is need to ensure its proper fumigation. The results of this study suggest that although proper phosphide fumigation of cowpea may not alter serum vitamin levels but improper handling of the fumigation process may result in vitamin depletion. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 159-163

  9. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression. PMID:26215574

  10. Nocturnal surges and reflexive release of prolactin in parentally behaving virgin female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, M; Terkel, J

    1986-09-01

    Maternally behaving virgin rats are capable of releasing prolactin reflexively in response to stimulation by pups, especially during the proestrous/estrous phase of the cycle. When such rats are chronically exposed to pups they usually undergo a state of pseudopregnancy during which prolactin is secreted in a pattern of nocturnal surges. The present series of experiments evaluated the initiation of nocturnal prolactin surges in maternally behaving virgins, the role of estrogen in the reflexive release of prolactin, and the influence of gender on these two modes of prolactin secretion. It was found that the nocturnal surges of prolactin are already present on Days 1 and 2 of pup-induced pseudopregnancy. At this stage, however, the surges are not yet autonomous, seeing that pseudopregnancy is interrupted shortly after removal of the pups on Day 2. Activation by vaginocervical stimulation of the "mnemonic" neurogenic system that controls the autonomous nocturnal prolactin surges did not interfere with the reflexive pup-induced release of prolactin in maternally behaving virgins. The capacity of reflexive prolactin release in the virgin rat was abolished by ovariectomy, restored by estrogen replacement, and persisted for only 24 hr following estrogen removal. Paternally behaving males subjected to chronic exposure to pups were incapable of secreting nocturnal surges of prolactin characteristic of the pseudopregnant female. Such males were also incapable of releasing prolactin reflexively in response to stimulation by pups, even when supplemented with exogenous estrogen. These results indicate that the two modes of prolactin secretion are sex dependent, and that the maternally behaving virgin, unlike the postpartum rat, requires concurrent estrogenic facilitation for releasing prolactin in response to stimulation by young. PMID:3770651

  11. Suppression of spermatogenesis by testosterone undecanoate-loaded injectable in situ-forming implants in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Dan; Meng, Shu; Wang, Ping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Dan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of administration of testosterone undecanoate (TU)-loaded injectable in situ-forming implant (ISFI) for contraception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were treated with vehicle, TU-loaded ISFIs (540, 270 and 135 mg TU kg-1 ) or TU injections (45 mg TU kg-1 every 30 days) for 120 days. Fertility tests served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Serum testosterone concentration, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, and histology of the testis were monitored. The TU-loaded ISFIs increased serum testosterone levels in rats steadily without fluctuation over 3 months. One month after TU administration, the epididymal sperm count decreased significantly in all experimental groups. After 3 months, the animals treated with 270 and 135 mg kg-1 TU-loaded ISFIs were 100% infertile, and no implantation sites were produced in the mated females. However, some of males treated with 540 mg kg-1 ISFI or TU injections were still fertile but numbers of implantation sites were also significantly lower than control values. TU-loaded ISFI at an appropriate dose has potential as a long-acting male contraceptive drug that suppresses spermatogenesis consistently over a period of 3 months. PMID:26459781

  12. 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane-induced nephrotoxicity. I. Metabolic disposition of TMP in male and female Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (TMP), a component of unleaded gasoline, causes nephrotoxicity in male, but not in female, rats. In the present study, male and female Fischer 344 rats were treated with a single oral dose of [14C]TMP (4.4 mmol/kg; 2 microCi/mmol). Radiolabeled material in kidney, liver, and plasma was determined at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hr after dosing. Maximum concentration of TMP-derived radioactivity in kidney, liver, and plasma of male rats was found after 12 hr (1252, 1000, and 403 nmol eq/g, respectively), whereas those measured in females were found after 8 hr (577, 1163, and 317 nmol eq/g, respectively). A selective retention of the TMP-derived radiolabel in the kidneys of male rats was noted when peak tissue concentration was expressed as a percentage of administered dose. Kidney concentrations of TMP-derived radiolabel increased in a nonlinear, but dose-dependent, manner; the kidney to plasma ratio was greater at low doses than at higher doses. Increased retention of radiolabel material in the kidney was associated with a significant increase in renal concentration of the male-rat-specific protein, alpha 2u-globulin, 24 and 48 hr after TMP administration. Total radioactivity collected in urine 48 hr after TMP administration was similar in males and females (32 and 31% of dose). Identification and quantitation of the urinary metabolites of TMP showed that both male and female rats metabolize TMP via the same pathway and at a similar rate. Female rats, however, excreted more conjugates of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentanol in urine than males. 2,4,4-Trimethyl-2-pentanol was the major metabolite present in the male rat kidney, but was absent in the female rat kidney. The renal retention of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentanol appears to account for the delayed clearance observed in the disposition of [14C]TMP-derived radiolabel

  13. Dataset of liver proteins changed in eu- and hypothyroid female rats upon in vivo exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I; Serchi, T; Cambier, S; Diepenbroek, C; Renaut, J; van den Berg, J H J; Kwadijk, C; Gutleb, A C; Rijntjes, E; Murk, A J

    2016-06-01

    Female Wistar rats with different thyroid status (eu-, hypothyroid) were exposed to 0, 3 or 30 mg/kg body weight of the flame retardant HBCD for 7 days. Changes in protein patterns obtained by 2D-DIGE were evaluated, and different animal groups compared taking into account their exposure and thyroid status. Proteins significantly altered in abundance in any of these comparisons were identified by mass spectrometry. These data, together with hormone data of the animals, are discussed in "Hexa-bromocyclododecane (HBCD) induced changes in the liver proteome of eu- and hypothyroid female rats" (Miller et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977443

  14. The Accumulation and Histological Effects of The Organometallic Fungicide Propineb on The Organs of Fetuses and Female Rats During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Kemal

    1999-01-01

    Dithiocarbamate propineb is an organometal fungicide, which is widely used for the control of diseases in plants. Female Wistar rats were exposed orally to propineb concentrations of 200 and 400 ppm, from the 6th day of gestation up to birth. At 400 ppm, propineb showed a variety of macroscopic (e.g. ptosis and paralysis) and microscopic symptoms in the organs of both fetuses and female rats. We found that the body weights of both one-day old litters and their propineb-treated mothers we...

  15. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Pirchl; Georg Kemmler; Christian Humpel

    2010-01-01

    Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux) , blue (1.3–2.3 lux), and red light (0.8–1.4 lux) affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials) under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. ...

  16. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  17. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Zhu Hongliang; Li Shengli; Yao Xiaobao; Wang Xiaoxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective To establish adult rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro. Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques, cochlear sensory epithelial cells of adult rat were cultured. Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells. Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large, flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokeratin, a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell. Conclusion Adult rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture, this phenomenon suggests that progenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells is still need more study.

  18. Effect of pinealectomy and melatonin treatment during pregnancy on the sexual development of the female and male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz López, B; Colmenero Urquijo, M D; Díaz Rodriguez, M E; Arce Fraguas, A; Esquifino Parras, A; Marín Fernández, B

    1995-06-01

    Sexual development of female and male rat offspring of control, pinealectomized (PIN-X) or melatonin (MEL 250 micrograms/100 g body wt)-treated mother rats during pregnancy was studied. Newborns were studied at the following phases of sexual development: neonate (5 days old), infantile (15 days old), juvenile (25 and 30 days old) and pubertal phase (55 days). In female offspring, MEL treatment during pregnancy significantly increased plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) in 15- and 25-day-old rats; however, at the end of the prepubertal period (30 days) the concentration of plasma LH decreased significantly as compared to control rats. This hormonal pattern was different from that observed in offspring of control and PIN-X rats, which had low LH levels at 25 days of age and higher LH levels at 30 days of age. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) did not vary significantly among the three groups. Plasma prolactin levels were affected by PIN-X of the mother, showing significantly higher levels in the 5-day-old offspring than in the controls; plasma prolactin levels were also affected by MEL treatment of the mother, producing hyperprolactinemia in the 30-day-old female offspring. In male offspring, sexual development in control male rats progressed rapidly with significantly increased LH and FSH levels at 25 and 30 days compared to those measured during the neonatal and infantile periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7788019

  19. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  20. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendon MI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marta I Rendon,1 David A Rodriguez,2 Ariane K Kawata,3 Arnold N Degboe,4 Teresa K Wilcox,3 Caroline T Burk,5 Selena R Daniels,4 Wendy E Roberts6 1Rendon Center for Dermatology and Aesthetic Medicine, Boca Raton, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Associates and Research, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 3Evidera, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 5Health Outcomes Consultant, Laguna Beach, CA, USA; 6Generational and Cosmetic Dermatology, Rancho Mirage, CA, USA Background: Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective: Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions. Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results: Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years, comprising black (30.8%, Hispanic (17.6%, Asian/other (17.3%, and white (34.3%. More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%. Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC (47.4% versus prescription medications (16.6%. OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05. The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA (34.3% and benzoyl peroxide (BP (32.1%. Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05, Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0

  1. Female Adults with Patellofemoral Pain Are Characterized by Widespread Hyperalgesia, Which Is Not Affected Immediately by Patellofemoral Joint Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Barton, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Compare pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the knee and a site remote to the knee in female adults with patellofemoral pain (PFP) to pain-free controls before and after a patellofemoral joint (PFJ) loading protocol designed to aggravate symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING......: Participants were recruited via advertisements in fitness centers, public places for physical activity and universities. SUBJECTS: Thirty-eight females with patellofemoral pain, and 33 female pain-free controls. METHODS: All participant performed a novel PFJ loading protocol involving stair negotiation with an...

  2. Female Flinders Sensitive Line rats show estrous cycle-independent depression-like behavior and altered tryptophan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelund, Amanda; Budac, David P; Sanchez, Connie; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-08-01

    Clinical studies suggest a link between depression and dysfunctional tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Even though depression is twice as prevalent in women as men, the impact of the estrous cycle on TRP metabolism is not well-understood. Here we investigated 13 kynurenine and serotonin metabolites in female Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic rat model of depression. FSL rats and controls (Flinders Resistant Line rats), 12-20weeks old, were subject to the forced swim test (FST), a commonly used measure of depression-like behavior. Open field was used to evaluate locomotor ability and agoraphobia. Subsequently, plasma and hemispheres were collected and analyzed for their content of TRP metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Vaginal saline lavages were obtained daily for ⩾2 cycles. To estimate the effects of sex and FST we included plasma from unhandled, naïve male FSL and FRL rats. Female FSL rats showed a depression-like phenotype with increased immobility in the FST, not confounded by anxiety. In the brain, 3-hydroxykynurenine was increased whereas anthranilate and 5-hydroxytryptophan were decreased. In plasma, anthranilate and quinolinate levels were lower in FSL rats compared to the control line, independent of sex and FST. The estrous cycle neither impacted behavior nor TRP metabolite levels in the FSL rat. In conclusion, the female FSL rat is an interesting preclinical model of depression with altered TRP metabolism, independent of the estrous cycle. The status of the pathway in brain was not reflected in the plasma, which may indicate that an inherent local, cerebral regulation of TRP metabolism occurs. PMID:27210075

  3. Influence of beryllium chloride and oxide on the sexual function in female rats and development of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A translation is given of a Russian article on the influence of beryllium chloride and oxide on the sexual cycle in female rats and on their capacity to conceive; another aim was to identify any embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of these compounds and to identify the exposure period values for pregnant females and the capacity of beryllium to penetrate the placenta and to accumulate in the foetus. (UK)

  4. ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECTS OF LOW KETAMINE DOSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED HIPPOCAMPAL AMPA/NMDA RECEPTOR DENSITY RATIO IN FEMALE WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizabi, Yousef; Bhatti, Babur H; Manaye, Kebreten F; Das, Jharna R; Akinfiresoye, Luli

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical as well as limited clinical studies indicate that ketamine, a non-competitive glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, may exert a quick and prolonged antidepressant effect. It has been postulated that ketamine action is due to inhibition of NMDA and stimulation of AMPA receptors. Here, we sought to determine whether ketamine would exert antidepressant effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression and whether this effect would be associated with changes in AMPA/NMDA receptor densities in the hippocampus. Adult female WKY rats and their control Wistar rats were subjected to acute and chronic ketamine doses and their locomotor activity (LMA) and immobility in the forced swim test (FST) were evaluated. Hippocampal AMPA and NMDA receptor densities were also measured following a chronic ketamine dose. Ketamine, both acutely (0.5–5.0 mg/kg ip) and chronically (0.5–2.5 mg/kg daily for 10 days) resulted in a dose-dependent and prolonged decrease in immobility in the FST in WKY rats only, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in this model. Chronic treatment with an effective dose of ketamine also resulted in an increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density ratio in the hippocampus of WKY rats. LMA was not affected by any ketamine treatment in either strain. These results indicate a rapid and lasting antidepressant-like effect of a low ketamine dose in WKY rat model of depression. Moreover, the increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density in hippocampus could be a contributory factor to behavioral effects of ketamine. These findings suggest potential therapeutic benefit in simultaneous reduction of central NMDA and elevation of AMPA receptor function in treatment of depression. PMID:22521815

  5. Individual variation in feeding habitat use by adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): are they obligately neritic herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatase, Hideo; Sato, Katsufumi; Yamaguchi, Manami; Takahashi, Kotaro; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2006-08-01

    Satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis were used to confirm that oceanic areas (where water depths are >200 m) are alternative feeding habitats for adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), which have been thought to be obligate herbivores in neritic areas (where depths are 20 m, implying that they not only rested, but also foraged on macroplankton that exhibit diel vertical migration. Comparisons of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios between 89 females and the prey items in a three-source mixing model estimated that 69% of the females nesting on Ogasawara Islands mainly used neritic habitats and 31% mainly used oceanic habitats. Out of four females tracked by satellite, two females were inferred from isotope ratios to be neritic herbivores and the two others oceanic planktivores. Although post-nesting movements for four females were not completely consistent with the inferences from isotope ratios, possibly due to short tracking periods (28-42 days), their diving behaviors were consistent with the inferences. There were no relationships between body size and the two isotope ratios, indicating a lack of size-related differences in feeding habitat use by adult female green turtles, which was in contrast with loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). These results and previous findings suggest that ontogenetic habitat shifts by sea turtles are facultative, and consequently, their life histories are polymorphic. PMID:16683139

  6. Hypothalamic IGF-I Gene Therapy Prolongs Estrous Cyclicity and Protects Ovarian Structure in Middle-Aged Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvia S.; Schwerdt, José I.; Barbeito, Claudio G; Flamini, Mirta A.; Han, Ye; Bohn, Martha C.; Goya, Rodolfo G.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that age-related ovarian failure in rats is preceded by abnormal responsiveness of the neuroendocrine axis to estrogen positive feedback. Because IGF-I seems to act as a permissive factor for proper GnRH neuronal response to estrogen positive feedback and considering that the hypothalamic content of IGF-I declines in middle-aged (M-A) rats, we assessed the effectiveness of long-term IGF-I gene therapy in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of M-A female rats to ext...

  7. Sexual hormones: effects on cardiac and mitochondrial activity after ischemia-reperfusion in adult rats. Gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón, Natalia; Martínez-Abundis, Eduardo; Hernández, Luz; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Cerbón, Marco; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Aranda, Alberto; Chávez, Edmundo

    2012-10-01

    In this work we studied the influence of sex hormones on heart and mitochondrial functions, from adult castrated female and male, and intact rats. Castration was performed at their third week of life and on the fourth month animals were subjected to heart ischemia and reperfusion. Electrocardiogram and blood pressure recordings were made, cytokines levels were measured, histopathological studies were performed and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were determined. At the mitochondrial level respiratory control, transmembranal potential and calcium management were determined; Western blot of some mitochondrial components was also performed. Alterations in cardiac function were worst in intact males and castrated females as compared with those found in intact females and castrated males, cytokine levels were modulated also by hormonal status. Regarding mitochondria, in those obtained from hearts from castrated females without ischemia-reperfusion, all evaluated parameters were similar to those observed in mitochondria after ischemia-reperfusion. The results show hormonal influences on the heart at functional and mitochondrial levels. PMID:22609314

  8. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-07-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. PMID:24556002

  9. Effect of chronic lead exposure on kidney function in male and female rats: determination of a lead exposure biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbe, F; Boujelbene, M; Makni-Ayadi, F; Guermazi, F; Kammoun, A; Murat, J; Croute, F; Soleilhavoup, J P; El-Feki, A

    2001-12-01

    Several cytotoxic chemical pollutants inducing peroxidative damages are liable to induce kidney failure. Among these pollutants we find heavy metals such as: lead, nickel, cadmium, vanadium and mercury. Lead is one of the most dangerous metals because it is widely spread in the environment, and because it may be a source of several nervous diseases. The aim of this study is to provide evidence concerning the effect of this metal on the renal function and to try to determine a storage corner in the organism which serves as an indicator of a lead intoxication. Lead acetate was administered by oral route in the drinking water to adult rats aged three months at the rate of 0.3% (P1) and 0.6% (P2). Reference rats received distilled water to drink under the same conditions. The treatment continued for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The creatinemia, uremia, glycemia and creatinuria are determined by colorimetric techniques. Lead concentration in blood as well as the lead content of the tail are determined by atomic absorption after nitroperchloric mineralization at the liquid stage. The results showed an increase of creatinemia on the 30th day of the experiment for both sexes in (P1 and P2). The same happened for ureamia. The increase of these two parameters would indicate a renal deficiency which is confirmed by a decrease of creatinuria and urinary pH observed mainly on and after the 45th day of the experiment. An increase of the renal relative weight was noticed in P1 and P2 on the 30th day of the treatment. The determination of the concentration of lead in the blood shows that this factor increases among treated subjects in a constant way, independently of the dose and the duration of the treatment. Nevertheless, the rate increase of lead in the tail seems to be dose-dependent. In conclusion, lead administered by oral route causes a renal deficiency to the rat without distinction between males and females. In addition, the tail seems to be a reliable exposure biomarker

  10. Relationship of Dose of Total-Body 60Co Radiation to Incidence of Mammary Neoplasia In Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on the 40th day of age to a single dose of total-body 60Co gamma radiation. AH animals were studied for the presence of mammary neoplasia, for a 360-day period, by removing surgically each mammary tumor and subjecting each to histological examination. The overall survival rate was 96% and was not less than 94% in any group. Three of 75 control, non-exposed rats developed a total of 3 mammary neoplasms. Three of 54 rats exposed to 15.6 R developed 4 mammary neoplasms. Three of 54 rats exposed to 31.2 R developed 5 mammary neoplasms. Nine of 54 rats exposed to 62.5 R developed 13 mammary neoplasms. Eighteen of 54 rats exposed to 125 R developed 23 mammary neoplasms. Thirty-two of 54 rats exposed to 250 R developed 54 mammary neoplasms. Forty of 54 rats exposed to 500 R developed 105 mammary neoplasms. It appears that both the per cent of rats with mammary neoplasia and the total number of mammary neoplasms increases in a reasonably regular manner with increasing dose, when studied for one year post-exposure. These findings are in agreement with a previous report from this laboratory. (author)

  11. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  12. Androgen receptors in brain and pituitary of female rats: cyclic changes and comparisons with the male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, R J; Reid, D L; Resko, J A

    1986-03-01

    The in vitro binding of a synthetic androgen, methyltrienolone ([3H]-R1881), to brain and pituitary (PIT) cytosol and nuclear extracts was determined in male and female rats. Purified cytosol was prepared from PIT or hypothalamic-preoptic area-amygdala (HPA) and incubated in the presence of 0.1 to 10 nM [3H]-R1881. Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a single, saturable, high-affinity binding site in PIT cytosol with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.42 X 10(-10) M in females and 0.95 X 10(-10) M in intact males. The Kd of HPA cytosol was much less in castrated males [0.47 +/- 0.05 (SEM) X 10(-10)M, n = 7] and females (0.63 +/- 0.1 X 10(-10) M, n = 4) than in intact males (5.8 +/- 1.1 X 10(-10) M, n = 8). Treatment of castrated males with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 24 h (250 micrograms/100 g of body weight) increased the Kd of HPA cytosol only slightly (1.6 X 10(-10) M, mean of two replicates). Scatchard analysis of salt-extracted nuclear androgen receptor (ARn) showed a single, high-affinity binding site with similar Kd values in PIT and HPA of intact and castrated, DHT-treated male rats (PIT Kd = 7.3 X 10(-10) M, 9.3 X 10(-10) M; HPA Kd = 1.5 X 10(-9) M, 1.3 X 10(-9) M, respectively). Competition studies involving a range of several radioinert steroids revealed that the binding of [3H]-R1881 to cytosol (ARc) and nuclear extract was specific for androgen receptor when triamcinolone acetonide (10 microM) was added. The ARc and ARn levels were quantified in PIT, preoptic area (POA), hypothalamus (HT), amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex by single point estimation. Significantly (p less than 0.01) greater amounts of ARc were detected in PIT of ovariectomized females (32.7 +/- 2.9 fmol/mg of protein) than in that of orchidectomized males (22.33 +/- 1.6 fmol/mg of protein). The highest levels in the brain were seen in HT and POA. Pituitary ARc in females varied throughout the estrous cycle. Significantly (p less than 0.01) greater amounts were detected on

  13. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S.T.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    1. Gavage administration of the natural flavonoids tangeretin, chrysin, apigenin, naringenin, genistein and quercetin for 2 consecutive weeks to the female rat resulted in differential effects on selected phase 1 and 2 enzymes in liver, colon and heart as well as antioxidant enzymes in red brood......) significantly protected against, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced oxidative stress. Hepatic PhIP-DNA adduct formation was not affected by any of the administered flavonoids, whereas PhIP-DNA adduct formation in colon was slightly, but significantly, inhibited by quercetin......, genistein, tangeretin and BNF. 5. The observed effects of chrysin, quercetin and genistein on antioxidant enzymes, concurrently with a protection against oxidative stress, suggest a feedback mechanism on the antioxidant enzymes triggered by the flavonoid antioxidants. 6. Despite the use of high flavonoid...

  14. Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S.T.; Dragsted, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    , genistein, tangeretin and BNF. 5. The observed effects of chrysin, quercetin and genistein on antioxidant enzymes, concurrently with a protection against oxidative stress, suggest a feedback mechanism on the antioxidant enzymes triggered by the flavonoid antioxidants. 6. Despite the use of high flavonoid......1. Gavage administration of the natural flavonoids tangeretin, chrysin, apigenin, naringenin, genistein and quercetin for 2 consecutive weeks to the female rat resulted in differential effects on selected phase 1 and 2 enzymes in liver, colon and heart as well as antioxidant enzymes in red brood......) significantly protected against, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced oxidative stress. Hepatic PhIP-DNA adduct formation was not affected by any of the administered flavonoids, whereas PhIP-DNA adduct formation in colon was slightly, but significantly, inhibited by quercetin...

  15. Effect of induced epilepsy on some biochemical parameters in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. H. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of cholinesterase and some biochemical parameters of blood such as glucose, cholesterol and phospholipids were estimated in 52 epilepsy induced females of Wister albino rats. Animals of this experiment were divided into two groups, group (I regarded as control and group (II administrated subcutaneously by pentylenetetrazole 100mg/kg and divided in to three sub-groups according to the time of samples collection 3 hrs, 24 hrs and 1 week. The results revealed that epilepsy induction caused a significant inhibition of serum cholinesterase activity 3 hrs after induction while in the brain, the activity of cholinesterase was significantly increased after 24 hrs Serum glucose level was significantly elevated after 3 hrs and 24 hrs of induction, total cholesterol and phospholipids were not changed. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that epilepsy caused significant changes in cholinesterase activity in brain and serum in addition to the glucose level in the serum.

  16. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and stress-related neuronal activation in vasopressin-deficient female Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Anna; Kovács, Krisztina Bea; Balázsfi, Diána; Klausz, Barbara; Pintér, Ottó; Demeter, Kornél; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Rotllant, David; Nadal, Roser; Zelena, Dóra

    2016-05-01

    Vasopressin can contribute to the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders, anxiety and depression. Although these disturbances are more common in females, most of the preclinical studies have been done in males. We compared female vasopressin-deficient and +/+ Brattleboro rats. To test anxiety we used open-field, elevated plus maze (EPM), marble burying, novelty-induced hypophagia, and social avoidance tests. Object and social recognition were used to assess short term memory. To test depression-like behavior consumption of sweet solutions (sucrose and saccharin) and forced swim test (FST) were studied. The stress-hormone levels were followed by radioimmunoassay and underlying brain areas were studied by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. In the EPM the vasopressin-deficient females showed more entries towards the open arms and less stretch attend posture, drank more sweet fluids and struggled more (in FST) than the +/+ rats. The EPM-induced stress-hormone elevations were smaller in vasopressin-deficient females without basal as well as open-field and FST-induced genotype-differences. On most studied brain areas the resting c-Fos levels were higher in vasopressin-deficient rats, but the FST-induced elevations were smaller than in the +/+ ones. Similarly to males, female vasopressin-deficient animals presented diminished depression- and partly anxiety-like behavior with significant contribution of stress-hormones. In contrast to males, vasopressin deficiency in females had no effect on object and social memory, and stressor-induced c-Fos elevations were diminished only in females. Thus, vasopressin has similar effect on anxiety- and depression-like behavior in males and females, while only in females behavioral alterations are associated with reduced neuronal reactivity in several brain areas. PMID:26939727

  17. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both chil-dren and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantiifed using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identiifed as regions with signiifcant group-wise differences. The identiifed regions were correlated with clinical scores relfecting de-pression and anxiety and signiifcant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain cir-cuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  18. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  19. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  20. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dr

  1. Weakness in the mechanical properties of the femurs of growing female rats exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina [Medical University of Bialystok, Department of Toxicology, Bialystok (Poland); Majewska, Katarzyna [University of Warmia and Mazury (Poland). Faculty of Food Science

    2005-09-01

    The study assessed the effect of cadmium (Cd) intoxication on the risk of deformities and fractures of the growing bones of female rats, in order to model human exposure to this metal. For this purpose, bone mineral density and mechanical properties of the proximal and distal ends and diaphysis of the femur were investigated in female Wistar rats exposed to 1, 5 and 50 mg Cd/l in drinking water for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the onset of weaning. Daily Cd doses received from drinking water during the treatment period were in the following ranges: 0.059-0.219, 0.236-1.005 and 2.247-9.649 mg/kg body weight at 1, 5 and 50 mg Cd/l, respectively. Biomechanical properties of the femoral proximal and distal ends were evaluated in a compression test, and those of the femoral diaphysis in a cutting test, with loading perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bone in all tests. The mineralization and mechanical properties of the bone tissue at various locations on the femur were affected by exposure to Cd in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. Exposure to 1 mg Cd/l (corresponding to low human exposure) during skeletal development weakened the fracture strength of the femoral neck and the trabecular bone at the level of the distal end of the femur and affected the elastic properties of the cortical bone at the femoral diaphysis. At higher levels of Cd exposure, adverse effects were generally observed after a shorter exposure period than for 1 mg Cd/l, and were more advanced. The cadmium-induced weakening of the biomechanical properties of bone at particular sites on the femur correlated with the decreased bone mineralization. The results indicate that even a low exposure to Cd may affect the mineralization and biomechanical properties of growing bone, thus enhancing the risk of fracture. (orig.)

  2. Weakness in the mechanical properties of the femur of growing female rats exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina [Medical University of Bialystok, Department of Toxicology, Bialystok (Poland); Majewska, Katarzyna [University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn (Poland). Faculty of Food Science

    2005-05-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the effect of cadmium (Cd) intoxication on the risk of deformities and fractures of the growing bone on a female rat model of human exposure to this metal. For this purpose, bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of the proximal and distal ends and diaphysis of the femur were investigated in female Wistar rats exposed to 1, 5, and 50 mg Cd L{sup -1} in drinking water for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months since weaning. Daily Cd doses received from the drinking water during the treatment period were in the ranges 0.059-0.219, 0.236-1.005, and 2.247-9.649 mg kg{sup -1} body weight at 1, 5, and 50 mg Cd L{sup -1}, respectively. Biomechanical properties of the femoral proximal and distal ends were evaluated in a compression test and those of the femoral diaphysis in a cutting test with loading perpendicular to the bone longitudinal axis in all tests. Cd dose- and exposure duration-dependently affected the mineralization and mechanical properties of the bone tissue at various locations of the femur. Exposure to 1 mg Cd L{sup -1} (corresponding to low human exposure) during skeletal development weakened the fracture strength of the femoral neck and of the trabecular bone at the level of the distal end of the femur and affected the elastic properties of the cortical bone at the femoral diaphysis. At the higher levels of Cd treatment, the adverse action generally occurred after shorter exposure than at 1 mg Cd L{sup -1} and was more seriously advanced. The Cd-induced weakening in the bone biomechanical properties at particular sites of the femur correlated with the decreased bone mineralization. The results indicate that even low exposure to Cd may affect the mineralization and biomechanical properties of growing bone, thus increasing the risk of fractures. (orig.)

  3. Locomotor activity and catecholamine receptor binding in adult normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of 3H-WB 4101, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, the membranes of the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lower brainstem was examined in adult spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WK) controls. The specific binding of 3H-WB 4101 (0.33 nM) was significantly higher in homogenates from the cerebral cortex of SH rats as compared to WK rats. No differences were detected between SH and WK rats in the specific binding of 3H-spiroperidol (0.25 nM), a dopamine receptor antagonist, to membranes from the corpus striatum and the limbic forebrain. The locomotor activity was significantly higher in SH rats as compared to WK controls, in all probability due to a lack of habituation to environmental change. It is suggested that the high reactivity of SH rats is related to a disfunction in the noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. (author)

  4. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:27070559

  5. The Flavonoid Rutin Attenuates the Radiation Induced Biochemical Disorders in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays increasing attention has been given to the role of free radicals generated through oxidative stress. Tissue damage is associated with alterations in oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, glutathione (GSH) level and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (g GT) activity. Many radical scavengers, interestingly naturally occurring antioxidants flavonoids, have been found to be effective in inhibiting the oxidative damage. In the present study female Sprague Dawely rats (140-150 g) were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (shot dose, 6.5 Gy). The flavonoid rutin, widely distributed in most vegetables, was administrated orally (1.064 mmol/kg body wt) up to 2 weeks before gamma irradiation of rats. Blood samples were taken 1 and 14 days post radiation exposure. The data revealed deleterious damage of radiation exposure which is manifested in significant acceleration in lipid peroxidation (as malon-dialdehyde, MDA content) and protein oxidation (as carbonyl group). On the other hand, the data recorded imbalance in the redox status which is noticed in the significant inhibition of reduced glutathione (GSH) and elevation in gamma GT activity level. Administration of rutin before radiation exposure ameliorated, to a great extent the damaging effects of radiation in the assayed parameters indicating its beneficial role in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species as a promising antioxidant

  6. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8–10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  7. Effects of Artemisia lanata Extract on Reproductive Parameters of Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainehchi Nava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Until date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia lanata. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. lanata on reproduction of female rats. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400mg/kg of A. lanata hydroalcoholic extract from the 2-8 day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and Chinese hamster ovary (Cho cell lines. Results: The A. lanata had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥ 200 μg/ml significantly (P < 0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/ml (P < 0.010. Conclusion: Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. lanata in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  8. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger on the liver of epileptic female rats treated with lamotrigine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Poorrostami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug, widely used in the treatment of epilepsy; long-term use of this drug can cause hepatotoxicity. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger possesses antioxidant properties. In present research, the effect ofhydroalcoholic extract of ginger (HEG on the liver of lamotrigine-treated epileptic rats was investigated Material and Methods: Forty-eight female Wistar rats were selected and allocated to 8 groups of 6 each.  Group 1: Negative controls were treated with normal saline. Group 2: Positive controls were treated with lamotrigine (LTG (10 mg/kg daily by gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Epilepsy was induced in treatment groups by i.p. injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ (40 mg/kg. Group 3: Epileptic group received normal saline (10 ml/kg. Group 4: Epileptic group was treated with LTG (10 mg/kg. Groups 5 and 6: Epileptic groups received HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg. Groups 7 and 8: Epileptic groups received LTG and HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg. At the end of 28 days, blood samples were drawn and their livers were processed for light microscopy. Results: The mean values of TG, CHOL, AST, and ALT activity significantly rose (p

  9. Interaction between ractopamine and growth hormone in the metabolism of hypophysectomized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Sacramento Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ractopamine and growth hormone have been extensively studied due to their ability to generate a better partition of nutrients in the body, providing an increased muscle protein synthesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Thus, this article aims to check the effects of interaction between these substances on the metabolism of hypophysectomized female rats, and their individual effects on the body composition of these animals. Thirty Fisher rats were distributed into fiv