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Sample records for adult female pigs

  1. Experimental transfer of adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from donor to helminth naive recipient pigs: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, H; Roepstorff, A; Grøndahl, C; Eriksen, L; Bjerregaard, J; Nansen, P

    1995-12-01

    This study was carried out to compare potential methods of transplanting adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from experimentally infected donor pigs to helminth naive recipient pigs. The following methods were each tested in five pigs: A. Transfer of worms by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pretreated with 0.5 mg/kg cisapride to increase gastrointestinal peristalsis; B. Transfer by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pre-treated with cisapride (0.5 mg/kg) and omeprazol 20 mg which blocks hydrochloric acid secretion; C. Surgical transfer of worms to caecum of pigs. Worms for transplantation to pigs were obtained after slaughter of experimentally infected donor pigs and following isolation from the contents of the large intestine, using an agar gel migration technique. A mean of 1054 nematodes were transferred into each recipient pig within 2 hours. Procedures A and B resulted in establishment rates corresponding to only 0.5% and 7.6% of the transferred worms. In contrast, surgical transfer allowed 74.2% of the transplanted worms to be established. In all groups the transplanted worms migrated to the normal predilection site, i.e. the middle part of the large intestine. More female than male worms established in all groups. It was concluded from this study that surgical transfer was the most reliable of the methods tested for experimental establishment of adult O. dentatum in helminth naive pigs. PMID:8583123

  2. Methods for Wild Pig Identifications from Moving Pictures and Discrimination of Female Wild Pigs based on Feature Matching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for wild pig identifications and discrimination of female wild pigs based on feature matching methods with acquired Near Infrared: NIR moving pictures are proposed. Trials and errors are repeated for identifying wild pigs and for discrimination of female wild pigs through experiments. As a conclusion, feature matching methods with the target nipple features show a better performance. Feature matching method of FLANN shows the best performance in terms of feature extraction and tracking capabilities.

  3. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, C.J.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    IntroductionThe main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multipl

  4. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, C.J.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    IntroductionThe main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multiple neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to stressors, has been subject of extensive basic and clinical research. HPA-activation by stressful stimuli results in an increase in circulating adrenocor...

  5. Effect of antithymocyte serum on the course of chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; Barron, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The treatment of female guinea pigs, infected in the genital tract with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, with rabbit anti-guinea pig thymocyte serum extended the course of the infection by 20 to 30 days. The rabbit anti-guinea pig thymocyte serum was shown to suppress delayed hypersensitivity responses to the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis agent and the contact allergen oxazolone. The appearance of antibody in genital secretions was delayed, but the infection ...

  6. Female novelty and the courtship behavior of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn D.W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions. A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session. The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking, following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively. Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.

  7. Female novelty and the courtship behavior of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, D W H; Tokumaru, R S; Ades, C

    2004-06-01

    In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions). A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session). The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking), following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time) to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively). Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking) were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.

  8. Social rank influences the distribution of blood leukocyte subsets in female growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Bodil Margrethe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl;

    2010-01-01

    , but no significant effect of social rank was found. In addition, neither IgG nor IgM concentrations showed any relationship with social rank. The findings indicate that social rank influences the distribution of blood leukocyte subsets in female growing pigs, suggesting that the pig would be a good model......The effect of high (DOM) and low (SUB) social rank on blood immune variables was examined in female growing pigs. Pigs were mixed with unfamiliar pigs at 9 weeks of age and kept in stable groups of 4 pigs for 5 weeks. Social rank was determined using a feeding competition test. SUB pigs showed...... reduced growth as compared to DOM pigs confirming their lower social status. Blood was sampled for immunological assessments immediately before grouping the pigs and again after the 5 weeks of social housing. White Blood Cell (WBC) counts, percentage of CD4 positive cells (CD4+), percentage of CD8...

  9. Effects of modified maifanite on zearalenone toxicity in female weaner pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Chen; Zhuang Lu; Wenxia Hou; Baoming Shi; Anshan Shan

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate alleviative effects of modified maifanite (MMF) on zearalenone (ZEN) toxicity in female weaner pigs. In this experiment, 32 female weaner pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Large white, 10.50±0.07 kg) were divided into 4 groups (8 pigs/group): control group (0.02 mg/kg ZEN); ZEN-treated group (1.11 mg/kg ZEN); MMF-treated group (1% MMF); ZEN+MMF treated group (1.11 mg/kg ZEN and 1% MMF), The trial period lasted for 28 d. Growth performance, vulva size, genital or...

  10. Influence of chicory roots /Cichorium intybus L) on boar taint in entire male pigs and female pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, L L; Jensen, M.T.; Mejer, H.; Roepstorff, A.; Thamsborg, S.M.; Byrne, D. V.; Karlsson, A H; Hansen-Møller, J.; Tuomola, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that pure inulin a fructooligosaccharide extracted from chicory roots can: – reduce boar taint (skatole in backfat and blood) – reduce parasite infection levels when added to specially composed experimental diets • However, the entire chicory roots may, in comparison to inulin: – reduce boar taint more effectively – improve the taste of cooked meat from both male and female pigs – be more effective against parasites when added to normal diet types – contain se...

  11. Personalities in female domesticated pigs : behavioural and physiological indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, MAW; Brake, JHAT; Van de Burgwal, JA; de Jong, IC; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM; Ruis, Marko A.W.; Brake, Joop H.A. te; Burgwal, Johan A. van de; Blokhuis, Harry J.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2000-01-01

    The inconclusive evidence so far on the existence of distinct personality types in domesticated pigs, led us to perform the present experiment. A total of 128 gilts from 31 sows were systematically studied from birth to slaughter in two identical trials. Intra-test consistency in individual behaviou

  12. Fully effective contraception in male and female guinea pigs immunized with the sperm protein PH-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primakoff, P; Lathrop, W; Woolman, L; Cowan, A; Myles, D

    1988-10-01

    Immunization of male and female animals with extracts of whole sperm cells is known to cause infertility. Also, men and women who spontaneously produce antisperm antibodies are infertile but otherwise healthy. Although the critical sperm antigens are unknown, these observations have led to the proposal that sperm proteins might be useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine. The guinea pig sperm surface protein PH-20 is essential in sperm adhesion to the extracellular coat (zona pellucida) of the egg, a necessary initial step in fertilization. Here, we report that 100% effective contraception was obtained in male and female guinea pigs immunized with PH-20. Antisera from immunized females had high titres, specifically recognized PH-20 in sperm extracts, and blocked sperm adhesion to the egg zona pellucida in vitro. The contraceptive effect was long-lasting and reversible: immunized females, mated at intervals of six to fifteen months after immunization, progressively regained fertility. PMID:3419530

  13. Personalities in female domesticated pigs: behavioural and physiological indications

    OpenAIRE

    Ruis, MAW; Brake, JHAT; van de Burgwal, JA; De Jong, IC; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM; Ruis, Marko A.W.; Brake, Joop H.A. te; Burgwal, Johan A. van de; Blokhuis, Harry J.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2000-01-01

    The inconclusive evidence so far on the existence of distinct personality types in domesticated pigs, led us to perform the present experiment. A total of 128 gilts from 31 sows were systematically studied from birth to slaughter in two identical trials. Intra-test consistency in individual behavioural and/or physiological reactions was studied in three different tests. We were not able to show consistencies in reactions of gilts over time to a backtest (at 2-4 days and 4 weeks of age) and to...

  14. Physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females

    OpenAIRE

    Gavneet K Pruthi; Nandita Babu

    2012-01-01

    Background : Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim : To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females. Settings and Design : This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods : Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, havi...

  15. Effects of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Steroidogenesis and Folliculogenesis in the Female Ossabaw Mini-Pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Newell-Fugate

    Full Text Available The discrete effects of obesity on infertility in females remain undefined to date. To investigate obesity-induced ovarian dysfunction, we characterized metabolic parameters, steroidogenesis, and folliculogenesis in obese and lean female Ossabaw mini-pigs. Nineteen nulliparous, sexually mature female Ossabaw pigs were fed a high fat/cholesterol/fructose diet (n=10 or a control diet (n=9 for eight months. After a three-month diet-induction period, pigs remained on their respective diets and had ovarian ultrasound and blood collection conducted during a five-month study period after which ovaries were collected for histology, cell culture, and gene transcript level analysis. Blood was assayed for steroid and protein hormones. Obese pigs developed abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Obese pigs had elongated estrous cycles and hyperandrogenemia with decreased LH, increased FSH and luteal phase progesterone, and increased numbers of medium, ovulatory, and cystic follicles. Theca cells of obese, compared to control, pigs displayed androstenedione hypersecretion in response to in vitro treatment with LH, and up-regulated 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 transcript levels in response to in vitro treatment with LH or LH + insulin. Granulosa cells of obese pigs had increased 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 transcript levels. In summary, obese Ossabaw pigs have increased transcript levels and function of ovarian enzymes in the delta 4 steroidogenic pathway. Alterations in LH, FSH, and progesterone, coupled with theca cell dysfunction, contribute to the hyperandrogenemia and disrupted folliculogenesis patterns observed in obese pigs. The obese Ossabaw mini-pig is a useful animal model in which to study the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on ovarian function and steroidogenesis. Ultimately, this animal model may be

  16. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  17. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  18. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eBucciarelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory’s framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female children are more utilitarian than (female adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory.

  19. Unilateral Ectopic Breast Tissue on Vulva in an Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Santoshkumar Nagnath; Maske, Audumbar N.; Deshpande, Akshay P.; Shende, Shweta P.

    2012-01-01

    Among the ectopic breasts, an ectopic breast tissue on vulva is an extremely rare case, especially in adult period. To our knowledge only 38 cases of ectopic breast tissue on vulva are documented in the world literature, out of which only 10 cases of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva has been reported. Because of its rarity here we report a case of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva in an adult female.

  20. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall...

  1. Effect of experimental hypothyroidism on hearing in adult guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Stearns, M; Goodwin, P

    1983-01-01

    A group of guinea pigs was rendered hypothyroid using propylthiouracil solution in their drinking water. The animals were hypothyroid for at least 120 days. During this time no change was noted in their hearing thresholds for high-frequency clicks. The audiometric evaluation was performed using brainstem evoked response audiometry.

  2. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 All antigens Adult Adult female SRX025476,SRX0422...13048,SRX032119,SRX013111 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 Histone Adult Adult female SRX013017,SRX013034,SR...X013105,SRX013111 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 Unclassified Adult Adult female SRX042248,SRX0130...48,SRX032119,SRX013018 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 TFs and others Adult Adult female SRX1084165,SRX0...25476,SRX013047,SRX041381,SRX032118,SRX016140 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 TFs and others Adult Adult female SRX025476,SRX10...84165,SRX032118,SRX041381,SRX016140,SRX013047 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 Histone Adult Adult female SRX013017,SRX013034,SR...X013105,SRX013111 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 All antigens Adult Adult female SRX013017,SRX1084...13018,SRX013111,SRX016140 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 Unclassified Adult Adult female SRX042248,SRX0130...18,SRX032119,SRX013048 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 TFs and others Adult Adult female SRX1084165,SRX0...25476,SRX041381,SRX013047,SRX032118,SRX016140 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 All antigens Adult Adult female SRX1084165,SRX025...13111,SRX013105 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 Unclassified Adult Adult female SRX042248,SRX0130...18,SRX013048 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 Histone Adult Adult female SRX013017,SRX013034,SR...X013105,SRX013111 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 Histone Adult Adult female SRX013017,SRX013034,SR...X013111,SRX013105 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 TFs and others Adult Adult female SRX1084165,SRX0...25476,SRX041381,SRX032118,SRX013047,SRX016140 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 All antigens Adult Adult female SRX1084165,SRX013...13048,SRX013105,SRX013111 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female dm3 Unclassified Adult Adult female SRX042248,SRX0130...18,SRX013048,SRX032119 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Adult_female.bed ...

  18. Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bava Amadeo Javier Bava; Domnguez Cecilia; Troncoso Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods: The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1 500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results: It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions: The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient.

  19. Adult female of strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bava; Amadeo; Javier; Bava; Domínguez; Cecilia; Troncoso; Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To communicate the presence of adult females,rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis(S.stercoralis)in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis,and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia.Methods:The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Mu(?)iz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation(1 500 r/min for 15 seconds).Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet.Results:It revealed adult females,rabditoid larvae and eggs of S.stercoralis.Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples,gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite.Conclusions:The presence of adult female S.stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient.

  20. Physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavneet K Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acne, the most common problem that presents to dermatologists, can persist beyond teen years. Although its physical and psychosocial impact is studied in teen years, it is poorly understood in the Indian adult population. Aim : To study the physical and psychosocial impact of acne in adult females. Settings and Design : This exploratory study was done in the university setting. Materials and Methods : Eleven adult, unmarried females, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, having (mild-to-moderate, acne, for two consecutive years, were interviewed using a semi-structured clinical interview of the Skindex, a quality-of-life measure for patients with skin disease, developed by Chren et al., along with some open-ended questions. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was done to analyze the data. Results : The results indicated a higher level of emotional and social impairment, in terms of the feelings of physical discomfort, anger, and the intermingling impact of these, among the participants. Conclusions : Acne is a common problem among adults and appears to have a considerable impact on the mental health, therefore, for the treatment to be successful, a sympathetic approach by doctors and significant others, with the basic psychosomatic treatment, are necessary.

  1. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  2. Workplace Inhalant Abuse in Adult Female: Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is the purposeful inhalation of intoxicating gases and vapors for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. With its propensity for being yet an under-recognized form of substance use, being gateway to hard substances, cross-cultural penetration crossing socioeconomic boundaries, and causing significant morbidity and mortality in early ages, the prevention of inhalant misuse is a highly pertinent issue. This clinical report identifies a newer perspective in the emergence of inhalant abuse initiation. We report a case of an adult female with late onset of inhalant dependence developing at workplace and recommend for greater awareness, prevention, and management of this expanding substance abuse problem.

  3. Could adult female acne be associated with modern life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, R G R; Rocha, M A D; Bagatin, E; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of adult female acne has increased, but the reason for this increase remains unclear. Acne is one of the most common skin disorders. It can be triggered or worsened by endogenous and exogenous factors, including genetic predisposition, hormone concentrations, diet, smoke and stress; although the interaction with this last factor is not well understood. Modern life presents many stresses including urban noises, socioeconomic pressures and light stimuli. Women are especially affected by stress during daily routine. The recent insertion in the labor market is added to the duties of the mother and wife. Women also have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Sleep restriction is added to these factors, with several negative consequences on health, including on hormonal secretion and the immune system. This is further complicated by the natural variation in sleep architecture across the menstrual cycle. Recent studies have brought new data about the mechanisms and possible factors involved. This review aims to establish a connection between stress, sleep deprivation and adult female acne. PMID:24952024

  4. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  5. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  6. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  7. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  8. Supplemental Analysis for N-linked Sugars in Adult Pig Islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, H; Kawamura, T; Kashiyama, N; Matsuura, R; Sakai, R; Nakahata, K; Lo, P-C; Asada, M; Maeda, A; Goto, M; Toyoda, M; Okuyama, H; Miyagawa, S

    2016-05-01

    The pig pancreas is considered to be one of the most suitable sources of islets for clinical xenotransplantation. However, after producing α1-3galactosyltransferase knockout pigs, most of the organs of these pigs showed less antigenicity to the human body. Wild-type adult pig islets (APIs) that originally produced negligible levels of α-Gal, different from neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters, showed a clear antigenicity to human serum. Concerning the so-called non-Gal epitopes, many studies related to glycoproteins and glycolipids are ongoing in efforts to identify them. However, our knowledge of non-Gal glycoantigens remains incomplete. In our previous study, N-glycans were isolated from APIs, and the structures of 28 of the N-glycans were detected. In this study, to identify additional structures, further analyses were performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). N-glycans were isolated from APIs by the method described by O'Neil et al with minor modifications and LC-MS-based structural analyses were then performed. The detected N-glycan peaks in the LC-MS spectra were selected using the FLexAnalysis software program and the structures of the glycans were predicted using the GlyocoMod Tool. The API preparation contained 11 peaks and 16 structures were then nominated as containing N-linked sugars. Among them, 5 sulfated glycans were estimated, confirming the existence of sulfate structures in N-glycans in API. In addition, these data may supplement several N-glycan structures that contain two deoxyhexose units, such as fucose, to our previous report. The data herein will be helpful for future studies of antigenicity associated with API. PMID:27320609

  9. Welfare of entire males and females in organic pig production when reared in single-sex groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Rousing, Tine;

    2012-01-01

    kg. Behaviour observations was made in two different periods, ‘roughage provision’ with observation of aggressive interactions lasting 30 min, and ‘post-roughage provision’ with observations of aggressive interactions, number of mountings and number of active animals in intervals of 15 min, lasting...... in either period. Also no difference in severity of the aggressive behaviour between males and females was observed. Aggression decreased significantly with increasing pig weight during ‘post-roughage provision’ (P... difference between sexes only at 70 kg in herd A (P

  10. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation. PMID:27262980

  11. Differential regulation of senescence and in vitro differentiation by 17β-estradiol between mesenchymal stem cells derived from male and female mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Seung-Chan; Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Lee, Sung-Lim

    2016-06-30

    The characterization and potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gender dependent and estrogen influences these properties. This study demonstrated that supplementation with 17β-estradiol (E2) increases the proliferation of bone marrow-MSCs derived from male and female mini-pigs (Mp- and Fp-BMSCs) in a concentration-dependent manner, with 10(-12) M E2 suggested as the optimal dose of E2 that led to the greatest improvement in BMSCs proliferation. Supplementation of 10(-12) M E2 resulted in down-regulation of β-galactosidase activity and pro-apoptotic activity in both BMSCs, while anti-apoptotic activity was up-regulated in only Fp-BMSCs. Further, E2 increased the osteogenic ability of Fp-BMSCs. Based on these findings, optimal utilization of E2 can improve cellular senescence and apoptosis, as well as in vitro osteogenesis of BMSCs, and could therefore be useful in stem cell therapy, particularly in bone regeneration for adult females. PMID:26645340

  12. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women. PMID:25051319

  13. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  14. Pubertal Timing and Growth Influences Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Widén, Elisabeth; Silventoinen, Karri; Sovio, Ulla; Ripatti, Samuli; Cousminer, Diana L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaprio, Jaakko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Early pubertal onset in females is associated with increased risk for adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but whether this relationship is independent of preceding childhood growth events is unclear. Furthermore, the association between male puberty and adult disease remains unknown. To clarify the link between puberty and adult health, we evaluated the relationship between pubertal timing and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both males and female...

  15. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  16. Variability and repeatability in gestation length related to litter performance in female pigs on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Koketsu, Y

    2007-07-15

    Forecasting gestation length (GL) in sows enables producers to be prepared to provide assistance at farrowing, or for timely treatment to induce parturition. The objectives of the present study were to determine GL across parities, the repeatability and correlation of the GL, and associations of GL with the three litter size variables (total pigs born, pigs born alive, and dead piglets) and longevity. This study was conducted on 94 farms and encompassed 66,254 farrowing records of 13,715 sows born during 1999. Variance components and correlation analyses were used to determine the repeatability and the correlations of GL. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze associations of GL with litter size variables and longevity. The mean of GL across parities was from 115.2 to 115.4 d. The proportions of GL 114, 115, and 116 d for all farrowing events were 19.2, 30.8, and 22.2%, respectively. The GL between parities were correlated (0.40pigs born and dead piglets (Ppigs born alive than those with GL/=117 d (P<0.01). Sows with GL

  17. Pancreatic Islets: Methods for Isolation and Purification of Juvenile and Adult Pig Islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Heide; Johnson, Paul R V; Brandhorst, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current situation of organ transplantation is mainly determined by the disbalance between the number of available organs and the number of patients on the waiting list. This obvious dilemma might be solved by the transplantation of porcine organs into human patients. The metabolic similarities which exist between both species made pancreatic islets of Langerhans to that donor tissue which will be most likely transplanted in human recipients. Nevertheless, the successful isolation of significant yields of viable porcine islets is extremely difficult and requires extensive experiences in the field. This review is focussing on the technical challenges, pitfalls and particularities that are associated with the isolation of islets from juvenile and adult pigs considering donor variables that can affect porcine islet isolation outcome. PMID:27586421

  18. "Mixed germ cell testicular tumor" in an adult female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasimath Shivakumarswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization syndrome was described by Morris in phenotypic females with 46XY karyotype, presenting with primary amenorrhea, adequate breast development, and absent or scanty pubic or axillary hair. Gonads consist usually of seminiferous tubules without spermatogenesis. These patients have a 5-10% risk of developing germ cell tumors, usually after the complete development of secondary female sexual characteristics. We hereby report a case considered as a female with married life of 15 years, who was operated for severe abdominal pain. Phenotype characters were that of female. Microscopic examination of the tumor from the abdomen revealed germinoma and yolk sac tumor with adjacent seminiferous tubules. Karyotyping showed 46XY. Final diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor in androgen insensitivity syndrome was made. Surveillance may be the most appropriate option when these conditions are initially diagnosed in adulthood to prevent development of germ cell tumors.

  19. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Quamrun; Arifeen, Shams El; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Method Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15–49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths t...

  20. SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION IN AN ADULT FEMALE WITH OBSESSIVE SEXUAL THOUGHTS: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Awana, Sunil; Jena, Shivananda

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of an adult married Muslim female from an orthodox background having sexual obsessions about males other than her husband and her 7 year-old son. She developed diminished sexual desire to have sex with her husband as a result of her obsessions. The role of sexual obsessions in sexual dysfunction in females is discussed.

  1. Vocal mother-offspring communication in guinea pigs: females adjust maternal responsiveness to litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trillmich Fritz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In parent-offspring communication, vocal signals are often used to attract attention and offspring might call to induce parental behaviour. In guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus mothers wean larger litters later than small ones, but it is unknown whether this difference depends on processes induced during pregnancy or is influenced post-natally by the number of pups present. We here tested with playback-experiments using pup separation calls whether mothers with cross-fostered large experimental litters (four-pup-litters were more responsive to offspring calls and maintained responsiveness for longer than mothers with small experimental litters (two-pup-litters. Mothers were tested when two pups were suckling i.e. when both teats were occupied. Results Mothers of four-pup litters responded stronger to broadcast pup separation calls than those with two-pup litters. Additionally, we tested the mothers' responsiveness to pup separation calls in the absence of their pups on day 8 and 20 of lactation. Mothers of four-pup litters responded stronger and showed no decrease in responsiveness from day 8 to 20, whereas mothers of two-pup litters responded less and decreased responsiveness from day 8 to 20. Mothers of four-pup litters also weaned their pups 5 days later than those of two-pup litters. Conclusion Measured by their response to pup calls and by time to weaning, guinea pig mothers adjust maternal responsiveness to litter size. This behaviour is likely to be an adaptive strategy in resource allocation during reproduction.

  2. To Tell the Truth: What Names Mean to Female Characters in Young Adult Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Caroline S.

    1998-01-01

    Considers the small but important motif of female characters (in young adult books) seeking their appropriate names. Discusses how this step expresses the search to define authenticity in their own terms, an important step toward developing inner voice and self-esteem that adolescent girls can take. Offers examples from several young adult books…

  3. Virtual fetal pig dissection as an agent of knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change in female high school biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Rebecca Scudari

    One way to determine if all students can learn through the use of computers is to introduce a lesson taught completely via computers and compare the results with those gained when the same lesson is taught in a traditional manner. This study attempted to determine if a virtual fetal pig dissection can be used as a viable alternative for an actual dissection for females enrolled in high school biology classes by comparing the knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change between the experimental (virtual dissection) and control (actual dissection) groups. Two hundred and twenty-four students enrolled in biology classes in a suburban all-girl parochial high school participated in this study. Female students in an all-girl high school were chosen because research shows differences in science competency and computer usage between the genders that may mask the performance of females on computer-based tasks in a science laboratory exercise. Students who completed the virtual dissection scored significantly higher on practical test and objective tests that were used to measure knowledge acquisition. Attitudinal change was measured by examining the students' attitudes toward dissections, computer usage in the classroom, and toward biology both before and after the dissections using pre and post surveys. Significant results in positive gain scores were found in the virtual dissection group's attitude toward dissections, and their negative gain score toward virtual dissections. Attitudinal changes toward computers and biology were not significant. A purposefully selected sample of the students were interviewed, in addition to gathering a sample of the students' daily dissection journals, as data highlighting their thoughts and feelings about their dissection experience. Further research is suggested to determine if a virtual laboratory experience can be a substitute for actual dissections, or may serve as an enhancement to an actual dissection.

  4. A test for the relative potency of herpes simplex virus vaccines based upon the female guinea-pig model of HSV 2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillpotts, R J; Welch, M J; Ridgeway, P H; Walkland, A C; Melling, J

    1988-04-01

    An ELISA for total herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 antigen content and a test of immunogenicity based upon the female guinea-pig model of HSV 2 genital infection were applied to two samples from batches of HSV 1 subunit ('Skinner') vaccine. The ELISA was reproducible within an approximately threefold limit of error and batches 1 and 2 were indistinguishable in antigen content. The effects of vaccination in the guinea-pig model were assessed by a statistical analysis of scores derived from the principal clinical signs, vaginal oedema and lesions on the external genitalia. The statistical power of the guinea-pig assay was such that reductions in the severity of illness approaching 40% would be significant (P less than 0.05) on 90% of occasions. The ability to make quantitative estimates of immunogenicity will prove useful in the quality control of HSV vaccine batches which are destined for clinical trials in man.

  5. Effect of exogenous prolactin on ultrastructure of pinealocyte in female pigs during puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylska, B.; Dusza, L.; Lewczuk, B.; Ciesielska-Myszka, L. [Akademia Rolniczo-Technicza, Olsztyn (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Influence of the administration of prolactin to female swine during puberty on the ultrastructure of pinealocytes has been examined by means of morphometric analysis. Prolactin administration for 15 consecutive days resulted in a decrease in the cytoplasmic dense bodies type MBB-2, lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. Some differences in structure of pinealocytes were also observed. Prolactin appeared to stimulate the process of transformation of cytoplasmic dense bodies. (author). 28 refs, 5 figs.

  6. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  7. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  8. Intermittent Brugada Syndrome Presenting with Syncope in an Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chavez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brugada syndrome accounts for 4–12% of all sudden deaths worldwide and at least 20% of sudden deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts. Case Report. A 48-year-old female presented to the emergency department after two witnessed syncopal episodes. While awaiting discharge had a third collapse followed by cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm. Initial electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex with left axis deviation, ST-segment elevation of 2 mm followed by a negative T wave with no isoelectric separation, suggestive of spontaneous intermittent Brugada type 1 pattern. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated neither structural heart disease nor abnormal myocardium. After placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator the patient was discharged. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Brugada syndrome is an infrequently encountered clinical entity which may have a fatal outcome. This syndrome primarily presents with syncope. It should be considered as a component of differential diagnosis in patients with family history of syncope and sudden cardiac death.

  9. Effects of acute adult and early-in-life bladder inflammation on bladder neuropeptides in adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ness Timothy J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to determine how acute adult and/or prior early-in life (EIL; P14-P16 exposure to bladder inflammation affects bladder content of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP. Estrous cycle influences were also studied in the adult-treatment conditions. Methods In Experiment 1, intravesical zymosan or isoflurane anesthesia alone was administered to adult female rats. Bladders and serum were collected 24 hours later during each phase of the estrous cycle. In Experiment 2, zymosan or anesthesia alone was administered EIL and as adults, with bladder tissue collection 24 h later. Results In general, Experiment 1 showed that bladder content of both CGRP and SP was increased by inflammation. This effect was significant when data were collapsed across all phases of the estrous cycle, but was only significant during proestrus when individual comparisons were made during each phase of estrous. Also, adult bladder inflammation significantly reduced estradiol levels. In Experiment 2, bladder content of CGRP and SP was significantly increased in rats receiving EIL and/or adult inflammation. Bladder weights were also significantly increased by inflammation. Conclusions These data indicate that bladder CGRP and SP are maximally increased during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle in inflamed adult female rats. EIL exposure to bladder inflammation alone can also produce an increase in CGRP and SP lasting into adulthood. Therefore, EIL experience with bladder inflammation may predispose an organism to experience a painful bladder disorder as an adult by increasing primary afferent content of CGRP and/or SP.

  10. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  11. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  12. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  13. Osteocalcin, but not deoxypyridinoline, increases in response to isoflurane-induced anaesthesia in young female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Negar; Rodd, Celia J; Kremer, Richard; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the inhaled anaesthetic isoflurane was investigated on bone biomarkers, both during maturation and on minerals and glucose postpartum. Female guinea pigs (n = 10) were anaesthetized during maturation (5 and 9 weeks) and postpartum (26 weeks of age) with isoflurane during dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Blood collection was performed at all ages before and after anaesthesia for measurement of plasma osteocalcin (OC), total deoxypyridinoline (tDPD), and cortisol. Postpartum measurements also included: blood ions, acid-base parameters and glucose, plasma minerals, total alkaline phosphatase (tALP), and albumin. Plasma OC concentration almost doubled after exposure to isoflurane at 5 weeks (30.1 ± 5.0-57.9 ± 11.2 nmol/L, p  0.05). Blood ionized Ca(2+), Na(+) and plasma total Ca did not change, whereas plasma albumin decreased, and inorganic phosphate (PO4) and Cl(-) increased upon exposure to isoflurane. Isoflurane decreased tALP (43.2 ± 6.6-40.2 ± 5.9 IU/L, p = 0.01) and increased glucose (7.5 ± 0.6-10.9 ± 1.7 mmol/L, p < 0.0001) postpartum. Isoflurane inflates the assessment of a bone-derived biomarker, OC, during rapid growth, but not following pregnancy when formation is very low. Measurements prior to anaesthesia are recommended to reflect normal metabolism.

  14. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  15. Dietary soy isoflavones differentially regulate expression of the lipid-metabolic genes in different white adipose tissues of the female Bama mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoli; Li, Lili; Fan, Juexin; Zhang, Bin; Oso, A O; Xiao, Chaowu; Yin, Yulong

    2015-05-22

    Soy isoflavones have been shown to affect lipid metabolism, however the underlying molecular mechanism(s) have not yet been fully understood. The present study, using female Bama mini-pig as a model, examined the effects of soy isoflavones on lipid metabolism and involved gene expression in different white adipose tissues. Female Bama Xiang mini-pigs of 35 days old were fed a basal diet (control, Con), or basal diet supplemented with increasing amounts of soy isoflavones (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg diet) for 120 days. The results showed that soy isoflavones did not affect the body weight, but decreased the dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSA) mass and increased the mass of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASA) and perirenal adipose tissue (PRA). Besides, soy isoflavones decreased the expression of lipogenic genes and increased the expression of lipolytic genes in DSA, while the opposite effects were observed in ASA and PRA. In addition, the expression of lipoprotein lipase was down regulated in DSA while up regulated in ASA and PRA by soy isoflavones. Moreover, the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) was up regulated in DSA, and down regulated in ASA and PRA by soy isoflavones. Our results suggest that soy isoflavones affected the lipid metabolism in white adipose tissues of Bama mini-pigs in a site-specific manner, which might be mediated through PPARs and ERs regulated gene expression.

  16. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmody J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John Carmody1, Raghunath P Misra1,2, Marlyn P Langford1, William A Byrd1, Lauren Ditta1, Bryan Vekovius1, Donald E Texada11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a "starry sky" appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients.Keywords: B-cells, Burkitt lymphoma, cancer, diabetes, eye, Epstein–Barr virus, orbit, tumor

  17. Liquid fructose in pregnancy exacerbates fructose-induced dyslipidemia in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Lourdes; Panadero, María I; Rodrigo, Silvia; Roglans, Núria; Otero, Paola; Álvarez-Millán, Juan J; Laguna, Juan C; Bocos, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and related events. Nevertheless, consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose is not regulated in gestation. Previously, we found that maternal fructose intake produces in the progeny, when fetuses, impaired leptin signaling and hepatic steatosis and then impaired insulin signaling and hypoadiponectinemia in adult male rats. Interestingly, adult females from fructose-fed mothers did not exhibit any of these disturbances. However, we think that, actually, these animals keep a programmed phenotype hidden. Fed 240-day-old female progeny from control, fructose- and glucose-fed mothers were subjected for 3weeks to a fructose supplementation period (10% wt/vol in drinking water). Fructose intake provoked elevations in insulinemia and adiponectinemia in the female progeny independently of their maternal diet. In accordance, the hepatic mRNA levels of several insulin-responsive genes were similarly affected in the progeny after fructose intake. Interestingly, adult progeny of fructose-fed mothers displayed, in response to the fructose feeding, augmented plasma triglyceride and NEFA levels and hepatic steatosis versus the other two groups. In agreement, the expression and activity for carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a lipogenic transcription factor, were higher after the fructose period in female descendants from fructose-fed mothers than in the other groups. Furthermore, liver fructokinase expression that has been indicated as one of those responsible for the deleterious effects of fructose ingestion was preferentially augmented in that group. Maternal fructose intake does influence the adult female offspring's response to liquid fructose and so exacerbates fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. PMID:27142744

  18. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  19. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  20. Further signs of postnatal sexual differentiation in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, J; López-Bote, C J; García, C

    1992-01-01

    Fourteen newborn female, and ten male pigs were injected subcutaneously with 100 mg of testosterone propionate within 24 h of birth, and ten male and nine females were used as controls and injected with vehicle alone (Sesame oil). All animals were slaughtered at 175 days of age. Reduction of testicular weight, tubuli size and testosterone concentration, together with alteration of the intertubular area was found in adult treated males. In adult treated females, the histological study of ovaries showed the parenchyma fully occupied by multiple Graaf follicles, but no corpus luteum was found. In addition, treated females never had serum progesterone levels above 2 ng/ml, whilst control females, in some cases had values close to 2 ng/ml, and in some others near to 10 ng/ml. Carcass weight and fatness were not markedly different between groups. The observations presented in this report provide further support for a neonatal component of testosterone-dependent masculinization process in pigs.

  1. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. ...

  2. Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Trunk in a Mildly Symptomatic Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fan-Ying Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, also known as Garland-Bland-White syndrome, is an extremely rare but potentially fatal congenital cardiovascular anomaly, and it often exists as an isolated condition. We hereby report an adult female who was admitted for mild chest discomfort and was accidentally diagnosed to have anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. This anomaly was simply repaired by using a bovine pericardial patch to obliterate the anomalous opening in the pulmonary trunk and a single coronary artery bypass graft. This report highlights the characteristic events of the anomaly in an adult with only mild symptoms.

  3. Adult porcine genome-wide DNA methylation patterns support pigs as a biomedical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schachtschneider, K.M.; Madsen, O.; Park, C.; Rund, L.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pigs (Sus scrofa) provide relevant biomedical models to dissect complex diseases due to their anatomical, genetic, and physiological similarities with humans. Aberrant DNA methylation has been linked to many of these diseases and is associated with gene expression; however, the functiona

  4. [Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

    2014-01-01

    A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

  5. A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Chuan Lai; Lombardo, Michael V.; Greg Pasco; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A; Bhismadev Chakrabarti; Simon Baron-Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (h...

  6. Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14 and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.

  7. Pesticide methoxychlor promotes the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease through the female germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures.

  8. Patterns of coping preferences for male and female caregivers of frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, H M; Hamilton, D W; Lovett, S; Gallagher-Thompson, D

    1997-06-01

    The similarities and differences in male and female caregivers' preferred strategies for coping and the perceived helpfulness of these strategies in managing caregiving stressors were examined in this study. Respondents were 170 caregivers (139 women and 31 men) who were primary caregivers for an elderly adult relative who was either cognitively impaired or physically frail. Results provide preliminary evidence that gender is related to frequency of use but not to the perceived helpfulness of specific coping strategies. PMID:9189986

  9. UNILOCULAR OMENTAL CYST IN ADULT FEMALE PRESENTING AS HUGE ABDOMINAL LUMP: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himansu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omental cysts are rare entity with a prevalence of 1: 1,000,000 in adults and in 1: 20, 000 in children. We are reporting a case of a 30 year female patient with abdominal lump over epigastrium and left hypochondrium for 6 months; diagnosed on laparotomy as uniloculated omental cyst originating from lesser omentum. Omental cyst is a challenging diagnostic entity with varied presentations and a wide range of differential diagnosis has to be kept in mind.

  10. Pattern of carbon dioxide production and retention is similar in adult pigs when fed hourly, but not when fed a single meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencharz Paul B

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of bicarbonate kinetics and CO2 retention in the body is necessary to conduct amino acid tracer oxidation studies in both humans and laboratory animals. Significant metabolic activity is associated with eating which can affect bicarbonate steady state kinetics. A study was conducted to assess the impact of feeding regimen on the recovery of labelled bicarbonate and energy expenditure in adult female pigs (sows. Five catheterized sows (235 ± 5 kg were fed semi-synthetic diets as: a single meal 2 h into the infusion after an overnight fast, or in eight hourly meals starting 2 h before the infusion. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production and 14CO2 recovery (ie fraction not retained were determined during primed, constant intravenous infusions of NaH14CO3. Results The 14CO2 recovery (% after fasting (58.1 ± 4.8 was lower than that after single meal feeding (78.8 ± 5.9 or hourly meal feeding (81.0 ± 2.6, P = 0.03. CO2 production correlated with 14CO2 recovery during hourly feeding (r = 0.40, P = 0.01; this relationship was not significant after single meal feeding (P = 0.30, probably due to physical activity-associated CO2 production. Conclusions The correlation of CO2 retention factors with CO2 production during hourly feeding suggests that this regimen should be preferred for future amino acid kinetics studies.

  11. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  12. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  13. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  14. Prepubertal exposure to bisphenol-A induces ERα upregulation and hyperplasia in adult gerbil female prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mônica S; Galvão, André L V; Rodríguez, Daniel A O; Biancardi, Manoel F; Marques, Mara R; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-06-01

    Prostate physiology is highly dependent on oestrogenic and androgenic homeostasis. Interferences in this equilibrium, especially in early periods of life, may disrupt the prostate and increase the susceptibility to the development of diseases with ageing. Taking this into account, and considering the increase of environmental chemicals with endocrine-disrupting potential such as bisphenol-A (BPA), this study aimed to evaluate the prostates of adult female gerbils exposed to BPA and BPA plus testosterone from pubertal to adult periods. Morphological, stereological and chemical analyses revealed that long-term BPA exposure, even in environmental dosages, increases the proliferative status of the prostate, increases the number of ERα-positive stromal cells and elicits the development of prostatic hyperplasia in adult female gerbils. Moreover, we also observed that the association with testosterone did not increase the proliferative status of the gland, which shows that low levels of BPA are enough to cause an oestrogenic disruption of the prostate in young adults. This evidence suggests that this oestrogenic endocrine disruptor may increase the susceptibility to prostatic disorders with ageing. PMID:26098999

  15. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  16. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  17. Knowledge about mammography and associated factors: population surveys with female adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge about mammography and to identify associated factors in female adults and elderly. Data were obtained from two population surveys, one with female adults and another with elderly women from Florianópolis (SC in 2009 - 2010. A descriptive analysis of the variables was carried out, the appropriate mean of responses about mammography was estimated and crude and adjusted Poisson regression was conducted to identify associated factors. Among adults, 23.1% answered all of the questions appropriately and the appropriate average responses was 7.2 (95%CI 7.1 - 7.3 in a total of 9. In the adjusted model, older age, higher education and income were associated with knowledge about mammography. For the elderly, 15.3% answered all questions appropriately and the average of appropriate responses was 6.4 (95%CI 5.2 - 6.5 and the factors associated with knowledge about mammography in the adjusted model were younger age groups, increased education and income, and identification of mammography as the main diagnostic method for breast cancer. Information about mammography can neither be transmitted in a clear way nor be easily understood; there are also demographic and socioeconomic differences concerning the knowledge about the exam.

  18. Exposure to repeated maternal aggression induces depressive-like behavior and increases startle in adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Chase H.; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2011-01-01

    The stress response is a multifaceted physiological reaction that engages a wide range of systems. Animal studies examining stress and the stress response employ diverse methods as stressors. While many of these stressors are capable of inducing a stress response in animals, a need exists for an ethologically relevant stressor for female rats. The purpose of the current study was to use an ethologically relevant social stressor to induce behavioral alterations in adult female rats. Adult (pos...

  19. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different

  20. The effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing in old-old adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of gait time and trunk acceleration ratio in old-old adult females during stair climbing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five older adult females who were able to walk independently volunteered for this study and were categorized into two age groups (older adults or old-old adults). Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio were measured using an accelerometer during stair climbing. [Results] Gait time and trunk acceleration ratio when climbing stairs were significantly higher in the old-old age group than in the older adults group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that old-old females have decreased upper trunk control. In addition, gait time and the trunk acceleration ratio during stair climbing are useful clinical markers for predicting function and balance control ability in old-old elderly populations. PMID:27512256

  1. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. PMID:26763531

  2. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  3. PES PLANUS (FLATFOOT IN MALE AND FEMALE ADULTS OF BAYELSA- NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare NW

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to provide and document an accurate record of the noticeable occurrence of pes planus amongst adults in Bayelsa State (Nigeria. A random sample of 510 persons (235 males and 275 females; aged 33 ± 15 years and totally Bayelsa's natives was analyzed. An ink imprint on white paper of their weight-bearing surface of the feet was carried out with diagnostic purposes. 48 males (20.4% and 81 females (29.5% revealed pes planus whereas the rest of the sample did not show it. The incidence of pes planus was 1:4. The well known frequent excess of bodyweight in these native groups may be responsible for this abnormality and obliges to pay due attention to the related habits. Furthermore, the obtained results could probably have anthropological and forensic medicine impact.

  4. COMPONENTS OF THE HEALTHY EATING INDEX IN NUTRITION OF ADULT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess and monitor the nutriton and dietary status, the U.S. Department of Agriculture developed the Healthy Eating Index - HEI. The index consists of 10 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutrition in adult females and to analyze the actual nutrition according to selected four components (no. 6-9 of the Healthy Eating Index. Components 6 and 7 measure total fat and saturated fat consumption, respectively, as a percentage of total food intake (maximal 30 % and 10 % of total energy daily content respectively; in case of 31,3 % and 58,62 % females respectively. Components 8 and 9 measure total cholesterol (daily maximal 300 mg in case of 69,54 % participants and sodium intake (maximal 2400 mg a day in case of 22,99 % probands. doi:10.5219/106

  5. Equine Assisted Therapy and Changes in Gait for a Young Adult Female with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Coffey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of equine assisted therapy on selected gait parameters in a person with Down syndrome. One female participant with Down syndrome completed two therapeutic horseback riding programs, each consisting of six riding sessions. Specific gait characteristics were analyzed with a trend analysis of the data by examining the means of the different variables. The trend analysis revealed a difference in stride length as well as hip and knee angle. These results indicate that over the course of the two therapeutic horseback riding programs, changes in gait occurred. Therefore, therapeutic horseback riding may have the potential to benefit gait characteristics and stability in young adult females with Down syndrome; however, further research is warranted.

  6. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  7. Gene expression profiling of adult female tissues in feeding Rhipicephalus microplus cattle ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzer, Christian; van Zyl, Willem A; Olivier, Nicholas A; Richards, Sabine; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is an economically important pest, especially for resource-poor countries, both as a highly adaptive invasive species and prominent vector of disease. The increasing prevalence of resistance to chemical acaricides and variable efficacy of current tick vaccine candidates highlight the need for more effective control methods. In the absence of a fully annotated genome, the wealth of available expressed sequence tag sequence data for this species presents a unique opportunity to study the genes that are expressed in tissues involved in blood meal acquisition, digestion and reproduction during feeding. Utilising a custom oligonucleotide microarray designed from available singletons (BmiGI Version 2.1) and expressed sequence tag sequences of R. microplus, the expression profiles in feeding adult female midgut, salivary glands and ovarian tissues were compared. From 13,456 assembled transcripts, 588 genes expressed in all three tissues were identified from fed adult females 20 days post infestation. The greatest complement of genes relate to translation and protein turnover. Additionally, a number of unique transcripts were identified for each tissue that relate well to their respective physiological/biological function/role(s). These transcripts include secreted anti-hemostatics and defense proteins from the salivary glands for acquisition of a blood meal, proteases as well as enzymes and transporters for digestion and nutrient acquisition from ingested blood in the midgut, and finally proteins and associated factors involved in DNA replication and cell-cycle control for oogenesis in the ovaries. Comparative analyses of adult female tissues during feeding enabled the identification of a catalogue of transcripts that may be essential for successful feeding and reproduction in the cattle tick, R. microplus. Future studies will increase our understanding of basic tick biology, allowing the identification of shared proteins

  8. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  9. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery L Dunning

    Full Text Available In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated

  10. Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system. The margin of stability (MoS) at foot touchdown was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support (BoS) and extrapolated center of mass. Older participants showed lower MoS adaptation magnitude in the early adaptation phase (steps 1-3) compared to the young and middle-aged groups. However, in the late adaptation phase (steps 16-18) there were no significant differences in adaptation magnitude between the three age groups. After removing the resistance, all three age groups showed similar aftereffects (i.e. increased BoS). The current results suggest that in old age, the ability to recalibrate locomotion to control stability is preserved, but the rate of adaptive improvement in locomotor stability is diminished. PMID:26970886

  11. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  12. Post-parturition habitat selection by elk calves and adult female elk in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, J.; Cain, James W.; Liley, Stewart; Gould, William R.; Quintana, Nichole T.; Ballard, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal survival and juvenile recruitment are crucial to maintaining viable elk (Cervus elaphus) populations. Neonate survival is known to be influenced by many factors, including bed-site selection. Although neonates select the actual bed-site location, they must do so within the larger calf-rearing area selected by the mother. As calves age, habitat selection should change to meet the changing needs of the growing calf. Our main objectives were to characterize habitat selection at 2 spatial scales and in areas with different predator assemblages in New Mexico. We evaluated bed-site selection by calves and calf-rearing area selection by adult females. We captured 108 elk calves by hand and fitted them with ear tag transmitters in two areas in New Mexico: the Valle Vidal and Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area. In both study areas, we found that concealing cover structure and distance to that cover influenced bed-site selection of young calves (i.e., models, but selection was also influenced by forage availability and indices of forage quality. Studies that seek to obtain insight into microhabitat selection of ungulate neonates should consider selection by the neonate and selection by the adult female, changes in selection as neonates age, and potential selection differences in areas of differing predation risk. By considering these influences together and at multiple scales, studies can achieve a broader understanding of neonatal ungulate habitat requirements. 

  13. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L. Pawluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1 cookie and (2 osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.

  14. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  15. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  16. Spontaneous inflammatory pelvic disease in adult non-castrated female rats treated with estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristóteles M G Ramos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune response of the genital tract is under the control of sexual steroids; however, the influence of sex hormones on innate immune mechanisms of the genital mucosa are only beginning to be understood. We found that long-term estrogen treatment increases the risk for inflammatory pelvic diseases in adult non-castrated female rats. Female rats (110 g to 130 g received estrogen (10 rats; 17-beta estradiol, 50 mg pellet; 10 rats: subcutaneous weekly injection of estradiol valerate 0.166 mg/kg. Ten rats received a pellet of 17-beta estradiol and were treated with amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg after the 90th day of exposure to estrogen. Three control groups of ten rats were also used. The estrogen-treated rats developed an inflammatory pelvic disease, with abscess formation after the third month of hormonal treatment. All the surviving animals were killed after six months of hormonal exposure. Among 15 survivors of the two groups that received estrogen 13 animals presented tuboovarian abscesses. Among eight survivors of the group treated with amoxicillin, six had tuboovarian abscesses. None of the 30 control rats presented macro or microscopic signs of inflammatory disease in the uterus, tubes or ovaries. We conclude that estrogen impairs the defense mechanisms of the genital tract of non-castrated female rats, enhancing bacterial growth in the vagina and ascending infection to the uterus, tubes and ovaries.

  17. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284-0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202-0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  18. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  19. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobush, K S; Mutayoba, B M; Wasser, S K

    2008-12-01

    Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented.

  20. Trap style influences wild pig behavior and trapping success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts of many natural resource professionals, wild pig (Sus scrofa) populations are expanding in many areas of the world. Although many creative techniques for controlling pig populations are being explored, trapping has been and still is themost commonly usedmethod of population control formany public and private land managers. We conducted an observational study to examine the efficiency of 2 frequently used trap styles: a small, portable box-style trap and a larger, semi-permanent, corral-style trap.We used game cameras to examine patterns of trap entry by wild pigs around each style of trap, and we conducted a trapping session to compare trapping success between trap styles. Adult female and juvenile wild pigs entered both styles of trap more readily than did adult males, and adult males seemed particularly averse to entering box traps. Less than 10% of adult male visits to box traps resulted in entries, easily the least percentage of any class at any style of trap. Adult females entered corral traps approximately 2.2 times more often per visit than box traps and re-entered corral traps >2 times more frequently. Juveniles entered and reentered both box and corral traps at similar rates. Overall (all-class) entry-per-visit rates at corral traps (0.71) were nearly double that of box traps (0.37). Subsequent trapping data supported these preliminary entry data; the capture rate for corral traps was >4 times that of box traps. Our data suggest that corral traps are temporally and economically superior to box traps with respect to efficiency; that is, corral traps effectively trap more pigs per trap night at a lower cost per pig than do box traps. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres

    2014-08-01

    There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio.

  2. Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in adult guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-cai GUO; Zhe ZHANG; Li-nan ZHANG; Chen XIONG; Chen FENG; Qian LIU; Xu LIU; Xiao-lu SHI; Yong-li WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protection and the anti-oxidative mechanism afforded by chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in guinea pig hearts.Methods:Adult male guinea pigs were exposed to CIHH by mimicking a 5000 m high altitude (pB=404 mmHg,p02=84 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber for 6 h/day for 28 days.Langendorff-perfused isolated guinea pig hearts were used to measure variables of left ventricular function during baseline perfusion,ischemia and the reperfusion period.The activity and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes in the left myocardium were evaluated using biochemical methods and Western blotting.respectively.Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed using ROS-sensitive fluorescence.Results:After 30 min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion,myocardial function had better recovery rates in CIHH guinea pig hearts than in control hearts.The activity and protein expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased in the myocardium of CIHH guinea pigs.Pretreatment of control hearts with an antioxidant mixture containing SOD and CAT exerted cardioprotective effects similar to CIHH.The irreversible CAT inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) abolished the cardioprotection of CIHH.Cardiac contractile dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were attenuated by CIHH and CAT.Conclusions:These data suggest that CIHH protects the heart against I/R injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pig.

  3. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, T.C.; Mondragon, J.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15-439 m) and temperatures (4-8??C), but the biggest catches were at depths crabs. ?? 2007 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford Journals. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid Partial Repigmentation of Vitiligo in a Young Female Adult with a Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit N. Khandalavala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common pigmentary skin condition with a profound impact. Despite a number of therapeutic modalities, few have been demonstrated to result in significant repigmentation within a brief period of time. Reported dietary interventions are sparse. Following exclusion of gluten in the diet, early and extensive repigmentation of facial lesions were noted in a young female adult of Asian ethnicity with acrofacial vitiligo. The majority of the benefits occurred within the first month and stabilized at 4 months. Previous topical and phototherapy had not been found to be effective. The patient was maintained on the previously prescribed dapsone therapy. Dietary elimination can potentially be a disease-modifying intervention for vitiligo and should be considered even in patients without concomitant celiac disease.

  5. Ileo-Colic Burkitt Lymphoma in a Young Adult Female- A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangma, Mima Maychet B; Dasiah, Simon D; Ashok, Aju James

    2016-04-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an uncommon and aggressive type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and is one of the fastest growing cancer tumour in humans; growth fraction close to 100%. We report a case of a young adult female presented with acute pain abdomen with ileo-caecal mass. On clinical presentation, initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis with lump formation. Ultrasound reported as diffuse inflammatory changes and later CECT was done which reported as Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST). On laparotomy, a huge hard mass was found on ileo-caecal region and right hemicolectomy was done. Diagnosis was confirmed as Non-Hodgkins Burkitt's Lymphoma by HPE and immunohistochemistry testing. So, careful workup is the key to initiate early treatment. This patient had complete remission after the right hemicolectomy followed by multiagent chemotherapy. PMID:27190885

  6. Delayed Recognition of an Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in a Young Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Schulman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A percentage of ureteropelvic junction obstruction cases are clinically silent in childhood and manifest symptoms in adults. Herein we present a 25-year-old female with several years of intermittent flank pain and abdominal symptoms with prior inconclusive diagnostic workup including abdominal imaging without hydronephrosis. Ultimately, a CT scan performed during an acute pain crisis clearly identified right-sided hydronephrosis. The keys to diagnosis are awareness of this entity, a detailed history, and obtaining imaging studies during a crisis. The patient subsequently underwent a right robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty with preservation of a lower pole crossing vessel. We highlight noteworthy features of the clinical presentation and surgical repair.

  7. Effect of an Eight-Week Ballroom Dancing Program on Muscle Architecture in Older Adults Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Christina C P; Lodovico, Angélica; Fowler, Neil; Rodacki, André L F

    2015-10-01

    Aging is related to a progressive remodeling of the neuromuscular system, which includes muscle mass, strength, and power reductions. This study investigated the effect of an eight-week dance program on fascicle pennation angle, fascicle length, and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles using ultrasound images. Thirty-four healthy older women were randomly assigned to either a dancing (DG: n = 19, 69.1 ± 6.5 years, 72.5 ± 11.7 kg) or control group (CG: n = 15, 71.5 ± 7.4 years, 70.9 ± 9.3 kg). After training, the DG showed greater (p dance training was effective to change the lower limb muscle architecture in older female adults.

  8. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  9. Assessment of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors among Young Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dhruv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Over the past two decades there has been a striking increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome in developing countries. The current study was thus undertaken to map the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS and to assess the cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adult females (n = 1303 aged 18-26y from four girls hostel of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Approach: The anthropometric analysis showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (20.8%, abdominal obesity (12.7% among the subjects. The clinical profile revealed that 12.1% were hypertensives. The prevalence of dyslipidemia revealed that no one had hypercholesterolemia and 4.1% had hypertriglyceridemia, 12.1% had elevated LDL-C and 40.3% had low levels of HDL-C. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.4 and 4.1% according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and World Health Organization (WHO criteria respectively. Lipid profile in relation to metabolic syndrome showed that VLDL-C and Triglyceride (TG values were non-significantly higher among the young adult females and HDL-C values were significantly (pResults: The three common and predominant risk factors (>80% identified were lower intake of fruits (81.5%, vegetables (96% and physical inactivity (88.7%. The other risk factors which were present between 30-50% were hypertension, lower HDL-C, Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. Among the non-modifiable factor heredity component was present in 34% of the subjects. Conclusion: The study highlights that lifestyle factors had equivalent risk for overweight and metabolic syndrome. Multiple risk factor scenario calls for lifestyle management to avert later consequences.

  10. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osonuga Odusoga Adewale; Osonuga Ifabunmi Oduyemi; Osonuga Ayokunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats.Methods:moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum.Result:Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively.Conclusion:Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility.

  11. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  12. Study of risk factors for carcinoma breast in adult female general population in Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate some of the established risk factors for the breast cancer in adult female population. It was a prospective study. This study was conducted in Oncology Department, Services Hospital, Lahore, from August 1999 to August, 2000. One hundred breast cancer patients and 100 control subjects enrolled for interview and the percentage of positives was analyzed. Performa containing demographic characteristics and established risk factors for breast cancer was established. All the female subjects, above 15 years of age, were subjected to the questions in this proforma. To keep uniformity medical officers were briefed for filling this proforma. The data gathered was analyzed statistically. Out of established risk factors, family history of breast cancer and use of oral contraceptive pills were proved significantly positive with a value of p0.05). This study showed that there is a family tendency for breast cancer and estrogenic hormones are playing some role. More possibility of breast cancer was found in infertile and those having early menarche. (author)

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (...

  14. Subadult experience influences adult mate choice in an arthropod: Exposed female wolf spiders prefer males of a familiar phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Hebets, Eileen A.

    2003-01-01

    Current sexual selection theory proposes several potential mechanisms driving the evolution of female mating preferences, few of which involve social interactions. Although vertebrate examples of socially influenced mating preferences do exist, the invertebrate examples are virtually nonexistent. Here I demonstrate that the mating preferences of female wolf spiders can be acquired through exposure as subadults to unrelated, sexually active adult males. I first conducted exposure trials during...

  15. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  16. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F0) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F1) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  17. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  18. Differences in Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae) hemolymph proteome between subadult and adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabalon, Marie; Carapito, Christine; Voinot, Florian; Martrette, Jean-Marc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Gilbert, Caroline; Bertile, Fabrice

    2010-12-01

    The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a combination of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The different structures determined along with possible post-translational modifications may reflect a role of hemocyanin in molting, immunity, and reproduction. In addition, despite no precise identification, additional peptide sequences from eight protein bands (four bands >200 kDa and four bands in the 95-200 kDa mass range) were determined. As reported in other spider species, the putative corresponding structures are the coagulogen protein and/or lipoproteins (HDL-1, HDL-2, VHDL) for which quantitative differences between adult and subadult individuals could be related to the molting process and/or cuticle lipid and protein composition according to the developmental stage. PMID:20717997

  19. Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- v...

  20. Acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction among adult females of different races/ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendon MI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marta I Rendon,1 David A Rodriguez,2 Ariane K Kawata,3 Arnold N Degboe,4 Teresa K Wilcox,3 Caroline T Burk,5 Selena R Daniels,4 Wendy E Roberts6 1Rendon Center for Dermatology and Aesthetic Medicine, Boca Raton, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Associates and Research, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 3Evidera, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 5Health Outcomes Consultant, Laguna Beach, CA, USA; 6Generational and Cosmetic Dermatology, Rancho Mirage, CA, USA Background: Limited data are available on acne treatment patterns, expectations, and satisfaction in the adult female subpopulation, particularly among different racial and ethnic groups. Objective: Describe acne treatment patterns and expectations in adult females of different racial/ethnic groups and analyze and explore their potential effects on medication compliance and treatment satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to US females (25–45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions. Data collected included sociodemographics, self-reported clinical characteristics, acne treatment use, and treatment expectations and satisfaction. Results: Three hundred twelve subjects completed the survey (mean age, 35.3±5.9 years, comprising black (30.8%, Hispanic (17.6%, Asian/other (17.3%, and white (34.3%. More than half of the subjects in each racial group recently used an acne treatment or procedure (black, 63.5%; Hispanic, 54.5%; Asian/other, 66.7%; white, 66.4%. Treatment use was predominantly over-the-counter (OTC (47.4% versus prescription medications (16.6%. OTC use was highest in white subjects (black, 42.7%; Hispanic, 34.5%; Asian/other, 44.4%; white, 59.8%; P<0.05. The most frequently used OTC treatments in all racial/ethnic groups were salicylic acid (SA (34.3% and benzoyl peroxide (BP (32.1%. Overall, compliance with acne medications was highest in white versus black (57.0±32.4 vs 42.7±33.5 days, P>0.05, Hispanic (57.0±32.4 vs 43.2±32.9 days, P>0

  1. Female Adults with Patellofemoral Pain Are Characterized by Widespread Hyperalgesia, Which Is Not Affected Immediately by Patellofemoral Joint Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Barton, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Compare pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the knee and a site remote to the knee in female adults with patellofemoral pain (PFP) to pain-free controls before and after a patellofemoral joint (PFJ) loading protocol designed to aggravate symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING......: Participants were recruited via advertisements in fitness centers, public places for physical activity and universities. SUBJECTS: Thirty-eight females with patellofemoral pain, and 33 female pain-free controls. METHODS: All participant performed a novel PFJ loading protocol involving stair negotiation with an...

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC among young adult (10–24 years of age females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results: This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%. The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%, had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7% study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion: Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong

  3. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Wal, van de M.D.; Bosch, G.; Stumpel, J.B.G.; Heijboer, A.C.; Leeuwen, van J.P.T.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kik, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dr

  4. Aromatic hexamerin subunit from adult female cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) : Molecular cloning, suppression by juvenile hormone, and evolutionary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamroz, RC; Beintema, JJ; Stam, WT; Bradfield, JY

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to identify several polypeptides that are strongly suppressed by juvenile hormone (JH) in fat body of adult female Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches, we have cloned a cDNA representing a polypeptide member of the hexamerin family of arthropod serum proteins. The deduced primary translati

  5. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  6. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-yong Park; Hyunjin Park

    2016-01-01

    Attention deifcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both chil-dren and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantiifed using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identiifed as regions with signiifcant group-wise differences. The identiifed regions were correlated with clinical scores relfecting de-pression and anxiety and signiifcant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain cir-cuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  7. Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.

  8. Diffuse hair loss in an adult female: Approach to diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Telogen effluvium (TE is the most common cause of diffuse hair loss in adult females. TE, along with female pattern hair loss (FPHL and chronic telogen effluvium (CTE, accounts for the majority of diffuse alopecia cases. Abrupt, rapid, generalized shedding of normal club hairs, 2-3 months after a triggering event like parturition, high fever, major surgery, etc. indicates TE, while gradual diffuse hair loss with thinning of central scalp/widening of central parting line/frontotemporal recession indicates FPHL. Excessive, alarming diffuse shedding coming from a normal looking head with plenty of hairs and without an obvious cause is the hallmark of CTE, which is a distinct entity different from TE and FPHL. Apart from complete blood count and routine urine examination, levels of serum ferritin and T3, T4, and TSH should be checked in all cases of diffuse hair loss without a discernable cause, as iron deficiency and thyroid hormone disorders are the two common conditions often associated with diffuse hair loss, and most of the time, there are no apparent clinical features to suggest them. CTE is often confused with FPHL and can be reliably differentiated from it through biopsy which shows a normal histology in CTE and miniaturization with significant reduction of terminal to vellus hair ratio (T:V < 4:1 in FPHL. Repeated assurance, support, and explanation that the condition represents excessive shedding and not the actual loss of hairs, and it does not lead to baldness, are the guiding principles toward management of TE as well as CTE. TE is self limited and resolves in 3-6 months if the trigger is removed or treated, while the prognosis of CTE is less certain and may take 3-10 years for spontaneous resolution. Topical minoxidil 2% with or without antiandrogens, finestride, hair prosthesis, hair cosmetics, and hair surgery are the therapeutically available options for FPHL management.

  9. Ovariectomy results in variable changes in nociception, mood and depression in adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Decline in the ovarian hormones with menopause may influence somatosensory, cognitive, and affective processing. The present study investigated whether hormonal depletion alters the nociceptive, depressive-like and learning behaviors in experimental rats after ovariectomy (OVX, a common method to deplete animals of their gonadal hormones. OVX rats developed thermal hyperalgesia in proximal and distal tail that was established 2 weeks after OVX and lasted the 7 weeks of the experiment. A robust mechanical allodynia was also occurred at 5 weeks after OVX. In the 5th week after OVX, dilute formalin (5%-induced nociceptive responses (such as elevating and licking or biting during the second phase were significantly increased as compared to intact and sham-OVX females. However, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve-induced mechanical allodynia did not differ as hormonal status (e.g. OVX and ovarian intact. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA, which is believed to reflect the pain-related negative emotion, we further found that OVX significantly attenuated F-CPA scores but did not alter electric foot-shock-induced CPA (S-CPA. In the open field and forced swimming test, there was an increase in depressive-like behaviors in OVX rats. There was no detectable impairment of spatial performance by Morris water maze task in OVX rats up to 5 weeks after surgery. Estrogen replacement retrieved OVX-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity and depressive-like behaviors. This is the first study to investigate the impacts of ovarian removal on nociceptive perception, negative emotion, depressive-like behaviors and spatial learning in adult female rats in a uniform and standard way.

  10. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    It is generally believed that butterflies (and other holometabolous insects) rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction, whereas the carbohydrate-rich adult diet is thought to mainly cover energy requirements. In at least some species though, realization of the full reproductive potential is extensively affected by post-eclosion nutrition. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of adult-derived amino acids and micronutrients is controversial and largely unknown, respectively. We here focus on the effects of different adult diets on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). Carbohydrates were the most important adult-derived nutrients affecting reproduction. Adding amino acids, vitamins or minerals to sucrose-based solutions did not yield a reproductive output equivalent to that of fruit-fed females, which showed the highest performance throughout. This suggests that either not yet identified compounds of fruit substantially contribute to reproduction, or that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance. Apart from adult income, realized fecundity depended on egg size and longevity, with the former dominating when dietary quality was low, but the latter when quality was high. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off seems to be affected by female nutrition.

  11. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

  12. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  13. Effects of adult body size on fecundity and the pre-gravid rate of Anopheles gambiae females in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, E O; Takken, W

    1993-10-01

    The influence of adult body size on the pre-gravid state and fecundity was studied in Anopheles gambiae Giles females hand-caught inside houses and virgin females collected as pupae in Tanzania. Blood-fed mosquitoes were kept for 2-3 days before dissection and examination for insemination and ovarian condition. Those females which did not develop eggs were classified as pre-gravid. The number of mature eggs in those mosquitoes which became gravid was counted. Virgin females were fed and kept for egg maturation in the laboratory. Wing-length of females was measured as an index of mosquito size. The overall pre-gravid rate in the resting An.gambiae population was found to be 21% and, of these, 66% had been inseminated. In the virgin females the pre-gravid rate was 92.6%. The mean wing-length of wild females which became gravid was significantly larger than those which remained pre-gravid. There was a positive correlation between fecundity and wing-length. Smaller females tended to require two or three bloodmeals to facilitate completion of the first gonotrophic cycle. The critical size permitting oviposition from the first blood-meal was a wing-length of 3 mm. PMID:8268486

  14. A Macular Hole in a Female Adult with Bilateral Coats Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzheng Chen; Feng Wen; Libing Jiang; Lezheng Wu

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of a macular hole in a female adult with bilateral Coats disease.Methods:The fundus photograph, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were performed in two eyes, and observed theirs characters.Results:Fundus photograph showed massive yellowish-white exudation in the temporal midperiphery of both eyes, but the degree was slighter in the right eye. There was 1/3 DD macular hole in left eye. FFA revealed general dilatation of capillaries, multiple aneurysms, and tortuous and closure of vessels in superotemporal midperiphery in both eyes, but the degree was slighter in the right eye. There was a one-third DD round transmitted fluorescence according the macula hole. ICGA revealed that hyperfluorescence of aneurysms in superotemporal midperiphery, the images of aneurysms were more clearly than in FFA. There was a 2/3 DD hypoflurescence of macula in the late phase of angiography.Conclusions: FFA and ICGA have respective advantage in revealing vascular abnormalities of Coats disease. Maybe there was some relationship between the abnormalities of retinal vascular and hypoperfusion of choroidial vascular in macula in this case.

  15. Comparative microarray analyses of adult female midgut tissues from feeding Rhipicephalus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Willem A; Stutzer, Christian; Olivier, Nicholas A; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, has a debilitating effect on the livestock industry worldwide, owing to its being a vector of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. In South Africa, co-infestation with R. microplus and R. decoloratus, a common vector species on local livestock, occurs widely in the northern and eastern parts of the country. An alternative to chemical control methods is sought in the form of a tick vaccine to control these tick species. However, sequence information and transcriptional data for R. decoloratus is currently lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying genes that are shared between midgut tissues of feeding adult female R. microplus and R. decoloratus ticks. In this regard, a custom oligonucleotide microarray comprising of 13,477 R. microplus sequences was used for transcriptional profiling and 2476 genes were found to be shared between these Rhipicephalus species. In addition, 136 transcripts were found to be more abundantly expressed in R. decoloratus and 1084 in R. microplus. Chi-square analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are significantly overrepresented in R. microplus and R. decoloratus. This study is the first transcriptional profiling of R. decoloratus and is an additional resource that can be evaluated further in future studies for possible tick control. PMID:25448423

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  17. Concordance between measured and estimated appendicular muscle mass in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekamwasam, S; Nanayakkara, J

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of a selected formula used to estimate the appendicular muscle mass (AMM) which is linked with many clinical outcomes. A group of community-dwelling adult women (n=80) had their AMM measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The same was estimated using a formula already published {Skeletal muscle mass = (0.244 × BW in kg) + (7.80 × Ht in meters) + (6.6 × Sex) - (0.098 × Age) + race - 3.3} (sex=0 for female and 1 for male, race =-1.2 for Asian, 1.4 for African American and 0 for White and Hispanic).The two datasets were compared for accuracy and precision. Mean AMM measured by DXA and estimated by the formula were very close (14.8 and 14.5 kg) and the difference ranged from -1.2 to 3.6 kg. Correlation between the two datasets was high (r=0.92) and the Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable measurement agreement between the two methods. Results were independent of age and BMI. The formula used in this analysis gave an accurate estimation of the absolute AMM in women included in this study. PMID:26520864

  18. Round and Round and Round We Go: Behavior of Adult Female Mice on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, April E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011) emphasized the importance of long duration rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at Ames Research Center. Here we present a video-based behavioral analysis of ten C57BL6 female adult mice exposed to a total of 37 days in space compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight and Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including feeding, drinking, exploratory behavior, grooming, and social interactions. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice. Spontaneous, organized circling or race-tracking behavior emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. I will summarize qualitative observations and quantitative comparisons of mice in microgravity and 1g conditions. Behavioral phenotyping revealed important insights into the overall health and adaptation of mice to the space environment, and identified unique behaviors that can guide future habitat development and research on rodents in space.

  19. Adenoviruses Expressing PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA Induces the Transdifferentiation of Porcine Neonatal Pancreas Cell Clusters and Adult Pig Pancreatic Cells into Beta-Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hye You

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA limitation in the number of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells is a special feature of diabetes. The identification of alternative sources for the induction of insulin-producing surrogate beta-cells is a matter of profound importance. PDX-1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA overexpression have been shown to influence the differentiation and proliferation of pancreatic stem cells. However, few studies have been conducted using adult animal pancreatic stem cells.MethodsAdult pig pancreatic cells were prepared from the non-endocrine fraction of adult pig pancreata. Porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters (NPCCs were prepared from neonatal pigs aged 1-2 days. The dispersed pancreatic cells were infected with PDX-1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA adenoviruses. After infection, these cells were transplanted under the kidney capsules of normoglycemic nude mice.ResultsThe adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA induced insulin gene expression in NPCCs, but not in adult pig pancreatic cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the number of insulin-positive cells in NPCCs and adult pig pancreatic cells was approximately 2.6- and 1.1-fold greater than those in the green fluorescent protein control group, respectively. At four weeks after transplantation, the relative volume of insulin-positive cells in the grafts increased in the NPCCs, but not in the adult porcine pancreatic cells.ConclusionThese data indicate that PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA facilitate the beta-cell differentiation of NPCCs, but not adult pig pancreatic cells. Therefore PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA-induced NPCCs can be considered good sources for the induction of pancreatic beta-cells, and may also have some utility in the treatment of diabetes.

  20. Breeding sex ratios in adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea may compensate for female-biased hatchling sex ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Stewart

    Full Text Available For vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination, primary (or hatchling sex ratios are often skewed, an issue of particular relevance to concerns over effects of climate change on populations. However, the ratio of breeding males to females, or the operational sex ratio (OSR, is important to understand because it has consequences for population demographics and determines the capacity of a species to persist. The OSR also affects mating behaviors and mate choice, depending on the more abundant sex. For sea turtles, hatchling and juvenile sex ratios are generally female-biased, and with warming nesting beach temperatures, there is concern that populations may become feminized. Our purpose was to evaluate the breeding sex ratio for leatherback turtles at a nesting beach in St. Croix, USVI. In 2010, we sampled nesting females and later sampled their hatchlings as they emerged from nests. Total genomic DNA was extracted and all individuals were genotyped using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We genotyped 662 hatchlings from 58 females, matching 55 females conclusively to their nests. Of the 55, 42 females mated with one male each, 9 mated with 2 males each and 4 mated with at least 3 males each, for a multiple paternity rate of 23.6%. Using GERUD1.0, we reconstructed parental genotypes, identifying 47 different males and 46 females for an estimated breeding sex ratio of 1.02 males for every female. Thus we demonstrate that there are as many actively breeding males as females in this population. Concerns about female-biased adult sex ratios may be premature, and mate choice or competition may play more of a role in sea turtle reproduction than previously thought. We recommend monitoring breeding sex ratios in the future to allow the integration of this demographic parameter in population models.

  1. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPIAM and female RPIAF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  2. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  3. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  4. A study on domestic violence against adult and adolescent females in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Madhutandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, domestic violence against females is common across culture, religion, class and ethnicity. There are various reasons for domestic violence and it might have serious health outcomes. Objectives: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, characteristics, reasons and the socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence, if any, and to find out the perceptions of the females to cope with the act of violence and to overcome the situation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken by interviewing 141 adult and adolescent females residing in a village of West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance (Chi-square test. Results: Out of 141 respondents, 33 (23.4% adult and adolescent females in this village were exposed to domestic violence in the past year. Among the demographic characteristics, statistically significant maximum prevalence was observed among 30-39 years age group, illiterate and unmarried females. For most of the females who were exposed to domestic violence, their husbands acted as the perpetrators (72.73% and they reported slapping as the specific act of physical assault (72.73%. Majority of the respondents reported that opportunity of education (31.9%, being economically productive (31.9% and better family income (23.4% would help them to overcome the situation. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for justified female empowerment and this calls for multidisciplinary approach to develop public health measures, which would most effectively address the problem of domestic violence.

  5. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  6. The Perinatal Effects of Lithium Carbonate on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal in Adult Female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim hosseini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Lithium is the metal used in bipolar disorder treatment.  As for the prevalence of the disorder infertility (childbearing age and the use of lithium, this study aimed at studying the effects of drugs on histological changes, and the ovarian function in the first generation of adult female offspring was performed. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 40 pregnant mice were divided into 5 groups of 8, including a control group. The control and the experimental groups consumed three dosages of 60, 120, and 180 mg/kg lithium carbonate for 21 days. At the end of the sixth week postpartum, 10 mice were randomly selected from the offspring in each group and were then phlebotomized in order to measure the estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH hormones. Their ovaries were removed, and after preparing and staining the tissue sections, the types of follicles were counted. The results were analyzed using SPSS-18 software and ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Finally, the significant difference of data P  0/05 was considered. Results: The results showed that lithium caused a significant increase in the number of atresia follicles and a reduction in primordial, primary, and secondary follicles, graph and corpus luteum, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH hormones in the first generation offspring at P≤ 0/05. Conclusion: Using lithium during pregnancy led to an increase in the atresia follicle and a decrease in other follicles in the first generation offspring; moreover, the sex hormone levels also decreased probably due to the reduction in the follicle and corpus luteum.

  7. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  8. Phthalate concentrations in personal care products and the cumulative exposure to female adults and infants in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiaqin; Wang, Min; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yaobin; He, Yuping; Yang, Jielin; Gao, Xi; Li, Shuguang; Ding, Zhuoping; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PE) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry, and have been detected in personal care products (PCP). Recent findings of human reports demonstrated endocrine-disrupting action associated with phthalate exposures. The aims of this study were to (1) measure levels of 11 PE in 198 PCP collected from retail markets in Shanghai and (2) assess daily dermal exposure in adult females and infants. The health risk of cumulative exposure to eight PE on reproductive system function derived from dermal PCP use was further assessed by utilizing the hazard index (HI) approach. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was the most frequently detected compound (29.8%), followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) (6.6%). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of daily exposure to DEP, bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), DiBP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female adults were 0.018, 0.012, 0.002, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, respectively. The GM daily exposure levels to PE in infants and adult females were similar except for DEHP, which was higher in infants. DEP exposure was highest in both subpopulations at either GM or maximal level. All HI of 8 PE were far less than 1, ranging from 0.0002 to 0.005, indicating no cumulative reproductive risks to these populations. DBP, DMEP, and DEHP were three major contributors to the cumulative HI. In summary, the level of phthalate in PCP from Shanghai retail markets posed no apparent cumulative risk to adult females and infants in China. PMID:25734628

  9. Impact of female adult eating disorder inpatients’ attitudes to compulsive exercise on outcome at discharge and follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Marit; Rø, Øyvind; Romild, Ulla; Bjørnelv, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The link between compulsive exercise and eating disorders is well known, but research with clinical samples has been limited. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in attitudes towards compulsive exercise and its impact on outcome at follow-up in female adult hospitalised patients with eating disorders. Methods The sample consisted of 78 patients: Diagnostic distribution: anorexia nervosa 59 % (n = 46), approximately 22 % (n = 16) in bulimia nervosa, and Eating Disord...

  10. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt Robert G; Bradshaw Corey JA; Wheatley Kathryn E; Davis Lloyd S; Hindell Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demandi...

  11. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice. PMID:26524146

  12. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  13. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    L.C.M. Barboza Jr.; K. Lezirovitz; Zanatta, D.B.; B.E. Strauss; Mingroni-Netto, R.C.; J. Oiticica; Haddad, L.A.; Bento, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells) of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs) are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g) were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After ...

  14. Elevation of dopamine level reduces host-seeking activity in the adult female mosquito Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumitsu Yuki; Irie Keiichi; Satho Tomomitsu; Aonuma Hitoshi; Dieng Hamady; Ahmad Abu; Nakashima Yukihiko; Mishima Kenichi; Kashige Nobuhiro; Miake Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquito-borne viruses are transmitted to human hosts via blood-feeding behavior of female mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes seek a host to take blood meals (host-seeking behavior). In order to prevent virus infections, it is important to understand how they modulate host-seeking behavior. Dopamine (DA) in the central nervous system acts as a neuromediator that regulates a variety of behaviors in insects. In female mosquitoes, host-seeking behavior increases when DA levels in ...

  15. How women play mobile games: Studying the consumer culture of mobile games among young adult females

    OpenAIRE

    Liimatainen, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Female players have interested researchers and industry professionals ever since the video games market started notably growing again after the mid-80s. Numerous studies motivated by the desire to grow the female demographic of games have studied female preferences and obstacles of adoption i.a. Since then, the video games market has developed significantly and continues growing with an increasing speed. A significant part of this growth is due to the advancements in mobile games that have ex...

  16. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Balantidium coli cysts in pigs reared semi-intensively in Zuru, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatswako, S; Faleke, O O; Gulumbe, M L; Daneji, A I

    2007-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Balantidium coli cysts in fecal samples from semi-intensively managed pigs in Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria between November 2005 and July, 2006. A total of 632 households with human population of 5905 were identified in seven pig- rearing locations in the study area while 105 (16.6%) of these households with human population of 1105 (18.7%) reared a total number of 3895 pigs. Physical randomization was used to select 50% representative samples of pig-rearing households and pigs for this study. Out of the 402 pigs from 55 households, 207 (51.5%) pigs were positive for Balantidium coli cysts, 56 (13.9%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts while mixed infection was observed in 29 (7.2%). There is significance difference in the distribution of the two parasites in the pigs surveyed (p Balantidium coli cysts and 17(58.6%) mix infection. Human fecal samples collected from 53 individuals revealed 3 (5.7%) positive cases of Cryptosporidium oocysts all in young ones while a positive case of Balantidium coli cyst infection was found in an adult female. Water and soil samples from two areas were also found to contain both organisms. The semi-intensive system of pig rearing which allowed pigs to scavenge and defecate about, defective personal and environmental hygiene couple with the usage of untreated pig feaces as manure on vegetable farms in the study area can enhance the spread of these zoonotic diseases in human population. PMID:19090165

  17. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  18. Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude

    In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.

  19. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harcourt Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol® to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds. In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid, stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures. We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other

  20. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  1. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  2. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  3. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkie Spodek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The first-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae are described and illustrated. This species is compared with K. vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region.

  4. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  5. Transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype in embryo-transferred intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Garg, Meena; Oak, Shilpa; Rogers, Lisa M; Pan, Gerald; Sangiorgi, Frank; Lee, Paul W N; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2007-05-01

    To determine mechanisms underlying the transgenerational presence of metabolic perturbations in the intrauterine growth-restricted second-generation adult females (F2 IUGR) despite normalizing the in utero metabolic environment, we examined in vivo glucose kinetics and in vitro skeletal muscle postinsulin receptor signaling after embryo transfer of first generation (F1 IUGR) to control maternal environment. Female F2 rats, procreated by F1 pre- and postnatally nutrient- and growth-restricted (IUGR) mothers but embryo transferred to gestate in control mothers, were compared with similarly gestating age- and sex-matched control (CON) F2 progeny. Although there were no differences in birth weight or postnatal growth patterns, the F2 IUGR had increased hepatic weight, fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and unsuppressed hepatic glucose production, with no change in glucose futile cycling or clearance, compared with F2 CON. These hormonal and metabolic aberrations were associated with increased skeletal muscle total GLUT4 and pAkt concentrations but decreased plasma membrane-associated GLUT4, total pPKCzeta, and PKCzeta enzyme activity, with no change in total SHP2 and PTP1B concentrations in IUGR F2 compared with F2 CON. We conclude that transgenerational presence of aberrant glucose/insulin metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling of the adult F2 IUGR female offspring is independent of the immediate intrauterine environment, supporting nutritionally induced heritable mechanisms contributing to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Two new species of Kermes (Homoptera: Coccinea: Kermesidae), with a dey to the young adult females of known species of Kermes from China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yongjie; Shi, Yuliang

    2010-01-01

    Two new species of Kermesidae, Kermes orientalis Liu and Shi and K. flavus Liu, are designated. Morphological characters of post-reproductive and teneral young adult females, as well as the first instars (crawlers) are described and illustrated. A key to the young adult females of the genus from China is given. Type materials are deposited in the Insect Collection, Section of Entomology, Department of Entomology, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong; Insect Collection, Institute of zool...

  7. Size-sex variation in survival rates and abundance of pig frogs, Rana grylio, in northern Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K.V.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Hines, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1991-1993, we conducted capture-recapture studies on pig frogs, Rana grylio, in seven study locations in northcentral Florida. Resulting data were used to test hypotheses about variation in survival probability over different size-sex classes of pig frogs. We developed multistate capture-recapture models for the resulting data and used them to estimate survival rates and frog abundance. Tests provided strong evidence of survival differences among size-sex classes, with adult females showing the highest survival probabilities. Adult males and juvenile frogs had lower survival rates that were similar to each other. Adult females were more abundant than adult males in most locations at most sampling occasions. We recommended probabilistic capture-recapture models in general, and multistate models in particular, for robust estimation of demographic parameters in amphibian populations.

  8. Attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the Fran(c)ois langur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hai ZHOU; Bang LUO; Cheng-Ming HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Infanticide by males is a common phenomenon in mammals,especially primates,as lactation lasts much longer than gestation in many species.Usually,infanticidal episodes occur soon after group takeovers,and are traditionally considered a male reproductive strategy (i.e.,support the sexual selection hypothesis,Hrdy,1974).To verify the validity of this conception,we observed one group of Fran(c)ois' langurs in the Nonggang Nature Reserve,China,between August 2003 and July 2004.During the study period,a Fran(c)ois' langur female with the youngest infant in the group was attacked three times by immigrating males,and later disappeared by the third day after the final attack.We suggest that these attacks on the female-infant dyad represent infanticide attempts by males,and may be the cause of the adult female and her infant's disappearance.Presumably,that female dispersed with her infant to avoid infanticide and was not killed.Though these observations do not completely verify the sexual selection hypothesis,they are not inconsistent with it.

  9. Investigating Potential Effects of the Contraceptive Implanon on the Behavior of Free-Ranging Adult Female Barbary Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijer, Amanda M; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of hormonal contraception in captive, free-ranging, and wild mammal populations has increased, but the effects on these nonhuman animals' behavior and the associated welfare impacts remain poorly understood. This study of free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Trentham Monkey Forest compared females implanted with the progestin-only contraceptive Implanon to those not receiving contraception. Females with contraceptive implants had higher rates of self-scratching and spent more time self-grooming (2 behavioral indexes of anxiety) than those without implants. They also directed more aggression at others, spent more time receiving grooming and traveling, and spent less time giving grooming and resting. No significant differences between the 2 groups of females were seen for time spent foraging. These results suggest that Implanon had a number of effects on Barbary macaques, although these need to be considered in light of the significant benefits afforded by the use of this contraceptive. The findings of this study provide important information to those evaluating the relative welfare costs and benefits of alternative methods of population control in this and other species. PMID:26466916

  10. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. PMID:24482055

  11. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  12. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  13. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  14. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use.

  15. All about FAX: a Female Adult voXel phantom for Monte Carlo calculation in radiation protection dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Loureiro, E C M; Lima, V J M; Lima, F R A; Hoff, G

    2004-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a task group on dose calculations, which, among other objectives, should replace the currently used mathematical MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real persons by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to the mathematical MIRD phantoms, voxel phantoms are true to the natural representations of a human body. Connected to a radiation transport code, voxel phantoms serve as virtual humans for which equivalent dose to organs and tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation can be calculated. The principal database for the construction of the FAX (Female Adult voXel) phantom consisted of 151 CT images recorded from scanning of trunk and head of a female patient, whose body weight and height were close to the corresponding data recommended by the ICRP in Publication 89. All 22 organs and tissues at risk, except for the red bone marrow and the osteogenic cells on the endosteal surface of bone ('bone surface'), have been segmented manually with a technique recently developed at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the UFPE in Recife, Brazil. After segmentation the volumes of the organs and tissues have been adjusted to agree with the organ and tissue masses recommended by ICRP for the Reference Adult Female in Publication 89. Comparisons have been made with the organ and tissue masses of the mathematical EVA phantom, as well as with the corresponding data for other female voxel phantoms. The three-dimensional matrix of the segmented images has eventually been connected to the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for exposures to photons, and compared to data determined for the mathematical MIRD-type phantoms, as well as for other voxel phantoms.

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  17. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  18. Strongly directional and differential swimming behavior of an adult female white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae) from Guadalupe Island, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Bonfil; Shannon O'Brien

    2015-01-01

    We report on an adult female white shark tracked for 288 days and 7,100 km in the NE Pacific Ocean. The shark, tagged with a real-time satellite tag off Guadalupe Island, Mexico in October 2006, remained around the island for 3.5 months but left in early February 2007 for a ca. 3,900 km westward migration. Heading and swimming speed data showed that: a) the arc-like route followed by this shark during oceanic travel involved strongly directional rapid movement, and b) once the shark arrived t...

  19. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-01-01

    Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

  20. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  1. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on `Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantit...

  2. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  4. A Case Study on the Impacts of Connective Technology on Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning of Female Adult Students Managing Work-Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheetz, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Adults frequently define their lives as "hectic" and "overextended;" yet, many make the decision to return to school and add the role of student into their busy lives. This research study explored and explained the impact of connective technology on self-efficacy and self-regulated learning of female adult students balancing…

  5. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Bullying Experiences on Female Adults as It Relates to Their Perception of Themselves and Their Relationships with Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcalow, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood bullying is a phenomenon that affects many individuals well beyond their childhood. This study looked specifically at female adults, and how the bullying they experienced in their childhood continues to have long-term effects on them in their adult lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term effects that bullying has on…

  6. Postmortem Evaluation of Left Flank Laparoscopic Access in an Adult Female Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pizzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are still few reports of laparoscopy in megavertebrates. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis is the tallest land mammal, and the largest ruminant species. An 18-year-old multiparous female hybrid giraffe, weighing 650 kg, was euthanized for chronic health problems, and left flank laparoscopy was performed less than 30 minutes after death. Safe primary access was achieved under visualisation using an optical bladed trocar (Visiport Plus, Tyco healthcare UK Ltd without prior abdominal insufflation. A left paralumbar fossa approach allowed access to the spleen, rumen, left kidney, and intestines, but did not allow access to the reproductive tract which in nongravid females is intrapelvic in nature.

  7. Morphological and molecular imaging of hematogenously inoculated and disseminated Staphylococcus aureus lesions in domestic juvenile female pigs by PET/CT. The bio-distribution of the radionuclides 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, and 68Ga-citrate in pigs is presented

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen;

    2016-01-01

    . Bacteremia may give rise to bacterial spread to different tissues such as e.g. heart, joints, spleen, bones, and skin/soft tissue. Staphylococcus aureus is a conditional pathogen: it is carried on many humans and animals without symptoms, but it is also able to cause serious diseases like osteomyelitis...... tracers that potentially could improve uncovering of infectious lesions in soft tissues. We chose 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, and 68Ga-citrate as tracers and validated their diagnostic utility in a porcine model. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra...

  8. Androgens and cognitive abilities: Mental rotations skills and handedness in adult females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Caroline P.L.; Johannsen, T.H.; Mortensen, E.L.;

    2006-01-01

    Research on animal and human populations has suggested elevated spatial abilities as well as higher incidence of left-handedness in genetic females exposed to abnormally high androgen levels perinatally. However, findings in humans are inconsistent. We administered the Mental Rotations Test...

  9. Estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray of the adult ovariectomized female cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, Veronique G.J.M.; Meijer, Ellie; Schasfoort, Fabienne C.; Leeuwen, Fred van; Holstege, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological studies in rodent and cat have shown that distinct parts of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (FAG) are important for the estrogen dependent, female reproductive behavior. The present study gives a detailed overview of the estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive (ER-IR) ne

  10. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms. (paper)

  11. Changing Drinking Styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of Male and Female Drinking Among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Torronen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations in which you need to play with different aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23 years) in Denmark...... aspects of social and bodily styles. We approach the positions of heroic drinking and playful drinking among young adults (between 17 and 23) in Denmark and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N=16)....

  12. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days.

  13. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

  14. The Stimulation Effect of Auricular Magnetic Press Pellets on Older Female Adults with Sleep Disturbance Undergoing Polysomnographic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyi Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. To examine the stimulation effect of auricular magnetic press pellet therapy on older female adults with sleep disturbance as determined by polysomnography (PSG. Design. Randomized, single-blind, experimental-controlled, parallel-group. Setting. Community. Participants. Twenty-seven older female adults with sleep disturbance according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI >5 for at least 3 months were recruited. Participants were screened by both the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, as well as polysomnography prior to randomization. Interventions. All eligible participants were randomly allocated into the experimental or control group. Both groups were taped with magnetic press pellet on auricular points for 3 weeks. The experimental group was treated by applying pressure on the magnetic press pellets 3 times per day while no stimulation was applied on the control group. Measurements and Results. Both groups were measured by PSG and PSQI at the beginning of the study and 3 weeks after the study. Both groups showed improvements on PSQI scores compared to the baseline. One-way analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline scores showed that significant improvements of PSG-derived sleep parameters, such as sleep efficiency, were found in the experimental group. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the proportion of sleep stages with the exception of Stage 2. Conclusions. Auricular therapy using magnetic pellets and stimulation by pressing was more effective in improving the sleep quality compared to auricular therapy without any stimulation.

  15. Schistosoma mansoni Egg, Adult Male and Female Comparative Gene Expression Analysis and Identification of Novel Genes by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Letícia; Amaral, Murilo S.; Beckedorff, Felipe; Silva, Lucas F.; Dazzani, Bianca; Oliveira, Katia C.; Almeida, Giulliana T.; Gomes, Monete R.; Pires, David S.; Setubal, João C.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is a public health problem. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread species responsible for schistosomiasis in the Americas, Middle East and Africa. Adult female worms (mated to males) release eggs in the hepatic portal vasculature and are the principal cause of morbidity. Comparative separate transcriptomes of female and male adult worms were previously assessed with using microarrays and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), thus limiting the possibility of finding novel genes. Moreover, the egg transcriptome was analyzed only once with limited bacterially cloned cDNA libraries. Methodology/Principal findings To compare the gene expression of S. mansoni eggs, females, and males, we performed RNA-Seq on these three parasite forms using 454/Roche technology and reconstructed the transcriptome using Trinity de novo assembly. The resulting contigs were mapped to the genome and were cross-referenced with predicted Smp genes and H3K4me3 ChIP-Seq public data. For the first time, we obtained separate, unbiased gene expression profiles for S. mansoni eggs and female and male adult worms, identifying enriched biological processes and specific enriched functions for each of the three parasite forms. Transcripts with no match to predicted genes were analyzed for their protein-coding potential and the presence of an encoded conserved protein domain. A set of 232 novel protein-coding genes with putative functions related to reproduction, metabolism, and cell biogenesis was detected, which contributes to the understanding of parasite biology. Conclusions/Significance Large-scale RNA-Seq analysis using de novo assembly associated with genome-wide information for histone marks in the vicinity of gene models constitutes a new approach to transcriptome analysis that has not yet been explored in schistosomes. Importantly, all data have been consolidated into a UCSC Genome Browser search

  16. Early fasting is long lasting: differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR. During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate.

  17. Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Male and Female Young Adults: 1990 versus 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Laura; Nicodemus, Teresa; Pomante, Michael; Binasiewicz, Megan; Dheer, Rahul; Dugan, Amy; Madaras, Janice; Chambliss, Catherine

    The increase in maternal employment has affected society and children. Indications are that the increased numbers of working mothers had impacted the size of families and the birth intervals within them. In addition, as children experience life with a working mother, personal constructs of adult roles and attitudes towards maternal employment can…

  18. Exploring the Experiences of Female Emerging Adult Mentors: Building a Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Julianne; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Sollie, Donna L.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    While mentoring programs are prevalent, limited research focused on the mentors' experiences exist, particularly during critical periods of development. Using a qualitative, grounded theory approach, this study explores the elements of the mentoring experience for a cohort of late adolescent/emerging adult women in a long-term program. Outcomes…

  19. Resiliency Determinants and Resiliency Processes among Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogar, Christine B.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard,…

  20. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  1. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  2. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Duarte-Guterman

    Full Text Available Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol's effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17β-estradiol (10 μg, G1 (0.1, 5, 10 μg, G15 (40 μg, G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO. After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 μg decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus.

  3. Description of female nymphal instars and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) based on specimens from Crete and mainland Greece, with a discussion on geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Francesco; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2014-10-22

    The first-instar nymph, second- and third-instar female nymphs and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated; micrographs of morphological details are also provided. The species was collected on the island of Crete (Greece) and on mainland Greece, new localities for this species, and are compared with Israeli specimens from where it was originally described.

  4. Aspergillus in a cervico-vaginal smear of an adult postmenopausal female: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several case reports documenting opportunistic fungal infection in the female genital tract, with Aspergillus spp being a rarely reported causative organism. We hereby report a case of Aspergillus infection in a 48 year-old, postmenopausal female with carcinoma of the cervix. She presented with features of pelvic inflammatory disease, and an initial routine cervico-vaginal smear revealed severe inflammation along with fungal bodies. The features were consistent with the presence of Aspergillus spp, while the background epithelial cells were negative for intraepithelial malignancy. She was offered therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. A repeat Papanicolaou smear after two weeks was negative for intraepithelial organisms, but showed the evidence of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, with biopsy confirming squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Does evidence support physiotherapy management of adult female chronic pelvic pain? A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loving, Sys; Nordling, Jørgen; Jaszczak, Poul;

    2012-01-01

    dysfunction is frequently cited as a possible aetiology. Physiotherapy is therefore recommended as one treatment modality. The aim of this systematic review was to source and critically evaluate the evidence for an effect of physiotherapy on pain, physical activity and quality of life in the treatment...... of female CPP. Methods Electronic databases, conference proceedings, text books and clinical guidelines were searched for quantitative, observational, and prospective clinical intervention studies of female chronic pelvic pain where physiotherapy was a sole or significant component of the intervention......, interventions, outcome measures and times of follow-up, prevented meta-analysis. Narrative synthesis of the results, based on effect estimates and clinically relevant pain improvement, disclosed some evidence to support an effect of multidisciplinary intervention and Mensendieck somatocognitive therapy...

  6. Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

  7. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure in rats: Evidence for cognitive deficits in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Samantha M; Fountain, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats would impair the cognitive capacity of a subsequent generation. Male and female rats in the parental F0 generation were given twice-daily i.p. injections of either 1.0mg/kg nicotine or an equivalent volume of saline for 35days during adolescence on postnatal days 25-59 (P25-59). After reaching adulthood, male and female nicotine-exposed rats were paired for breeding as were male and female saline control rats. Only female offspring were used in this experiment. Half of the offspring of F0 nicotine-exposed breeders and half of the offspring of F0 saline control rats received twice-daily i.p. injections of 1.0mg/kg nicotine during adolescence on P25-59. The remainder of the rats received twice-daily saline injections for the same period. To evaluate transgenerational effects of nicotine exposure on complex cognitive learning abilities, F1 generation rats were trained to perform a highly structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Beginning on P95, rats in the F1 generation were given either 4days of massed training (20patterns/day) followed by spaced training (10 patterns/day) or only spaced training. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure were observed as greater difficulty in learning a "violation element" of the pattern, which indicated that rats were impaired in the ability to encode and remember multiple sequential elements as compound or configural cues. The results indicated that for rats that received massed training, F1 generation rats with adolescent nicotine exposure whose F0 generation parents also experienced adolescent nicotine exposure showed poorer learning of the violation element than rats that experienced adolescent nicotine exposure only in the F1 generation. Thus, adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats produced a cognitive impairment in the next generation.

  8. Evaluation of Acne Quality of Life and Clinical Severity in Acne Female Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Kokandi

    2010-01-01

    Acne is a common disease especially among teenagers. It has a considerable psychological impact on affected individuals. The aim of this paper was to assess if the effect of acne on acne-related quality of life is correlated to acne clinical severity. 112 university female students attending the university medical clinics with acne complaints were examined. Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) was used to assess acne-related quality of life, and global acne grading system (GAGS) was used to a...

  9. Equine Assisted Therapy and Changes in Gait for a Young Adult Female with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine J. Coffey; Adam C. Knight; Benjamin Wax

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of equine assisted therapy on selected gait parameters in a person with Down syndrome. One female participant with Down syndrome completed two therapeutic horseback riding programs, each consisting of six riding sessions. Specific gait characteristics were analyzed with a trend analysis of the data by examining the means of the different variables. The trend analysis revealed a difference in stride length as well as hip and knee angle. Thes...

  10. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Mair

    Full Text Available Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14 and middle-aged (n = 14 females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1 and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm. Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool.

  11. The Influence of ADHD and Adolescent Romantic Relationships on Early Adult Psychopathology in Females

    OpenAIRE

    Stier, Andrea Lynne

    2009-01-01

    The Influence of ADHD and Adolescent Romantic Relationships on Early Adult Psychopathology in FemalesbyAndrea Lynne Stier Doctor of Philosophy in PsychologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Stephen P. Hinshaw, Chair Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a significantly impairing disorder of childhood that affects functioning across numerous domains, including academic, behavioral, and emotional functioning, through adolescence and into adulthood (Barkley, Murphy, & Fisc...

  12. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using......, Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral......-measurements in three pigs. This relationship was approximately linear (R(2) = 0.45, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive spectrophotometric oximetry is sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation in pigs and correlated with intravitreal pO2-measurements and with femoral artery pO2. Pigs present a higher intra...

  13. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  14. 大麦虫成虫活体的雌雄鉴别%Identification of Alive Female and Male Adult of Zophobas morio ( Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜嫄; 张翌楠; 马玲; 王慧; 胡礼禹; 韩杰

    2012-01-01

    Zophobas mono (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), introduced in China in recent years, is a multi-purpose insect, and can be manually fed in a large number of individual, with high nutritional value, as a high-protein fodder, in particular, it can be used as an alternative to breeding a variety of natural enemies of insect host. In the artificial propagation, the male and female are needed to be identified for sexual pairing to ensure fecundity. To identify female and male adults of Z. morio, their morphological characteristics were studied through the careful observation in this paper. The results showed there was sexual dimorphism of external morphology of Z. morio adults. The frons of the female adult was flat while that of male adult was sunken. Additionally, the length, width and length-width ratio of the third antennal segment and anal plate were significant different between the female and male adults. Above morphological characteristics can be used to efficiently distinguish sex of Z. morio adults without damage, and the knowledge would be useful in artificial propagation of Z. morio.

  15. Biodistribution of the radionuclides (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate in domestic juvenile female pigs and morphological and molecular imaging of the tracers in hematogenously disseminated Staphylococcus aureus lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia Maria Tullia; Nielsen, Ole L; Alstrup, Aage Ko;

    2016-01-01

    -FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve uncovering of infectious lesions in soft tissues. We chose (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate as tracers and besides presenting their bio-distribution we validated their diagnostic utility in pigs...... with experimental bacterial infection. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of S. aureus using a sequential scanning protocol with (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195 and (68)Ga......-citrate. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs consisting of gross pathology, histopathology and microbial examination. The pigs primarily developed lesions in lungs and neck muscles. (18)F-FDG had higher infection to background ratios and accumulated in most infectious foci caused by S. aureus, while (11)C-methionine...

  16. Dose conversion coefficients for Chinese reference adult male and female voxel phantoms from idealized neutron exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Huan; Qiu, Rui; Yang, Yue; Pan, Yu-Xi; Liu, Li-Ye

    2015-01-01

    A new set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese reference adult voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF are presented for six idealized external neutron exposures from 10-8 MeV to 20 MeV. The voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF were adjusted from the previous phantoms CNMAN and CNWM respectively, and the masses of individual organs have been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. The calculation of organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were performed with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. The resulting dose conversion coefficients were compared with those published in ICRP Publication 116, which represents the reference Caucasian. The organ-absorbed dose conversion coefficients of most organs are in good agreement with the results in ICRP Publication 116, however, obvious discrepancies are observed for some organs and certain geometries. For neutrons with energies above 2 MeV, the effective dose conversion coefficients of Chinese reference adult are almost identical to those of ICRP Publicatio...

  17. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  18. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  19. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women. PMID:25778405

  20. Strongly directional and differential swimming behavior of an adult female white shark, Carcharodon carcharias (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae from Guadalupe Island, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Bonfil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an adult female white shark tracked for 288 days and 7,100 km in the NE Pacific Ocean. The shark, tagged with a real-time satellite tag off Guadalupe Island, Mexico in October 2006, remained around the island for 3.5 months but left in early February 2007 for a ca. 3,900 km westward migration. Heading and swimming speed data showed that: a the arc-like route followed by this shark during oceanic travel involved strongly directional rapid movement, and b once the shark arrived to a specific (ca. 680 km wide area located 790 km north-northeast of the Hawaiian Islands, it switched into a distinct roaming behavior. The shark remained in this roaming area from late March to at least late July 2007. We show that real-time satellite tags can provide unique and valuable information about the migratory behavior of white sharks.

  1. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  2. A RARE CASE OF PERSISTENT TRIGEMINAL ARTERY IN AN ADULT FEMALE WITH PARA POSTERIOR COMMUNICATING ARTERY ANEURYSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banavathu Daya Bharath Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anastomosis found in the adulthood between the carotid and vertebro - basilar systems, apart from the posterior communicating artery, are extremely infrequent and are due to the persistence of vessels that joined both systems during the fetal period. This carotid - vertebrobasilar anastomosis are the trigeminal, otic, and hypoglossal and proatlantal arteries. P ersistent trigeminal artery is the commonest of the above mentioned four arteries. The reported incidence is about 0.2%. Patients may be asymptomatic or present symptoms due to low flow of posterior circulation or carotid microembolization from posterior circulation. PTA can cause trigemina l neuralgia. We report in this paper a case of a persistant trigeminal artery found in an adult female with a para p com aneurysm who had persistent trigeminal artery which was seen in C T angiogram .

  3. The motivational effects of social contagion on exercise participation in young female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarapicchia T, M F; Sabiston, Catherine M; Andersen, Ross E; Garcia Bengoechea, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Young inactive healthy-weight females (n = 42) were randomly assigned to exercise at a self-selected pace on a treadmill beside a confederate who was providing either intrinsic or externally regulated verbal primes. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percentage of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and exercise continuance were recorded. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing mood pre- and postexercise session and postexercise motivational outcomes. The intrinsic motivation group reported higher RPE values after 8 min of exercise, had higher recorded HR measures at all 5 recorded time points, exercised at a higher %HR max, spent more time in MVPA, and were more likely to continue to exercise than participants in the externally regulated motivation group. A time effect was noted for vigor. Based on these findings, exercise motivation can be "contagious" through verbal primes, suggesting that exercising with or around intrinsically motivated individuals may have beneficial outcomes.

  4. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  5. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26020354

  6. One-year assessment of physical activity level in adult Qatari females: a pedometer-based longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Suzan; Van Der Walt, Mercia; Al-Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing health concern and has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. The Arab region includes countries with some of the world’s highest physical inactivity levels, such as Qatar, more specifically the Qatari female population. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the physical activity levels of Qatari national female adults during a 1-year pedometer-based program. Materials and methods A total of 549 Qatari national females aged between 18 years and 64 years were included. Data extracted from “Step into Health” program web database in Qatar were used for analyses. Daily habitual physical activity (daily total step count and aerobic steps) was assessed through the Omron HJ-324U pedometer. Step counts were classified as follows: <5,000 steps/d, sedentary; 5,000–7,499 steps/d, low active; and ≥7,500 steps/d, physically active. Statistical significance was set at P-value ≤0.05. Descriptive statistics were used, and habitual physical activity was calculated through repeated measures analysis of variance to determine the difference across the monitored days. Results Mean age was 37.4±11.7 years, and median body mass index of 28.8 kg/m2 (interquartile range 24.8–33.5). Daily steps for the overall population ranged from 3,505 steps/d to 10,010 steps/d, with a median of 6,008 steps/d. A total of 242 (44.1%) females were sedentary, 178 (32.4%) were low active, and 129 (23.5%) were physically active. The physically active group showed a median of 927 aerobic steps/d (interquartile range 0–4,248). Conclusion Based on the results of this study, Qatari females are not meeting the global recommendations of physical activity. Future research might need to consider barriers to physical activity as well as social, cultural, and environmental factors. PMID:27486343

  7. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, A B; Wall, M M; Choo, T-H J; Larson, N I; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-06-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2) and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; P=0.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=0.036; P=0.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted.

  8. A global research synthesis of HIV and STI biobehavioural risks in female-to-male transgender adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Murchison, Gabriel R

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in HIV infection and sexually transmitted infection (STI) disease burden and risk among transgender people globally; however, the majority of work has been conducted with male-to-female transgender populations. This research synthesis comprehensively reviews HIV and STI research in female-to-male (FTM) transgender adults. A paucity of research exists about HIV and STIs in FTMs. Only 25 peer-reviewed papers (18 quantitative, 7 qualitative) and 11 'grey literature' reports were identified, most in the US or Canada, that include data identifying HIV and STI risks in FTMs (five with fully laboratory-confirmed HIV and/or STIs, and five with partial laboratory confirmation). Little is known about the sexual and drug use risk behaviours contributing to HIV and STIs in FTMs. Future directions are suggested, including the need for routine surveillance and monitoring of HIV and STIs globally by transgender identity, more standardised sexual risk assessment measures, targeted data collection in lower- and middle-income countries, and explicit consideration of the rationale for inclusion/exclusion of FTMs in category-based prevention approaches with MSM and transgender people. Implications for research, policy, programming, and interventions are discussed, including the need to address diverse sexual identities, attractions, and behaviours and engage local FTM communities. PMID:26785800

  9. ADHD-related symptoms among adults in out-patient psychiatry and female prison inmates as compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Edvinsson, Dan; Bingefors, Kerstin; Lindström, Eva; Lewander, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of symptoms consistent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related problems in adults in the general population, out-patient psychiatry (where females are in majority), and female convicts. Method A questionnaire based on the DSM-IV criteria of ADHD, reported childhood symptoms, reading and spelling problems, difficulties and suffering, and general assessment of functioning (GAF) was distributed to samples of the general population, ope...

  10. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on thyrotropin secretion in adult and old female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones have been implicated in the modulation of TSH secretion; however, there are few and controversial data regarding the effect of progesterone (Pg on TSH secretion. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA is a synthetic alpha-hydroxyprogesterone analog that has been extensively employed in therapeutics for its Pg-like actions, but that also has some glucocorticoid and androgen activity. Both hormones have been shown to interfere with TSH secretion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of MPA or Pg administration to ovariectomized (OVX rats on in vivo and in vitro TSH release and pituitary TSH content. The treatment of adult OVX rats with MPA (0.25 mg/100 g body weight, sc, daily for 9 days induced a significant (P<0.05 increase in the pituitary TSH content, which was not observed when the same treatment was used with a 10 times higher MPA dose or with Pg doses similar to those of MPA. Serum TSH was similar for all groups. MPA administered to OVX rats at the lower dose also had a stimulatory effect on the in vitro basal and TRH-induced TSH release. The in vitro basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release was not significantly affected by Pg treatment. Conversely, MPA had no effect on old OVX rats. However, in these old rats, ovariectomy alone significantly reduced (P<0.05 basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release in vitro, as well as pituitary TSH content. The results suggest that in adult, but not in old OVX rats, MPA but not Pg has a stimulatory effect on TSH stores and on the response to TRH in vitro.

  11. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism.

  12. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-09-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116.

  13. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021

  14. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan;

    1999-01-01

    by blood eosinophilia and specific immune responses measured by peripheral blood enzyme-linked immunospot and immunosorbent assays using larval excretory-secretory products and adult body fluid as well as Western blotting with a panel of stage-specific A. suum antigens. Immune detection of a previously...... in the gut....

  15. The Influence of Marijuana and Alcohol Use on Condom Use Behavior: Findings from a Sample of Young Adult Female Bar Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251, young adult, female, bar drinkers. Multi-level modeling was used to assess the li...

  16. Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M D; Cadete-Leite, A; Andrade, J P; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1991-12-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism upon the structure of the central nervous system of adult rats are poorly understood in spite of evidence that the mature brain is vulnerable to this condition. Existing developmental studies show that the morphological changes induced by thyroid hormone deficiency are related to alterations in neurogenesis. We studied the granular layer of the dentate gyrus under different experimental conditions of hypothyroidism, because in rodents the neurogenesis of the granule cells continues during adulthood. The following groups of rats were analysed: 1) control; 2) hypothyroid from day 0 until day 180 (hypothyroid group); 3) hypothyroid until day 30 and henceforth maintained euthyroid (recovery group); and 4) hypothyroid since day 30 (adult hypothyroid group). Groups of 6 male rats and 6 female rats were analysed separately. The volume of the dentate gyrus granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were evaluated, so we were able to estimate the total number of granule cells. Because in the experimental groups the volume of the granular layer and the numerical density of its neurons were reduced, the total number of granule cells was decreased. In the hypothyroid and recovery groups the alterations were identical and more striking than in the adult hypothyroid groups. The total number of granule cells displayed sexual differences in all groups studied except in the hypothyroid groups. The present results support the view that thyroid hormone deficiency interferes with the process of cell acquisition by reducing neuronal proliferation and that it also leads to increased cell death. These events underlie the irreversible morphological changes observed in the brain of hypothyroid rats, either during development or at maturity. The referred structural alterations are probably related to the functional deficits observed in this condition. PMID:1797872

  17. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Robson Brown, K [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  18. Effect of anger and trait forgiveness on cardiovascular risk in young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Batchelor, Wayne B; Fincham, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    High trait anger is linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A potential antidote to the cardiotoxic influence of anger is trait forgiveness (TF), as it has shown associations with improved blood pressure (BP) and cardiovagal tone regulation in cardiac patients. However, it has yet to be determined if anger and forgiveness independently predict cardiovascular parameters. Trait anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2) and TF (Tendency to Forgive Scale) were evaluated in 308 (M = 21.11years ± SD = 2.52) healthy female volunteers allocated to 3 related, yet distinct, studies. Hierarchical multiple regressions tested the incremental contribution of TF after accounting for anger. Study 1 assessed autonomic modulation through beat-to-beat BP and spectral analysis to examine sympathovagal balance and baroreflex functioning. Study 2 used tonometry and pulse wave analysis for aortic hemodynamics. Study 3 assessed 24-hour ambulatory BP and ambulatory arterial stiffness index. Hierarchical models demonstrated that anger was significantly associated with increased sympathovagal tone, increased hemodynamic indices, high ambulatory BPs, and attenuated BP variability and baroreflex. In contrast, TF was associated with more favorable hemodynamic effects (i.e., decreased ventricular work and myocardial oxygen consumption). In conclusion, these results demonstrate divergent cardiovascular effects of anger and forgiveness, such that anger is associated with a more cardiotoxic autonomic and hemodynamic profile, whereas TF is associated with a more cardioprotective profile. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at decreasing anger while increasing forgiveness may be clinically relevant.

  19. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  20. Biodistribution of the radionuclides (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate in domestic juvenile female pigs and morphological and molecular imaging of the tracers in hematogenously disseminated Staphylococcus aureus lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ole L; Alstrup, Aage Ko;

    2016-01-01

    with experimental bacterial infection. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of S. aureus using a sequential scanning protocol with (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195 and (68)Ga...

  1. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eBarth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  2. The Principal Components of Adult Female Insole Shape Align Closely with Two of Its Classic Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred L Bookstein

    Full Text Available The plantar surface of the human foot transmits the weight and dynamic force of the owner's lower limbs to the ground and the reaction forces back to the musculoskeletal system. Its anatomical variation is intensely studied in such fields as sports medicine and orthopedic dysmorphology. Yet, strangely, the shape of the insole that accommodates this surface and elastically buffers these forces is neither an aspect of the conventional anthropometrics of feet nor an informative label on the packet that markets supplementary insoles. In this paper we pursue an earlier suggestion that insole form in vertical view be quantified in terms of the shape of the foot not at the plane of support (the "footprint" but some two millimeters above that level. Using such sections extracted from laser scans of 158 feet of adult women from the University of Zagreb, in conjunction with an appropriate modification of today's standard geometric morphometrics (GMM, we find that the sectioned form can be described by its size together with two meaningful relative warps of shape. The pattern of this shape variation is not novel. It is closely aligned with two of the standard footprint measurements, the Chippaux-Šmiřák arch index and the Clarke arch angle, whose geometrical foci (the former in the ball of the foot, the latter in the arch it apparently combines. Thus a strong contemporary analysis complements but does not supplant the simpler anthropometric analyses of half a century ago, with implications for applied anthropology.

  3. First comparative transcriptomic analysis of wild adult male and female Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B McCarthy

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease with a complex epidemiology and ecology. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is its most severe clinical form as it results in death if not treated. In Latin America VL is caused by the protist parasite Leishmania infantum (syn. chagasi and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sand fly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. However, due to deforestation, migration and urbanisation, among others, VL in Latin America is undergoing an evident geographic expansion as well as dramatic changes in its transmission patterns. In this context, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Insect vector transcriptomic analyses enable the identification of molecules involved in the insect's biology and vector-parasite interaction. Previous studies on laboratory reared Lu. longipalpis have provided a descriptive repertoire of gene expression in the whole insect, midgut, salivary gland and male reproductive organs. Nevertheless, the study of wild specimens would contribute a unique insight into the development of novel bioinsecticides. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais VL location. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the sand flies, submitted to sequence independent amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing. This is the first time an unbiased and comprehensive transcriptomic approach has been used to analyse an infectious disease vector in its natural environment. Transcripts identified in the sand flies showed characteristic profiles which correlated with the environment of origin and with taxa previously identified in these same specimens. Among these, various genes

  4. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood.

  5. Butachlor causes disruption of HPG and HPT axes in adult female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifei; Li, Wei; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Miao; Yuan, Lilai; Wang, Zijian

    2014-09-25

    Butachlor is a chloroacetamide herbicide widely used in Asia, and may enter the aquatic environment through agricultural application. In this study, plasma VTG and hormone levels (E2, 11-KT, T3 and T4) were determined after the female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to butachlor at environmental relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, and 10μg/L) for 40days. The mRNA levels of the HPG axis-related genes (gnrh, erα, vtg, star, lhr, 3β-hsd, cyp11a, cyp17, cyp19a and cyp19b), and the HPT axis-related genes (trα, dio1, dio2, and dio3) were quantified after 20 and 40days exposure to butachlor. For the HPG axis, the plasma 11-KT was increased at exposure concentration of 10μg/L, and VTG was significantly decreased at 1μg/L. Functional genes like gnrh and cyp19b in the brains, star, lhr, cyp11a, 3β-hsd, and cyp19a in the ovaries, and erα and vtg in livers were up-regulated. For the HPT axis, the results showed that plasma T4 levels were significantly increased, the gene expression of dio1 was up-regulated, dio2 showed no significant variation, and dio3 was down-regulated in the livers. These results indicated that butachlor may promote the accumulation of T4 in fish through inactive deiodinase type 3. The transcription of HPG axis-related genes could serve as an auto-regulation of hormone levels after exposure to butachlor. Furthermore, the activation of gnrh may play an important role as a feed-back mechanism in the regulation of hormone levels and crosstalk of endocrine axes.

  6. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the posture modification of Adult Male (AM) and Adult Female (AF) reference phantoms of ICRP 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Alves, M. C.; Souza, D. N.; Carvalho, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to modify the standing posture of the anthropomorphic reference phantoms of ICRP publication 110, AM (Adult Male) and AF (Adult Female), to the sitting posture. The change of posture was performed using the Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the phantoms and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. Scion Image software was used to reconstruct and smooth the knee and hip contours of the phantoms in a sitting posture. For 3D visualization of phantoms, the VolView software was used. In the change of postures, the organ and tissue masses were preserved. The MCNPX was used to calculate the equivalent and effective dose conversion coefficients (CCs) per fluence for photons for six irradiation geometries suggested by ICRP publication 110 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO) and energy range 0.010-10 MeV. The results were compared between the standing and sitting postures, for both sexes, in order to evaluate the differences of scattering and absorption of radiation for different postures. Significant differences in the CCs for equivalent dose were observed in the gonads, colon, prostate, urinary bladder and uterus, which are present in the pelvic region, and in organs distributed throughout the body, such as the lymphatic nodes, muscle, skeleton and skin, for the phantoms of both sexes. CCs for effective dose showed significant differences of up to 16% in the AP irradiation geometry, 27% in the PA irradiation geometry and 13% in the ROT irradiation geometry. These results demonstrate the importance of using phantoms in different postures in order to obtain more precise conversion coefficients for a given exposure scenario.

  7. Characterization of smallholder pig breeding practices within a rural commune of North Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Nahoko; Van Bui, Quang; Nguyen, Nga Thi Duong; Lapar, Lucy; Marshall, Karen

    2015-08-01

    This case study focused on a pig production system in a rural area of North Central Vietnam, with a focus on describing household pig breeding practices and estimating herd demographic parameters, particularly on reproduction. One hundred five households undertaking small-scale piglet production were surveyed, with information gathered on 3268 individual pigs. Pig keeping contributed variably to the overall household livelihood portfolio, with female household members as the main decision makers, contributors to labor, and beneficiaries of income from the pig enterprise. All households kept between one and four young or adult sows, with 69% of these sows of a local breed type (predominantly Mong Cai), 28% a cross between a local sow and an exotic sow (predominantly Large White), and the remainder (3%) as exotic sows. Eighty-eight percent of the piglets produced were cross-bred, while 12% were local breed. No adult males were kept by the surveyed households, reflecting the common use of artificial insemination for mating purposes. The most common breeding system practiced-the keeping of Mong Cai females and production of cross-bred piglets-capitalizes on the small body size and high fecundity of the sows and the fast growth rate and leanness of the cross-bred piglets. The survey tool used, which was based on farmer recall of events over the preceding 12-month period, appeared to give reasonable results although some recall bias could be detected. This case study will serve as an entry point to planned broader scale characterization and development of pig breeding systems in North Central Vietnam. PMID:25947237

  8. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  9. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to iden...

  10. The long term outcome of feminizing genital surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: anatomical, functional and cosmetic outcomes, psychosexual development, and satisfaction in adult female patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schreuders-Bais, C.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are only a few reports analyzing the long term outcome of feminizing surgery in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Such analysis is crucial to evaluate the treatment and to make necessary adjustments. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the adult outcome after feminizing

  11. Cataracts, radiculomegaly, septal heart defects and hearing loss in two unrelated adult females with normal intelligence and similar facial appearance : Confirmation of a syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalfs, CM; Oosterwijk, JC; VanSchooneveld, MJ; Begeman, CJ; Wabeke, KB; Hennekam, RCM

    1996-01-01

    Two unrelated, adult females with normal intelligence are described. They show a similar clinical picture with a long and narrow face, congenital cataract, microphthalmia, microcornea, a high nasal bridge, a short nose, a broad nasal tip, a long philtrum, bilateral hearing loss, persistent primary t

  12. Extensive juvenile "babysitting" facilitates later adult maternal responsiveness, decreases anxiety, and increases dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase-2 expression in female laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kaitlyn M; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy and parturition can dramatically affect female neurobiology and behavior. This is especially true for laboratory-reared rodents, in part, because such rearing prevents a host of developmental experiences that females might undergo in nature, including juvenile alloparenting. We examined the effect of chronic exposure to pups during post-weaning juvenile life (days 22-36) on adult maternal responsiveness, anxiety-related behaviors, and dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) levels in nulliparous rats. Adult females with juvenile alloparental experience showed significantly faster sensitized maternal responsiveness, less anxiety, and more dorsal raphe TPH2. Juvenile alloparenting did not affect females' later social novelty and preference behaviors toward adults, suggesting their increased interest in pups did not extend to all social partners. In a second experiment, suckling a pregnant dam (achieved by postpartum estrus reinsemination), interacting with her after standard laboratory weaning age, and a 3-day exposure to younger siblings also reduced juvenile females' later anxiety but did not affect maternal responsiveness or TPH2. Thus, extensive juvenile "babysitting" can have long-term effects reminiscent of pregnancy and parturition on maternal responsiveness and anxiety, and these effects may be driven by upregulated serotonin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 492-508, 2016. PMID:26806471

  13. Different Effects of Vitamin E and Vitamin C Supplement in Female Duroc Growing and Finishing Pigs%杜洛克母猪生长、肥育阶段补充维生素E和维生素C的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢福庄; 楼洪兴; 许松; 吴建良

    2001-01-01

    在生长猪日粮(含添加剂VE 7 IU/kg)中添加VE 50IU/kg和VC 100 mg/kg,对杜洛克生长母猪的生产性能无明显影响,肥育猪日粮(含添加剂VE 4.9 IU/kg)中添加VE 25 IU/kg和VC 50 mg/kg,可提高日增重8.6%,单位增重的饲料消耗下降11. 7%。表明杜洛克母猪肥育日粮的VE和VC水平可能应高于生长阶段。%50 IU/kg vitamin E(VE) and 100 mg/kg vitamin C(VC) were added to growing pig diet(containing VE 7 IU/kg) fed to female Duroc pigs(initial weights 46 kg) for 28 days. No improving effects in performance were found in contrast with which,25 IU/kg VE and 50 mg/kg VC were supplemented to finishing pig diet (containing VE 4. 9 IU/kg). The average daily gain (ADG) in the pigs fed with VE and VC supplement diet was improved by 8. 6% ,and the feed to gain ratio was decreased by 11.7%. The results suggested that VE and VC level in the finishing pig diet should be higher than that in the growing pig diet for female Duroc pigs.

  14. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  15. PigGIS: Pig Genomic Informatics System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Jue; Guo, Yiran; Li, Heng;

    2007-01-01

    Pig Genomic Information System (PigGIS) is a web-based depository of pig (Sus scrofa) genomic learning mainly engineered for biomedical research to locate pig genes from their human homologs and position single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different pig populations. It utilizes a variety of...

  16. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    OpenAIRE

    K. Vasupen

    2007-01-01

    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional aspects of Kadon pigs. Chapter 1, providing quantitative information on growth performance, organ weights, carcass composition and fatty acid profiles in the meat of female and male Kadon pigs. Carca...

  17. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  18. Smart Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Smart Pigs are inspection vehicles that move inside a pipe line pushed along by the flowing material. Smart Pigs use different technologies to locate problems along the pipelines. Magnets have been used to detect corrosion where the most common technology is the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) that detects corrosion on thinning walls. Another detection technology uses ultrasonic sensors to detect coating disbondment, cracks, dents and gouges. The Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is bein...

  19. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Sterling

    Full Text Available Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon, and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1 are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2 ease environmental

  20. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

  1. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Geary, James F; Agnew, Dalen W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2015-12-01

    The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R) on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM-10 μM) for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. PMID:26288741

  2. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeghan O'Neill

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ, a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM–10 μM for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations.

  3. Effect of ormeloxifene, a nonsteroidal once-a-week oral contraceptive, on systemic hemodynamics in adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiralal Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the short-term effects of ormeloxifene on systemic hemodynamics, coagulation profile, and serum antioxidant activity in vivo in comparison with raloxifene. Materials and Methods: Colony-bred adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 19 groups of 10 each and received either ormeloxifene or raloxifene (0.25, 1.25, or 3 mg/kg/day for 7, 15, or 30 days by the oral route. Animals of control group received vehicle (gum-acacia in distilled water alone in a similar manner. Systemic hemodynamics and serum total antioxidant activity were assessed 24 h after the last treatment. Results: There was no significant effect of ormeloxifene administered at these doses and schedules on hemodynamic parameters or antioxidant activity, except for increase in amplitude of R wave in rats treated with 3 mg/kg/day dose for 30 days. This effect with raloxifene was evident only 7 days after treatment at this dose. Overall response was, however, almost similar with both the agents. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate comparable pharmacological profile of ormeloxifene and raloxifene on short-term administration to rats. Based on changes observed in the ECG (R wave, long-term studies may lead to justifiable comparison of beneficial and harmful effects of ormeloxifene and raloxifene in relation to cardiovascular effects.

  4. Rare cavernous lymphangioma of the bladder in an adult female:treatment and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qu; Jinyu Zheng; Yajun Xiao; Yifei Xing; Chuanguo Xiao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Lymphangioma is a benign tumor representing a congenital malformation of the lymphatic channels. The cavernous lymphangioma of the bladder did not report before. Here we report 1 case of cavernous lymphangioma of the bladder in an adult female and review the literature in order to accumulate the experience of diagnosis and treatment for these diseases. Methods: In our case a 50-year-old woman presented with irritative voiding symptoms and had painless macroscopic hematuria at times. Cystoscopy showed a non-papillary tumor at apex vesicae and mucous membrane hyperaemia between the two orifices within the trigone. The pathologic diagnosis was cystitis glandularis with hyperplasia of urothelium and cavernous lymphangioma in lamina propria. Transurethral resection was performed and then bleomycin A5 was injected into lesion multipoint applying ureteral catheter with puncture needle. Results: Two months after operation the irritative voiding symptoms improved and the urine analysis was normal. Cystoscopy showed no residual tumor. Bleomycin A5 was injected into the lesion area again just like the operation before. All symptoms disappeared completely when the patient was examined a month later. There was no side effect after injection and no recurrence during the follow-up of 1 year. Conclusion: Lymphangioma of the bladder can be diagnosed exactly by cystoscopy and pathological examination. Surgery may be the best treatment. The bleomycin A5 intralesional sclerosant is also an effective therapy for the disease after surgical removal.

  5. Volatiles induced by the larvae of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.

  6. Human brucellosis at a pig slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gabriela I; Jacob, Néstor R; López, Gustavo; Ayala, Sandra M; Whatmore, Adrian M; Lucero, Nidia E

    2013-12-01

    Seventeen workers in a pig slaughterhouse with signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis were clinically examined at the outpatient service of different health institutions and studied by serological tests during the period 2005-2011. Eleven blood cultures were taken and six Brucella suis strains were isolated, three biovar 1 and three with atypical characteristics. In order to confirm that these cases had no common source, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on 5 of the 6 strains whose results showed substantial heterogeneity in the genotypes, thereby demonstrating that the immediate origin was not the same. Two hundred adult pigs admitted for slaughter at the plant were sampled by convenience and tested by buffered antigen plate test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-mercapto-ethanol test (MET). Seven of 62 males (11%) and 25/138 (18%) females tested positive. The study results contribute information on risk scenarios for packing plant workers and underscore the need to improve plant workers' education on appropriate containment measures and to actively screen animals for swine brucellosis.

  7. Individual and molecular level effects of produced water contaminants on nauplii and adult females of Calanus finmarchicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Louise Kiel; Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Song, You; Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Hansen, Elisabeth Lindbo; Brooks, Steven J; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and extraction of petroleum products is expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishment of the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea may potentially introduce a new source of contamination to the area, as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine effects of exposure to several compounds found in produced water-a mixture of selected organic compounds (APW), radium-226 ((226)Ra), barium (Ba), and a scale inhibitor-on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus. Experiments were performed using exposure concentrations at realistic levels based on those detected in the vicinity of known discharge points. The influence of lethal and sublethal effects on early life stages was determined and significantly lower survival in the APW exposure groups was found. In the Ba treatment the life stage development did not proceed to the same advanced stages as observed in the control (filtered sea water). The scale inhibitor and (226)Ra treatments showed no significant difference from control. In addition, adult females were exposed to APW, (226)Ra, and a mixture of the two. Both individual-level effects (egg production and feeding) and molecular-level effects (gene expression) were assessed. On the individual level endpoints, only treatments including APW produced an effect compared to control. However, on the molecular level the possibility that also (226)Ra induced toxicologically relevant effects cannot be ruled out. PMID:27484140

  8. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species. PMID:25118426

  9. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  10. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Stanić; Sydney Dubois; Hui Kheng Chua; Bruce Tonge; Nicole Rinehart; Malcolm K Horne; Wah Chin Boon

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, in...

  11. Severe allergic reactions to guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Jeffrey L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic sensitization and reactions to guinea pig (Cavia porcellus have been well documented in laboratory animal handlers, primarily manifesting as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Severe allergic reactions, however, are rare. Methods We report two patients with severe allergic reactions following non-occupational exposure to guinea pigs. The first patient, an 11-year-old female, developed ocular, nasal, skin and laryngeal edema symptoms immediately after handling a guinea pig. The second patient, a 24-year-old female, developed symptoms of isolated laryngeal edema after cleaning a guinea pig cage. Percutaneous skin testing, RAST, ELISA and ELISA inhibition testing with guinea pig extract were performed. Results Both patients had IgE-mediated allergy to guinea pig confirmed by ELISA and either RAST or skin testing. ELISA inhibition studies confirmed the specificity of the IgE reactivity to guinea pig. Conclusion Severe IgE-mediated reactions can occur following non-occupational guinea pig exposure. Physicians should be aware of this possibility.

  12. Expression level and immunolocalization of de novo methyltransferase 3 protein (TuDNMT3) in adult females and males of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-Xia; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Sun, Jing-Tao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for regulating developmental and other important processes in eukaryotes. Several essential components of the DNA methylation machinery have been identified, such as DNA methyltransferases. In the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, we have identified one DNA methyltransferase 3 gene (Tudnmt3) and tentatively investigated its potential role in adult females and males. Here, to better elucidate the functional role of Tudnmt3, its protein structure, expression and localization were subjected to more detailed analyses. Bioinformatic analyses clearly showed that the structure of TuDNMT3 was highly conserved, with several vital amino acid residues for the activation and stabilization of its confirmation. Western blot analyses revealed that this protein was expressed in both genders, with higher expression in adult females, which was inconsistent with the gene expression, suggesting translational regulation of Tudnmt3. Subsequent immunodetection provided supportive evidence for higher expression of the TuDNMT3 protein in adult females and indicated that this protein was generally localized in the cytoplasm and that its expression was predominantly confined to the genital region of spider mites, strengthening the hypothesis that de novo methylation mediated by Tudnmt3 in gonad development or gametogenesis has a different mechanism from maintenance methyltransferase.

  13. Estradiol target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and lateral ventromedial nucleus of young adult, reproductively senescent, and monosodium glutamate-lesioned female golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, G.C.; Lamperti, A.A.

    1983-09-01

    Histoautoradiographic methods were used to assess estrogen target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial nucleus, lateral portion (LVM), comparing young adult and aged female golden hamsters. A subgroup of young adult females had ARC lesions induced by monosodium glutamate at neonatal day 8. All were ovariectomized to remove endogenous estrogens. Controls were given nonradioactive estradiol. After /sup 3/H-estradiol (/sup 3/H-E2) was injected intravenously, hypothalami were removed, frozen, and processed for histoautoradiography. In the ARC and LVM the ratio of /sup 3/H-E2 labelled neurons to total neurons counted was significantly lower in the older animals. Young females with ARC lesions had very few /sup 3/H-E2 labelled neurons remaining in the ARC but had a normal complement in the LVM. Although /sup 3/H-E2 labelled ARC neurons were notably decreased in old females, those ARC neurons that were labelled in the old had virtually the same frequency distribution of the labelling index as in the young, suggesting no change in the average estrogen uptake per target cell.

  14. Frank Pig Says Hello

    OpenAIRE

    Kealy, Una

    2013-01-01

    Patrick McCabe’s Frank Pig Says Hello is an explosively powerful, angry-poignant and ultimately heart-rending dramatisation of Frank Brady who, as a young boy and adolescent, is driven beyond the boundaries of his mental and emotional health by his inability to cope with growing up, the loss of his parents and the preservation of his damaged and fragile mental and emotional health. Emphasising the difficulties that Frank experiences, McCabe splits his eponymous character into two: an adult Fr...

  15. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental. The control group (n=8 received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12 received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna, once every 5 days for 6 times, and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injection. Experimental group 2; E2 (n=12 were injected as in group E1 then left for 15 days. Uterine tissue was used for various techniques; histological (H&E & Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemical (staining of progesterone receptors, using Labeled-Streptavidin method. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of uterine affection. Quantitative measurements (optical density, color area percentage, line distance & cells count were performed using the image analyzer. Mesigyna injection showed increased endometrial folding (91.6% of the animals with decreased endometrial thickness. Luminal epithelium showed proliferation with pseudostratification of its nuclei (75% of animals, necrotic changes (31.3% of animals, hyperplasia (epithelial tufting; in 25% of animals and desquamation (8.3%of animals. Increased gland size and stromal hypercellularity were also observed. Polymorphonuclear cellular infiltration in both endometrium and myometrium, Vascular congestion and increased myometrial thickness were respectively seen in 83.33%, 63.5 %, 83.5% of E1 group animals. Mesigyna also caused reduction in the amount of collagen fibers. Immunostaining revealed decreased number and optical density of progesterone receptors in nuclei of surface epithelium, glandular epithelium and stromal cells while they were increased in nuclei of smooth muscle fibers. Image analysis

  16. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  17. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be unreliable

  18. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Narciso C Guedes

    Full Text Available Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus, an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker, but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may

  19. The effects of prepubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5–20% w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood. PMID:20816899

  20. The effects of pre-pubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K; Koss, Wendy A; Foreman, Emily S; Gulley, Joshua M

    2011-01-20

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long-Evans rats around post-natal day (P) 20. From P35-45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5-20%, w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood. PMID:20816899

  1. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M; McCool, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions.

  2. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  3. 松材线虫雌虫尾部形态和寄主的关系%The Relationship between the Tail Morphology of Adult Female Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Its Host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文霞; 杨宝君

    2005-01-01

    Tenninal mucro of adult female was the distinct character between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) and its allied species Bursaphe/enchus mucronatus (Bb). In general, Bx had no mucro. But it could have mucro in some situations. In the test, Bx without mucro was inoculated on Chineses pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii). The results showed that 85% of adult females Bx isolated from Chinese pine had terminal mucro. On Japanese black pine only 4.2% of adult females Bx had terminal mucro. Bx with terminal mucro from Chinese pine was re-inoculated on the fungus, Pestalotia sp. and Japanese black pine. It was found that 100% adult females had no terminal mucro on the fungus and 3.4% with terminal mucro on Japanese black pine.

  4. Advances in pigging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, J. [Pipeline Engineering, Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-08-01

    Pigging is now an essential aspect of pipeline planning and engineers, influencing every facet from design and routing to integrity management, rehabilitation, servicing and maintenance. Some recent developments are reviewed here but systems, equipment and products are being continually enhanced to improve operational efficiency and cost effectiveness. The paper describes special-purpose pigs and pigging systems, intelligent pigging, pig signaling and detection, and static pigging/pipeline isolation.

  5. Effects of adult nutrition on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly: the role of fruit decay and dietary lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus; Hartstein, Steffi; Janowitz, Susann; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

    2007-09-01

    It was generally believed that butterflies and other holometabolous insects rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction. Recent studies, however, highlight the often fundamental importance of adult nutrition to realize the full reproductive potential. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of most other adult-derived substances is only partially resolved. We here focus on the effects of dietary lipids (cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids) and fruit decay (dietary yeast, ethanol) on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). We found that banana-fed control females outperformed all other groups fed on sucrose-based diets. Lipids, yeast or ethanol added to a sugar solution did not yield a similarly high reproductive output compared to fruit-fed females. Groups fed fresh or decaying banana showed no differences in reproductive performance. As we could not identify a single pivotal substance, we conclude that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance for maximum reproductive output. Further, dietary quality may affect egg hatching success in spite of no obvious effects on egg size and number. Thus, any implications about potential fitness effects of different diets need to consider egg (and hatchling) viability in addition to fecundity.

  6. Effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid on spatial learning and memory in adolescent and adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sircar, Ratna; Basak, Ashim; Sircar, Debashish; Wu, Li-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been reported to disrupt spatial learning and memory in adolescent male rats. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of GHB on the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats, and to investigate age specificity of the behavioral impairments. Adolescent female rats were subjected to repeated GHB or saline administrations, and tested in the Morris water maze. Compared to age-matched saline controls, adolescent GHB-treated rats took ...

  7. Neonatal exposure to estradiol in female rats influences neuroactive steroid concentrations and behaviour in the adult rat

    OpenAIRE

    Berretti, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The gonadal steroids, in particular estradiol, exert an important action during perinatal period in the regulation of sexual dimorphism and neuronal plasticity, and in the growth and development of nervous system. Exposure of the developing female to estrogens during perinatal period may have long-lasting effects that are now regarded as “programming” the female neuroendocrine axis to malfunction in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of a single administration of ...

  8. Effect of Water Flooding on the Oviposition Capacity of Engorged Adult Females and Hatchability of Eggs of Dog Ticks: Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis leachi leachi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson O. Adejinmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water flooding on the oviposition capacity of engorged adult females and hatchability of eggs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis leachi leachi under laboratory conditions were investigated. The durations of time of water flooding were 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Engorged females of R. sanguineus and H. leachi leachi did not oviposit after being flooded for more than 48 and 6 hours, respectively. The preoviposition periods of both species were longer than those of their controls. The number of eggs laid were significantly lower (<.05 and higher (<.05 than their controls, respectively, for R. sanguineus and H. leachi leachi flooded for 1–4 hours. The hatchability of eggs of both species decreased as flooding time increased. The percentage of hatchability was negatively correlated with flooding time and was highly significant (=−0.97; <.10. It is concluded that R. sanguineus tolerated simulated water flooding more than H. leachi leachi.

  9. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus off the Washington (USA coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel A Pelland

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar, mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses

  10. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8(-/-) mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. PMID:27328324

  11. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. PMID:21236651

  12. The effects of prepubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethano...

  13. Effect of perinatal synthetic steroid hormone (allylestrenol, diethylstilbestrol) treatment (hormonal imprinting) on the bone mineralization of the adult male and female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabélyos, C; Horváth, C; Holló, I; Csaba, G

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal treatment with allylestrenol or diethylstilbestrol (DES) reduced the bone mineral content (BMC/bw) of the adult (four months old) female rats, without influencing bone mineral density (BMD/bw). In males these neonatal treatments elevated BMC and BMD alike. Ovariectomy alone decreased BMC and BMD alike; however the neonatal hormone treatments did not influence this reduced value. Ovariectomy of two months old animals increased body weight without the influence of neonatal hormone treatments. In adult males, the body weight was reduced significantly by neonatal DES and non-significantly by neonatal allylestrenol treatment. The experiments call attention to the possible human bone-effects of allylestrenol, which was used in the last decades as medication protecting endangered pregnancies. PMID:10075115

  14. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

  15. Influence of methoprene and temperature on diapause termination in adult females of the over-wintering solitary bee, Osmia rufa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2011-12-01

    Females of Osmia rufa, as most species in this genus, enter an obligatory diapause, overwintering as an imago inside a cocoon until the ensuing spring when after emergence - mating, egg development and oviposition occur. Diapause in this species is initiated in November, undergoes 2 months of a pre-wintering period that is terminated at the end of January, after 1 month of maintenance. In this study, factors that affect the termination of adult diapause in the female of this species were investigated. The experimental material consisted of bees that were brought from nests kept in natural conditions 1 month prior to natural termination of diapause. Three different experimental treatments were planned to evaluate the potential effect of methoprene and temperature on diapause termination. During the 5 day experimental period the first group of females was kept at 4°C, the second group at 15°C and the last group of females was kept at 20°C. All groups of females were treated with methoprene topically at a dose of 200 μg. After methoprene application a significant increase (p<0.001) in the size of terminal oocytes was recorded in the three experimental groups. However, no changes in the size of terminal oocytes between acetone treated and untreated control groups were observed. The number of oocytes progressively increased following topical application of methoprene compared to non-treated or acetone treated females. In successive applications of 200 μg methoprene gradual changes in ovary and fat body protein concentration were observed. As compared to controls, protein content in ovaries isolated from methoprene-treated females increased, whereas it decreased in fat body. The least differences in oocyte size and protein concentration in ovary and fat body between control groups and with methoprene application occurred at 4°C. Differences increased and were higher in females kept at 20°C and increased rapidly after methoprene application. Exposure to increasing

  16. Comparison o f Level of Anger between Male and Female Athletes Took Part in Eliminations for Adults Taekwondo National Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer CANBAZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the level of anger of the athletes taking part in A dults N at ional T eam eliminations. The sample group consists of 52 female s , 115 male s , total ly 167 elite athletes took part in the eliminations . The average of age for female s was 20 , 38 , and 20, 99 for male s . In order to identify the level, Spielberg ’s fou r - dimensional Sc hedule whose validity and reliability for our country was adapted to by Özer in 1994, developed by S pielberg in 1983 was used. As a result of analysis made, no outstanding difference of anger level was found between males and females in te rms of permanent anger factor (p=0, 579; similarly no significant difference was discovered in respect to sub factor of anger - out (p=0,315. Also in analysis of anger - in (p=0.673 and anger - out (p=0.290 sub scales, important difference wasn’t pointed out b etween male and female athletes.

  17. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  18. Analyses of pig genomes provide insight to procine demography and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Bosse, M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Dibbits, B.W.; Madsen, O.; Paudel, Y.

    2012-01-01

    For 10,000¿years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparis

  19. Relationship of percent body fat (estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with blood pressure among young adult females of Amritsar (Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindiya Rana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study was carried out to find the association of percent body fat (PBF with blood pressure (BP variables among apparently healthy young females studying in Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar. A total of 150 females ranging in age from 20-25 years were personally interviewed. Height and weight of each subject was taken using standard methodology. Their body composition parameters were taken by using body fat analyzer. Subjects were categorized as obese and non-obese according to PBF, in which those having >30% body fat was considered as obese. BP of each subject was measured by using the standard methodology. The prevalence of hypertension was calculated according to JNC VII criteria. In the pooled data, the percentage prevalence of obesity according to PBF was 36%. The percentage prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in the pooled sample was 54% and 12%, respectively. However, it was observed that prevalence of hypertension was slightly more among obese females (7.3% as compared to non-obese (4.7% but the prevalence of pre-hypertension was significantly (p<0.05 more in non-obese females (39.3% as compared to obese females (14.7%. The underline cause of this high prevalence of pre-hypertension in non-obese subjects was not known. It is clear from the correlation analysis that no association was observed between SBP and MAP with PBF in obese and non-obese subjects while DBP is positively and significantly (p<0.05 correlated with weight, fat mass and fat free mass in non-obese subjects only. Thus it is concluded from this study that PBF measured by BIA was not likely to be a good predictor of high BP. Therefore, further large prospective studies on the association of hypertension and whole body fat and abdominal fat should be carried out to confirm the role of fat on BP.

  20. Synergistic effect of estradiol and fluoxetine in young adult and middle-aged female rats in two models of experimental depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Récamier-Carballo, Soledad; Estrada-Camarena, Erika; Reyes, Rebeca; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2012-08-01

    The antidepressant effect of estrogens combined with antidepressants is controversial: some preclinical data showed that estrogens facilitate the effect of antidepressants in the forced swimming test (FST) in young adult rats, while others failed to find such effect in middle-aged rats in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model. In clinics similar differences were reported and may be due to the compounds, the depression model or type of depression, the experimental design, and the age of the subjects or the women's menopause stage. The objective of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of 17β-estradiol (E(2)) and fluoxetine (FLX) in young adults (2-4 months) and middle-aged (12-14 months) ovariectomized (OVX) rats in two experimental models: FST and CMS. E(2) (5 and 10 μg/rat) and FLX (2.5 and 10 mg/kg) per se dose-dependently reduced immobility in both age groups and, in young adults both compounds increased swimming, whereas in middle-aged rats they increased swimming and climbing. Analysis of the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of suboptimal doses of FLX (1.25 mg/kg) and E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) showed a decrease in immobility and an increase in swimming in both age groups. In the CMS, chronic E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) with FLX (1.25 mg/kg) augmented relative sucrose intake, but middle-aged rats responded 2 weeks earlier than young adults. These results show that the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of E(2) and FLX in young adult and middle-aged female rats is evidenced in the two animal models of depression: FST and CMS.

  1. Effects of ethanol during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, W A; Sadowski, R N; Sherrill, L K; Gulley, J M; Juraska, J M

    2012-07-23

    Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, the number of neurons and glia is changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the adult mPFC and BLN in Long-Evans male and female rats. Saline or 3g/kg ethanol was administered between postnatal days (P) 35-45 in a binge-like pattern, with 2days of injections followed by 1 day without an injection. Stereological analyses of the ventral mPFC (prelimbic and infralimbic areas) and the BLN were performed on brains from rats at 100 days of age. Neuron and glia densities were assessed with the optical disector and then multiplied by the volume to calculate the total number of neurons and glia. In the adult mPFC, ethanol administration during adolescence resulted in a decreased number of glia in males, but not females, and had no effect on the number of neurons. Adolescent ethanol exposure had no effects on glia or neuron number in the BLN. These results suggest that glia cells in the prefrontal cortex are particularly sensitive to binge-like exposure to ethanol during adolescence in male rats only, potentially due to a decrease in proliferation in males or protective mechanisms in females. PMID:22627163

  2. Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L. Mechaber

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor -- upwind flight and abdomen curling -- in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant.

  3. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Duarte-Guterman; Lieblich, Stephanie E.; Carmen Chow; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol's effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized ad...

  4. In adult female hamsters hypothyroidism stimulates D1 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D1 receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Evelyn H; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Harold D

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroidism affects cardiopulmonary regulation and function of dopaminergic receptors. Here we evaluated effects of 5 months of hypothyroidism on dopamine D1 receptor modulation of breathing in female hamsters using a D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Euthyroid hamsters (EH) served as controls. Results indicated that hypothyroid female hamsters (HH) exhibited decreased body weights and minute ventilation (VE) following hypoxia due to decreased frequency of breathing (F). Moreover, SCH 23390 administration in HH increased VE by increasing tidal volume during exposure to air, hypoxia and following hypoxia. Relative to vehicle, SCH 23390 treatment decreased body temperature and hypoxic VE responsiveness in both groups. In EH, SCH 23390 decreased F in air, hypoxia and post hypoxia, and VE during hypoxia trended to decrease (P=0.053). Finally, expression of D1 receptor protein was not different between the two groups in any region evaluated. Thus, hypothyroidism in older female hamsters affected D1 receptor modulation of ventilation differently relative to euthyroid animals, but not expression of D1 receptors.

  5. Gene structure of Drosophila diaphorase-1: diversity of transcripts in adult males and females, in different organs and at different stages of development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavlina M. Ivanova; Boris H. Dunkov; Kiril H. Ralchev

    2008-08-01

    The gene EG:22E5.5 or CG4199 (accession number O77266, Q9W529) from Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) was found using the partial amino acid sequences of three tryptic peptides obtained from purified Drosophila virilis diaphorase-1. This gene is located on the X chromosome at position 2C9–2C10. The structure of the gene reveals three exons and two long introns. Using BDGP, we found six transcripts in this gene. The difference between these transcripts is in their 5′ ends; the 3′ ends of the six transcripts are identical. Thirty-four ESTs from different cDNA libraries were found, most of them from Schneider L2 cell culture (SH) cDNA library. The transcripts are represented at very low level in the cells of different organs and at different stages of Drosophila development. Using RT-PCR, we obtained five of these transcripts in cDNA samples from female adult flies. However, we could not find any of them in cDNA samples from male adult flies. Moreover, we obtained only the third transcript (CG4199-RC) in the sample of testis from adult flies and the fourth transcript (CG4199-RD) in an embryo sample. None of the other five transcripts were found in the samples of different organs and in the samples obtained at different stages of Drosophila development.

  6. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  7. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  8. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  9. Daily rhythmic behaviors and thermoregulatory patterns are disrupted in adult female MeCP2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Wither

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2 have been associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including Rett Syndrome, X-linked mental retardation syndrome, severe neonatal encephalopathy, and Angelman syndrome. Although alterations in the performance of MeCP2-deficient mice in specific behavioral tasks have been documented, it remains unclear whether or not MeCP2 dysfunction affects patterns of periodic behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG activity. The aim of the current study was therefore to determine whether a deficiency in MeCP2 is sufficient to alter the normal daily rhythmic patterns of core body temperature, gross motor activity and cortical delta power. To address this, we monitored individual wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice in their home cage environment via telemetric recording over 24 hour cycles. Our results show that the normal daily rhythmic behavioral patterning of cortical delta wave activity, core body temperature and mobility are disrupted in one-year old female MeCP2-deficient mice. Moreover, female MeCP2-deficient mice display diminished overall motor activity, lower average core body temperature, and significantly greater body temperature fluctuation than wild-type mice in their home-cage environment. Finally, we show that the epileptiform discharge activity in female MeCP2-deficient mice is more predominant during times of behavioral activity compared to inactivity. Collectively, these results indicate that MeCP2 deficiency is sufficient to disrupt the normal patterning of daily biological rhythmic activities.

  10. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teicher Martin H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6 were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index. This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively.

  11. Emotion recognition in depression: An investigation of performance and response confidence in adult female patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieker, Martina; Moritz, Steffen; Köther, Ulf; Jelinek, Lena

    2016-08-30

    Abnormalities in emotion recognition are frequently reported in depression. However, emotion recognition is not compromised in some studies, and confidence judgments, which are essential for social interaction, have not been considered to date. Due to the high prevalence rate of depression in women, and sex differences in emotion recognition, the aim of the present study was to investigate emotion recognition and confidence judgments in women with depression. A sample of female patients with depressive disorders (n=45) was compared with female healthy controls (n=30) in their ability to correctly identify facial emotion expressions along with confidence judgments. Groups performed similarly on emotional face recognition and showed no difference regarding confidence ratings. A negative correlation between self-assessed depression and response confidence was found. While some limitations of the study must be taken in consideration (e.g., small number of items per emotion category, low severity of depression), abnormalities in emotion recognition do not seem to be a major feature of depression. As self-assessed depression is accompanied by low response confidence for emotional faces, it is crucial to further examine the role of confidence judgments in emotion recognition, as underconfidence may foster interpersonal insecurity in depression. PMID:27294796

  12. New regulations for oral contraceptive prescription in France in 2013: what is the impact on adult female acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc-Mercier, Stéphanie; Buisson, Virginie; Dreno, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    In 2012, a young French woman lodged a complaint against a pharmaceutical company having suffered a cerebral stroke. The French health authority recommended all prescribers of hormonal contraception (HCP) to favour second-generation HCP. To evaluate the consequences of these recommendations on female acne. A prospective multicentre study using a standardised questionnaire completed by 1,724 women. The mean age was 26.57 years; 58.7% of the women had changed their HCP during the last 12 months. The initial ratio of first or second/third or fourth-generation drugs was 5.5%/82.9% which changed after the recommendations to 70.6%/29.4%. Among the patients who switched from third or fourth to first or second-generation drugs, 83.9% considered that their acne had worsened (p<0.0001). In those patients who received a local acne treatment, 72.1% had additional systemic treatment. This study confirms the important rise in prescriptions of first or second-generation HCP. This switch has resulted in a significant increase in acne, requiring treatment for the large majority of patients, thus confirming the role of a hormonal factor in female acne. PMID:27312707

  13. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  14. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeghan O'Neill

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ, a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6-24 hr to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM-10 μM in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment.

  15. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D.; McCall, John W.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6–24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM—10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  16. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  17. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D; McCall, John W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2016-05-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6-24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM-10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  18. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel;

    2010-01-01

    expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased......Events during early life can affect reproductive and metabolic functions in adulthood. We evaluated the programming effects of a single early postnatal estradiol injection (within 3h after birth) in female rats. We assessed ovarian and parametrial adipose tissue morphology, evaluated gene...... theca interna thickness in atretic antral follicles. Adult estradiol-injected rats also had malformed vaginal openings and lacked corpora lutea, confirming anovulation. Estradiol markedly reduced parametrial adipose tissue mass. Adipocyte size was unchanged, suggesting reduced adipocyte number...

  19. Biodistribution of the radionuclides (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate in domestic juvenile female pigs and morphological and molecular imaging of the tracers in hematogenously disseminated Staphylococcus aureus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ole L; Alstrup, Aage Ko; Bender, Dirk; Leifsson, Páll S; Jensen, Svend B; Schønheyder, Henrik C

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5-7% of acute-care patients suffer from bacteremia. Bacteremia may give rise to bacterial spread to different tissues. Conventional imaging procedures as X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and ultrasound are often first-line imaging methods for identification and localization of infection. These methods are, however, not always successful. Early identification and localization of infection is critical for the appropriate and timely selection of therapy. The aim of this study was thus; a head to head comparison of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve uncovering of infectious lesions in soft tissues. We chose (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate as tracers and besides presenting their bio-distribution we validated their diagnostic utility in pigs with experimental bacterial infection. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of S. aureus using a sequential scanning protocol with (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195 and (68)Ga-citrate. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs consisting of gross pathology, histopathology and microbial examination. The pigs primarily developed lesions in lungs and neck muscles. (18)F-FDG had higher infection to background ratios and accumulated in most infectious foci caused by S. aureus, while (11)C-methionine and particularly (11)C-PK11195 and (68)Ga-citrate accumulated to a lesser extent in infectious foci. (18)F-FDG-uptake was seen in the areas of inflammatory cells and to a much lesser extent in reparative infiltration surrounding necrotic regions. PMID:27069765

  20. The Role of Executive Function in Independent Living Skills in Female Adolescents and Young Adults With Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Arianna; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Hall, Scott S; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with executive function (EF) and independent living skills (ILS) deficits. We examined the role of childhood EF in ILS during adolescence/early adulthood in females with FXS and two comparison groups in the same age range (matched for IQ [IQ/Age group] and with another genetic condition, Turner syndrome [TS group]). EF and ILS were significantly higher for the FXS group than the IQ/Age group but did not differ from the TS group. For the FXS group, age and EF were significant predictors of ILS during adolescence/early adulthood, but there were no statistically significant longitudinal associations between EF and ILS. Our findings suggest that impairments in EF may have a significant effect on ILS in FXS. PMID:27611354

  1. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during late embryogenesis results in diminished locomotor activity and amphetamine response in females and spatial cognition impairment in males in adult, but not adolescent rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, Bojan; Santrač, Anja; Divović, Branka; Timić, Tamara; Stanković, Tamara; Obradović, Aleksandar Lj; Joksimović, Srđan; Savić, Miroslav M

    2016-02-15

    Numerous basic and epidemiological studies have connected prenatal maternal immune activation with the occurrence of schizophrenia and/or autism. Depending on subtle differences in protocols of the used animal model, a variety of behavioral abnormalities has been reported. This study investigated behavioral differences in Wistar rat offspring of both genders, exposed to the 100 μg/kg per day dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in late embryogenesis (embryonic days 15 and 16), while tested at their adolescent and young adult age (postnatal days 40 and 60, respectively). Immune activation was confirmed by detecting high levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in dam blood withdrawn 2h after the first dose of LPS. The animals were assessed in three consecutive trials of locomotor activity (novelty exploration, response to i.p. saline injection and challenge with 0.5mg/kg amphetamine), Morris water maze and social interaction tests. Overt behavioral dysfunction was perceived in adult rats only, and these changes were gender-distinctive. When compared with control rats, LPS females displayed baseline hypolocomotion and a decreased reactivity to amphetamine, while LPS males exhibited spatial learning (acquisition trials) and memory (probe trial) impairments. Prenatal treatment did not affect the time spent in social interaction. As maternal exposure to LPS in late gestation resulted in behavioral changes in offspring in early adulthood, it may model schizophrenia-like, but not autism-like endophenotypes. However, lack of a potentiated response to amphetamine testified that this model could not mimic positive symptoms, but rather certain traits of cognitive dysfunction and deficit symptoms, in males and females, respectively. PMID:26620494

  2. WE-E-BRE-01: An Image-Based Skeletal Dosimetry Model for the ICRP Reference Adult Female - Internal Electron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Reilly, S; Maynard, M; Marshall, E; Bolch, W [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sinclair, L [Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Rajon, D [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Wayson, M [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Limitations seen in previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used software today, include the lack of consideration of electron escape and cross-fire from cortical bone, the modeling of infinite spongiosa, the disregard of the effect of varying cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation, and the lack of use of the more recent ICRP definition of a 50 micron surrogate tissue region for the osteoprogenitor cells - shallow marrow. These limitations were addressed in the present dosimetry model. Methods: Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to active marrow and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the adult female. The bone macrostructure was obtained from the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of reference phantoms, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 year-old female cadaver. The target tissue regions were active marrow and shallow marrow. The source tissues were active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume and cortical bone surfaces. The marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or modeled analytically. Results: The method of combining macro- and microstructure absorbed fractions calculated using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model for the UF adult male in the Hough et al. study. Conclusion: The calculated skeletal averaged absorbed fractions for each source-target combination were found to follow similar trends of more recent dosimetry models (image-based models) and did not follow current models used in nuclear medicine dosimetry at high energies (due to that models use of an infinite expanse of trabecular spongiosa)

  3. Activation of the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves tamoxifen-induced memory retrieval impairment in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Azam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Sardari, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has frequently been used in the treatment of breast cancer. In view of the fact that cognitive deficits in women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is a common health problem, using female animal models for investigating the cognitive effects of TAM administration may improve our knowledge of TAM therapy. Therefore, the present study assessed the role of dorsal hippocampal cholinergic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the effect of TAM administration on memory retrieval in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX female rats using a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that pre-test administration of TAM (2-6mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.5μg/rat) reversed TAM-induced memory impairment. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.1-0.3μg/rat) plus 2mg/kg (an ineffective dose) of TAM impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of nicotine and mecamylamine by themselves had no effect on memory retrieval. In OVX rats, the administration of TAM (6mg/kg) produced memory impairment but pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.5μg/rat) had no effect on TAM response. Moreover, the administration of an ineffective dose of TAM (2mg/kg) had no effect on memory retrieval in OVX rats, while pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.3μg/rat) impaired memory retrieval. Taken together, it can be concluded that the impairing effect of TAM on memory formation may be modulated by nAChRs of the CA1 regions. It seems that memory impairment may be considered as an important side effect of TAM. PMID:27072849

  4. Effect of Noise and Crowding Stresses on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis and Protective Effect of Sulpiride Drug in Adult Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal 1*,Noran Ahmed Abou- Aouf1**, Nareman Y. Mohamed 2

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise and crowding are the most stressful factors which cause depressant effects on human beings, especially females.Therfore this study was aimed at clarifying their effects on hypothalamus pituitary gonadal axis hormones (luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estrogen (E2and progesterone as well as prolactin (PRLand the possible protective effect of antidepressant drug;sulpiride. Material and Methods: Sixty adult female rats were divided into six groups (10/each: 1- Rats served as control, 2- Rats treated with sulpiride drug only, 3- Rats exposed to noise (90db, 3hr. per day for 45 days, 4- Rats exposed to noise and treated with sulpiride drug, 5- Rats exposed to crowding and 6- Rats exposed to crowding and treated with sulpiride drug. Results: Noise and crowding stresses caused a significant decrease of estrogen (E2, progesterone (P, LH and FSH levels and high significant increase in PRL level. Sulpiride drug ameliorated these parameters changes except PRL level which showed a high significant level compared to control group. Conclusion: it is useful to use antidepressant drug (e.g. sulpiride with people who are exposing to noise and crowding stress

  5. Estrogen receptor β and oxytocin interact to modulate anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine stress reactivity in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudwa, Andrea E; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2014-04-22

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated in response to stressors and is controlled by neurons residing in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Although gonadal steroid hormones can influence HPA reactivity to stressors, the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is known, however, that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) inhibits HPA reactivity and decreases anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Since ERβ is co-expressed with oxytocin (OT) in neurons of the PVN, an ERβ-selective agonist was utilized to test the whether ERβ decreases stress-induced HPA reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors via an OTergic pathway. Adult gonadectomized male and female rats were administered diarylpropionitrile, or vehicle, peripherally for 5days. When tested for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), diarylpropionitrile-treated males and females significantly increased time on the open arm of the EPM compared to vehicle controls indicating that ERβ reduces anxiety-like behaviors. One week after behavioral evaluation, rats were subjected to a 20minute restraint stress. Treatment with diarylpropionitrile reduced CORT and ACTH responses in both males and females. Subsequently, another group of animals was implanted with cannulae directed at the lateral ventricle. One week later, rats underwent the same protocol as above but with the additional treatment of intracerebroventricular infusion with an OT antagonist (des Gly-NH2 d(CH2)5 [Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4)] OVT) or VEH, 20min prior to behavioral evaluation. OT antagonist treatment blocked the effects of diarylpropionitrile on the display of anxiety-like behaviors and plasma CORT levels. These data indicate that ERβ and OT interact to modulate the HPA reactivity and the display of anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:24631553

  6. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult. PMID:27578936

  7. Changes among male and female visitors to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a large adult Norwegian population from 1997 to 2008 (The HUNT studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinsbekk Aslak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to investigate changes in the prevalence and characteristics of male and female visitors to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in a large adult population from 1997 to 2008. Methods Two cross sectional adult total population health surveys from Central Norwegian (the Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In 1997 42,277 and in 2008 50,713 respondents were included. Variables included demographics (age, education, working status, lifestyle (daily smoker, did hard physical activities, health status (self-rated health status, recent complaints, chronic complaints, psychiatric complaints, a range of diseases and health care use (visit general practitioner, chiropractor. A test of difference between the results of multivariable logistic regression models for each year, including all variables, was used to analyse changes from 1997 to 2008. Results In 1997 9.4% (95%CI 9.1-9.6 of the population had visited a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months and this increased to 12.6% (12.3-12.9 in 2008 (p Conclusion The increase in visits was mainly among younger people of both genders with more limited complaints. A larger proportion of the more healthy part of the population is increasing their visits to CAM practitioners.

  8. Effects of exogenous plant growth regulator abscisic acid-induced resistance in rice on the expression of vitellogenin mRNA in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xia; Wong, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recent study showed that exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) acts as a regulator of plant resistance. This study investigated average injury scale and callose contents of rice, and vitellogenin (Nlvg) mRNA expression in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adult females after third instar nymphs fed on exogenous ABA-treated susceptible [Taichung Native one (TN1)] and moderately resistant (IR42) rice cultivars. The results showed that exogenous ABA significantly decreased average injury scale of rice and Nlvg mRNA expression in N. lugens adults compared with the control (without ABA spraying). Nlvg mRNA expression in N. lugens adults decreased significantly after third instar nymphs fed on ABA-treated (5, 20, and 40 mg/liter) TN1 for 1 and 2 d, and for IR42, after fed on ABA-treated (20 and 40 mg/liter) rice plants for 1 d and after fed on ABA-treated (5, 20, and 40 mg/liter) rice for 2 d decreased significantly. The callose contents showed no significant change for TN1, while for IR42, significantly increased in roots and sheathes after N. lugens infestation under ABA treatments (20 and 40 mg/liter) compared with the control. The decrease of Nlvg mRNA expression may be partially attributed to the increase of callose content of plants. The results provide a profile for concerning the effects of ABA-induced rice plants' defenses on phloem-feeding insects.

  9. Clinicopathological Conference(the 48th case)Adult gland pituitary hypofunction in an elderly female patient%Clinicopathological Conference(the48th case)Adult gland pituitary hypofunction in an elderly female patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhongsu

    2011-01-01

    Case presentation A female patient(a retired worker),68 years old,who complained mainly of "repeated episodes of dizziness,fatigue,vomiting in 6 years,chest tightness,chest pain for 1 year",was admitted to Heart Center,Chaoyang Hospital,Capital Medical University on February 24,2010.The patient suffered from dizziness and fatigue with unknown cause 6 years ago.She ever experienced sudden syncope and loss of conscioueness during visiting Xuanwu Hospital,when she presented with blood pressure of 62/? mmHg and slower heart rate,then her consciousness recoverd spontaneously 1-2 minutes later with no treatment.The head CT and electrocardiogram(ECG)showed no significant abnormality,and she was discharged after symptomatic treatment.Since then,the patient presented with intermittent anorexia,dizziness,nausea,vomiting,non-visual rotation,which were not affected by different body positions.All these symptoms appeared more frequently in winter,lasted for several days,relieved without any treatment.One year ago,the patient began to suffer from chest tightness and chest pain at physical activities.Each attack lasted for 3-5minutes and relieved by rest.In Xuanwu Hospital,the diagnosis of "coronary heart disease,angina pectoris " was established.After oral administration of "Wan Shuang Li" and other meidcations,chest tightness and chest pain appeared accidentally.Ten days ago,the patient experienced dizziness and vomiting(stomach contents,4-5 times a day on average).No visual rotation or tinnitus was accompanied.Twenty-nine hours before admission,the patient suffered from chest distress and chest pain again after 100 meters walking,accompanied with shoulder dispersion and sweating;the symptoms relieved after resting for 3-5 minutes.For further treatment,the patient visited Heart Center,Chaoyang Hospital.ECG showed "sinus bradycardia",and she was admittied for "arrhythmia".Since the onset,the patient displayed low blood pressure,slow heart rate,Susceptibility to coldness

  10. Describing the shape of the face of hypertensive and non-hypertensive adult females using geometric morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cherry E. Solon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes morphological variations of the face of hypertensive women when compared to non-hypertensives.Material and Methods: Digital images of the faces of 54 non-hypertensive and 41 hypertensive women were used in this study. Forty-one manuallypositioned landmarks were on front face images, while twenty-eight landmarks were collected on left and right face images, the Cartesiancoordinates of which were extracted using an image analysis and processing software. The faces were then aligned using Procrustes alignmentof the Cartesian coordinates to eliminate size differences and rotational translation. The size residuals left after the alignment were then used toreconstruct the face truss network using thin-plate spline grids. Variations in facial morphology were then explored using the methods of relativewarps analysis and partial warps analysis. Results: Principal Component Analysis revealed that in both populations of females, five or sixprincipal components contribute most to the variation that exist among individuals. Results for fluctuating asymmetry are higher compared toindividual variation, with even higher values in hypertensive individuals compared to non-hypertensive. Scatterplots of residual asymmetrybetween the two groups further revealed the distinct differences existing between them.

  11. Development of the gravid Aedes trap for the capture of adult female container-exploiting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, Alvaro E; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring dengue vector control by sampling adult Aedes aegypti (L.) recently has been used to replace both larval and pupal surveys. We have developed and evaluated the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) through a sequential behavioral study. The GAT does not require electricity to function, and trapped mosquitoes are identified easily during trap inspections. The GAT concept relies on visual and olfactory cues to lure gravid Ae. aegypti and an insecticide to kill trapped mosquitoes. Gravid mosquitoes are lured to a black bucket base containing oviposition attractant (infusion) and are trapped in a translucent chamber impregnated with a pyrethroid insecticide where they are killed within 3-15 min. In semifield observations, the GAT captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the double sticky ovitrap. We also demonstrated that the visual cues of the prototype GAT-LgBF (large black base bucket with a black funnel at the top of the translucent chamber) captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the other prototypes. The visual contrast created by the addition of a white lid to the top of the black funnel significantly increased the number of captured gravid mosquitoes when compared with the GAT-LgBF in semifield trials. We conclude that the GAT is more efficient in recapturing gravid Ae. aegypti when compared with sticky ovitraps. The GAT is an effective, practical, low cost, and easily transportable trap, features that are essential in large-scale monitoring programs, particularly in areas where funding is limited.

  12. Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-08-01

    The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI) = -1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI = -1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control.

  13. Effects of CB1 receptor agonism and antagonism on behavioral fear and physiological stress responses in adult intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-replaced female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, J J; Malivoire, B L; McCormick, C M

    2015-10-15

    There is growing interest in the development of cannabis-based therapies for the treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. There are a few studies, but none in females, of the effects of the highly selective cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) agonist, arachidonyl 2'-chlorethylamide (ACEA), on behavioral fear. In experiment 1 involving gonadally-intact females, ACEA (either 0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg) was without effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and the lower dose decreased anxiety in the open field test (OFT). AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM and decreased locomotor activity in the OFT. Twenty-four hours after fear conditioning, neither ACEA nor AM251 affected generalized fear or conditioned fear recall. AM251 and 0.1 mg/kg ACEA impaired, and 0.01 mg/kg ACEA enhanced, within-session fear extinction. AM251 increased plasma corticosterone concentrations after the fear extinction session, whereas ACEA was without effect. Based on evidence that estradiol may moderate the effects of CB1 receptor signaling in females, experiment 2 involved ovariectomized (OVX) rats provided with 10-μg 17β-Estradiol and compared with OVX rats without hormone replacement (oil vehicle). Irrespective of hormone treatment, AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM, whereas ACEA (0.01 mg/kg) was without effect. Neither hormone nor drug altered anxiety in the OFT, but estradiol increased and AM251 decreased distance traveled. After fear conditioning, AM251 decreased generalized fear. Neither hormone nor drug had any effect on recall or extinction of conditioned fear, however, ACEA and AM251 increased fear-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations. Further, when results with intact rats were compared with those from OVX rats, gonadal status did not moderate the effects of either AM251 or ACEA, although OVX displayed greater anxiety and fear than did intact rats. Thus, the effects of CB1 receptor antagonism and agonism in adult female rats do not depend on ovarian estradiol.

  14. Effects of CB1 receptor agonism and antagonism on behavioral fear and physiological stress responses in adult intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-replaced female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, J J; Malivoire, B L; McCormick, C M

    2015-10-15

    There is growing interest in the development of cannabis-based therapies for the treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. There are a few studies, but none in females, of the effects of the highly selective cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) agonist, arachidonyl 2'-chlorethylamide (ACEA), on behavioral fear. In experiment 1 involving gonadally-intact females, ACEA (either 0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg) was without effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and the lower dose decreased anxiety in the open field test (OFT). AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM and decreased locomotor activity in the OFT. Twenty-four hours after fear conditioning, neither ACEA nor AM251 affected generalized fear or conditioned fear recall. AM251 and 0.1 mg/kg ACEA impaired, and 0.01 mg/kg ACEA enhanced, within-session fear extinction. AM251 increased plasma corticosterone concentrations after the fear extinction session, whereas ACEA was without effect. Based on evidence that estradiol may moderate the effects of CB1 receptor signaling in females, experiment 2 involved ovariectomized (OVX) rats provided with 10-μg 17β-Estradiol and compared with OVX rats without hormone replacement (oil vehicle). Irrespective of hormone treatment, AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM, whereas ACEA (0.01 mg/kg) was without effect. Neither hormone nor drug altered anxiety in the OFT, but estradiol increased and AM251 decreased distance traveled. After fear conditioning, AM251 decreased generalized fear. Neither hormone nor drug had any effect on recall or extinction of conditioned fear, however, ACEA and AM251 increased fear-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations. Further, when results with intact rats were compared with those from OVX rats, gonadal status did not moderate the effects of either AM251 or ACEA, although OVX displayed greater anxiety and fear than did intact rats. Thus, the effects of CB1 receptor antagonism and agonism in adult female rats do not depend on ovarian estradiol. PMID:26311003

  15. Transgenesis for pig models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  16. Postadolescent acne in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, R; Shakery, K

    2014-01-01

    Acne in the adult female often presents as a chronic condition that can have a considerable negative psychological, social and emotional impact on the affected individual. Estimated prevalence rates of adult female acne vary widely according to study type. Case reports and clinical examinations estimate the prevalence of clinical acne at 10-12%, while survey estimates of physiological disease states are as high as 54%. Two subtypes of adult female acne may be defined according to time of onset: 'persistent' and 'late-onset', accounting for approximately 80 and 20% of cases, respectively. Postadolescent acne is generally mild-to-moderate in severity and presents with more inflammatory lesions and fewer comedones compared to adolescent acne. Furthermore, the impact of acne on the quality of life is often greater in adult females than in younger individuals. Despite these important differences, the key principles of acne treatment in the adult female do not differ significantly from those of other age groups. However, specific characteristics relating to the adult female should be considered when selecting a treatment regimen. PMID:24280643

  17. Treadmill Intervention Attenuates the Cafeteria Diet-Induced Impairment of Stress-Coping Strategies in Young Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa, Igor; Lalanza, Jaume F.; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M.; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    The current prevalence of diet-induced overweight and obesity in adolescents and adults is continuously growing. Although the detrimental biochemical and metabolic consequences of obesity are widely studied, its impact on stress-coping behavior and its interaction with specific exercise doses (in terms of intensity, duration and frequency) need further investigation. To this aim, we fed adolescent rats either an obesogenic diet (cafeteria diet, CAF) or standard chow (ST). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the type of treadmill intervention as follows: a sedentary group receiving no manipulation; a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill; a low-intensity treadmill group trained at 12 m/min; and a higher intensity treadmill group trained at 17 m/min. Both the diet and treadmill interventions started at weaning and lasted for 8 weeks. Subjects were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and for coping strategies in the two-way active avoidance paradigm at week 7 and were sacrificed at week 8 for biometric and metabolic characterization. CAF feeding increased the weight gain, relative retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT %), and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin and decreased the insulin sensitivity. Treadmill intervention partially reversed the RWAT% and triglyceride alterations; at higher intensity, it decreased the leptin levels of CAF-fed animals. CAF feeding decreased the motor activity and impaired the performance in a two-way active avoidance assessment. Treadmill intervention reduced defecation in the shuttle box, suggesting diminished anxiety. CAF feeding combined with treadmill training at 17 m/min increased the time spent in the center of the open field and more importantly, partially reversed the two-way active avoidance deficit. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that at doses that decreased anxiety-like behavior, treadmill exercise partially improved the coping strategy

  18. "The Spotty Cow Tickled the Pig with a Curly Tail": How Do Sentence Position, Preferred Argument Structure, and Referential Complexity Affect Children's and Adults' Choice of Referring Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, Anna L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 5-year-olds and adults described scenes that differed according to whether (a) the subject or object of a transitive verb represented an accessible or inaccessible referent, consistent or inconsistent with patterns of preferred argument structure, and (b) a simple noun was sufficient to uniquely identify an inaccessible referent.…

  19. A case of gastric mature cystic teratoma in adult female%成年女性胃成熟性囊性畸胎瘤1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁楚强; 周辉君

    2015-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is an infrequent gastric lesions,is short of 1% in teratoma,has commonly occur in male infant,and particularly has diseased within 3 months.36 cases with gastric teratoma who had been reported from 1996 to 2002 were newborns excluding 3 cases of adults with 2 male cases and 1 female case and 7 cases of children.Gastric teratoma has the regular systematic report less than thousand cases,since Eusterman has reported the first male patient aged 31 in 1992.To report one case of gastric teratoma which has the main manifestations of abdominal distension and abdominal mass without specific,is easy of misdiagnosis,has commonly occur in male infant within 3 months and much infrequent in adult female.%胃畸胎瘤是一种很罕见的胃部病变,在畸胎瘤中所占比例不足1%,一般好发于男性婴幼儿,特别是出生3个月内的发病占绝大多数。国内1996~2002年间共报告36例,其中除3例成年人(男2例,女1例),7例幼儿外,均发生于新生儿。而自1922年Eusterman首次报告1例31岁男性患者以来,目前胃畸胎瘤正规系统报告尚不足千例。该病以腹胀、腹部肿块为主要临床表现,无特异性,易误诊。因本病好发于出生3个月内的男婴,而成年女性则极为罕见,现报道1例。

  20. Proteomic identification of non-erythrocytic alpha-spectrin-1 down-regulation in the pre-optic area of neonatally estradiol-17β treated female adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that sexually dimorphic brain regions, which are critical for reproductive physiology and behavior, are organized by steroid hormones during the first 2 weeks after birth in the rodents. In our recent observation, neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β (E2) in the female rat revealed increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) level, sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN)-pre-optic area (POA) size and down-regulation of synaptogenesis related genes in POA in the adult stage. In the present study, using the same animal model, the protein profile of control and neonatally E2-treated POA was compared by 1D-SDS-PAGE, and the protein that shows a change in abundance was identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Results indicated that there was a single protein band, which was down-regulation in E2-treated POA and it was identified as spectrin alpha chain, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTAN1). Consistently, the down-regulation of SPTAN1 expression was also confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The SPTAN1 was identified as a cytoskeletal protein that is involved in stabilization of the plasma membrane and organizes intracellular organelles, and it has been implicated in cellular functions including DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. The evidence shows that any mutation in spectrins causes impairment of synaptogenesis and other neurological disorders. Also, protein-protein interaction analysis of SPTAN1 revealed a strong association with proteins such as kirrel, actinin, alpha 4 (ACTN4) and vinculin (VCL) which are implicated in sexual behavior, masculinization and defeminization. Our results indicate that SPTAN1 expression in the developing rat brain is sexually dimorphic, and we suggest that this gene may mediate E2-17β-induced masculinization and defeminization, and disrupted reproductive function in the adult stage. PMID:27166725

  1. Is whole body bone mineral density measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry applied to evaluate risk of osteoporosis among Japanese adult females?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to measure whole body fat accurately, the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely utilized. Simultaneously, bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body can also be measured. BMD is one of important information to diagnose osteoporosis. However, it is not established to use whole body BMD for this diagnosis. It is recommended that lumbar and/or hip BMD should be used for diagnosing osteoporosis by the guideline for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although it is possible to measure whole body BMD and lumbar and/or hip BMD separately at the same visit, it is inevitable to expose patients to more X-ray. Therefore, an aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between whole body BMD and lumbar BMD to find the cut off point of whole body BMD for screening of osteoporosis. Two hundred and thirty six Japanese adult females were ascertained to this study. Whole body BMD and lumbar BMD of each subject were measured with the use of Delphi W (Hologic, USA). One hundred and sixty five subjects were judged as possible osteoporosis (less than 80% of young adult mean (YAM) of lumbar BMD and/or definite fracture of lumbar vertebras). The cut off point of whole body BMD for screening possible osteoporosis was estimated by receiver operated characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cut off point of whole body BMD was 84% of YAM, equivalent to 80% of YAM of lumbar BMD, with the following sensitivity and specificity (0.84 and 0.79, respectively), indicating that whole body BMD could be used for screening osteoporosis. (author)

  2. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politi Flávio Augusto Sanches

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5 minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS, using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0 mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5 minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus.

  3. CESSATION OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS TRANSMISSION AMONG SCAVENGING MAMMALS AFTER THE REMOVAL OF INFECTED PIGS FROM A POORLY MANAGED FARM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs infected with the zoonotic parasite Trichinella spiralis were detected on a farm in Maryland during an animal welfare investigation. Sera and/or tissues were collected from 49 pigs and 3 pig carcasses (7 weeks of age to adult, mixed sex). The tissues were tested for the presence of T. spiralis ...

  4. Climatic factors associated with reproductive performance in English Berkshire pigs and crossbred pigs between Landrace and Large White raised in a subtropical climate region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Shiho; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to characterize Berkshire female pigs associated with climatic factors by examining the interactions between two pig groups (pure English Berkshire females and crossbred females between Landrace and Large White) for reproductive performance in a humid subtropical zone. We analyzed 63,227 first-service records of 11,992 females in 12 herds. Climate data were obtained from four weather stations located close to the herds. Mean daily maximum temperatures (Tmax) and daily average relative humidity (ARH) for different time periods around servicing and farrowing of each female were coordinated with that female's reproductive performance data. Multilevel mixed-effects models were applied to the data. There were two-way interactions between the pig groups and either Tmax or ARH for weaning-to-first-mating interval (WMI) and number of total pigs born (TPB; P TPB decreased by 0.3 pigs as Tmax increased from 20 to 30 °C (P < 0.05), whereas that in crossbred females decreased by 0.4 pigs (P < 0.05). Therefore, we recommend producers apply advanced cooling systems for Berkshire females. PMID:26250151

  5. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 5, Fifteen-year-old male and adult female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a fifteen-year-old male or an adult female (55 to 58 kg). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods of Snyder et al. at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Diel vertical migration and feeding in adult female Calanus pacificus, Metridia lucens and Pseudocalanus newmani during a spring bloom in Dabob Bay, a fjord in Washington USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, M. J.; Frost, B. W.; Newton, J.

    1998-06-01

    Diel vertical migration and feeding on phytoplankton by adult female Calanus pacificus, Metridia lucens and Pseudocalanus newmani were simultaneously measured near the end of a phytoplankton bloom. Almost the entire Calanus population migrated out of the deep layer (108-50 m) at night but only about 30% came to the surface (25-0 m). Feeding occurred only at night and was equally high in the surface and intermediate layers, in spite of much higher food concentrations in the surface. Like Calanus, the entire Metridia population was found in the deep layer during the day but unlike Calanus, 20-50% remained in the deep layer at night and most migratory Metridia were collected from the surface layer. Metridia feeding at night was highest in the surface layer but significant feeding also occurred in both the intermediate and deep layers. Migratory behavior of Pseudocalanus was weak, with the proportion of the population in the surface layer increasing from slightly <10% during the day to approx 30% at night. Feeding occurred in both surface and intermediate layers throughout the 24 h but was greater in both layers at night. The different migratory patterns are discussed in the context of our current understanding of the contributions of predator avoidance and feeding to diel vertical migration.

  7. Persistent Infection by Wolbachia wAlbB Has No Effect on Composition of the Gut Microbiota in Adult Female Anopheles stephensi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shicheng; Zhao, Jiangchao; Joshi, Deepak; Xi, Zhiyong; Norman, Beth; Walker, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    The bacteria in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi adult females from laboratory colonies were studied by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA genes, with respect to three experimental factors: stable or cured Wolbachia infection; sugar or blood diet; and age. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the community [>90% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]; most taxa were in the classes Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, and were assigned to Elizabethkingia (46.9%), Asaia (6.4%) and Pseudomonas (6.0%), or unclassified Enterobacteriaceae (37.2%). Bacterial communities were similar between Wolbachia-cured and Wolbachia-infected mosquito lines, indicating that the gut microbiota were not dysregulated in the presence of Wolbachia. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in mosquitoes fed a blood meal compared to those provided a sugar meal. Collectively, the bacterial community had a similar structure in older Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes 8 days after the blood meal, as in younger Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes before a blood meal, except that older mosquitoes had a higher proportion of Enterobacteriaceae and lower proportion of Elizabethkingia. Consistent presence of certain predominant bacteria (Elizabethkingia, Asaia, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae) suggests they would be useful for paratransgenesis to control malaria infection, particularly when coupled to a Wolbachia-based intervention strategy. PMID:27708633

  8. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  9. Effect of split marketing on the welfare, performance, and carcass traits of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, S; Lawlor, P G; O'Connell, N; Boyle, L A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a split marketing (SM) strategy, in which the heaviest pigs in a group are removed and slaughtered earlier than the others, with an all-out (AO) marketing strategy, in which all pigs are removed from the pen simultaneously and slaughtered on the same day, in terms of welfare, performance, and carcass traits of noncastrated (i.e., intact) male and female pigs. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial array with 1) marketing strategy (SM vs. AO) and 2) sex (males vs. females), which yielded 4 treatment groups of 14 pigs (73.1 ± 4.8 kg): male SM, male AO, female SM, and female AO (7 replicates/group). Pigs in AO groups were all slaughtered after 6 wk on trial, whereas in SM groups the 3 heaviest pigs were removed and slaughtered 2 wk before the remainder of the group, which were slaughtered at the same time as the AO pigs. Pigs were fed a liquid diet from a long trough 3 times daily. Behavioral observations were conducted before and after SM, the day of SM, and 1 and 2 wk later. Behavior was recorded both during and between feed events, and skin lesions were scored on all, except the 3 pigs removed from SM groups before and 2 wk after SM. Growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were recorded. The number of aggressive interactions during feed events decreased after the 3 pigs were removed from SM groups. This reduction in aggressive interactions was observed on the day of SM in male groups (before SM: 24.3 vs. the day of SM: 14.7, SED = 3.31, P 0.10). There were no differences between the 11 remaining pigs in SM groups and the 14 pigs in AO groups in terms of growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of female or intact male pigs (P > 0.10). However, reduced within-pen CV in carcass weight was detected in pigs from SM groups compared with pigs from AO groups (8.6 vs. 10.9, SEM = 0.72, P < 0.05). Therefore, in restrictively fed pigs, a SM strategy improved the welfare of both

  10. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  11. Two cases of meningocele and meningoencephalocele in Jeju native pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, In-Cheol; Park, Yong-Sang; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Han, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Sang-Rae; Park, Hee-Bok; Jeon, Kyong-Leek; Moon, Kyoung-Ha; Cho, Han-Seong; Kang, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Meningocele and meningoencephalocele of the skull are congenital deformities. Various species, such as pigs, dogs, and cats, are susceptible to congenital meningocele and meningoencephalocele and the incidence is higher in large white and landrace pigs. Case presentation In this study, swelling was observed in the fontanel areas of the median planes of the skull cap in two female piglets of the same litter. Gross clinical examination, neurological examination, computed tomography (...

  12. Sex differences in adrenocortical structure and function. XVI. Stereological and karyometric studies on the cortex of the suprarenal gland of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malendowicz, L K

    1984-10-01

    The histological structure of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) suprarenal cortex has been described, and quantitative stereological and karyometric studies were performed. The weight of the gland relative to body weight was higher in female than in male gerbils, but the volume of the gland was similar in both sexes. The relative volume of the zona reticularis was higher in the female, while no sex difference was observed in the absolute volume of all suprarenal components (expressed in mm3). In all cortical zones, average cell volume was higher in the female; the nuclear volume of the zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis were also higher in the female. In the zona fasciculata, some large cells with large nuclei (greater than 210 micrometers 3) were observed. These are probably polyploid cells and have not been described in other species. The suprarenal cortex of the male gerbil contained more parenchymal cells than that of the female, the difference being dependent upon variation in the number of cells in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Despite these structural differences, gland homogenates from male and female animals secreted similar amounts of cortisol and the plasma levels in the two sexes were the same.

  13. Efeito do manejo pré-abate sobre alguns parâmetros fisiológicos em fêmeas suínas pesadas Effect of pre-slaughter management on physiological parameters of heavy-weight female pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do período de descanso (3, 5, 7 e 9 horas dos suínos no frigorífico (PDF e da localização dos suínos na carroceria do caminhão (PBO, quando transportados, no inverno ou verão, sobre alguns parâmetros fisiológicos avaliados em 64 fêmeas, com peso médio de 130kg para abate, durante o manejo pré-abate. Para a análise estatística, foram considerados, no modelo de análise da variância, os efeitos de bloco, PDF, PBO e da interação (bloco x PDF, entre outros. O PDF influenciou, significativamente, as concentrações de lactato no sangue e cortisol na saliva. Suínos que descansaram 5 e 7 horas apresentaram maior concentração de lactato em relação aos animais que descansaram 3 e 9 horas. No transporte, a freqüência cardíaca foi muito maior em relação aos demais locais avaliados. Concluiu-se que o incremento do PDF não promove mudanças na freqüência cardíaca, nas concentrações de glicose e CPK no sangue e cortisol na saliva, mas interfere na concentração de lactato no sangue dos suínos.The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of pig lairage time (PDF=3, 5, 7 and 9 hours and evaluate the effect of pig position into the truck (PBO during transportation to slaughterhouse, in winter or summer conditions, on some physiologic parameters evaluated on 64 heavyweight females with mean liveweight of 130kg during pre-slaughter events. The following effects were considered in the statistical analysis of variance model: block (BL=summer farm or winter farm, PDF, PBO and interaction (Block x PDF, under other factors. The PDF influenced significativelly blood lactate and saliva cortisol levels. Pig submitted to 5 and 7 hours of lairage had higher levels of lactate when compared to pigs submitted to 3 and 9 hours of lairage. During transport the heart rate were higher than in other pre-slaughter events. It is concluded that increasing PDF above 3 hours had no effects on heart

  14. Effects of estrogens and bladder inflammation on mitogen-activated protein kinases in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia from adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keast Janet R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition associated with bladder inflammation and, like a number of other chronic pain states, symptoms associated with interstitial cystitis are more common in females and fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogens could directly modulate signalling pathways within bladder sensory neurons, such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. These signalling pathways have been implicated in neuronal plasticity underlying development of inflammatory somatic pain but have not been as extensively investigated in visceral nociceptors. We have focused on lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons projecting to pelvic viscera (L1, L2, L6, S1 of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and performed both in vitro and in vivo manipulations to compare the effects of short- and long-term changes in estrogen levels on MAPK expression and activation. We have also investigated if prolonged estrogen deprivation influences the effects of lower urinary tract inflammation on MAPK signalling. Results In studies of isolated DRG neurons in short-term (overnight culture, we found that estradiol and estrogen receptor (ER agonists rapidly stimulated ER-dependent p38 phosphorylation relative to total p38. Examination of DRGs following chronic estrogen deprivation in vivo (ovariectomy showed a parallel increase in total and phosphorylated p38 (relative to β-tubulin. We also observed an increase in ERK1 phosphorylation (relative to total ERK1, but no change in ERK1 expression (relative to β-tubulin. We observed no change in ERK2 expression or phosphorylation. Although ovariectomy increased the level of phosphorylated ERK1 (vs. total ERK1, cyclophosphamide-induced lower urinary tract inflammation did not cause a net increase of either ERK1 or ERK2, or their phosphorylation. Inflammation did, however, cause an increase in p38

  15. When pigs fly, UCP1 makes heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jastroch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brown and beige adipose tissue may represent important therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes and obesity as these organs dissipate nutrient energy as heat through the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1. While mice are commonly used to mimic the potential effects of brown/beige adipose tissue that may act in human metabolism, new animal models are edging into the market for translational medicine. Pigs reflect human metabolism better than mice in multiple parameters such as obesity-induced hyperglycemia, cholesterol profiles and energy metabolism. Recently, it was reported that energy expenditure and body temperature in pigs is induced by the hormone leptin, and that leptin's action is mediated by UCP1 in adipose tissue. Given the tremendous importance of identifying molecular mechanisms for targeting therapeutics, we critically examine the evidence supporting the presence of UCP1 in pigs and conclude that methodological shortcomings prevent an unequivocal claim for the presence of UCP1 in pigs. Despite this, we believe that leptin's effects on energy expenditure in pigs are potentially more transformative to human medicine in the absence of UCP1, as adult and obese humans possess only minor amounts of UCP1. In general, we propose that the biology of new animal models requires attention to comparative studies with humans given the increasing amount of genomic information for various animal species.

  16. When pigs fly, UCP1 makes heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastroch, Martin; Andersson, Leif

    2015-05-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue may represent important therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes and obesity as these organs dissipate nutrient energy as heat through the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). While mice are commonly used to mimic the potential effects of brown/beige adipose tissue that may act in human metabolism, new animal models are edging into the market for translational medicine. Pigs reflect human metabolism better than mice in multiple parameters such as obesity-induced hyperglycemia, cholesterol profiles and energy metabolism. Recently, it was reported that energy expenditure and body temperature in pigs is induced by the hormone leptin, and that leptin's action is mediated by UCP1 in adipose tissue. Given the tremendous importance of identifying molecular mechanisms for targeting therapeutics, we critically examine the evidence supporting the presence of UCP1 in pigs and conclude that methodological shortcomings prevent an unequivocal claim for the presence of UCP1 in pigs. Despite this, we believe that leptin's effects on energy expenditure in pigs are potentially more transformative to human medicine in the absence of UCP1, as adult and obese humans possess only minor amounts of UCP1. In general, we propose that the biology of new animal models requires attention to comparative studies with humans given the increasing amount of genomic information for various animal species.

  17. Comparative study on haematological traits of endangered Andaman wild pig and other indigenous pig breeds available at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar De

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim:The present experiment was conducted to investigate and compare the haematological parameters of different pig breedsavailable at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India viz. Andaman wild pig, Nicobari pig, Andaman desi pig and Large WhiteYorkshire (LWY. Six erythrocyte traits, seven leukocyte traits and four platelet traits were assessed.Materials and Methods: 10 ml blood was collected from each adult pig via external jugular vein aseptically in a collectiontube containing anticoagulant EDTA (2 mg EDTA/ml of blood. All these haematological parameters were measured by aninstrument named Cell Counter Analyzer MS9-5V(Melet Schloesing Laboratories.Results:Asignificantly (p<0.05 higher Red Blood Cell Concentration (RBC in 106/μl, Packed Cell Volume (PCVin % andHaemoglobin concentration (Hgb in g/dl was found in Andaman wild pig in comparison to all other pig breeds. The TotalWhite Blood Cell Concentration (WBC in 103/μl was significantly (P<0.05 higher in Andaman wild pig in comparison to allthe other pig breeds studied. The ratio of Neutrophil and Lymphocyte (N:L was lowest in Andaman wild pig and was highestin LWY. No significant difference (P<0.05 was found in total Blood Platelet Concentration (PLTin 103/μl between Andamanwild pig and LWYbut the values were significantly higher in comparison to Andaman desi pig and Nicobari pig.Conclusions: The haematological parameters of different pig breeds available at Andaman and Nicobar Islands wereinvestigated and compared and based on haematological parameters it was found that Andaman wild pig is best adapted in thehot humid climate of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Large White Yorkshire is least adapted.

  18. 戊酸雌二醇对雌性巴马香猪脂质代谢的影响及其作用机制%Effect of Estradiol Valerate on Lipid Metabolism of Female Bama Xiang-Pigs and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国礼; 范觉鑫; 张彬; 李丽立; 印遇龙

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of estradiol valerate on lipid metabolism of female Bama Xiang-pigs and its mechanism, a total of 20 healthy female Bama Xiang-pigs of 35 days old were selected and randomly divided into two groups ( control group and experimental group) with each group had 10 replicates and each replicate had 1 pig. The pigs in the control group were fed a basal diet, while the pigs in the experimental group were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0. 66 mg/kg estradiol valerate ( equivalent to 0. 5 mg/kg estradiol) for 120 d. The results showed as follows:1) diets supplemented with estradiol valerate significantly decreased the final body weight, body weight gain and body fat percentage of female Bama Xiang-pigs ( P0.05);the mRNA relative expression levels of FAS, ACC and LPL in abdominal subcutaneous adipose were significantly decreased ( P0.05); the mRNA relative expression levels of PPAR-γ, FAS, ER-α and ER-βin perirenal adipose were significantly decreased ( P0.05) . Those results indicate that estradiol va-lerate can control the body weight gain and fat deposition and improve the levels of blood GLU and TG of fe-male Bama Xiang-pigs effectively. In addition, there may be exist two ways for estradiol valerate to regulate the lipid metabolism, one is that influencing the lipid metabolism in different white adipose tissues by regulating the expression of genes related to lipogenic and lipolytic metabolism, the other one is that modulating the ex-pression of LPL by regulating the expression of estrogen receptors, then to affect the lipogenic metabolism.%本试验旨在研究戊酸雌二醇对雌性巴马香猪脂质代谢的影响及其作用机制。采用单因子试验设计,选取20头健康的35日龄雌性巴马香猪随机分为2组,即对照组与试验组,每组10个重复,每个重复1头猪。对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组饲喂在基础饲粮中添加0.66 mg/kg戊酸雌二醇(相当于0.5 mg/kg雌二醇)的

  19. Hematological Profile of Zovawk – an indigenous pig of Mizoram

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    Prava Mayengbam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To generate baseline data on the hematological profile of local pig of Mizoram at different age groups. Materials and Methods: 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 108 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult groups reared in the Veterinary College, Aizawl Livestock Farm in order to find out the normal hematological profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. Results: Total erythrocyte count (TEC, Total leukocyte count (TLC, Packed cell volume (PCV, Mean corpuscular volume (MCV and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH were significantly higher in adults as compared to the young ones (p<0.05. MCH declined significantly from the pre-weaning pigs to grower pigs and increased in adult pigs (p<0.05. There was no significant change in Hb and MCHC with age. Conclusion: Hematological parameters of Zovawk, a locally available indigenous pig of Mizoram were investigated. Hematological profile changed with the age.

  20. Tail biting in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  1. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither...... of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part...

  2. Widespread distribution of hepatitis E virus in Spanish pig herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gironés Olivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection is a serious health problem in developing countries and is also increasingly reported in industrialized regions. HEV is considered a zoonotic agent and strains isolated from swine and human sources are genetically similar. Thus, HEV is of increasing importance to both public and animal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of HEV in a large population of pigs from herds located in different autonomous regions throughout Spain. Results The presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was analyzed in 1141 swine serum samples (corresponding to 381 pigs younger than 6 months and 760 pigs older than 6 months collected from 85 herds. Herds were located in 6 provinces in 4 autonomous regions throughout Spain. At least one pig tested positive for anti-HEV IgG in over 80% of herds. Of individual pigs, 20.4% (233/1141 were positive for anti-HEV IgG, with the prevalence being higher in adult pigs than in those under 6 months (30.2% vs. 15.5%. A subset of serum samples taken at 2- to 5-week intervals showed that seroprevalence dropped between 3 and 11 weeks of age, and then rose significantly by the 15th week. Pigs were also examined for the presence of HEV-RNA by RT-PCR. Of pigs tested for the presence of HEV-RNA 18.8% (64/341 were positive, with at least one pig in almost half of the herds testing positive. HEV-RNA amplicons from several positive pigs were sequenced and all were of genotype 3. Conclusions HEV was found to be widely distributed among swine farms across Spain, with the prevalence being highest among animals older than 6 months. These results indicate that HEV infection either is or is likely to become endemic in the Spanish swine population.

  3. Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mayengbam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the influence of season on erythrocyte picture, plasma enzyme and electrolyte profile of local pig of Mizoram at a different age. Materials and Methods: A volume of 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 72 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult pigs reared in College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, livestock farm during summer and winter in order to find out influence of season on erythrocyte picture, enzyme and electrolyte profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using diagnostic kits. Results: The grower pigs had lower hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH during summer, rainy and winter seasons (p<0.05 and lower MCH concentration (MCHC during summer season (p<0.05. Adult pigs had lower Hb with higher total erythrocyte count in rainy season. PCV and MCV of adult pigs decreased in summer (p<0.05. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity of both the grower and adult groups increased during summer and rainy seasons (p<0.05. Zovawk pigs had higher sodium (Na and lower potassium (K in rainy season (p<0.05. Pre-weaning piglets had higher Na, K, calcium (Ca, and magnesium (Mg in summer than in winter. Grower pigs had higher Na, K and Ca in summer (p<0.05. Pi of pre-weaning and grower groups was higher in winter. Adult pigs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca in summer and higher Pi and Mg in winter (p<0.05. Conclusion: Seasonal variation in some hemato-biochemical parameters of Zovawk pig were investigated. Influence of season on the hemato-biochemical profile was most evident during the grower stage, followed by adults and pre-weaning piglets.

  4. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal ve...... that modulation of host immunity is likely necessary for prolonged xenograft survival in this model....

  5. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel;

    2013-01-01

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected...... protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts....

  6. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal ve...

  7. Continuous straw provision reduces prevalence of oesophago-gastric ulcer in pigs slaughtered at 170 kg (heavy pigs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Guido; Capello, Katia; Scollo, Annalisa; Gottardo, Flaviana; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Rampin, Fabio; Schiavon, Eliana; Marangon, Stefano; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2013-12-01

    Adopting a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, this study evaluated whether continuous straw provision by racks, tail docking and gender (barrows vs. females) have an effect on the prevalence of lung lesions and oesophago-gastric ulcer (OGU) visually scored at slaughter in 635 Italian heavy pigs (169 ± 4 kg). The lung lesions were very low (72% of pigs with score 0), and were not significantly different among the experimental groups. Overall, OGU was diagnosed in 47% of the pigs. The consumption of small amounts of straw (70 g/day/pig) represented a protective factor against the onset of OGU (OR: 0.27). Barrows were more likely than females to have OGU (OR: 1.52), while no significant differences between docked and undocked pigs were detected. Nevertheless, the presence of straw acted as a protective factor particularly in undocked pigs (OR: 0.16), suggesting that in this group the absence of rooting material may have a stronger effect on welfare.

  8. Endoparasites in pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Šťastný, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine the prevalence of various endoparasites in commercial pig-breeding and comparing the prevalence of various endoparasites in swine in maternity units and individual housing. All the samples were collected from August to November 2011 and they were always processed in next 24 hours. Total number was 95 samples, 50 samples from the swine and 45 from fattening pigs, the samples were examined by quantitative coproovoscopic method by Zajíček (1978). Fo...

  9. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 ...

  10. 成人女性性别课程开发初探——女性主义课程论的视角%Preliminary Study on Gender Curriculum for Adult Females -- From the Perspective of the Feminism Curriculum Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳士彬; 何爱霞

    2012-01-01

    There exist many problems such as gender shielded, gender role stereotype, female personalized subject ignored, female learning styles extreme in the current adult education curriculum. The development of gender curriculum for adult females should determine suitable curriculum goal orientation, outfit internal curriculum development subject, compile distinctive curriculum contents and use pertinence curriculum teaching styles regarding the feminism curriculum theory as guidelines.%目前的成人教育课程存在着“性别屏蔽”、性别角色刻板、忽视女性个性化主体、女性学习方式极端化等诸多问题。以女性主义课程论的有关思想为指导,成人女性性别课程开发应确立适切性的课程目标取向,配置内在化的课程开发主体,选编有特色的课程内容,采取针对性的课程教学方式。

  11. Mechanical ventilation and sepsis impair protein metabolism in the diaphragm of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) impairs diaphragmatic function and diminishes the ability to wean from ventilatory support in adult humans. In normal neonatal pigs, animals that are highly anabolic, endotoxin (LPS) infusion induces sepsis, reduces peripheral skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates, but ...

  12. Effect of brown rice consumption on inflammatory marker and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese non-menopausal female adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Kazemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present results suggest that BR replacement in the diet may be useful to decrease inflammatory marker level and several cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female.

  13. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P pig.

  14. Climatic factors associated with reproductive performance in English Berkshire pigs and crossbred pigs between Landrace and Large White raised in a subtropical climate region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Shiho; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to characterize Berkshire female pigs associated with climatic factors by examining the interactions between two pig groups (pure English Berkshire females and crossbred females between Landrace and Large White) for reproductive performance in a humid subtropical zone. We analyzed 63,227 first-service records of 11,992 females in 12 herds. Climate data were obtained from four weather stations located close to the herds. Mean daily maximum temperatures (Tmax) and daily average relative humidity (ARH) for different time periods around servicing and farrowing of each female were coordinated with that female's reproductive performance data. Multilevel mixed-effects models were applied to the data. There were two-way interactions between the pig groups and either Tmax or ARH for weaning-to-first-mating interval (WMI) and number of total pigs born (TPB; P < 0.05). The WMI in Berkshire sows increased by 0.64 days as Tmax increased from 20 to 30 °C (P < 0.05), whereas in crossbred sows it only increased by 0.09 days over the same Tmax range. In contrast, WMI in Berkshire sows only increased by 0.01 days as ARH increased from 60 to 80 % (P < 0.05), whereas in crossbred sows it increased by 0.32 days. In Berkshire females, TPB decreased by 0.3 pigs as Tmax increased from 20 to 30 °C (P < 0.05), whereas that in crossbred females decreased by 0.4 pigs (P < 0.05). Therefore, we recommend producers apply advanced cooling systems for Berkshire females.

  15. 扶桑绵粉蚧雌成虫在大花马齿苋上的空间格局%Spatial distribution of female adults of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) on Portulaca grandiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 沈福泉; 李明江; 郁永明; 吕要斌

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the female adults of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Portulaca grandiflora Hook was studied. The results show that the spatial distribution of P. solenopsis was highly aggregative with reciprocal attraction among individuals. The basic component of distribution was the individual group; the linear regression line had an equation of the form m* =12. 4595 + 1. 2649 m, where m * is the mean crowding and m is the density of female adults. Furthermore, the number of P. solenopsis on the upper or middle part of plants was significantly greater than on the lower part. Lastly, the theoretical sampling numbers of female adults of P. solenopsis were determined under different population densities allowing for sampling error.%本文对外来入侵害虫扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley雌成虫在大花马齿苋(Portulaca grandiflora Hook)上的空间分布特征进行了研究.结果表明,在水平上的空间分布表现为聚集分布,个体间相互吸引,分布的基本成分为个体群;雌成虫密度m和平均拥挤度m*间的回归方程为:m*=12.4595+1.2649 m;雌成虫在大花马齿苋枝条上、中层虫口数量均显著多于下层.确定了不同虫口密度及不同允许误差下的最适抽样数.

  16. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which...... of the studies were specifically designed to investigate dietary or enteric pig factors that may influence the CH4 emission. The data used in the chapter is based on Danish pigs with reference to other European studies. In a global context Denmark’s 12 million pigs (FAOSTAT, 2009) contribute with 1.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...

  17. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  18. Liver DNA methylation analysis in adult female C57BL/6JxFVB mice following perinatal exposure to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esterik, J C J; Vitins, A P; Hodemaekers, H M; Kamstra, J H; Legler, J; Pennings, J L A; Steegenga, W T; Lute, C; Jelinek, J; Issa, J P J; Dollé, M E T; van der Ven, L T M

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound released from plastics and other consumer products used in everyday life. BPA exposure early in fetal development is proposed to contribute to programming of chronic diseases like obesity and diabetes, by affecting DNA methylation levels. Previously, we showed that in utero and lactational exposure of C57BL/6JxFVB hybrid mice via maternal feed using a dose range of 0-3000μg/kg body weight/day resulted in a sex-dependent altered metabolic phenotype in offspring at 23 weeks of age. The most univocal effects were observed in females, with reduced body weights and related metabolic effects associated with perinatal BPA exposure. To identify whether the effects of BPA in females are associated with changes in DNA methylation, this was analyzed in liver, which is important in energy homeostasis. Measurement of global DNA methylation did not show any changes. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis at specific CpG sites in control and 3000μg/kg body weight/day females with the digital restriction enzyme analysis of methylation (DREAM) assay revealed potential differences, that could, however, not be confirmed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Overall, we demonstrated that the observed altered metabolic phenotype in female offspring after maternal exposure to BPA was not detectably associated with liver DNA methylation changes. Still, other tissues may be more informative.

  19. The reference transcriptome of the adult female biting midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and differential gene expression profiling during teneral, blood, and sucrose feeding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoid...

  20. Fosfomycin tromethamine as second agent for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated urinary tract infections in adult female patients in The Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knottnerus, B.J.; Nys, S.; Riet, G. ter; Donker, G.; Geerlings, S.E.; Stobberingh, E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among female patients. According to the national guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners (GPs), the drugs of first and second choice as therapy for UTIs are nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim with resistance percentag

  1. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  2. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis: a global perspective on the transmission dynamics of Ascaris in people and pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Betson, M.; Nejsum, P; Bendall, RP; Deb, RM; Stothard, JR

    2014-01-01

    Background.  The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation. Methods.  Adult Ascaris organisms were obtained from humans and pigs in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Barcodes were assigned to 536 parasites on the basis of sequence analysis of the mito...

  3. Investigating the geometry of pig airways using computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Azad, Md Khurshidul; McMurray, Brandon; Henry, Brian; Royston, Thomas J.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical modeling of sound propagation in the airways requires accurate knowledge of the airway geometry. These models are often validated using human and animal experiments. While many studies documented the geometric details of the human airways, information about the geometry of pig airways is scarcer. In addition, the morphology of animal airways can be significantly different from that of humans. The objective of this study is to measure the airway diameter, length and bifurcation angles in domestic pigs using computed tomography. After imaging the lungs of 3 pigs, segmentation software tools were used to extract the geometry of the airway lumen. The airway dimensions were then measured from the resulting 3 D models for the first 10 airway generations. Results showed that the size and morphology of the airways of different animals were similar. The measured airway dimensions were compared with those of the human airways. While the trachea diameter was found to be comparable to the adult human, the diameter, length and branching angles of other airways were noticeably different from that of humans. For example, pigs consistently had an early airway branching from the trachea that feeds the superior (top) right lung lobe proximal to the carina. This branch is absent in the human airways. These results suggested that the human geometry may not be a good approximation of the pig airways and may contribute to increasing the errors when the human airway geometric values are used in computational models of the pig chest.

  4. Gender Differences in the Anatomy of the Perineal Glands in Guinea Pigs and the Effect of Castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T. M.; Arnbjerg, J.; Ruelokke, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Perineal glands in guinea pigs are part of the sebaceous glandular complex. Their secretions are used for scent marking. This is important for social status and can be seen in both sexes and castrated males. Discrepancy exits about the existence of these glands in female guinea pigs and knowledge...

  5. Inclusion of ensiled cassava KM94 leaves in diets for growing pigs in Vietnam reduces growth rate but increases profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of the inclusion of different levels of ensiled cassava leaves (variety KM94) in the diets on performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs in Vietnam. A total of 40 crossbreds pigs (Large White${\\\\times}$Mong Cai, 20 males and 20 females) w

  6. Effect of adult cold storage on the longevity and reproductive capacity of female Nasonia vitripennis%成虫期冷藏对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂寿命和繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任倩; 王瑞松; 沈忱; 于爱莲; 史卫峰; 万文菊; 李晓霞; 张忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of adult cold storage on the longevity and reproductive capacity of female Nasonia vitripennis. Methods The female N. vitripennis emerged on different days were cold stored at 15 ℃ for different period.Their longevity, parasitic capacity and reproductive capacity were then measured. Results The longevity of female N. vitripennis was extended after cold storage at adult stage. However, as the cold storage time prolonged, the parasitic and reproductive capacities were compromised. At a cold storage time for less than 12 d, the impact on these capacities of female N. vitripennis was not remarkable. In contrast, after cold storage of over 12 d, the egg production and parasitic capacities declined linearly. After cold stored for 24 d, the parasitic ratio of Boettcherisca peregrina by N. vitripennis reduced to 35% from 85% before cold storage and the average emerging parasitoid progeny to 6 from 33 per fly pupa. However, the female adult rate and the body length of the progeny were not affected. Conclusion Adult cold storage extends the longevity of female N. vitripennis at the cost of reproductive capability.%目的 观察成虫期冷藏对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂寿命和繁殖能力的影响.方法 考察羽化后不同时间的丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂在15 ℃冷藏不同时间后的寿命、寄生和繁殖能力.结果 成虫期冷藏可延长丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂的成虫寿命,但随冷藏时间的延长,丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂的寄生能力和产卵能力均受到不同程度的负面影响,当冷藏时间不超过12 d时,丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂的寄生和产卵能力均不受显著影响,而超过12 d后,其产卵和寄生能力均呈线性下降趋势;冷藏前至冷藏后24d,雌蜂对棕尾别麻蝇蛹的寄生率由85%下降至35%,蝇蛹的平均出蜂数由33头/蛹下降至6头/蛹,而后代的雌蜂比和体长均不受影响.结论 成虫期冷藏可延长丽蝇蛹集金小蜂雌蜂的寿命,但影响其繁殖能力.

  7. Investigation of the Effects of Subchronic Low Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and Ethinyl Estradiol (EE) on Estrogen Receptor Expression in the Juvenile and Adult Female Rat Hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuli, Meghan E.; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Delclos, K. Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the long-term impacts of early life exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) on brain organization. Because BPA has been reported to affect estrogen signaling, and steroid hormones play a critical role in brain sexual differentiation, there is also concern that BPA exposure could alter neural sex differences. Here, we examine the impact of subchronic exposure from gestation to adulthood to oral doses of BPA below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day on estrogen receptor (ESR) expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions of prepubertal and adult female rats. The dams were gavaged daily with vehicle (0.3% carboxymethylcellulose), 2.5, 25, 260, or 2700 μg BPA/kg bw/day, or 0.5 or 5.0 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg bw/day from gestational day 6 until labor began. Offspring were then gavaged directly from the day after birth until the day before scheduled sacrifice on postnatal days 21 or 90. Using in situ hybridization, one or more BPA doses produced significant decreases in Esr1 expression in the juvenile female rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus and significant decreases in Esr2 expression in the adult female rat AVPV and medial preoptic area (MPOA), relative to vehicle controls. BPA did not simply reproduce EE effects, indicating that BPA is not acting solely as an estrogen mimic. The possible consequences of long-term changes in hypothalamic ESR expression resulting from subchronic low dose BPA exposure on neuroendocrine effects are discussed and being addressed in ongoing, related work. PMID:24752507

  8. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  9. A Simple "Pig" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  10. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  11. The potential role of adiponectin- and resistin-like peptides in the regulation of lipid levels in the hemolymph of over-wintering adult females of Osmia bicornis

    OpenAIRE

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Giejdasz, Karol; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Bednářová, Andrea; Krishnan, Natraj

    2014-01-01

    The presence and potential role of adiponectin- and resistin-like peptides in mobilizing free lipids of hemolymph during over-wintering was studied in females of the European solitary red mason bee Osmia bicornis L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The levels of both peptides (as demonstrated both by RIA/ELISA and Western blots) were highest in fat body tissue homogenates during early pre-wintering (September) followed by a gradual and significant decline during wintering and post-wintering month...

  12. Effects of estrogens and bladder inflammation on mitogen-activated protein kinases in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia from adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Keast Janet R; Cheng Ying

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition associated with bladder inflammation and, like a number of other chronic pain states, symptoms associated with interstitial cystitis are more common in females and fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogens could directly modulate signalling pathways within bladder sensory neurons, such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. The...

  13. Descriptive study of production factors affecting performance traits in growing-finishing pigs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Agostini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to build up a data set including productive performance and production factors data of growing-finishing (GF pigs in Spain in order to perform a representative and reliable description of the traits of Spanish growing-finishing pig industry. Data from 764 batches from 452 farms belonging to nine companies (1,157,212 pigs were collected between 2008 and 2010 through a survey including five parts: general, facilities, feeding, health status and performance. Most studied farms had only GF pigs on their facilities (94.7%, produced ‘industrial’ pigs (86.7%, had entire male and female (59.5% and Pietrain-sired pigs (70.0%, housed between 13-20 pigs per pen (87.2%, had  50% of slatted floor (70%, single-space dry feeder (54.0%, nipple drinker (88.7% and automatic ventilation systems (71.2%. A 75.0% of the farms used three feeding phases using mainly pelleted diets (91.0%, 61.3% performed three or more antibiotic treatments and 36.5% obtained water from the public supply. Continuous variables studied had the following average values: number of pigs placed per batch, 1,515 pigs; initial and final body weight, 19.0 and 108 kg; length of GF period, 136 days; culling rate, 1.4%; barn occupation, 99.7%; feed intake per pig and fattening cycle, 244 kg; daily gain, 0.657 kg; feed conversion ratio, 2.77 kg kg-1 and mortality rate, 4.3%. Data reflecting the practical situation of the Spanish growing and finishing pig production and it may contribute to develop new strategies in order to improve the productive and economic efficiency of GF pig units.

  14. 新型PH-20疫苗不同注射方式对雌性豚鼠免疫应答和避孕效果的影响%Immune response and effect of contraception in female guinea pigs injected with PH-20 coupling body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金呈强; 刘仿; 郑碧英; 董海新; 周建伟; 张健

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the immune response and contraceptive effect of guinea pigs injected with the PH-20 coupling body by different method of injection. Methods Sixty female guinea pigs were divided randomly into two groups (rectal injection group and intraperitoneal injection group) , then each group was subdivided into three groups (experimental group 1 , experimental group 2 and control group, 10 female guinea pigs in each group). To observe morphology of the coupling by electron microscopy, to test vaginal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) level by double sandwich ELISA and blood sIgA by radioimmunoassay. PH-20 specific antibody level in blood was detected by competitive ELISA. Results Blood and vaginal secretions slgA and PH-20 antibody levels in rectal injection group and intraperitoneal injection group were both higher than those in control group ( P <0. 05). Blood and vaginal secretions of guinea pig sIgA and PH-20 antibody levels in experimental group 1 (add Freund complete adjuvant) were higher than those in experimental group 2 ( without adding Freund complete adjuvant) (P < 0. 05). The total positive pregnancy rate in rectal injection group was significantly different from intraperitoneal injection group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions The PH-20 coupling body has a high immune activity and can induce significant humoral response, and the rectal injection is superior to the intraperitoneal injection. Freund' s complete adjuvant is able to enhance the effectiveness of two contraceptive injection.%目的 观察以等比方法配制的新型精子表面特异性透明质酸酶(PH-20)疫苗的不同注射方式对豚鼠免疫应答和避孕的影响.方法 60只雌性豚鼠随机分为两大组(直肠注射组和腹腔注射组),每组再分为3个小组(实验1组、实验2组和对照组,每小组各10只),用电镜观察该新型PH -20疫苗的形态,应用双夹心酶联免疫吸附试验( ELISA)检测豚鼠阴道分泌物中分泌型免疫球蛋白A(sIgA)

  15. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  16. Maternal lipopolysaccharide treatment differentially affects 5-HT(2A) and mGlu2/3 receptor function in the adult male and female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Dietz, Frank; Koch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. However, it is still not fully understood which biochemical mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms following prenatal immune activation. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and glutamate system have prominently been associated with the schizophrenia pathophysiology but also with the mechanism of antipsychotic drug actions. Here, we investigated the behavioral and cellular response to 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)2/3 receptor stimulation in male and female offspring born to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mothers. Additionally, we assessed protein expression levels of prefrontal 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors. Prenatally LPS-exposed male and female offspring showed locomotor hyperactivity and increased head-twitch behavior in response to the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI. In LPS-exposed male offspring, the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 failed to reduce DOI-induced prepulse inhibition deficits. In LPS-males, the behavioral changes were further accompanied by enhanced DOI-induced c-Fos protein expression and an up-regulation of prefrontal 5-HT2A receptors. No changes in either 5-HT2A or mGlu2 receptor protein levels were found in female offspring. Our data support the hypothesis of an involvement of maternal infection during pregnancy contributing, at least partially, to the pathology of schizophrenia. Identifying biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioral deficits may help to improve therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this mental illness. Since most studies in rodents almost exclusively include male subjects, our data further contribute to elucidating possible gender differences in the effects of prenatal infection on 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptor function. PMID:26051401

  17. Experimental and finite element analysis of strains induced by axial tibial compression in young-adult and old female C57Bl/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Tarpit K.; Brodt, Michael D.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Axial compression of the mouse tibia is used to study strain-adaptive bone (re)modeling. In some studies, comparisons between mice of different ages are of interest. We characterized the tibial deformation and force–strain relationships in female C57Bl/6 mice at 5-, 12- and 22-months age. A three-gauge experimental method was used to determine the strain distribution at the mid-diaphysis, while specimen-specific finite element analysis was used to examine strain distribution along the tibial ...

  18. Effects of minocycline and spironolactone on moderate acne in female adults%米诺环素联合螺内酯治疗中度女性成人痤疮的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璟蓉; 曾仁山; 王建琴; 方锐华

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of minocycline and spironolactone in female adults with moderate acne. Methods: Between 2011 and 2013, we recruited 148 female adults with moderate acne from Guangzhou Nansha Central Hospital and Guangzhou First People’ s Hospital. Patients were randomly allocated to be treated with minocycline plus spironolactone and adapalene gel ( group A, n=50) , minocycline plus adapalene gel ( group B, n=52) and adapalene gel ( group C, n=46) . Results:After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of treatment, group A yielded an effective rate of 48%, 62%, 82% and 94%, respectively. These figures were 28.85%, 40.38%, 63.46% and 78.85% in group B, and 10.87%, 17.39%, 23.91% and 28.26% in group C, respectively (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Minocycline plus spironolactone is effective and safe in female adults with moderate acne.%目的:探讨米诺环素联合螺内酯治疗中度女性成人痤疮的疗效及安全性。方法:将2011年到2013年广州南沙中心医院和广州市第一人民医院皮肤科收治的148例中度女性成人痤疮患者随机分为:A组(50例),采用米诺环素联合螺内酯、阿达帕林凝胶治疗;B组(52例)采用米诺环素联合阿达帕林凝胶治疗;C组(46例)采用阿达帕林凝胶治疗。结果:治疗时间分4个阶段2、4、6、8周。其A组有效率分别为48%、62%、82%、94%,B组为28.85%、40.38%、63.46%、78.85%,C组为10.87%,17.39%、23.91%、28.26%,A、B、C组两两比较有效率差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论:米诺环素联合螺内酯治疗中度女性成人痤疮安全有效。

  19. 广州地区不同年龄成年女性性行为方式调查%A survey of the sexual behavior of female adults with different ages in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶欣; 曹明珠; 张滨; 张二红; 蔡柳洪

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解广州地区不同年龄成年女性的性行为方式,为开展性健康教育提供依据.方法 用统一编制的调查表,以匿名问卷形式横断面调查380名成年女性,共回收问卷324份,回收率81.0%.324名女性年龄分布在20~50岁之间,分为A、B、C 3组,其中A组20岁~133人(41.0%),B组30岁~131人(40.4%),C组40岁~60人(1 8.5%).结果 手淫:A、B、C 3组手淫的人数比较(3组间两两比较),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).性爱抚:A组与B组,B组与C组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),A组与C组比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05),A组与C组,B组与C组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).性交频率:B组与C组比较,差异无统计学意义(P0.05). For sexual caress behavior, there was no significant difference between Group A and B, as well as Group B and C (P>0.05), However, the difference between Group A and C was significant (P0.05). But the differences were significant between Group A and C, as well as between Group B and C (P0.05). There was no significant difference in sexual frequency between Group B and C (P>0.05). But the differences were significant between Group A and B, as well as Group A and C (P<0.001). Conclusion Affected by traditional sexual attitude, the main sexual behavior of female adults in Guangzhou was still sexual intercourse style .With the increase of age, the frequency of sexual intercourse of female adults decreased, whereas sexual caress behavior and sexual position style alteration behavior increased for improving sexual satisfaction. On the other hand, though the most female adults held a negative attitude toward masturbation and oral sex behavior, the younger women, who were influenced by open mind, gradually accepted oral sex as one kind of sexual life behavior.

  20. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  1. Pre-weaning performance and health of pigs born to cloned (fetal cell derived) swine versus non-cloned swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Adams, C; Wiseman, B

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pre-weaning performance of pigs derived from cloned versus non-cloned parents. Five cloned gilts and one cloned boar were used to produce five litters of pigs. One of five cloned females and the cloned boar were derived from two genetically unmanipulated fetal fibroblast cell lines. The remaining female clones were derived from a fetal fibroblast cell line in which random insertion of a alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene targeting construct had occurred. Fetal cell lines had similar genetic backgrounds and were derived from three different fetuses in three different litters. Five litters of pigs were also generated from matings between two non-cloned boars and five non-cloned gilts. The mean gestation length, mean litter size, mean birth and weaning weights for male and female pigs were similar for litters derived from cloned parents versus non-cloned parents. The proportions of pigs born live and pigs that survived to weaning were also similar for pigs born to cloned as compared to non-cloned parents. In summary, matings between cloned swine derived from fetal fibroblast cell lines yielded litters of pigs that were similar in the number born, piglet birth weight and perinatal and pre-weaning mortality to litters produced by non-cloned swine.

  2. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the...

  3. Mechanical ventilation alone, and in the presence of sepsis, impair protein metabolism in the diaphragm of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) impairs diaphragmatic function and diminishes the ability to wean from ventilatory support in adult humans. In normal neonatal pigs, animals that are highly anabolic, endotoxin (LPS) infusion induces sepsis, reduces peripheral skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates, but ...

  4. African swine fever among slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Adrian; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Kankya, Clovice; Biffa, Demelash; Oura, Chris; Skjerve, Eystein; Oloya, James

    2012-10-01

    Owing to frequent reports of suspected outbreaks and the presence of reservoir hosts and vectors (warthogs, bushpigs and O. moubata ticks), African swine fever (ASF) is believed to be an endemic disease in Uganda. There have, however, been very few studies carried out to confirm its existence in Uganda. This study was carried out to describe the prevalence of ASF based on pathologic lesions and analysis of serum samples from slaughtered pigs during a suspected outbreak in the Mubende district of Uganda. The study was based on visits to 22 slaughterhouses where individual pigs were randomly selected for a detailed ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections. Sera were also collected for laboratory analysis. A total of 997 pigs (53.7% male and 46.3% female) were examined for lesions suggestive of ASF and sero-positivity of sera for ASF antibodies. The sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples were further confirmed with an immunoblot assay. The results showed that 3.8% (38/997) of the pigs examined had clinical signs and post-mortem lesions suggestive of ASF. Two of 997 (0.2%) sera analysed were positive for ASF antibodies. Of the sub-counties investigated, Bagezza (12%) and Kiyuni (11%) had the highest prevalence of lesions suggestive of ASF based on ante- and post-mortem examination results, while Mubende town council (1.7%) had the lowest. This study found a low number of pigs (3.8%) with lesions suggestive of ASF at slaughter and an even lower number of pigs (0.2%) that were seropositive at slaughter, however a significantly higher number of pigs were slaughtered during the outbreak as a strategy for farmers to avoid losses associated with mortality.

  5. Immunization of pigs against infection with Schistosoma japonicum using ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since pigs are important in the zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in China, a veterinary vaccine might contribute to the control of the disease in humans. Pigs were immunized with three doses each of 10 000 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum attenuated with ultraviolet light (400 μWatt.min/cm2). The experiment was performed with portable irradiation equipment in a rural area of the Hubei Province (P.R. China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given 2.5 or 6 months after the last immunization, and age-matched naive pigs were challenged as a control. Immunized pigs developed about 90% resistance against the challenge. The liver egg load of these animals was reduced by over 90%. Less than 0.01% of the immunizing cercariae developed to adult parasites and the vaccination had no apparent adverse influence on the pig's health. (Author)

  6. Xenotransplantation of Embryonic Pig Kidney or Pancreas to Replace the Function of Mature Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R. Hammerman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of donor availability limits the number of human donor organs. The need for host immunosuppression complicates transplantation procedures. Ultrastructurally precise kidneys differentiate in situ following xenotransplantation in mesentery of embryonic pig renal primordia. The developing organ attracts its blood supply from the host, obviating humoral rejection. Engraftment of pig renal primordia transplanted directly into rats requires host immune suppression. However, insulin-producing cells originating from embryonic pig pancreas obtained very early following initiation of organogenesis [embryonic day 28 (E28] engraft long term in nonimmune-suppressed diabetic rats or rhesus macaques. Engraftment of morphologically similar cells originating from adult porcine islets of Langerhans (islets occurs in rats previously transplanted with E28 pig pancreatic primordia. Here, we review recent findings germane to xenotransplantation of pig renal or pancreatic primordia as a novel organ replacement strategy.

  7. Territoriality of feral pigs in a highly persecuted population on Fort Benning, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparklin, B.D.; Mitchell, M.S.; Hanson, L.B.; Jolley, D.B.; Ditchkoff, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined home range behavior of female feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in a heavily hunted population on Fort Benning Military Reservation in west-central Georgia, USA. We used Global Positioning System location data from 24 individuals representing 18 sounders (i.e., F social groups) combined with markrecapture and camera-trap data to evaluate evidence of territorial behavior at the individual and sounder levels. Through a manipulative experiment, we examined evidence for an inverse relationship between population density and home range size that would be expected for territorial animals. Pigs from the same sounder had extensive home range overlap and did not have exclusive core areas. Sounders had nearly exclusive home ranges and had completely exclusive core areas, suggesting that female feral pigs on Fort Benning were territorial at the sounder level but not at the individual level. Lethal removal maintained stable densities of pigs in our treatment area, whereas density increased in our control area; territory size in the 2 areas was weakly and inversely related to density of pigs. Territorial behavior in feral pigs could influence population density by limiting access to reproductive space. Removal strategies that 1) match distribution of removal efforts to distribution of territories, 2) remove entire sounders instead of individuals, and 3) focus efforts where high-quality food resources strongly influence territorial behaviors may be best for long-term control of feral pigs.

  8. Extensive ameloblastic fibroma of the mandibula in a female adult patient: A case report with a follow-up of 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Mukerrem; Aytekin, Zeliha; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is rare benign odontogenic tumour which usually occurs in the first two decades of life. It can occur either the mandible or maxilla but it is most frequently found in the posterior region of the mandible. Treatment of AF in usual is a conservative approach, such as enucleation and curettage but the aggressive lesions require a radical approach. A more radical approach should be considered in older patients who have likely high recurrence tendency. This report describes a case of AF in a 38-year-old female patient identified during a routine radiographic exam. Tomographic examination through three-dimensional reconstruction indicated vestibular fenestration of the cortical bone, with involvement of lingual cortical bone as the lession extended to the posterior region. We removed the tumor under local anesthesia. In this case patient has continued to be followed frequently and has been disease-free for 3 years.

  9. 氨磺必利与舒必利治疗成年女性精神分裂症临床对比探讨%Clinical Contrast Observation of Amisulpride and Sulpiride in Treating Adult Female Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of amisulpride and sulpiride in treating adult female schizophrenia to rich clinical treatment experience. Methods 100 adult female with schizophrenia in our hospital were selected. They were divided into control group and observation group, 50 cases in each group. The control group was given sulpiride and the observation group was given amisulpride. Compared the total efficiency and adverse reaction rate of the two groups. Results After treatment, clinical symptoms of the two groups had obvious improvement and relief. Total efficiency of observation group was 86.00%, control group was 84.00%, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Otherwise, PANSS score of the two groups were obviously lower than before treatment (P0.05). 5 cases in observation group had adverse reactions, the adverse reaction rate was 10.00%. 13 cases in control group had adverse reactions, the adverse reaction rate was 26.00%, the difference of the two groups was statistically significant (P0.05);另外,经治疗后,两组的PANSS评分都显著低于治疗前的评分(P0.05)。观察组中5例治疗期间出现不良反应,不良反应率10.00%,对照组中13例不良反应,不良反应率26.00%,两组对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论成年女性精神分裂症应用氨磺必利与舒必利治疗效果相当,但是舒必利的不良反应率偏高,在临床治疗中应谨慎用药。

  10. Effect of benzoic acid supplementation on acid-base status and mineralmetabolism in catheterized growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich;

    2010-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) in diets for growing pigs results in urinary acidification and reduced ammonia emission. The objective was to study the impact of BA supplementation on the acid-base status and mineral metabolism in pigs. Eight female 50-kg pigs, fitted with a catheter in the abdominal aorta, were...... samples of faeces and urine for determination of P, Ca, Na, K, and N balance. Blood samples from the abdominal aorta and urine were collected every 2 h for the first 24 h. Blood and urine were immediately analyzed for pH. Urinary pH decreased (P 

  11. Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    van Eyk, Gregory Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs Abstract A pig model of childhood obesity was used to study the effects of dietary energy on body adiposity, and blood parameters associated with impaired glucose clearance. Prepubertal female pigs weaned at 21 d of age were fed control (CON), refined sugar (SUG), fat (FAT), and sugar-fat (SUGFAT) diets in a completely randomized arrangement for 16 wk. Calories from fat were 8.9% for CON, 5.6% for SU...

  12. Epiphyseal union at the innominate and lower limb in a modern Portuguese skeletal sample, and age estimation in adolescent and young adult male and female skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2008-02-01

    This study documents the timing of epiphyseal union at the innominate, femur, tibia, and fibula in a sample of modern Portuguese skeletons. The sample was taken from the Lisbon documented skeletal collection and it is comprised of 57 females and 49 males between the ages of 9 and 25. Individuals are mostly representative of the middle-to-low socioeconomic segment of the early 20th century Lisbon population. A total of 18 anatomical locations were examined for epiphyseal union using a three-stage scheme: 1) no union; 2) partial union; and 3) completed union, all traces of fusion having disappeared. Results show that females are ahead of males by 1-2 years and provide similar age ranges for the stages of union than previous studies. Some variations between studies can be explained by methodological differences between dry bone and radiographic observations. However, a review of the literature indicates that socioeconomic status of a given population seems to be of decisive importance to the rate of ossification and most of the differences in skeletal maturation across studies and populations can probably be ascribed to different levels of social and economic development of the societies in which the individuals lived. Although the effects of socioeconomic status in skeletal maturation are greater during childhood than in adolescence, as to make the timing of epiphyseal union a reliable estimate of age at death, they are not negligible and age estimates should take into account the likely socioeconomic status of the individual, whose remains are under examination. PMID:18044694

  13. Feasibility study of radiation dose reduction in adult female pelvic CT scan with low tube-voltage and adaptive statistical iterative econstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin Lian; He, Wen; Chen, Jian Hong; Hu, Zhi Hai; Zhao, Li Qin [Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate image quality of female pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans reconstructed with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) technique combined with low tube-voltage and to explore the feasibility of its clinical application. Ninety-four patients were divided into two groups. The study group used 100 kVp, and images were reconstructed with 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% ASIR. The control group used 120 kVp, and images were reconstructed with 30% ASIR. The noise index was 15 for the study group and 11 for the control group. The CT values and noise levels of different tissues were measured. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was calculated. A subjective evaluation was carried out by two experienced radiologists. The CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) was recorded. A 44.7% reduction in CTDIvol was observed in the study group (8.18 ± 3.58 mGy) compared with that in the control group (14.78 ± 6.15 mGy). No significant differences were observed in the tissue noise levels and CNR values between the 70% ASIR group and the control group (p = 0.068-1.000). The subjective scores indicated that visibility of small structures, diagnostic confidence, and the overall image quality score in the 70% ASIR group was the best, and were similar to those in the control group (1.87 vs. 1.79, 1.26 vs. 1.28, and 4.53 vs. 4.57; p = 0.122-0.585). No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was detected between the study group and the control group (42/47 vs. 43/47, p = 1.000). Low tube-voltage combined with automatic tube current modulation and 70% ASIR allowed the low CT radiation dose to be reduced by 44.7% without losing image quality on female pelvic scan.

  14. A Methyl-Deficient Diet Fed to Rat Dams during the Peri-Conception Period Programs Glucose Homeostasis in Adult Male but Not Female Offspring123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Christopher A.; Hay, Susan M.; Young, Loraine E.; Sinclair, Kevin D.; Rees, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Methyl deficiencies have been implicated in metabolic programming during the periods of oocyte and embryo development. Semisynthetic methyl-deficient diets (MD) with no folic acid, 0.05% choline, and approximately one-half the recommended content of methionine were fed to female rats for 3 wk prior to mating and for the first 5 d of gestation. During the period of MD feeding, plasma homocysteine concentrations were approximately twice those of rats fed the complete (CON) diet. From d 5, both groups received a complete semipurified AIN diet until birth. On d 8, plasma homocysteine concentrations did not differ between the 2 groups. Thereafter, dams and offspring were fed a nonpurified diet for the remainder of the experiment. At 6 mo of age, the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index of the male MD offspring tended to be 32% higher (P = 0.053) and peak insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was 39% higher (P < 0.05) compared with the male CON offspring. There was no difference in the response to an oGTT in the female offspring at 6 mo of age. The increased HOMA index of male MD offspring persisted to 12 mo of age. The peak glucose concentration during oGTT was 23% higher (P < 0.05) in MD compared with the CON males despite 39% greater (P < 0.05) peak insulin concentrations. This study shows that in rats, a physiologically relevant methyl-deficient diet fed during the period of oocyte maturation and preimplantation development programs gender-specific changes in glucose handling by the offspring. PMID:21106931

  15. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ren Sheng

    Full Text Available Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported.To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans.Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs.Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW, vertebral body depth (VBD, vertebral body height (VBH, spinal canal width (SCW, spinal canal depth (SCD, pedicle width (PW, pedicle depth (PD, pedicle inclination (PI, dens width (DW, dens depth (DD, total vertebral width (TVW, and total vertebral depth (TVD.The atlantoaxial (C1-2 joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute.Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  16. Diet-induced obesity resistance of adult female mice selectively bred for increased wheel-running behavior is reversed by single perinatal exposure to a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Meyer, Neele; Przybyt, Ewa; Scheurink, Anton J W; Harmsen, Martin C; Garland, Theodore; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Female mice from independently bred lines previously selected over 50 generations for increased voluntary wheel-running behavior (S1, S2) resist high energy (HE) diet-induced obesity (DIO) at adulthood, even without actual access to running wheels, as opposed to randomly bred controls (CON). We investigated whether adult S mice without wheels remain DIO-resistant when exposed - via the mother - to the HE diet during their perinatal stage (from 2 weeks prior to conception until weaning on post-natal day 21). While S1 and S2 females subjected to HE diet either perinatally or from weaning onwards (post-weaning) resisted increased adiposity at adulthood (as opposed to CON females), they lost this resistance when challenged with HE diet during these periods combined over one single cycle of breeding. When allowed one-week access to wheels (at week 6-8 and at 10 months), however, tendency for increased wheel-running behavior of S mice was unaltered. Thus, the trait for increased wheel-running behavior remained intact following combined perinatal and post-weaning HE exposure, but apparently this did not block HE-induced weight gain. At weaning, perinatal HE diet increased adiposity in all lines, but this was only associated with hyperleptinemia in S lines irrespective of gender. Because leptin has multiple developmental effects at adolescence, we argue that a trait for increased physical activity may advance maturation in times of plenty. This would be adaptive in nature where episodes of increased nutrient availability should be exploited maximally. Associated disturbances in glucose homeostasis and related co-morbidities at adulthood are probably pleiotropic side effects. PMID:26850290

  17. Semi-automatic Isolation and Purification of Adult Pig Islet Cells%半自动纯化法分离纯化成年猪胰岛细胞的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 侯宗柳; 李汝红

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索大规模猪胰岛细胞分离纯化的方法.方法 采用胶原酶消化法和Ficoll液不连续密度梯度离心进行分离纯化;采用双硫腙染色、AO-PI染色、胰岛素释放试验检测胰岛的纯度和活性.结果 消化后平均获取的胰岛细胞团数量为(4 387±617)IEQ/g胰腺组织;纯化后平均为(3 192±756)IEQ/g胰腺组织;获取的猪胰岛细胞平均纯度为(60.15±2.35)%,活率为(80.00±0.47)%.结论 所获得的胰岛细胞有较好的纯度和良好的生物活性,显示半自动纯化法分离纯化成年云南小耳猪胰岛细胞是成功可行的,可以满足进一步异种移植的研究需要,可为大规模分离纯化猪胰岛细胞提供技术支持.%Objective To establish effective method for large-scale purification of islet cells from pig pancreas. Methods Pig pancreas tissue was digested with collagenase P through continuous infusion. Pig islets was purified by Ficoll discontinuous density gradient centrifugation medium. Dithizone (DTZ) staining was used to observe the morphology of islet cells clusters (ICCS) , to count islet equivalent IEQ, and to detect the purity of the islet. AO-PI staining was used to detect islet viability and the islet function assessed by insulin release assay in vitro. Results The number of the islets collected was (4 387 + 617) IEQ/g in average from pancreas before purification, and (3 192 ±756) IEQ/g pancreas after purification. The average purity of islets cells was (60.15 ±2.35) %, and the motilityrate was (80.00 ± 0.47) %. Conclusions The islet cells obtained by this method have better purity and good biological activity. That' s to say the Semi-automatic isolation and purification of small-eared pig islet cells is successful and feasible. The established method can be applied in large-scale purification of fully functional islet cells from pig pancreas, and can meet the need for further studies of xenotransplantation.

  18. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, dataflow languages such as Pig Latin have emerged as flexible and powerful tools for handling complex analysis tasks on big data. These languages support schema flexibility as well as common programming patterns such as iteration. They offer extensibility through user...... this problem by proposing extensions to Pig that deal with linked data in RDF to bridge the gap between Pig and SPARQL for analytics. These extensions are realized by a set of user-defined functions and rewriting rules, still allowing to compile the enhanced Pig scripts to plain MapReduce programs. For all......-defined functions while running on top of scalable distributed platforms. In doing so, these languages enable analytical tasks while avoiding the limitations of classical query languages such as SQL and SPARQL. However, the tuple-oriented view of general-purpose languages like Pig does not match very well...

  19. Effects of interaction of an early experience of reward through maternal contact or its denial with social stress during adolescence on the serotonergic system and the stress responsiveness of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftogianni, A; Diamantopoulou, A; Alikaridis, F; Stamatakis, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2012-05-01

    Experiences during critical periods, such as the neonatal and adolescence, play a critical role in determining adult stress-coping behavior. Based on the aforementioned we developed an experimental protocol, which included a neonatal experience and a social stress during adolescence. The serotonergic system is known as an important modulator of coping ability and, in general, emotional balance in both normal and pathological states, such as depression and anxiety, for which females are more vulnerable. Thus in the present work we used female rats and determined 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala (AMY). During postnatal days 10-13 (PND 10-13) rat pups were exposed to a T-maze, one arm of which lead to the mother. One group of animals was allowed contact with the mother (rewarded-receiving expected reward (RER)), whereas the other was denied the expected reward (DER). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that in both the PFC and in AMY, adult RER animals had higher basal 5-HT levels. Furthermore, in the AMY of this group of animals, higher levels of 5-HT(1A) receptors were detected by Western blot analysis. In adulthood rats were exposed to the Forced Swimming Test/Stress (FST/S). RER animals not exposed to the adolescent stress exhibited longer immobility time during both the first and second day of FST. Corticosterone levels following the FST fell faster in the DER animals. Adolescent stress affected the responses to the adult FSS only in the DER animals, which had decreased 5-HT in the AMY and increased immobility time on both days of the FST, compared with the DER, not stressed in adolescence. The phenotype of the DER animals is in line with the "match-mismatch" hypothesis, which states that if two events during critical periods of life "match" in being mildly stressful, their interaction can be adaptive. PMID

  20. Unusual late presentation of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in an adult female with a somatic mosaic for a novel mutation in CYBB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolach, Baruch; Scharf, Yitshak; Gavrieli, Ronit; de Boer, Martin; Roos, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Most patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have mutations in the X-linked CYBB gene that encodes gp91phox, a component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The resulting X-linked form of CGD is usually manifested in boys. Rarely, X-CGD is encountered in female carriers with extreme expression of the mutated gene. Here, we report on a woman with a novel mutation in CYBB (CCG[90-92]-->GGT), predicting Tyr30Arg31-->stop, Val in gp91phox, who presented with clinical symptoms at the age of 66. The mutation was present in heterozygous form in genomic DNA from her leukocytes but was fully expressed in mRNA from these cells, indicating that in her leukocytes the X chromosome carrying the nonmutated CYBB allele had been inactivated. Indeed, only 0.4% to 2% of her neutrophils showed NADPH oxidase activity. This extreme skewing of her X-chromosome inactivation was not found in her cheek mucosal cells and is thus not due to a general defect in gene methylation on one X chromosome. Moreover, the CYBB mutation was not present in the DNA from her cheek cells and was barely detectable in the DNA from her memory T lymphocytes. Thus, this patient shows a somatic mosaic for the CYBB mutation, which probably originated during her lifetime in her bone marrow. PMID:15308575

  1. ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE RESISTANCE IN ADULT FEMALE RATS EXPOSED TO POTASSIUM DICHROMATE (Cr VI IN UTERO, DURING SUCKLING AND PRE-PUBERTY PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to relieve the impact of chromium hexavalent ions on the resistance of erythrocyte membrane in female rats at sexual maturity but exposed “in utero”or during the suckling or pre-puberty period. Concrete objectives were to establish the effect of 25 ppm (E1 group, 50 ppm (E2 groupt and 75 ppm (E3 group chromium doses on haemoglobin (Hb and erythrocyte membrane resistance (R.O. (in terms of haemolysis degree in NaCl hypotonic solutions. The consequence of Cr(VI exposure was the high significant decrease (p<0,01 of Hb in all E groups compared to control (C (E1/C:-24.66%; E2/C: - 37.36%; E3/C: - 42.67%, under physiologic limits in E2 and E3 groups and at the lowest physiologic limit in E1. Maxim R.O. was equal in all groups and in physiologic limits. Minim R.O. decreased to 0.7% NaCl in E1 and to 0.8% NaCl in E2 and E3. It was asserted the increase of haemolyse degree in direct relation with the dose. Increasing the chromium intake level a haemolytic effect was induced.

  2. Use of 17-α-methyltestosterone for production of male secondary sexual characteristics in the adult female green swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Mahboobi- Soofiani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The green swordtail X. hellerii Heckel, 1848 is a commercially important ornamental species. As phenotypic males with the sword extension of the caudal fin are more valuable economically than fish lacking the sword, masculinization by means of 17-α-Methyltestosterone (MT was tested. Populations of female broodstocks were fed MT-treated feeds (20, 35 and 50 mg MT kg-1 feed at a rate of 50 g of MTtreated feed per kilogram of fish biomass (5% body weight [BW] for 45 consecutive days to cause development of male secondary sexual characteristics, specifically the growth of the sword extension.Use of MT feed at 5% BW for 45 d resulted in 100% masculinization, whereas 0% masculinization occurred in green swordtails fed control feed. There were no significant differences between MT-treated groups in the proportion of phenotypic males. Also we found no significant differences in mortality among experimental groups. No degeneration of swords was seen 200 d after the last day of experimental feed treatment. According to our finding, the use of MT-treated feeds can increase the production of highervalue phenotypic male green swordtails and enhance profitability for aquaculturists.

  3. The effect of reduced amino acid level and increasing levels of lupin on growth performance and meat content in organic reared pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suitable protein sources for organic pig production are scarce. This project was aimed at studying the effect of a reduced amino acid level and thus crude protein level, and the inclusion of lupin in diets for grower-finisher pigs fed under organic conditions. Two hundred pigs (females......:male castrates, 1:1) were fed either 100% or 85% of amino acid recommendations and lupin inclusions levels of 0%, 12.5% or 25% from 30 to 105 kg....

  4. 日本血吸虫虫卵、童虫和雌雄成虫膜蛋白的双向电泳%Analysis of membrane proteins from egg, schistosomulum, adult male and female worm of Schistosoma japonicum by two dimensional electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国锋; 冯新港; 林矫矫; 石耀军; 陆柯; 周元聪; 蔡幼民

    2005-01-01

    Membrane proteins were extracted from eggs, schistosomulum, adult male and female worms of Schistosoma japonicum in order to analyze the differently expressed profile by two dimensional electrophoresis. Schistosomulum and adult worms were obtained from rabbits infected with 1 500 cercariaes on 14 and 42 days after challenge, respectively. Adult male and female worms on 42 days were manually detached and stored into liquid nitrogen until use. Eggs were collected by PercollTM from the liver of rabbits. ProteoPrep Membrane Extraction KitTM was employed to extracted membrane proteins by reducing and alkylating with TBP and iodoacetamide from 200mg of eggs, schistosomulums, adult male worm and female worms, respectively. Immobilized pH gradient strips with a linear pH range of 3-10(130mm) were rehydrated together with membrane proteins (30μg) in 250μl solution containing 7mol urea, 2mol thiourea, 2% SB3-10, 4% CHAPS, 40mmol Tris, 30mmol DTT, then separated on 12.5% SDS polyacrylamide gel for the second dimensional electrophoresis. Gels were stained with silver, scanned by Labscan, and analyzed using ImageMasterTM Analysis software. The 2D maps of egg, schistosomulum, adult female worm and male worm were showed 78±3, 67±3, 108±4 and 122±4 spots respectively. There were 35±1 spots which showed specific expression in female worm as compared with male worm, but 45±2 spots were in male worms. Most differently expressed spots between male and female worms were located in the area of 40-70kD and pI 4-7. The large number of unique spots from sehistosomulum was located in the area of alkalescence. The 2D map of for adult male worms uniquely showed 5 spots as compared with that of schistosomulum and female worm. The female worm showed 4 unique spots as compared with that of schistosomulum, egg and male worm. The unique spots between male and female worms were identified by the database of SWISS 2D-PAGE according to the molecular weight and isoelectronic point

  5. Efeitos dos esteroides anabólicos androgênicos sobre o útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids on the uterus and reproductive parameters of adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos da administração de dois esteroides sintéticos sobre a morfologia do útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas. MÉTODOS: quarenta ratas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos grupos experimentais: controle (C; solução fisiológica; tratados com decanoato de nandrolona (DN; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; composto de ésteres de testosterona (T; 7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo; e, simultaneamente, com DN e T (7,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo de cada esteroide, em uma única dose/semana, intraperitoneal, durante oito semanas. Cinco fêmeas de cada grupo foram sacrificadas e os cornos uterinos foram coletados, pesados e preparados para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. As ratas restantes foram acasaladas com machos normais para avaliação dos parâmetros reprodutivos, constituindo os grupos tratados durante o período pré-gestacional. Outro grupo de 20 ratas recebeu os tratamentos durante o período gestacional (7º-14º dias. Foi aplicada a análise de variância não paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, complementada com o teste de Dunn ou de Student-Newman-Kleus para análise dos dados (5% de significância. RESULTADOS: houve aumento significativo no peso corpóreo das fêmeas androgenizadas (DN: 305±50; T: 280±35; DN+T: 275±30 versus C: 255±22 g (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of the administration of two synthetic steroids in the uterus morphology and in the reproductive parameters of adult female rats. METHODS: divided into four experimental groups: control (C; physiological solution; treated with nandrolone decanoate (DN; 7.5 mg/kg of body weight; with a testosterone esters compound (T; 7.5 mg/kg; and simultaneously with DN and T (7.5 mg/kg of each steroid, in a single intraperitoneal weekly dose, for eight weeks. Five females of each group were sacrificed and the uterine horns were collected, weighted and prepared for histological and morphometrical evaluation. The remaining rats were mated with

  6. MICRODISSECTION OF MINIATURE PIG EAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Haijin; GuoWeiwei; Chen Lei; Wu Na; Li Jiana; Ren Lili; Yang Shiming

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitability of miniature pigs as an animal model for otological research. Methods Microdissection of the temporal bone was performed on 10 miniature pigs and recorded on photo-graphs. Results The morphology and measurement of the external, middle and inner ear and the lateral re-cess of the miniature pigs were obtained by microdissection. Conclusion Compared to traditional animal models, the miniature pig may be a better model for biomedical research because of its many similarities in physiological functions with humans. Similarities of the temporal bone structures, including the external, middle and inner ear and the lateral recess, between the miniature pig and human make the animal a poten-tially useful model for otological research.

  7. Association of COMT val158met and DRD2 G>T genetic polymorphisms with individual differences in motor learning and performance in female young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Boyden, Nate B; Kwak, Youngbin; Humfleet, Jennifer; Burke, David T; Müller, Martijn L T M; Bohnen, Nico I; Seidler, Rachael D

    2014-02-01

    Individuals learn new skills at different rates. Given the involvement of corticostriatal pathways in some types of learning, variations in dopaminergic transmission may contribute to these individual differences. Genetic polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) genes partially determine cortical and striatal dopamine availability, respectively. Individuals who are homozygous for the COMT methionine (met) allele show reduced cortical COMT enzymatic activity, resulting in increased dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex as opposed to individuals who are carriers of the valine (val) allele. DRD2 G-allele homozygotes benefit from a higher striatal dopamine level compared with T-allele carriers. We hypothesized that individuals who are homozygous for COMT met and DRD2 G alleles would show higher rates of motor learning. Seventy-two young healthy females (20 ± 1.9 yr) performed a sensorimotor adaptation task and a motor sequence learning task. A nonparametric mixed model ANOVA revealed that the COMT val-val group demonstrated poorer performance in the sequence learning task compared with the met-met group and showed a learning deficit in the visuomotor adaptation task compared with both met-met and val-met groups. The DRD2 TT group showed poorer performance in the sequence learning task compared with the GT group, but there was no difference between DRD2 genotype groups in adaptation rate. Although these results did not entirely come out as one might predict based on the known contribution of corticostriatal pathways to motor sequence learning, they support the role of genetic polymorphisms of COMT val158met (rs4680) and DRD2 G>T (rs 1076560) in explaining individual differences in motor performance and motor learning, dependent on task type. PMID:24225542

  8. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  9. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondro Cedric

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian] (p ≤ 0.001. These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi

  10. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Pray

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis, and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated.In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4 of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences.These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig's roaming area (i.e., home range and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs.

  11. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; De Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Milian, F M, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Department of Exact Science and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazare de Andrade, Km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, CEP 45662-000, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  12. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  13. [The pig sty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, J C

    1993-11-01

    A first-page picture of the journal O Estado de S. Paulo on October, 1993, depicts 3 children playing in the ruins of a school building in Bahia. They are dressed in rags, just like the immense majority of children begotten in recent years. They are disgracefully filthy, with dishevelled hair, in the company of a pig content to share its habitat with such animalistic beings. In the inside pages of the same edition are profuse photos of other pigs dressed in suits and ties. This ostentation mocks the people and mainly the 3 children who do not attend school because the money for it has been embezzled from their pockets. Decent journalists, conscious of these piggish humans, endeavor every day to make this country a decent place to live. In the fight for a dignified and decent country, the journal Planejamento Agora, edited by ABEPF, makes an important statement with its slogan that the fight is true when the spirit is unabated. Planejamento Agora stoically battles to make every animal child alive today a human child who is wanted. The work and team of Planejamento Agora are saluted, and they are urged to continue the struggle on behalf of such children. PMID:12346085

  14. Progression of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection in three pig herds. Development of tonsillar carrier state, arthritis and antibodies in serum and synovial fluid in pigs from birth to slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn-Olsen, T; Nielsen, N C; Friis, N F; Nielsen, J

    1999-11-01

    In this investigation, natural infection with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae was followed in groups of individual pigs in three different herds with regard to occurrence of tonsillar carrier state, clinical arthritis and development of antibodies in serum and in synovial fluid. Antibodies were detected by a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed for experimental use. The infection with M. hyosynoviae progressed very differently in the three herds investigated. In one herd, the infection was apparently limited to adult pigs. In a second herd, all pigs became tonsillar carriers of M. hyosynoviae, but no mycoplasma-related arthritis nor any serological response was demonstrated within the growing-finishing period. In the third herd investigated, tonsillar infection was detected in all pigs, clinical cases of M. hyosynoviae arthritis followed and a moderate serological response was observed in some, but not all, pigs. In all three herds, M. hyosynoviae infection was carried in the tonsils of the adult pigs, but it was only occasionally transmitted from sows to piglets. Maternal antibodies were transferred to the piglets and persisted for approximately 8-12 weeks. After weaning, some pigs became infected before 20 weeks of age, while others did not. In the majority of cases, the tonsillar infection was established from 11 weeks of age or older. A latent tonsillar infection was present for a period of several weeks within the group of investigated pigs before cases of generalized infection and arthritis were seen. In some cases, generalization of M. hyosynoviae infection in the blood and in joints was observed in spite of the detection of an active serological response a few weeks earlier. The present work suggests that generalization of the infection and development of arthritis may depend on age, immunity, virulence factors and/or infection pressure; in some herds maybe combined with certain triggering mechanisms such as stress and lowered general

  15. Blue and Red Light Combined with Spironolactone in the Treatment of Female Adult Acne%红蓝光联合螺内酯治疗女性成人痤疮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单靓云; 吴大兴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Blue and red light combined with spironolactone in the treatment of female adult acne.Methods 62 female adult patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris who attended the dermatology outpatient of First People's Hospital of Chun'an were selected,and given blue and red light therapy combined with oral spironolactone.Comedones and inflammatory lesions (papules,pustules and nodules were considerd as inflammatory lesions) were countd at baseline and 4 & 8 weeks post therapy,respevtively.Visual analogue scale (VAS)of disease severity were recorded at baseline and 8 weeks post therapy.Results A mean improvement of 44.56% ( =25.89, <0.01) and 50.47% (=25.40, <0.01) from baseline in comedones and inflammatory lesions were achieved 4 weeks post therapy;and a mean improvement of 65.90%(=33.14,P<0.01)and 77.45% (=28.15, <0.01)were achieved 8 weeks post therapy,respectively.After 8 weeks'therapy,VAS of disease severity decreased 35.70%(=18.76, <0.01)from baseline.Conclusion Blue and red light combined with spironolactone were highly ef ective in the treatment of female adult acne of mild to moderate severity.%目的观察红蓝光联合螺内酯治疗女性成人痤疮的疗效。方法选择2011年6月~2013年3月在淳安县第一人民医院皮肤科就诊的62例女性成人痤疮患者,给予患者红蓝光照射联合螺内酯片口服。在基线、治疗后4w与8w计数粉刺与炎症性损害(丘疹、脓疱、结节)的数目。在基线与治疗后8w记录疾病严重度视觉模拟评分(VAS)。结果治疗4w后,粉刺与炎症性皮损数目分别较基线减少了44.56%(=25.89,<0.01)与50.47%(=25.40,<0.01);治疗8w后,粉刺与炎症性皮损数目分别较基线减少了65.90%(=33.14,<0.01)与77.45%(=28.15,<0.01),VAS评分较基线减小了35.70%(=18.76,<0.01)。结论红蓝光照射联合螺内酯治疗女性成人痤疮疗效显著。

  16. 红蓝光联合螺内酯治疗女性成人痤疮%Blue and Red Light Combined with Spironolactone in the Treatment of Female Adult Acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单靓云; 吴大兴

    2014-01-01

    目的观察红蓝光联合螺内酯治疗女性成人痤疮的疗效。方法选择2011年6月~2013年3月在淳安县第一人民医院皮肤科就诊的62例女性成人痤疮患者,给予患者红蓝光照射联合螺内酯片口服。在基线、治疗后4w与8w计数粉刺与炎症性损害(丘疹、脓疱、结节)的数目。在基线与治疗后8w记录疾病严重度视觉模拟评分(VAS)。结果治疗4w后,粉刺与炎症性皮损数目分别较基线减少了44.56%(=25.89,<0.01)与50.47%(=25.40,<0.01);治疗8w后,粉刺与炎症性皮损数目分别较基线减少了65.90%(=33.14,<0.01)与77.45%(=28.15,<0.01),VAS评分较基线减小了35.70%(=18.76,<0.01)。结论红蓝光照射联合螺内酯治疗女性成人痤疮疗效显著。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Blue and red light combined with spironolactone in the treatment of female adult acne.Methods 62 female adult patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris who attended the dermatology outpatient of First People's Hospital of Chun'an were selected,and given blue and red light therapy combined with oral spironolactone.Comedones and inflammatory lesions (papules,pustules and nodules were considerd as inflammatory lesions) were countd at baseline and 4 & 8 weeks post therapy,respevtively.Visual analogue scale (VAS)of disease severity were recorded at baseline and 8 weeks post therapy.Results A mean improvement of 44.56% ( =25.89, <0.01) and 50.47% (=25.40, <0.01) from baseline in comedones and inflammatory lesions were achieved 4 weeks post therapy;and a mean improvement of 65.90%(=33.14,P<0.01)and 77.45% (=28.15, <0.01)were achieved 8 weeks post therapy,respectively.After 8 weeks'therapy,VAS of disease severity decreased 35.70%(=18.76, <0.01)from baseline.Conclusion Blue and red light combined with spironolactone were highly ef ective in the treatment of female adult acne of mild to moderate severity.

  17. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Fisher

    Full Text Available Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12, containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11 with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (P<0.001 energy per kg body weight. At wk 15, pigs were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; blood glucose increased (P<0.05 in control pigs and returned to baseline levels within 60 min. HED pigs were hyperglycemic at time 0, and blood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01, even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001. Chronic HED intake increased (P<0.05 subcutaneous, intramuscular, and perirenal fat deposition, and induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia. A subset of HED pigs (n = 7 was transitioned back to a control diet for an additional six weeks. These pigs were subjected to an additional OGTT at 22 wk. Glucose AUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  18. Female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  19. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  20. Correlation and Regression Analysis of Body Weight and Body Size of Adult Holstein Female Cattle%杂种荷斯坦成年母牛体重与体尺指标的相关回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马存寿

    2012-01-01

    分析杂一代荷斯坦成年母牛体尺指标与体重的相关性,并进一步进行估测体重的回归分析,指导黄牛改良的生产实际及选育工作。以门源县麻莲乡2008年测量的495头杂种荷斯坦牛相关数据为基础,分析体重与体高、体长、胸围、管围的相关系数,构建估测杂种荷斯坦成年母牛体重的回归模型。结果表明:体重与体高、体长、胸围、管围的相关系数R分别为0.712、0.785,0.889,0.514;得到了估测体重的最优回归模型,Y=-648.399+3.317X3+2.062x2+1.211x1(P〈0.01)(R2=0.877)。杂种荷斯坦成年母牛体重与体高、体长、胸围、管围存在明显的线性关系。%Correlation of The body size index and body weight of adult Holstein female cattle was studied for further regression analysis of body weight and breeding. Based on statistics of 495 adult Hotstein female cattle in Malian township,Menyuan aunty in 2008. Establishing relate coefficient of body weight and body height, body length, chest circumference for building regression model of estinating body weight. The results showed that correlation coefficient (R) of body weight and body length,chest circumference is 0.712,0. 785,0. 889 and 0.514 respectively, optimol regression model is,Y = -648.399 +3.317 X3 +2. 062X2 + 1. 211X1 ( P 〈 0. 01 ) ( R2 = 0. 877 ) ,There is linear relationship between body weight and body weight,body length,chest circumference.

  1. Clinical study on safety of single dosage of intravenous fentanyl for adult female%成年女性单次静脉注射芬太尼安全剂量临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛涛; 陈华军; 周士三

    2011-01-01

    0bjective To investigate tie safe range on singe dosage of intravenous fentanyl in adult female M ethods 100 adult females of elective anestiesia were randomly divided into group K), group H , group K, group B and group H- (n=20 each). After tie procedure of arleiy and vein puncture, tie fentanylwas administered in group H (ln-g'kg), E (2 [ig'kg) , B (3 \\ju g' k$, H- (4 [ig'kg). As compared group, saline was administed in group H), and tie injection speed waslO [ig' s MeanMAP, HR, SpQ, PaQ were observed at Hie tine of p re injection ( X)) , 5 min postinjectic?( H) , 10 min postinjectior( T2). The number of patients whose SpQ below90% inlO min postinjee-tionwere recoiried Results 1. Compared witi group R), MAP of group H and E had no significant difference, but MAP of group B and H- was significantly decreased (P 0.05),F3、F4组MAP、HR有明显差异(P0.05),F2、F3、F4组SpO2、PaO2有明显差异(P<0.05).③与F0组相比,F1、F2组SpO2下降到90%的患者例数无显著差异F3、F4组SpO2下降到90%的患者例数有明显筹异(P<0.05).结论 成年女性单次静脉注射芬太尼1μg/kg未见MAP、HR、SpO2、PaO2明显改变,计量达到2 μg/kg可以引起MAP、HR、SpO2、PaO2的改变.

  2. On the Use of Natural Elements in Young Adult Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴嘉萱

    2014-01-01

    As a reading group, young adults are specially targeted to make them grow healthily. Generally speaking, the moral sense of young adult literature is positive. To explore the outlook on nature of young adult literature, this paper selects four books as analyzing sources including Charlotte’s Web (1952), A Day No Pigs Would Die (1972), Julie of the Wolves (1972), and Homecoming (1981).

  3. Targeted disruption of LDLR causes hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in Yucatan miniature pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan T Davis

    Full Text Available Recent progress in engineering the genomes of large animals has spurred increased interest in developing better animal models for diseases where current options are inadequate. Here, we report the creation of Yucatan miniature pigs with targeted disruptions of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene in an effort to provide an improved large animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Yucatan miniature pigs are well established as translational research models because of similarities to humans in physiology, anatomy, genetics, and size. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer, male and female LDLR+/- pigs were generated. Subsequent breeding of heterozygotes produced LDLR-/- pigs. When fed a standard swine diet (low fat, no cholesterol, LDLR+/- pigs exhibited a moderate, but consistent increase in total and LDL cholesterol, while LDLR-/- pigs had considerably elevated levels. This severe hypercholesterolemia in homozygote animals resulted in atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta that resemble human atherosclerosis. These phenotypes were more severe and developed over a shorter time when fed a diet containing natural sources of fat and cholesterol. LDLR-targeted Yucatan miniature pigs offer several advantages over existing large animal models including size, consistency, availability, and versatility. This new model of cardiovascular disease could be an important resource for developing and testing novel detection and treatment strategies for coronary and aortic atherosclerosis and its complications.

  4. Pig illnesses and epidemics: a qualitative study on perceptions and practices of pig raisers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Sultana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses in swine are increasingly becoming a global public health concern. Understanding how livestock farmers perceive animal illnesses will help to develop locally acceptable and effective public health intervention strategies to control and manage zoonoses. The authors describe Bangladeshi pig raisers’ perception of pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs. We collected qualitative data from August 2007 to September 2008. Included in our study are backyard pig raisers from three districts, namely: Faridpur, Chapainobabgonj and Tangail and nomadic herders from six districts, namely: Mymensingh, Tangail, Sherpur, Sirajgonj, Bogra and Pabna. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 34 and made observations of human interactions with pigs (n = 18. Pig raisers reported several illnesses that caused their pigs to suffer and die. They had close contact with sick pigs whilst caring for them. They slaughtered sick pigs and consumed and sold the pork if they thought that the pig might die. They believed that pig illness could be transmitted among pigs but not between pigs and humans. The perception of pig raisers on pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs places them in close contact with potentially infectious pig secretions and excretions. Such exposure could favour zoonotic transmission of infectious diseases. A better surveillance system for pig diseases would provide an opportunity to identify the transmission of diseases, determine whether they pose a risk to humans, or whether they contribute to the emergence of diseases.

  5. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  6. Argyrophilic cells in the larynx of the guinea-pig demonstrated by the method of Grimelius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Romert, P

    1977-01-01

    Argyrophilic cells with branching processes are shown in both the surface epithelium and in the glands in the larynx of adult guinea-pigs using the Grimelius silver technique after GPA fixation. When Bouin's fixative or neutral formalin were used as fixatives argrophilic cells could not be identi......Argyrophilic cells with branching processes are shown in both the surface epithelium and in the glands in the larynx of adult guinea-pigs using the Grimelius silver technique after GPA fixation. When Bouin's fixative or neutral formalin were used as fixatives argrophilic cells could...

  7. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo;

    2013-01-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin...... of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before...... were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p...

  8. Relationships between tail biting in pigs and disease lesions and condemnations at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Morrison, R B

    2007-02-01

    Two matched case-control studies were performed at an abattoir with a capacity of 780 pigs per hour, each study using the approximately 7000 pigs slaughtered on one day. In the first study, the severity of tail biting and pneumonia were recorded in pigs with bitten or intact tails. In the second study, the tail score, sex, and the presence of pleuritis, externally visible abscesses and trimming were recorded in pigs with bitten or intact tails. In study 1, there was no significant association between the tail score and the percentage of lung tissue affected by lesions typical of enzootic pneumonia, but there was a significant association between the severity of tail biting and the prevalence of lungs with abscesses and/or pleuritic lesions (Ptail biting, and the prevalence of external carcase abscesses and carcase trimming; the carcases of castrated males had evidence of tail biting more frequently than the carcases of females (P<0.05). PMID:17277296

  9. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.;

    2014-01-01

    risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction......Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some ‘alternative’ forms of pig production and certain countries do...... not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...

  10. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible...... for parasite dispersal globally. METHODS: Parts of the mitochondrial nad1 and rrnL genes were sequenced followed by population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Populations of Trichuris examined were recovered from humans (n = 31), pigs (n = 58) and non-human primates (n = 49) in different countries...

  11. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  12. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W.; Swanson, Dallas J.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; O’Neal, Seth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis), and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4) of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig’s roaming area (i.e., home range) and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs. PMID:27035825

  13. Association between Influenza A Virus Infection and Pigs Subpopulations in Endemically Infected Breeding Herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Diaz

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses (IAVs are distributed worldwide in birds, pigs and humans, and cause important endemic disease affecting hosts in all countries. Although pigs play a key role in the ecology of IAVs, the epidemiology of IAVs within swine herds is poorly understood. In this longitudinal study we describe the prevalence of IAVs infection in three subpopulations of pigs in 5 breeding herds in the Midwestern USA. Each herd was sampled monthly for a year and, at each visit, 30 individual nasal swabs were collected from the three subpopulations, namely, a replacement females, resident on-farm for less than 4 weeks (new gilts, b replacement females, resident on-farm for more than 4 weeks (gilts, and c neonatal pigs less than 21 days of age (piglets. Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR was used to detect IAVs, and the association between IAVs infection and pig subpopulation was measured using a mixed logistic regression model. Nasal swabs (n = 4,190 were collected from 141 groups of pigs. At least, one IAV-positive nasal swab was found in 19.9% (n = 28 of the sampled groups, and 7.7% (n = 324 of all nasal swabs tested positive. After adjusting by annual quarter and sampling event, the odds of testing IAV positive were 7.9 (95% CI 1.4, 43.9 and 4.4 (95% CI 1.1, 17.1 times higher in groups of new gilts and piglets compared to groups of gilts, respectively. Results indicate that new gilts and piglets had higher odds of testing IAV positive than gilts in swine breeding herds and that season influences IAV infection in pigs. Based on these findings, we recommend that IAV control strategies be aimed at preventing infection before gilts are introduced into the farm, and in pigs prior to weaning.

  14. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  15. Transdifferention of some supporting cells in the cochlea induced by Ad5 atoh1/EGFP in the young adult guinea pigs%Ad5-atoh1/EGFP在体诱导近成年豚鼠耳蜗产生毛细胞样细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩朝; 丛宁; 杨娟梅; 黄一波; 靳楷; 李雯

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore whether the Ad5-atohl/EGFP could transdifferent the supporting ceils into the new hair cells in young adult guinea pigs cochlea in vivo. Method: Twelve healthy pigmented guinea pigs weighted 200-250 g were included in this experiment. 5 ul of Ad5-El/E3 defected-atohl/EGFP were infused into the scala media through a hole made on the lateral wall of the cochlea. Six of the 12 animal were killed 2 weeks after the infusion operation. The others were killed 4 weeks after the operation. The whole mount of the basal membranes were directly observed under the fluorescence microscope for the expression of the EGFP (enhance green fluorescent protein) or for the expression of the hair cell specific marker and nuclear after staining with myosinVIIa rabbit polyclonal antibody and Dapi dye. Result:New cells with big nuclear, ellipse body and expressed with EGFP were found in the region near to the outmost row of the outer hair cells in 2 animal 2 weeks after the infusion. Moreover there were 3 animals with specific morphologic new cells in the location where ever been located by the outer hair cells and the region as 2 weeks animals 4 weeks after the infusion. Those cells were stained by myosinVIIa antibody. Conclusion: Atohl gene could transdifferent some supporting cells in the basal membrane into hair cell like cells in young adult guinea pigs in vivo. These supporting cells locate in the region of outer hair cells and the basal membrane which do not belong to the region of outer hair cells.%目的:在近成年豚鼠耳蜗内携带atoh1/EGFP基因的腺病毒是否能够将基膜上残留的支持细胞转分化为新的毛细胞.方法:选用体重在200~250g的健康花豚鼠12只,将构建同时表达atoh1和EGFP基因的E1/E3区缺失的人类免疫5型腺病毒5μl,通过耳蜗侧壁打孔灌注导入中阶内淋巴系统.其中6只于灌注2周后处死,6只灌注4周后处死,基膜铺片观察EGFP、毛细胞标记物myosinⅦa和Dapi

  16. Hepatitis E virus in liver and bile samples from slaughtered pigs of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Rovaris Gardinali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to detect and identify hepatitis E virus (HEV strains in liver and bile samples from slaughtered pigs in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Liver and bile samples were collected from 118 asymptomatic adult pigs at a slaughterhouse in a major Brazilian pork production area. The samples were assayed using a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction protocol with primer sets targeting open reading frames (ORF1 and 2 of the HEV genome. HEV RNA was detected in two (1.7% liver samples and one (0.84% bile sample using both primers sets. The HEV strains were classified as genotype 3b on the basis of their nucleotide sequences. These data suggest that healthy pigs may be a source of HEV infection for consumers of pig liver and slaughterhouse workers in Brazil.

  17. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; Batteiger, B E; Soderberg, L S

    1990-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae (agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis), belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except t...

  18. Spironolactone for 
Adult Female Acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam J

    2015-10-01

    Many cases of acne are hormonal in nature, meaning that 
they occur in adolescent girls and women and are aggravated 
by hormonal fluctuations such as those that occur during the menstrual cycle or in the setting of underlying hormonal imbalances as seen in polycystic ovary syndrome. For these patients, antihormonal therapy such as spironolactone is a valid and efficacious option. Herein, initiation and utilization of this medication is reviewed. PMID:27141564

  19. maternal behaviors and selfcare on adult females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Enith Vargas Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dados los nuevos roles que desempeña la mujer en nuestra sociedad, actualmente es frecuente la separación madre-hijo durante la lactancia. Existen modelos animales en los que la separación materna es considerada una experiencia adversa temprana. El interés del grupo de Psicobiología del Comportamiento, avalado por la Fundación Universitaria Los Libertadores, se centra en investigar el efecto de la separación materna sobre los patrones conductuales, para identificar los mecanismos de transmisión a las siguientes generaciones, utilizando como modelo experimental la rata Wistar, para determinar las consecuencias conductuales que ocasiona, en las hijas adultas que se convierten en madres, el haber sufrido de separación maternal temprana (SMT. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el grupo sometido a separación materna y el grupo control en conductas maternales y de autocuidado de la madre.

  20. Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanan Saritha; Divya Gupta; Laxmisha Chandrashekar; Devinder M Thappa; Nachiappa G Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn′s disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient.

  1. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p incontinence occurring...... during sleep (p urinary incontinence occurring in situations of anxiety (p

  2. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in miniature pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Shi; Yan Zhang; Ya Li; Shiwei Qiu; Shili Zhang; Yaohan Li; Na Yuan; Yuehua Qiao; Shiming Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To report detection of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in the miniature pig. Methods:Potentials evoked by 1000 Hz tone bursts were recorded from neck extensor muscles and the masseter muscles in normal adult Bama miniature pigs anesthetized with 3%pentobarbital sodium and Carbachol II. Results:The latency of the first positive wave P from neck extensor muscles was 7.65 ± 0.64 ms, with an amplitude of 1.66 ± 0.34 uv and a rate of successful induction of 75%at 80 dB SPL. The latency of potentials evoked from the masseter muscles was 7.60 ± 0.78 ms, with an amplitude of 1.31 ± 0.28 uv and a rate successful induction of 66%at 80 dB SPL. Conclusion:The latencies and thresholds of VEMPs recorded from the neck extensor muscle and the masseter muscle appear to be comparable in normal adult Bama miniature pigs, although the amplitude recorded from the neck extensor muscle seems to be higher than that from the masseter muscle. However, because of their usually relatively superficial and easily accessible location, as well as their large volume and strong contractions, masseter muscles may be better target muscles for recording myogenic potentials.

  3. Neuro-endocrine regulation of LH secretion in the cyclic pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierx, J.

    1999-01-01

    The present thesis describes the study in the hormonal (endocrine) regulation of the fertility in the female pig. Fertility is optimal when during the reproductive cycle the concentrations of hormones change in a particular sequence. In the present thesis it has been shown that, amongst others, morp

  4. Performance and plasma urea nitrogen of immunocastrated males pigs of medium genetic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana R Caldara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. A study was carried out to evaluate the performance and the plasma urea nitrogen (PUN of male pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass, which underwent immunocastration. Materials and methods. Forty-five seventy-days old Large White x Landrace crossbred were used. The pigs were distributed in a randomized design in three treatments: castrated males, females and immunocastrated males. Each treatment group was replicated three times with five pigs per replicate. The trial period was of 70 days, divided into phases of growing (70 to 110 days old and finishing (111 to 140 days old. The pigs were weighed four times: at the beginning of the trial, at the first immunocastration vaccine dose (80 days old, at the second immunocastration vaccine dose (110 days old and just before slaughter (140 days old. Blood samples were taken on the same day that the animals were weighed. Results. Between 80 and 110 days old, there was an increase in PUN value, only for castrated males and females. No differences were found in weight gain between the studied groups within the periods. Immunocastrated males had lower feed intake than females and these had a lower feed intake than castrated males. To 110 days old, immunocastrated animals showed feed conversion ratio similar to females and better than castrated males. However, after the second dose of the vaccine, feed conversion was similar between groups. Conclusions. The benefits of immunocastration are prominent in animals with low to medium genetic potential.

  5. Relationship between tail lesions and lung health in slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Vale, Ana P; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Teixeira, Dayane L; Leonard, Finola C; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    Tail lesions are associated with poor health either because they serve as a point of entry for pathogens or because of shared risk factors. This study investigated the relationship between carcass tail lesion and lung lesion severity scores in slaughter pigs. Carcasses were scored after scalding/dehairing for tail lesion severity (0-4). Lungs were scored according to an adapted version of the BPEX pig health scheme. Severity of enzootic pneumonia (EP-like lesions) was recorded on a scale of 0-50. Severity of pleurisy was scored on a 0-2 scale with score 2 equating to severe pleurisy or those lungs that remained attached to the chest wall ('lungs in chest'). The database for assessing pleurisy lesions contained all pleurisy scores (n=5628). Lungs with a score of 2 for pleurisy were excluded from the analysis of all other lung lesions as such lungs could not be assessed for other lesions (n=4491). Associations between tail lesions and different lung lesion outcomes were analysed using generalized linear mixed models (PROC GLIMMIX) with random effect for batch. Males were more affected by moderate (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.51-2.34) and severe (OR=5.8, 95% CI 3.45-9.70) tail lesions than females. EP-like lesions and pleurisy were most commonly observed. Pigs with severe tail lesions tended to have more 'lungs in chest' than pigs with moderate tail lesions (P=0.1). No other associations between tail lesions and lung lesions were found. Males had higher odds of having EP-like lesions (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.05-1.36) than females. Tail lesions on the carcass may not be an accurate predictor of lung health. However, tail lesions are important welfare indicators and respiratory disease is a significant infectious condition affecting pigs. Thus, recording of tail and lung lesions at meat inspection provides valuable information regarding on-farm health and welfare of pigs. PMID:27094136

  6. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  7. Of Domestic and Wild Guinea Pigs: Studies in Sociophysiology, Domestication, and Social Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Norbert

    Among mammals a majority of each individual's daily expectations, motivations, and behaviors are directed to encounters with conspecifics. Therefore the knowledge of the genesis, control, and consequences of social interactions is crucial for understanding their social life. We present here our research on the sociophysiology, domestication, and social evolution of wild (Cavia aperea and Galea musteloides) and domestic (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) guinea pigs, which summarizes general rules for many group-living mammals. It is shown that social interactions have consequences not only for the individuals' reproductive success but also for their degrees of stress and welfare. The way in which individuals interact is controlled not only by the present environment but also by the previous social experiences which they have gathered during their behavioral development. Furthermore, the study of ontogeny does not begin at birth, because prenatal social factors acting on pregnant females can also affect the way in which the offspring will interact when adult. In addition, to understand the genesis of interactions between domesticated animals implies knowledge of the behavioral and physiological changes which occurred during the process of domestication. Finally, understanding the social interactions among individuals of the wild ancestor of the domesticated form requires knowledge of how their behavior patterns were brought about by natural selection during the process of social evolution.

  8. A Double-Blind, 12-Week Study to Evaluate the Antiaging Efficacy of a Cream Containing the NFκB Inhibitor 4-Hexyl-1, 3-Phenylenediol and Ascorbic Acid-2 Glucoside in Adult Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roure, Romain; Nollent, Virginie; Dayan, Liliane; Camel, Etienne; Bertin, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    The 5 main physical manifestations of aged skin are wrinkles, uneven tone, brown spots, loss of elasticity, and dryness. One mechanism resulting in these physical manifestations is increased activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein. This 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized split-face study compared the antiaging effect and safety of a face cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol, an NFκB inhibitor, and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside versus placebo in adult females aged 45-70 years old. Subjects (n=42) applied active treatment or placebo to the same half face twice daily at home for 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation was carried out by a dermatologist. Subjects carried out similar self-grading assessments. Colorimetric measurements analyzed skin color, and biomechanical skin properties were evaluated. Clinical grading showed that most wrinkle parameters were significantly improved after 8 weeks of active treatment compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05), with improvements maintained after 12 weeks. Only Marionette wrinkles did not show a significant improvement. Brown spots (color intensity/number), overall photodamage, and most complexion parameters improved significantly after 8 and 12 weeks compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05). Self-grading yielded similar results compared with baseline. Self-grading did not demonstrate improvements with active treatment versus placebo, except for skin firmness at 8 and 12 weeks (P≤.05). A significant difference was seen with active treatment compared with placebo in all colorimetric parameters (L*, b*, and ITA°) after 8 weeks, and in spot coloration (b*) after 12 weeks (Pskin elasticity were not significantly different between treatments. Overall tolerability of active treatment was judged as good. In conclusion, a cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside improves the clinical appearance of aged skin, validating the potential use of NFκB inhibition as a

  9. Advertising and Australian Pig Producers Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lin ZHANG; Goddard, Ellen W.

    2000-01-01

    The pig meat market in Australia is characterized by generic (fresh pork, bacon etc.) advertising. These advertising expenditures are funded from collective levies from pig producers. At the same time, there are extensive brand advertising activities in the pig market. Impact of advertising on pig meat consumption has been a long-standing argument. So far, there have been several studies done on the effectiveness of generic pork advertising in Australia up to 1988. However, the previous studi...

  10. Effect of prenatal stress on the expression of Parvalbuminand Calretinin in adult female rat offspring%孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后钙结合蛋白Parvalbumin和Calretinin表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍校琼; 王岐本; 蔡维君; 罗明英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨孕期应激对子代雌鼠成年后钙结合蛋白阳性神经元表达的影响。方法6只SD孕鼠随机分为孕期应激组(PS组)和对照组(CON组)。PS组孕鼠在妊娠晚期接受限制性应激,CON组不给予孕期应激。子代成年后,PS组和CON组雌性子代随机分别又分为PS-S组,PS-NS组,CON-S组和CON-NS组(n均=6)。PS-S组和CON-S组动物先后接受限制性应激和冰水应激。动物在接受应激后均给与水和酒精喂养,用Western blot检测海马钙结合蛋白Parvalbumin(PV)和Calretinin(CR)蛋白的表达,进一步结合共聚焦免疫荧光组织化学方法检测PV和CR在海马CA1、CA3区和齿状回(dentate gyrus, DG)的表达。结果与CON-NS组相比,海马区PV和CR的蛋白表达在CON-S,PS-NS和PS-S组下降,以PS-S组表达最低。PV在海马CA1、CA3区和DG的免疫荧光结果与PV的蛋白表达呈一致性,免疫阳性细胞明显减少;而CR的表达除了在海马CA1区的PS-NS组略有升高外,在其余各组的表达均较减少。与CON-NS组相比,PV和CR在其它各组的蛋白表达和免疫阳性细胞计数差异有统计学意义,其中以PS-S组的表达降低最为有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论孕期应激可影响子代雌鼠成年后海马结构钙结合蛋白PV和CR的表达。%Objective To observe the effect of prenatal stress on the expression of Parvalbumin(PV) and Calretinin(CR)in adult female rat offspring. Methods Six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into a prenatal stress (PS) group and a control group (CON). Rats in PS group were subjected to restraint stress during the late gestational periods, while rats in the control group were not given prenatal stress. The adult female offspring were randomly divided into PS plus stress group (PS-S) and PS without stress group (PS-NS), CON plus stress group (CON-S) and CON plus no stress group (CON-NS). The rats in PS-S and CON-S were subjected to

  11. Clinical Observation of Yangyin Qingfei Decoction for 33 Cases of Female Adult Acne%养阴清肺方治疗女性青春期后痤疮33例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尚璞; 杨芮姗; 李咏梅; 冯国强; 宋瑜; 李晓睿; 李燕娜; 顾敏婕; 郭潋

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察养阴清肺方治疗女性青春期后痤疮的临床疗效,探讨其可能的作用靶点.方法 选择女性青春期后的Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级痤疮患者,随机分为治疗组33例,对照组30例,另选10例健康志愿者作为对照.治疗组口服养阴清肺方;对照组口服丹参酮胶囊.8周后对两组患者皮损和临床证候进行评估,并分别于治疗前后检测治疗组患者及健康志愿者血清双氢睾酮(DHT)、白介素-6(IL-6)、白介素-8(IL-8). 结果 治疗组和对照组总有效率分别为96.97%和93.33%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);愈显率分别为84.85%和43.33%,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.05).Ⅱ级痤疮患者治疗组与对照组的愈显率分别为85.00%和43.75%,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.05);Ⅲ级痤疮患者治疗组与对照组的愈显率分别为84.62%和42.86%,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.05).两组治疗后中医证候积分均较治疗前降低(P<0.01),治疗组治疗后总积分、大便情况、心烦失眠积分改善情况优于对照组(P<0.05).治疗前治疗组患者DHT、IL-6、IL-8水平均明显高于健康志愿者(P<0.05),治疗后上述3项指标均较治疗前下降(P<0.05),与健康志愿者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 中药养阴清肺方可有效治疗女性青春期后痤疮,改善临床证候,疗效机制可能与降低患者血清DHT、IL-6、IL-8水平有关.%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of Yangyin Qingfei Decoction (yin-nourishing lung-clearing decoction) for female adult acne and its possible therapeutic targets. Methods Sixty-three cases of grade II to grade III female adult acne were randomized into the treatment group (33 cases) and control group (30 cases). The treatment group was given Yangyin Qingfei Decoction orally and the control group was given Tanshinone Capsule orally. Ten healthy volunteers were chosen as controls. The skin lesions and TCM syndromes were observed after 8 weeks. The

  12. Cystitis as a correlate of female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, S.; Foldspang, Anders; Elving, Lisbeth Bach;

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to study the association between prevalent urge and stress urinary incontinence (UI) and a history of cystitis in adult females. A cross-section of the adult female population, aged 30–59 years, in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark, was studied, using self...

  13. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  14. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their mechanism

  15. Available phosphorus for 15- to 30-kg pigs kept in hot environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Alebrante

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the requirement of available phosphorus (aP for pigs kept in hot environment. Seventy-two pigs (36 castrated males and 36 females with initial weight of 15.10±0.31 kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design with six treatments (0.107, 0.214, 0.321, 0.428, 0.535, and 0.642% of aP, six replicates and two pigs (1 castrated male and 1 female per experimental unit. Pigs were kept in a hot environment with temperature of 34.1±0.8 ºC. The levels of aP influenced the daily weight gain, which increased quadratically up to the estimated level of 0.477%, and feed conversion, which improved quadratically up to the estimated level of 0.457%. The levels of aP also influenced the content of phosphorus in the bone, which increased quadratically up to the estimated level of 0.529%. The available phosphorus requirement of 15- to 30-kg pigs kept in a hot environment, for the best results of daily weight gain, feed conversion and bone parameters are 0.477, 0.457, and 0.529%, corresponding to the estimated daily available phosphorus intakes of 4.75; 4.55 and 5.27 g, respectively.

  16. Determination of pig sex in meat and meat products using multiplex real time-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmawjood, A; Krischek, C; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2012-07-01

    For specific production lines, European retail companies demand exclusively female pork meat. To control the quality of their suppliers the identification and a quantitative detection of the animal sex origin of the meat is therefore of importance for meat processors. To enable a fast and reliable detection of male pig meat, a real time-PCR-system was designed in the present study. This was based on the genes AMEL-X and AMEL-Y. The real time-PCR assay allowed the detection of male pig meat at a concentration of 1% yielding a detection probability of 100% while the detection probability investigating meat samples containing 0.1% male pig meat was 44.4%. The analytic sensitivity of this system was assessed to be <5 pg DNA per PCR reaction. The assessment of the accuracy of the real time-PCR assay to correctly identify sex individuals was investigated with 62 pigs including males (n=29) and females (n=33) belonging to different breeds/lines. With the newly designed test all analysed animals were correctly sexed. No amplification was obtained with cow, goat, sheep, turkey and chicken genomic DNA. The presented assay can be used for sex diagnosis, for the detection of male pig meat and for meat quality control. PMID:22386444

  17. Continuous infusion in adult females dogs submitted to ovariohysterectomy with midazolam-xylazine and/or medetomidine pre-treated with methotrimeprazine and buprenorphine Infusão continua em cães fêmeas submetidas à ovariohisterectomia com midazolam/cetamina/xilazina e/ou medetomidina pré-tratadas com levomepromazina e buprenorfina

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando do Carmo Silva; Eduardo Hatschbach; Alfredo Feio da Maia Lima; Yuri Karaccas de Carvalho; Flavio Massone

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare, by continuous infusion of ketamine or medetomidine combined to methotrimeprazine and buprenorphine, ketamine and midazolam, the degree of hypnosis, myorelaxation, anesthetic quality and surgical feasibility through evaluation of possible parametric alterations and recovery quality. METHODS: 20 healthy adult females dogs, aged 3 to 5 years, body weight between 7 and 15 kg, were assigned randomly and homogenously to 2 groups of 10 animals each (n=10), group 1 (G1) and group...

  18. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...... carcasses were weighed and CT-scanned. The explained variance of the model was R-2 = 0.9994 with a root-mean-squared error of prediction of 83.6 g. Applying this method as a reference will ensure a more robust calibration of sensors for measuring the LMP, which is less prone to variation induced by manual...

  19. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, L.C.M.; Lezirovitz, K.; Zanatta, D.B.; Strauss, B.E.; Mingroni-Netto, R.C.; Oiticica, J.; Haddad, L.A.; Bento, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells) of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs) are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g) were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4) received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4) received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy. PMID:27007652

  20. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, L C M; Lezirovitz, K; Zanatta, D B; Strauss, B E; Mingroni-Netto, R C; Oiticica, J; Haddad, L A; Bento, R F

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells) of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs) are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350 g) were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4) received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4) received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy. PMID:27007652