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Sample records for adult european starlings

  1. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

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    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  2. The integration of song environment by catecholaminergic systems innervating the auditory telencephalon of adult female European starlings.

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    Sockman, Keith W; Salvante, Katrina G

    2008-04-01

    Mate choice is among the most consequential decisions a sexually reproducing organism can make. In many songbird species, females make mate-choice decisions based, in part, on variation between males in songs that reflect their quality. Importantly, females may adjust their choice relative to the prevalence of high quality songs. In European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), females prefer males that primarily sing long songs over those that primarily sing short songs, and sensitivity of the auditory telencephalon to song length depends on the prevalence of long songs in the environment. Several lines of evidence suggest a role for noradrenergic innervation of the auditory telencephalon in mediating this neuro- and behavioral plasticity. To simulate variation in quality of the song environment, we exposed adult female starlings to 1 week of either long or short songs and then quantified several monoamines and their metabolites in the caudomedial mesopallium and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) using high performance liquid chromatography. We also used immunocytochemistry to assess these areas for immunoreactive dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH-ir), the enzyme that synthesizes norepinephrine. We found that long songs elevated levels of the principal norepinephrine metabolite, the principal dopamine metabolite, and the probability of DBH-ir in the NCM compared to short songs. Song environment did not appear to influence norepinephrine or dopamine levels. Thus, the quality of the song environment regulates the local secretion of catecholamines, particularly norepinephrine, in the female auditory telencephalon. This may form a basis for plasticity in forebrain sensitivity and mate-choice behavior based on the prevalence of high-quality males.

  3. EFFECTS OF RESTRICTED BASILAR PAPILLAR LESIONS AND HAIR CELL REGENERATION ON AUDITORY FOREBRAIN FREQUENCY ORGANIZATION IN ADULT EUROPEAN STARLINGS

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    Irvine, Dexter R. F.; Brown, Mel; Kamke, Marc R.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2009-01-01

    The frequency organization of neurons in the forebrain Field L complex (FLC) of adult starlings was investigated to determine the effects of hair cell (HC) destruction in the basal portion of the basilar papilla (BP) and of subsequent HC regeneration. Conventional microelectrode mapping techniques were used in normal starlings and in lesioned starlings either 2 days or 6–10 weeks after aminoglycoside treatment. Histological examination of the BP and recordings of auditory brainstem evoked responses confirmed massive loss of HCs in the basal portion of the BP and hearing losses at frequencies above 2 kHz in starlings tested 2 days after aminoglycoside treatment. In these birds, all neurons in the region of the FLC in which CFs normally increase from 2 to 6 kHz had characteristic frequency (CF) in the range 2–4 kHz. The significantly elevated thresholds of responses in this region of altered tonotopic organization indicated that they were the residue of pre-lesion responses and did not reflect central nervous system plasticity. In the long-term recovery birds, there was histological evidence of substantial HC regeneration. The tonotopic organization of the high frequency region of the FLC did not differ from that in normal starlings, but the mean threshold at CF in this frequency range was intermediate between the values in the normal and lesioned short-recovery groups. The recovery of normal tonotopicity indicates considerable stability of the topography of neuronal connections in the avian auditory system, but the residual loss of sensitivity suggests deficiencies in high-frequency HC function. PMID:19474314

  4. Effects of restricted basilar papillar lesions and hair cell regeneration on auditory forebrain frequency organization in adult European starlings.

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    Irvine, Dexter R F; Brown, Mel; Kamke, Marc R; Rubel, Edwin W

    2009-05-27

    The frequency organization of neurons in the forebrain Field L complex (FLC) of adult starlings was investigated to determine the effects of hair cell (HC) destruction in the basal portion of the basilar papilla (BP) and of subsequent HC regeneration. Conventional microelectrode mapping techniques were used in normal starlings and in lesioned starlings either 2 d or 6-10 weeks after aminoglycoside treatment. Histological examination of the BP and recordings of auditory brainstem evoked responses confirmed massive loss of HCs in the basal portion of the BP and hearing losses at frequencies >2 kHz in starlings tested 2 d after aminoglycoside treatment. In these birds, all neurons in the region of the FLC in which characteristic frequencies (CFs) normally increase from 2 to 6 kHz had CF in the range of 2-4 kHz. The significantly elevated thresholds of responses in this region of altered tonotopic organization indicated that they were the residue of prelesion responses and did not reflect CNS plasticity. In the long-term recovery birds, there was histological evidence of substantial HC regeneration. The tonotopic organization of the high-frequency region of the FLC did not differ from that in normal starlings, but the mean threshold at CF in this frequency range was intermediate between the values in the normal and lesioned short-recovery groups. The recovery of normal tonotopicity indicates considerable stability of the topography of neuronal connections in the avian auditory system, but the residual loss of sensitivity suggests deficiencies in high-frequency HC function.

  5. Distributed Recognition of Natural Songs by European Starlings

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    Knudsen, Daniel; Thompson, Jason V.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2010-01-01

    Individual vocal recognition behaviors in songbirds provide an excellent framework for the investigation of comparative psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that support the perception and cognition of complex acoustic communication signals. To this end, the complex songs of European starlings have been studied extensively. Yet, several…

  6. Effects of oral doses of fluoride on nestling European starlings

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    Fleming, W.J.; Grue, C.E.; Schuler, C.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nestling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), raised and fed by free-living adults, were given daily oral doses of either distilled water, 193 mg sodium as Na2CO3 per kg of body weight (sodium control group), or 6, 10, 13, 17,23, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg of the fluoride ion as NaF in distilled water per kg of body weight (mg/kg). Dosing began when nestlings were 24-48 hr old and continued for 16 days. The 24-hr LD50 of fluoride for day-old starlings was 50 mg/kg. The 16-day LD50 was 17 mg/kg. The sodium control group did not differ from the water control group with respect to any of the measured variables. Growth rates were significantly reduced in the 13 and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups; weights of birds given higher dose levels were omitted from growth comparisons because of high, fluoride-induced mortality. Although pre-fledging weights for the 10, 13, and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups averaged 3.6 to 8.6% less than controls at 17 days, this difference was not significant. Feather and bone growth of the fluoride and control groups were not different, except for keel length measured at 17 days of age which averaged less in the fluoride groups. Liver and spleen weights were not affected by fluoride treatments. No histological damage related to fluoride treatments was found in liver, spleen, or kidney. The logarithm of bone fluoride and magnesium concentration increased with the logarithm of increasing fluoride treatment levels and were significantly correlated with each other. Fluoride treatments had no effect on percent calcium or phosphorus in bone or plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Oral doses of fluoride appear to be more toxic than equivalent dietary levels. Most birds probably acquire fluoride through their diet. Therefore, the results of the study may overestimate the potential effects of fluorides on songbirds living in fluoride-contaminated environments.

  7. European starlings unriddle the ambiguous-cue problem

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    Marco eVasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous-cue problem is deceptively simple. It involves two concurrently trained simultaneous discriminations (known as PA and NA trials, but only three stimuli. Stimulus A is common to both discriminations, but serves as non-reinforced stimulus (S- on PA trials and as reinforced stimulus (S+ on NA trials. Typically, animals’ accuracy is lower on PA trials—the ambiguous-cue effect. We conducted two experiments with European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris using Urcuioli and Michalek’s [2007, Psychon B Rev 14, 658-662] experimental manipulations as a springboard to test the predictions of two of the most important theoretical accounts of the effect: the interfering cue hypothesis and value transfer theory. Both experiments included two groups of birds, one trained with a regular ambiguous-cue problem (Group Continuous and another trained with partial reinforcement on PA trials (Group PA-Partial. The experiments differed only in the number of sessions (18 vs. 36 and daily trials (360 vs. 60. As previously observed, we found faster acquisition on NA trials than on PA trials in both experiments, but by the end of training PA performance was surprisingly high, such that no ambiguous-cue effect was present in Group Continuous of either experiment. The effect was still present in both PA-Partial groups, but to a smaller degree than expected. These findings are inconsistent with the literature, in particular with the results of Urcuioli and Michalek with pigeons, and question the aforementioned theoretical accounts as complete explanations of the ambiguous-cue effect. In our view, to achieve such high levels of accuracy on PA trials, starlings must have attended to configural (i.e., contextual cues, thus differentiating stimulus A when presented on PA trials from stimulus A when presented on NA trials. A post hoc simulation of a reinforcement-based configural model supported our assertion.

  8. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle

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    Bodenchuk Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline, with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help

  9. Processing of transient signals in the visual system of the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and humans.

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    Feinkohl, Arne; Klump, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The double-pulse resolution (DPR) measures the processing performance for transient visual signals as the threshold duration for detecting a temporal gap between two light flashes in relation to gap duration. The DPR of four European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and four humans was measured in an operant Go/NoGo procedure. We applied the method of constant stimuli and determined thresholds using signal-detection theory. The starling DPR (22.2 ms±2.3 ms SE) was significantly shorter than human DPR (35.2 ms±1.3 ms SE; ptransient visual signals than humans.

  10. Neural correlates of behavioural olfactory sensitivity changes seasonally in European starlings.

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    Geert De Groof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Possibly due to the small size of the olfactory bulb (OB as compared to rodents, it was generally believed that songbirds lack a well-developed sense of smell. This belief was recently revised by several studies showing that various bird species, including passerines, use olfaction in many respects of life. During courtship and nest building, male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris incorporate aromatic herbs that are rich in volatile compounds (e.g., milfoil, Achillea millefolium into the nests and they use olfactory cues to identify these plants. Interestingly, European starlings show seasonal differences in their ability to respond to odour cues: odour sensitivity peaks during nest-building in the spring, but is almost non-existent during the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used repeated in vivo Manganese-enhanced MRI to quantify for the first time possible seasonal changes in the anatomy and activity of the OB in starling brains. We demonstrated that the OB of the starling exhibits a functional seasonal plasticity of certain plant odour specificity and that the OB is only able to detect milfoil odour during the breeding season. Volumetric analysis showed that this seasonal change in activity is not linked to a change in OB volume. By subsequently experimentally elevating testosterone (T in half of the males during the non-breeding season we showed that the OB volume was increased compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By investigating the neural substrate of seasonal olfactory sensitivity changes we show that the starlings' OB loses its ability during the non-breeding season to detect a natural odour of a plant preferred as green nest material by male starlings. We found that testosterone, applied during the non-breeding season, does not restore the discriminatory ability of the OB but has an influence on its size.

  11. Mid-winter temperatures, not spring temperatures, predict breeding phenology in the European starling Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Williams, Tony D; Bourgeon, Sophie; Cornell, Allison; Ferguson, Laramie; Fowler, Melinda; Fronstin, Raime B; Love, Oliver P

    2015-01-01

    In many species, empirical data suggest that temperatures less than 1 month before breeding strongly influence laying date, consistent with predictions that short lag times between cue and response are more reliable, decreasing the chance of mismatch with prey. Here we show in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that mid-winter temperature ca 50-90 days before laying (8 January-22 February) strongly (r (2) = 0.89) predicts annual variation in laying date. Mid-winter temperature also correlated highly with relative clutch size: birds laid later, but laid larger clutches, in years when mid-winter temperatures were lower. Despite a high degree of breeding synchrony (mean laying date 5-13 April = ±4 days; 80% of nests laid within 4.8 days within year), European starlings show strong date-dependent variation in clutch size and productivity, but this appears to be mediated by a different temporal mechanism for integration of supplemental cue (temperature) information. We suggest the relationship between mid-winter temperature and breeding phenology might be indirect with both components correlating with a third factor: temperature-dependent development of the starling's insect (tipulid) prey. Mid-winter temperatures might set the trajectory of growth and final biomass of tipulid larvae, with this temperature cue providing starlings with information on breeding season prey availability (though exactly how remains unknown).

  12. Accumulation, tissue-specific distribution and debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

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    Steen, E. van den [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: evi.vandensteen@ua.ac.be; Covaci, A. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Jaspers, V.L.B. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dauwe, T. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Voorspoels, S. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, M. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Pinxten, R. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2007-07-15

    In this study we investigated the accumulation, tissue-specific distribution and possible debromination of BDE 209 in a terrestrial songbird species, the European starling, using silastic implants as a method of exposure. BDE 209 accumulated in the blood of the exposed starlings to a mean peak concentration of 16 {+-} 4.1 ng/ml on day 10. After this peak, there was a decline to 3.3 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml blood at the end of the exposure period of 76 days, which suggests elimination of BDE 209. In the exposed group, the muscle concentrations (461 ng/g lipid weight [lw], 430 ng/g lw) were about twofold those in liver (269 ng/g lw, 237 ng/g lw). In addition to BDE 209, other PBDE congeners, particularly octa- and nonaBDEs, were also present in the muscle and liver, suggesting bioformation from BDE 209. To our knowledge, these results are the first indications for the debromination of BDE 209 in birds. - BDE 209 accumulates in the blood and tissues of a terrestrial bird species, the European starling, and can be debrominated to lower PBDE congeners.

  13. Estimation of unsteady aerodynamics in the wake of a freely flying European starling (Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Hadar Ben-Gida

    Full Text Available Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight.

  14. Estimation of unsteady aerodynamics in the wake of a freely flying European starling

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    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Taylor, Zachary J; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Gurka, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It ...

  15. Developmental Exposure to Aroclor 1254 Alters Migratory Behavior in Juvenile European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

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    Flahr, Leanne M; Michel, Nicole L; Zahara, Alexander R D; Jones, Paul D; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-05-19

    Birds exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during development could be susceptible to neurological and other physiological changes affecting migratory behaviors. We investigated the effects of ecologically relevant levels of Aroclor 1254, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, on moult, fattening, migratory activity, and orientation in juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Birds were orally administered 0 (control), 0.35 (low), 0.70 (intermediate), or 1.05 (high) μg Aroclor 1254/g-body weight by gavage from 1 through 18 days posthatch and later exposed in captivity to a photoperiod shift simulating an autumn migration. Migratory activity and orientation were examined using Emlen funnel trials. Across treatments, we found significant increases in mass, fat, and moulting and decreasing plasma thyroid hormones over time. We observed a significant increase in activity as photoperiod was shifted from 13L:11D (light:dark) to 12L:12D, demonstrating that migratory condition was induced in captivity. At 12L:12D, control birds oriented to 155.95° (South-Southeast), while high-dosed birds did not. High-dosed birds showed a delayed orientation to 197.48° (South-Southwest) under 10L:14D, concomitant with apparent delays in moult. These findings demonstrate how subtle contaminant-induced alterations during development could lead to longer-scale effects, including changes in migratory activity and orientation, which could potentially result in deleterious effects on fitness and survival.

  16. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris. We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old, at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old, and once the birds were independent (55 days old. Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  17. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old), at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old), and once the birds were independent (55 days old). Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  18. An exposure study with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): Toxicokinetics and reproductive effects

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    Steen, Evi van den [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: evi.vandensteen@ua.ac.be; Eens, Marcel [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, ' Al.I.Cuza' University of Iassy, Carol I Bvd. No 11, 700506 Iassy (Romania); Jaspers, Veerle L.B. [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Pinxten, Rianne [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    We exposed female European starlings to a pentabromodiphenyl ether (Penta-BDE) mixture through subcutaneous implants, and examined levels and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) together with reproductive effects. Sum PBDE levels increased significantly in the serum of the exposed females from 218 {+-} 43 to 23,400 {+-} 2035 pg/ml. Sum PBDE concentrations in the eggs of the exposed group ranged from 130 {+-} 12 to 220 {+-} 37 ng/g wet weight (ww). The profile in serum after egg laying was very similar to that in eggs. There were no detectable levels of HO-PBDEs in both serum and eggs. Fewer females of the exposed group initiated egg laying compared to the control group, although the difference was not significant. In addition, egg weight and volume were significantly higher in the exposed group. These results suggest that, at the investigated exposure levels (150 {mu}g sum PBDEs/bird), PBDEs may have a negative effect on reproductive performance. - Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of PBDEs may result in adverse reproductive effects in a terrestrial songbird species, the European starling.

  19. Hand-rearing reduces fear of humans in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level.

  20. Synchronization by low-amplitude light-dark cycles of 24-hour pineal and plasma melatonin rhythms of hatchling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

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    Gwinner, E.; Zeman, M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In young European starlings, as in other avian species, high- amplitude 24-hr rhythms in plasma and pineal melatonin are already present around the time of hatching. In chickens this rhythmicity results at least partly from the light sensitivity of the melatonin-producing and -secreting system. In c

  1. The development of stereotypic behavior in caged European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-12-01

    Stereotypic behavior in captive animals has been hypothesized to emerge from thwarted natural behavior patterns and is thought to be more common in captive-reared animals. However, data on the early stages of developing stereotypies are currently scarce. We compared the development of stereotypic route-tracing and somersaulting in hand-reared and wild-caught starlings placed in individual cages for the first time. We found that wild-caught birds were less active but showed more escape motivation and more evidence of route-tracing behavior. Furthermore, somersaulting was only observed in wild-caught birds. Development of somersaulting was predicted by subtle differences in behavior during the first few days in cages and developed in individuals with low levels of route-tracing behavior. Our data suggest a role for escape motivation in the development of starling stereotypies and additionally that route-tracing and somersaulting may represent alternative outlets for thwarted escape. In contrast to observations from mammals, our results show that stereotypies are more common in wild-caught starlings.

  2. Opposite Effects of Early-Life Competition and Developmental Telomere Attrition on Cognitive Biases in Juvenile European Starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bateson

    Full Text Available Moods are enduring affective states that we hypothesise should be affected by an individual's developmental experience and its current somatic state. We tested whether early-life adversity, induced by manipulating brood size, subsequently altered juvenile European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris decisions in a judgment bias task designed to provide a cognitive measure of mood. We predicted that starlings from larger broods, specifically those that had experienced more nest competitors larger than themselves would exhibit reduced expectation of reward, indicative of a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. We used a go/no-go task, in which 30 starlings were trained to probe a grey card disc associated with a palatable mealworm hidden underneath and avoid a different shade of grey card disc associated with a noxious quinine-injected mealworm hidden underneath. Birds' response latencies to the trained stimuli and also to novel, ambiguous stimuli intermediate between these were subsequently tested. Birds that had experienced greater competition in the nest were faster to probe trained stimuli, and it was therefore necessary to control statistically for this difference in subsequent analyses of the birds' responses to the ambiguous stimuli. As predicted, birds with more, larger nest competitors showed relatively longer latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli, suggesting reduced expectation of reward and a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. However, birds with greater developmental telomere attrition--a measure of cellular aging associated with increased morbidity and reduced life-expectancy that we argue could be used as a measure of somatic state--showed shorter latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli. This would usually be interpreted as evidence for a more positive or 'optimistic' affective state. Thus, increased competition in the nest and poor current somatic state appear to have opposite effects on cognitive biases. Our results lead us to question

  3. Neural endocannabinoid CB1 receptor expression, social status, and behavior in male European starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, M Susan; Cordes, Melissa A; Rodriguez, Jonathan D; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V

    2016-08-01

    Many species modify behavior in response to changes in resource availability or social status; however, the neural mechanisms underlying these modifications are not well understood. Prior work in male starlings demonstrates that status-appropriate changes in behavior involve brain regions that regulate social behavior and vocal production. Endocannabinoids are ubiquitously distributed neuromodulators that are proposed to play a role in adjusting behavior to match social status. As an initial step to provide insight into this hypothesis we observed flocks of male starlings in outdoor aviaries during the breeding season. We used quantitative real-time PCR to measure expression of endocannabinoid CB1 receptors in brain regions involved in social behavior and motivation (lateral septum [LS], ventral tegmental area [VTA], medial preoptic nucleus [POM]) and vocal behavior (Area X and robust nucleus of the arcopallium; RA). Males with nesting sites sang to females and displaced other males more than males without nesting sites. They also had higher levels of CB1 receptor expression in LS and RA. CB1 expression in LS correlated positively with agonistic behaviors. CB1 expression in RA correlated positively with singing behavior. CB1 in VTA also correlated positively with singing when only singing birds were considered. These correlations nicely map onto the well-established role of LS in agonistic behavior and the known role of RA in song production and VTA in motivation and song production. Studies are now needed to precisely characterize the role of CB1 receptors in these regions in the production of status-appropriate social behaviors.

  4. Experimental challenge of a peridomestic avian species, European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), with novel Influenza A H7N9 virus from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Ip, Hon S.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus was isolated from several critically ill patients in China, and infection with this virus has since caused more than 200 human deaths. Live poultry markets are the likely locations of virus exposure to humans. Peridomestic avian species also may play important roles in the transmission and maintenance of H7N9 at live poultry markets. We experimentally challenged wild European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with the novel H7N9 virus and measured virus excretion, clinical signs, and infectious dose. We found that European Starlings can be infected with this virus when inoculated with relatively high doses, and we predict that infected birds excrete sufficient amounts of virus to transmit to other birds, including domestic chickens. Infected European Starlings showed no clinical signs or mortality after infection with H7N9. This abundant peridomestic bird may be a source of the novel H7N9 virus in live poultry markets and may have roles in virus transmission to poultry and humans.

  5. Fear and exploration in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris: a comparison of hand-reared and wild-caught birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6-8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration. In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research.

  6. Adult education policy and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The European Union is now a key player in making lifelong learning and adult education policy: this is the first book to explore a range of theoretical and methodological perspectives researchers can use to investigate its role. Chapters by leading experts and younger scholars from across Europe...... to this field. This is the first book in a new series from the European Society for Research in the Education of Adults, and draws on work within its Network on Policy Studies in Adult Education....

  7. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: the European Network adult ADHD

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooij, Sandra JJ

    2010-09-03

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  8. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooij Sandra JJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1 What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2 How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3 How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  9. Photoperiodic differences in a forebrain nucleus involved in vocal plasticity: enkephalin immunoreactivity reveals volumetric variation in song nucleus lMAN but not NIf in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tyler J; Ball, Gregory F

    2010-09-15

    Seasonal variation in the volume of various song control nuclei in many passerine species remains one of the best examples of naturally occurring adult neuroplasticity among vertebrates. The lateral portion of the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN) is a song nucleus that is important for song learning and seems to be critical for inducing variability in the song structure that is later pruned via a feedback process to produce adult crystallized song. To date, lMAN has not been shown to exhibit seasonal changes in volume, probably because it is difficult to resolve the boundaries of lMAN when employing histological methods based on Nissl staining. Here, lMAN(core) volumes were examined in intact photostimulated (i.e., breeding), castrated photostimulated and photorefractory (i.e., nonbreeding) male starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to investigate the degree of seasonal variation in brain morphology. We present data demonstrating that the volumes of the total MAN and lMAN(core) delineated by enkephalin immunoreactivity are greater in photostimulated male starlings as compared to photorefractory males. Moreover, two other regions associated with the song system that have not been investigated previously in the context of seasonal plasticity namely (i) the medial portion of MAN (mMAN), and (ii) the nucleus interfacialis (NIf) did not display significant volumetric variation. We propose that greater lMAN(core) volumes are associated with the increase in vocal plasticity that is generally observed prior to production of stereotyped song.

  10. Optimal foraging and beyond : How starlings cope with changes in food availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bautista, LM; Tinbergen, J; Wiersma, P; Kacelnik, A; Bautista, Luis M.; Byers, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Foraging adaptations include behavioral and physiological responses, but most optimal foraging models deal exclusively with behavioral decision variables, taking other dimensions as constraints. To overcome this limitation, we measured behavioral and physiological responses of European starlings Stu

  11. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-08-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST , and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas.

  12. Adult Students in the European Higher Educational Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Gordiyenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of accessibility of higher education for adults – the people of various ages and social status. The author analyzes the educational policy of the European Union and its different members, and demonstrates the priority of the given issue. The Bologna agreement involves the reforms aimed at guaranteeing the lifelong education at any level.The interest to the adults education in the European Union results from the rising education requirements in the labor market; tough demographic situation and aging of professionals; redistribution of young people’s educational preferences; prolonged educational programs; flexible and consistent adult education policies in the European Union. Various approaches to interpreting a definition of the adult student are analyzed; classification according to students’ motivation and social status is given. 

  13. In search of millions of lost Starlings across Europe: The relation between monitoring, science and conservation in a declining species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    The Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is a widespread and common species, which is declining in large parts of its European range. We analysed and compared breeding population trends across Europe to investigate the causes of the declines. At the continental scale, the European population declined at a...

  14. Starling nest box monitoring [Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document described the standard operating procedures for observing and recording data collected from starling nest box monitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal....

  15. BAEA Becoming Adult Educators in the European Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Per; Farinelli, Fiorella; Gross, Marin;

    , Estonia, Italy and Sweden) shows a strong political focus on labour market needs and relevance, when it comes to adult education provisions. This is paralleled by scarce attention paid to the role played by adult educators and their qualifications in supporting learning processes among the adult...... the conditions for current adult educators who are willing to progress in their careers, but experiencing difficulties in getting their competencies and qualification valued and rights fully recognised and protected at work....

  16. Adult Education and Training in Western European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubens, Beatrice G.

    No single system or model of adult education and training describes the actual situation in the countries of Western Europe. Considerable variability exists from nation to nation in regard to scope, characteristics, organization, and financing. The countries, however, share an interest in the deliberate expansion of all phases of adult education.…

  17. Analysis of European Discourses on Adult Education and Training and Lifelong Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Terrasêca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the most recent years, the European Union published a set of documents with diverse statutes that have been setting the agenda of the so-called "European dimension of education", in particular concerning to education, training and lifelong learning. Several analyses are being produced on these European discourses with emphasis on the criticism about: i its political pragmatism (Canário, R., 2003, ii its vocational bias, iii the transformation of State, Work and Citizenship relations induced by these European texts (Lima, L., 2003, Medina, T., 2002. In this article the authors intend to identify and to characterize the “profiles” of Citizen, State and Labor that emerge from the European discourses. The aim is to highlight how these discourses produce and induce a legitimate framework and meaning for the field and policies on adult education.

  18. Flavonoid intake in European adults (18 to 64 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vogiatzoglou

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a group of phenolic secondary plant metabolites that are ubiquitous in plant-based diets. Data from anthropological, observational and intervention studies have shown that many flavonoids are bioactive. For this reason, there is an increasing interest in investigating the potential health effects of these compounds. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations.The objective of this study is to determine the habitual intake and main sources of anthocyanidins, flavanols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins and thearubigins in the European Union.We use food consumption data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA and the FLAVIOLA Food Composition Database to estimate intake of flavonoids.Mean (±SEM intake of total flavonoids in Europe was 428±49 mg/d, of which 136±14 mg/d were monomeric compounds. Gallated flavan-3-ols (53±12 mg/d were the main contributor. The lowest flavonoid intake was observed in Mediterranean countries (monomeric compounds: 95±11 mg/d. The distribution of intake was skewed in many countries, especially in Germany (monomeric flavonoids; mean intake: 181 mg/d; median intake: 3 mg/d.The habitual intake of flavonoids in Europe is below the amounts found to have a significant health effect.

  19. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European Union's…

  20. Health-related quality of life in food-allergic adults from eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Nicole J.; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; van der Meulen, Gerbrich N.; Arnlind, Marianne H.; Asero, Ricardo; Barreales, Laura; Burney, Peter; Cerecedo, Imnaculada; Clausen, Michael; Fernandez-Rivas, Monteserrat; Frewer, Lynn; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Jansson, Sven-Arne; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monica; Knulst, Andre C.; Kowalski, Marek L.; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Purohit, Ashok; Rokicka, Ewa; Starosta, Pawel; Vasquez-Cortes, Sonia; Duiverman, Eric J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Food allergy can impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQs) have been developed and validated, including an adult form (FAQLQ-AF). HRQL has not, to date, been measured across different European countries using a uniform methodology.

  1. A European Demos? The Nordic Adult Education Tradition--Folkeoplysning--Faces a Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2002-01-01

    The Nordic tradition of folkeoplysning (Denmark, Norway) or folkbildning (Sweden) is a form of adult education--"people's enlightenment"--linked to the emergence of democracy. Differing social, political, and cultural emphases attached to "folk"/"people" in various European languages have implications for the role of folkeoplysning in the…

  2. Feelings towards Older vs. Younger Adults: Results from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the association of modernization (at the macro/societal-level) and modernity (at the micro/individual-level) with feelings towards older vs. younger adults. Analysis was based on the fourth wave of the European Social Survey, which includes a rotated module on ageism. The sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988…

  3. Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirfält, E.; McTaggart, A.; Pala, V.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female...... participants only (men, women, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined....... RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher...

  4. A three-dimensional digital atlas of the starling brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groof, Geert; George, Isabelle; Touj, Sara; Stacho, Martin; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine; Güntürkün, Onur; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-05-01

    Because of their sophisticated vocal behaviour, their social nature, their high plasticity and their robustness, starlings have become an important model species that is widely used in studies of neuroethology of song production and perception. Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3D MRI-based atlas of the starling brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols we delineated several sensory systems as well as the song control system. This starling brain atlas can easily be used to determine the stereotactic location of identified neural structures at any angle of the head. Additionally, the atlas is useful to find the optimal angle of sectioning for slice experiments, stereotactic injections and electrophysiological recordings. The starling brain atlas is freely available for the scientific community.

  5. A three-dimensional digital atlas of the starling brain

    OpenAIRE

    De Groof, Geert; George, Isabelle; Touj, Sara; Stacho, Martin; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine; Güntürkün, Onur; van Linden, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Because of their sophisticated vocal behaviour, their social nature, their high plasticity and their robustness, starlings have become an important model species that is widely used in studies of neuroethology of song production and perception. Since Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the starling brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols we delineate...

  6. Cardiac thin filament regulation and the Frank–Starling mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kobirumaki-Shimozawa, Fuyu; Inoue, Takahiro; Shintani, Seine A.; Oyama, Kotaro; Terui, Takako; Minamisawa, Susumu; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi; Fukuda, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The heart has an intrinsic ability to increase systolic force in response to a rise in ventricular filling (the Frank–Starling law of the heart). It is widely accepted that the length dependence of myocardial activation underlies the Frank–Starling law of the heart. Recent advances in muscle physiology have enabled the identification of the factors involved in length-dependent activation, viz., titin (connectin)-based interfilament lattice spacing reduction and thin filament “on–off” regulati...

  7. Comparison of Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms between Turkish and European-American Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Arif Celebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is the evaluation of the patient’s soft tissue profile. The main purpose of this study was to develop soft-tissue cephalometric standards for Turkish men and women and compare them with the cephalometric standards of normal European-American white people. The sample included 96 Turkish adults (48 women, 48 men, aged 20 to 27 years. Turkish subjects have increased facial convexity associated with retruded mandible, more obtuse lower face-throat angle, increased nasolabial angle and upper lip protrusion, deeper mentolabial sulcus, and smaller interlabial gap compared with European-American white people. It is appropriate to consider these differences during routine diagnosis and treatment planning of a Turkish patient or an American patient of European ancestry. Turkish males reveal more obtuse mandibular prognathism and upper lip protrusion, and smaller nasolabial angle than females.

  8. Assessment of S100 protein expression in the epididymis of juvenile and adult European bison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Surdyk-Zasada

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we decided to compare S100 protein expression in the material obtained from the epididymes of 5- and 12-month-old calves, and adult European bison, and to detect any differences in S100 expression according to the animal age and size of the organ examined. We used the epididymes obtained from 6 adult European bison aged 6-12 years, from 6 at the age of 12 months and 6 calves aged 5 months. Immunocytochemical reactions were performed using the avidin-biotinylated-peroxidase (ABC technique according to HSU. Specific polyclonal rabbit antiserum against bovine S100 protein (Bio Genex Laboratories at a dilution at 1:400 was applied. We found the expression of S100 protein in endothelial cells of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels in all the study animals. At the same time, we found no differences in the expression of S100 protein in vascular endothelial cells. Our observations seem to indicate that S100 expression in endothelial cells of European bison epididymis is not correlated with age or maturity of the organ tested. We found S100 protein in smooth muscle cells of arteries and veins in all European bison specimens examined. Interestingly in the current study, in young 5-month-old sexually immature European bison specimens we observed weaker expression of S100 protein in smooth muscle cells of small vessels as compared to the same cell type both in large vessels in these animals and in small vessels in adult specimens.

  9. Adult Education between Cultures. Encounters and Identities in European Adult Education since 1890. Leeds Studies in Continuing Education. Cross-Cultural Studies in the Education of Adults, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Barry J., Ed.; Marriott, Stuart, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers from a European research seminar examining the history and theory of cross-cultural communication in adult education: "Introduction: Encounters and Identities in European Adult Education since 1890" (Barry J. Hake, Stuart Marriott); "The University Extension Movement (1892-1914) in Ghent, Belgium in…

  10. Knowledge of memory functions in European and Asian American adults and children: the relation to autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.

  11. Cardiac thin filament regulation and the Frank-Starling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobirumaki-Shimozawa, Fuyu; Inoue, Takahiro; Shintani, Seine A; Oyama, Kotaro; Terui, Takako; Minamisawa, Susumu; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Fukuda, Norio

    2014-07-01

    The heart has an intrinsic ability to increase systolic force in response to a rise in ventricular filling (the Frank-Starling law of the heart). It is widely accepted that the length dependence of myocardial activation underlies the Frank-Starling law of the heart. Recent advances in muscle physiology have enabled the identification of the factors involved in length-dependent activation, viz., titin (connectin)-based interfilament lattice spacing reduction and thin filament "on-off" regulation, with the former triggering length-dependent activation and the latter determining the number of myosin molecules recruited to thin filaments. Patients with a failing heart have demonstrated reduced exercise tolerance at least in part via depression of the Frank-Starling mechanism. Recent studies revealed that various mutations occur in the thin filament regulatory proteins, such as troponin, in the ventricular muscle of failing hearts, which consequently alter the Frank-Starling mechanism. In this article, we review the molecular mechanisms of length-dependent activation, and the influence of troponin mutations on the phenomenon.

  12. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested.

  13. An excitation-pattern model for the starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, S; Klump, G M; Gleich, O; Langemann, U

    1995-07-01

    This paper develops and tests an excitation-pattern model for the starling. Like excitation-pattern models for humans [e.g., Zwicker, Acustica 6, 365-381 (1956); Florentine and Buus, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1646-1654 (1981)], the model for starlings provides a unified account of a large body of data. The foundation of the model is a critical-band scale, which is derived as an equal-distance scale according to a cochlear-map function. The cochlear-map function is determined as a best-fitting function to physiological data relating characteristic frequency (CF) of auditory-nerve fibers to their place of innervation on the basilar papilla. Excitation patterns are derived from auditory-nerve measurements of levels at CF necessary to produce firing rates equal to those evoked by a test tone. The shape of these excitation patterns is independent of level and frequency when plotted on a cochlear-distance scale. The resulting model indicates that 10-dB bandwidths of auditory-nerve tuning curves and frequency DLs can be approximated as equal distances along the basilar papilla. Predictions of level discrimination are in good agreement with the data, except below 20 dB SL. Overall, the present work indicates that excitation-pattern models account for a wide range of auditory phenomena in both humans and starlings, when the models take into account differences in critical-band scales, absolute thresholds, excitation-pattern slopes, and growth of excitation, which is linear in starlings, but nonlinear in humans.

  14. Simulation of the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Samo Ribarič; Marjan Kordaš

    2012-01-01

    We developed a lumped parameter, computer-based model of an equivalent electronic circuit for a one-atrium one-ventricle (frog) heart attached to a vascular circuit, to simulate a basic concept of cardiovascular physiology, the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart. A series of simulations was performed, to observe changes in cardiovascular variables (e.g., arterial pressure, ventricular volume, and valve flows) if either preload or afterload was increased. The simulated data agreed qualitatively, ...

  15. Social coordination in animal vocal interactions. Is there any evidence of turn-taking? The starling as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurence; Craig, Adrian J F K; Lemasson, Alban; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Turn-taking in conversation appears to be a common feature in various human cultures and this universality raises questions about its biological basis and evolutionary trajectory. Functional convergence is a widespread phenomenon in evolution, revealing sometimes striking functional similarities between very distant species even though the mechanisms involved may be different. Studies on mammals (including non-human primates) and bird species with different levels of social coordination reveal that temporal and structural regularities in vocal interactions may depend on the species' social structure. Here we test the hypothesis that turn-taking and associated rules of conversations may be an adaptive response to the requirements of social life, by testing the applicability of turn-taking rules to an animal model, the European starling. Birdsong has for many decades been considered as one of the best models of human language and starling songs have been well described in terms of vocal production and perception. Starlings do have vocal interactions where alternating patterns predominate. Observational and experimental data on vocal interactions reveal that (1) there are indeed clear temporal and structural regularities, (2) the temporal and structural patterning is influenced by the immediate social context, the general social situation, the individual history, and the internal state of the emitter. Comparison of phylogenetically close species of Sturnids reveals that the alternating pattern of vocal interactions varies greatly according to the species' social structure, suggesting that interactional regularities may have evolved together with social systems. These findings lead to solid bases of discussion on the evolution of communication rules in relation to social evolution. They will be discussed also in terms of processes, at the light of recent neurobiological findings.

  16. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L;

    2016-01-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we...... features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer....

  17. Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927): the scientist and the man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The pre-eminent achievements of the English physician and physiologist Ernest Henry Starling were his quantitative explanation of the transcapillary transport of fluid, the discovery of the first hormone, secretin, and his formulation of the law of the heart. In some ways Starling was an outsider...

  18. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clumeck, N; Pozniak, A; Raffi, F;

    2008-01-01

    virological failure and the treatment of HIV during pregnancy. In Europe, there is a wide range of clinical practices in antiretroviral therapy depending on various factors such as drug registration, national policies, local availability, reimbursement and access to treatment. These can vary greatly from one......A working group of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) have developed these guidelines for European clinicians to help them in the treatment of adults with HIV infection. This third version of the guidelines includes, as new topics, the assessment of patients at initial and subsequent clinic...

  19. The external work-pressure time integral relationships and the afterload dependence of Frank-Starling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Gali; Landesberg, Amir

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the Frank-Starling Law of the heart are elusive and the prevalent notion suggests that it is afterload independent. However, isolated fiber studies reveal that the afterload determines cardiac function through cross-bridge dependent mechanisms. The study explores the roles of the afterload, in situ. The LV was exposed by left-thoracotomy in adult sheep (72.6+/-8.2 kg, n=8). Pressure transducers were inserted into the LV and aorta, a flowmeter was placed around the aortic root, and the LV volume was assessed by sonocrystals. Occluders around the aorta and the inferior vena cava enabled control of the afterload and preload. Different afterloads were imposed by partial aortic occlusions. Transient inferior vena cava occlusions (IVCOs) were preformed whenever the afterload was steady. A highly linear relationship was found between the external work (EW) and pressure time integral (PTI) (R(2)=0.98+/-0.01) during each transient IVCO (n=48). The slope of the EW-PTI relationship (WPTiR) was preload independent since, for any given afterload, the EW and PTI lay on a straight line. Interestingly, the slope of the WPTiR was afterload dependant: The slope was 33.3+/-4.1 mJ/mmHg.s at baselines and decreased by 1.0+/-0.50 mJ/mmHg.s with every 1 mmHg.min/L increase in the peripheral resistance. A unique WPTiR was obtained during both the occlusion and release phases of each IVCO, while two distinct EW-preload or PTI-preload relationships were observed. The novel WPTiR ties the Frank (pressure development) and Starling (EW production) phenomena together. The dependence of the WPTiR on the afterload highlights the adaptive control of the Frank-Starling mechanisms to changes in the afterload.

  20. The English language needs and priorities of young adults in the European Union: student and teacher perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Graham; Cook, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly changing communicative landscape presents challenges to ELT professionals and students. In the European Union (EU), as elsewhere, increased mobility, migration, and integration, combined with developments in online communication, have led to substantial changes in English language use and practices. Young-adult learners are inevitably most receptive to and arguably most affected by such changes, with potential implications for English language teaching.\\ud \\ud This paper reports o...

  1. Some adult refugees learning English in Ireland : the motivational role of goal-setting and the European Language Portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    CARSON, LORNA

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines how goal-setting in the L2 classroom, supported by the European Language Portfolio, contributes to learner motivation. It is argued that a sociocultural understanding of leaming, and an approach to the provision of formal instruction which fosters autonomy, provides an appropriate theoretical framework for examining the concerns of second language provision for refugees. This study of motivation in the classroom is pursued by means of an empirical investigation of adult r...

  2. Associations between physical activity and self-rated wellbeing in European adults: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; Catunda, Ricardo; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Saboga Nunes, Luís

    2016-10-01

    Although self-rated wellbeing is an indicator of health status, it has been receiving little attention; its relationship with physical activity among adults remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing in European adults. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the European Social Survey round 6, 2012, comprising 40,600 European adults (18,418 men, 22,186 women) from 27 countries, with mean age 42.1±13.3. Meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Six dimensions of the self-rated wellbeing were assessed (evaluative wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functioning, vitality, community wellbeing, supportive wellbeing). Men and women who attained physical activity recommended levels had better evaluative wellbeing (men, p=0.009; women, pwellbeing (men, pwellbeing total score (men, pwellbeing in the 6 dimensions as well as the wellbeing total score (pwellbeing, and more frequent physical activity is linearly associated with better self-rated wellbeing in its 6 dimensions.

  3. The Frank-Starling mechanism in vertebrate cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Holly A; White, Ed

    2008-07-01

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart applies to all classes of vertebrates. It describes how stretch of cardiac muscle, up to an optimum length, increases contractility thereby linking cardiac ejection to cardiac filling. The cellular mechanisms underlying the Frank-Starling response include an increase in myofilament sensitivity for Ca2+, decreased myofilament lattice spacing and increased thin filament cooperativity. Stretching of mammalian, amphibian and fish cardiac myocytes reveal that the functional peak of the sarcomere length (SL)-tension relationship occurs at longer SL in the non-mammalian classes. These findings correlate with in vivo cardiac function as non-mammalian vertebrates, such as fish, vary stroke volume to a relatively larger extent than mammals. Thus, it seems the length-dependent properties of individual myocytes are modified to accommodate differences in organ function, and the high extensibility of certain hearts is matched by the extensibility of their myocytes. Reasons for the differences between classes are still to be elucidated, however, the structure of mammalian ventricular myocytes, with larger widths and higher levels of passive stiffness than those from other vertebrate classes may be implicated.

  4. Assessment of contractility in intact ventricular cardiomyocytes using the dimensionless 'Frank-Starling Gain' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollensdorff, Christian; Lookin, Oleg; Kohl, Peter

    2011-07-01

    This paper briefly recapitulates the Frank-Starling law of the heart, reviews approaches to establishing diastolic and systolic force-length behaviour in intact isolated cardiomyocytes, and introduces a dimensionless index called 'Frank-Starling Gain', calculated as the ratio of slopes of end-systolic and end-diastolic force-length relations. The benefits and limitations of this index are illustrated on the example of regional differences in Guinea pig intact ventricular cardiomyocyte mechanics. Potential applicability of the Frank-Starling Gain for the comparison of cell contractility changes upon stretch will be discussed in the context of intra- and inter-individual variability of cardiomyocyte properties.

  5. Vaccination in adult patients with auto-immune inflammatory rheumatic diseases : A systematic literature review for the European League Against Rheumatism evidence-based recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with auto-immune inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assen, S.; Elkayam, O.; Agmon-Levin, N.; Cervera, R.; Doran, M. F.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Geborek, P.; Ioannidis, J. P. A.; Jayne, D. R. W.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Mueller-Ladner, U.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Stojanovich, L.; Valesini, G.; Wulffraat, N. M.; Bijl, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To present the systematic literature review (SLR), which formed the basis for the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) evidence-based recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD). Methods: AIIRD, vaccines and immunomodula

  6. Starlings as avian model and monitors of remedial actions on Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nesting behavior, productivity, and physical condition of starlings were evaluated between reference and PCB remediated sites. Nest box usage was similar among all...

  7. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  8. A COMPREHENSIVE FRACTURE PREVENTION STRATEGY IN OLDER ADULTS: THE EUROPEAN UNION GERIATRIC MEDICINE SOCIETY (EUGMS) STATEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLAIN, H.; MASUD, T.; DARGENT-MOLINA, P.; MARTIN, F.C.; ROSENDAHL, E.; VAN DER VELDE, N.; BOUSQUET, J.; BENETOS, A.; COOPER, C.; KANIS, J.A.; REGINSTER, J.Y.; RIZZOLI, R.; CORTET, B.; BARBAGALLO, M.; DREINHÖFER, K.E.; VELLAS, B.; MAGGI, S.; STRANDBERG, T.

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people. PMID:27273355

  9. Reconstitution of the Frank-Starling Mechanism in Engineered Heart Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Asnes, Clara F.; Marquez, J. Pablo; Elson, Elliot L.; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2006-01-01

    According to the Frank-Starling mechanism, as the heart is stretched, it increases its contraction force. Reconstitution of the Frank-Starling mechanism is an important milestone for producing functional heart tissue constructs. Spontaneously contracting engineered heart tissues (EHTs) were reconstituted by growing dissociated chicken embryo cardiomyocytes in collagen matrices. Twitch and baseline tensions were recorded at precisely controlled levels of tissue strain. The EHTs showed a steep ...

  10. Advocating vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older in Western Europe: statement by the Joint Vaccine Working Group of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society and the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jean-Pierre; Chidiac, Christian; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Johnson, Robert W; Lambert, Paul Henri; Maggi, Stefania; Moulias, Robert; Nicholson, Karl; Werner, Hans

    2009-04-01

    Vaccines are an underused public health strategy for healthy aging. Considering the risks of vaccine-preventable diseases and the current low vaccine coverage rates in older European citizens, the two European geriatric and gerontological societies (European Union Geriatric Medicine Society [EUGMS] and International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-European Region [IAGG-ER]) convened a Joint Vaccine Working Group to develop a consensus document advocating routine vaccination of aging populations. The mandate of this Working Group was to improve the uptake of routine vaccinations in adults aged 60 years and over. The consensus statement underlines the need to establish, strengthen, and harmonize European policies that continue routine vaccinations to adulthood and that will include older populations. Improved vaccination rates will promote healthy aging by reducing the burden of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in older populations, a population that is rapidly increasing in Europe.

  11. Cultural and Intercultural Experiences in European Adult Education. Essays on Popular and Higher Education since 1890. Leeds Studies in Continuing Education. Cross-Cultural Studies in the Education of Adults, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Stuart, Ed.; Hake, Barry J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers from a European research seminar examining the history and theory of cross-cultural communication in adult education: "Introduction" (Stuart Marriott, Barry J. Hake); "Formative Periods in the History of Adult Education: The Role of Social and Cultural Movements in Cross-Cultural Communication" (Barry J.…

  12. Globalisation, Citizenship and the Education of Adults in Contemporary European Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Argues that globalization is undermining the state. Calls for a reconsideration of the concept of citizenship. Points out that adult education has traditionally stood outside the institutionalized education sector and has served a more democratic and radical function. Claims that as adult education becomes institutionalized it will lose this…

  13. Cosmopolitan Adult Education and Global Citizenship: Perceptions from a European Itinerant Graduate Professional Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Spencer, B. J.; Sehin, Oleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Today's sociopolitical and economic conditions require adults to engage in informed, culturally sensitive coexistence. Correspondingly, adult educators need to design experiences that help prepare learners for cross-cultural collaboration and socially responsible careers in a global age. Framed through cosmopolitanism and situated learning…

  14. Cosmopolitan Adult Education and Global Citizenship: Perceptions from a European Itinerant Graduate Professional Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Spencer, B. J.; Sehin, Oleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Today's sociopolitical and economic conditions require adults to engage in informed, culturally sensitive coexistence. Correspondingly, adult educators need to design experiences that help prepare learners for cross-cultural collaboration and socially responsible careers in a global age. Framed through cosmopolitanism and situated learning…

  15. Institutional Barriers for Adults' Participation in Higher Education in Thirteen European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Ellu; Täht, Kadri; Roosalu, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on institutional barriers that adult learners experience while participating in higher education programmes. We developed a holistic measure of diversification, accessibility, flexibility and affordability of higher education for adults. Based on pre-economic-crisis data across Europe we then explored the impact of macro-level…

  16. Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

    2008-04-01

    According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

  17. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-14

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.

  18. Ageing and health status in adults with intellectual disabilities: results of the European POMONA II study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, M.; Perry, J.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Walsh, P.N.; Kerr, M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M.J. van; Hove, G. van; Berger, D.M.; Azema, B.; Buono, S.; Cara, A.C.; Germanavicius, A.; Linehan, C.; Maatta, T.; Tossebro, J.; Weber, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). METHOD: T

  19. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults : The European union geriatric medicine society (EUGMS) statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blain, H.; Masud, T.; Dargent-Molina, P.; Martin, F. C.; Rosendahl, E.; van der Velde, N.; Bousquet, J.; Benetos, A.; Cooper, C.; Kanis, J. A.; Reginster, J. Y.; Rizzoli, R.; Cortet, B.; Barbagallo, M.; Dreinhöfer, K.; Vellas, B.; Maggi, S.; Strandberg, T.; Alvarez, M. N.; Annweiler, C.; Bernard, P. L.; Beswetherick, N.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Bloch, F.; Boddaert, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Bousson, V.; Bourdel-Marchasson, I.; Capisizu, A.; Che, H.; Clara, J. G.; Combe, B.; Delignieres, D.; Eklund, P.; Emmelot-Vonk, M.; Freiberger, E.; Gauvain, J. B.; Goswami, N.; Guldemond, N.; Herrero, C.; Joël, M. E.; Jónsdóttir, A. B.; Kemoun, G.; Kiss, I.; Kolk, H.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kutsal, Y. G.; Lauretani, F.; Macijauskienė, J.; Mellingsæter, M.; Morel, J.; Mourey, F.; Nourashemi, F.; Nyakas, C.; Puisieux, F.; Rambourg, P.; Ramírez, A. G.; Rapp, K.; Rolland, Y.; Ryg, J.; Sahota, O.; Snoeijs, S.; Stephan, Y.; Thomas, E.; Todd, C.; Treml, J.; Adachi, R.; Agnusdei, D.; Body, J. J.; Breuil, V.; Bruyère, O.; Burckardt, P.; Cannata-Andia, J. B.; Carey, J.; Chan, D. C.; Chapuis, L.; Chevalley, T.; Cohen-Solal, M.; Dawson-Hughes, B.; Dennison, E. M.; Devogelaer, J. P.; Fardellone, P.; Féron, J. M.; Perez, A. D.; Felsenberg, D.; Glueer, C.; Harvey, N.; Hiligsman, M.; Javaid, M. K.; Jörgensen, N. R.; Kendler, D.; Kraenzlin, M.; Laroche, M.; Legrand, E.; Leslie, W. D.; Lespessailles, E.; Lewiecki, E. M.; Nakamura, T.; Papaioannou, A.; Roux, C.; Silverman, S.; Henriquez, M. S.; Thomas, T.; Vasikaran, S.; Watts, N. B.; Weryha, G.; Adachi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest group on falls and fracture prevention of the European union geriatric medicine society (EUGMS), in

  20. Reference percentiles for FEV1 and BMI in European children and adults with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boëlle Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical course of Cystic Fibrosis (CF is usually measured using the percent predicted FEV1 and BMI Z-score referenced against a healthy population, since achieving normality is the ultimate goal of CF care. Referencing against age and sex matched CF peers may provide valuable information for patients and for comparison between CF centers or populations. Here, we used a large database of European CF patients to compute CF specific reference equations for FEV1 and BMI, derived CF-specific percentile charts and compared these European data to their nearest international equivalents. Methods 34859 FEV1 and 40947 BMI observations were used to compute European CF specific percentiles. Quantile regression was applied to raw measurements as a function of sex, age and height. Results were compared with the North American equivalent for FEV1 and with the WHO 2007 normative values for BMI. Results FEV1 and BMI percentiles illustrated the large variability between CF patients receiving the best current care. The European CF specific percentiles for FEV1 were significantly different from those in the USA from an earlier era, with higher lung function in Europe. The CF specific percentiles for BMI declined relative to the WHO standard in older children. Lung function and BMI were similar in the two largest contributing European Countries (France and Germany. Conclusion The CF specific percentile approach applied to FEV1 and BMI allows referencing patients with respect to their peers. These data allow peer to peer and population comparisons in CF patients.

  1. Use of captive starlings to determine effects of pollutants on passerine reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Christian, C.L.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    Three reproductive trials were conducted to develop techniques for propagation of captive starlings (Stumus vulgaris) which could determine the effects of environmental contaminants on passerine reproduction. Trials were conducted during the spring of 1979 in five adjacent 2.4 by 3 by 12-m outdoor wire pens containing four or ten pairs of starlings, a similar number of nest boxes, perches, water, commercial turkey starter, and alfalfa hay as nesting material. Nestling diets consisted of combinations of Nebraska Brand bird of prey diet, live or frozen mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domestica), or live earthworms (Pheretima sp.). Starlings reproduced successfully when the number of breeding pairs per pen was reduced from ten to four. The average clutch sizes for each pen (4.3 to 4.9) were similar to those reported for wild starlings. Hatching (60 to 90.4 percent) and fledging (0 to 100 percent) success varied among pens. The fledging success was greatest in the pens which received the most diverse nestling diets: Nebraska Brand diet plus frozen or live mealworms and crickets. Whether the insects were presented alive or frozen appeared to have little effect on the reproductive success. The starlings did not consume or carry earthworms to their young. The body weights of 20-day-old nestlings raised in captivity (X=73.9 g) were similar to those of starlings in the wild. The use of single pairs per pen may eliminate problems in presentation of nestling diets due to asynchrony in breeding between pairs and excessive interactions among individuals, which may interfere with parental care. The starling appears to be an excellent model for examining the effects of environmental contaminants on the reproduction of songbirds in captivity.

  2. Can adult and juvenile European rabbits be differentiated by their pellet sizes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Rouco, Carlos; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2009-03-01

    Recently, a new method for differentiating juvenile and adult rabbits based on faecal pellet size was published. According to this method, pellets >6 mm diameter are inferred to be deposited by adults, while those kittens. In this study, we designed a simple experiment to test the accuracy of this methodology. Twelve adult rabbits were housed in individual outdoor cages and their pellets were removed every day for 10 consecutive days. Pellets were separated using a sieve according to their size and counted. Results showed that adult rabbits produce pellets >6 mm diameter in the same proportion as those 6 mm, whereas others deposit mostly pellets <6 mm in size. Our findings demonstrate that pellet size is unsuitable for aging wild rabbits. Field biologists should therefore be cautious when employing the pellet size method of age determination in other wild animals in the absence of validating studies.

  3. Dynamics of Woodpecker – Common Starling interactions: a comparison of Old World and New World species and populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Jerome A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodpecker species whose cavities are most usurped by Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris are widespread and generalists in their use of habitats. These include primarily woodpeckers that are similar in size to or slightly larger than the starling - such as the Great-spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major of Eurasia and the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus and Red-bellied (Melanerpes carolinus and Red-headed (M. erythrocephalus Woodpeckers of North America. Usurpation occurs primarily in human-dominated urban, suburban and exurban habitats with pastures, sports fields and other open areas that serve as prime feeding habitats for starlings. Starlings prefer high, more exposed cavities with a minimal entrance diameter relative to their body size. Usurpation success depends on timing - optimally just as a cavity is completed and before egg-laying by the woodpeckers. Starlings likely reduce woodpecker populations in more open, human-dominated habitats. Woodpecker habitat losses and fragmentation are more serious problems that enhance habitat quality for starlings and reduce habitat quality for most woodpeckers. The only woodpeckers that might become in danger of extinction as a primary result of starling cavity usurpation are likely island species with small populations. Conservation of rare species limited to islands, such as Fernandina’s Flicker (Colaptes fernandinae of Cuba, may depend on our ability to prevent the establishment of the Common Starling or other aggressive cavity competitors on their island.

  4. European consensus table on the use of botulinum toxin type A in adult spasticity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissel, J.; Ward, A.B.; Erztgaard, P.; Bensmail, D.; Hecht, M.J.; Lejeune, T.M.; Schnider, P.; Altavista, M.C.; Cavazza, S.; Deltombe, T.; Duarte, E.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Gracies, J.M.; Haboubi, N.H.; Juan, F.J.; Kasch, H.; Katterer, C.; Kirazli, Y.; Manganotti, P.; Parman, Y.; Paternostro-Sluga, T.; Petropoulou, K.; Prempeh, R.; Rousseaux, M.; Slawek, J.; Tieranta, N.

    2009-01-01

    A group of clinicians from across Europe experienced in the use of botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of spasticity following acquired brain injury gathered to develop a consensus statement on best practice in managing adults with spasticity. This consensus table summarizes the current publish

  5. Information transfer and behavioural inertia in starling flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas S.; Jelić, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Shen, Edward; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-09-01

    Collective decision-making in biological systems requires all individuals in the group to go through a behavioural change of state. During this transition fast and robust transfer of information is essential to prevent cohesion loss. The mechanism by which natural groups achieve such robustness, however, is not clear. Here we present an experimental study of starling flocks performing collective turns. We find that information about direction changes propagates across the flock with a linear dispersion law and negligible attenuation, hence minimizing group decoherence. These results contrast starkly with present models of collective motion, which predict diffusive transport of information. Building on spontaneous symmetry breaking and conservation-law arguments, we formulate a theory that correctly reproduces linear and undamped propagation. Essential to this framework is the inclusion of the birds' behavioural inertia. The theory not only explains the data, but also predicts that information transfer must be faster the stronger the group's orientational order, a prediction accurately verified by the data. Our results suggest that swift decision-making may be the adaptive drive for the strong behavioural polarization observed in many living groups.

  6. Simulation of the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Ribarič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a lumped parameter, computer-based model of an equivalent electronic circuit for a one-atrium one-ventricle (frog heart attached to a vascular circuit, to simulate a basic concept of cardiovascular physiology, the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart. A series of simulations was performed, to observe changes in cardiovascular variables (e.g., arterial pressure, ventricular volume, and valve flows if either preload or afterload was increased. The simulated data agreed qualitatively, and quantitatively when experimental data are available, with data obtained on amphibian or on mammalian myocardium. In addition, the data obtained in these simulations improve our understanding of the mechanism(s whereby the heart muscle adapts itself to increased distension (increased preload or to impeded systolic contraction (increased afterload. The analysis of the measured valve flows suggests that the ventricle is a highly input sensitive pump because the input pressure determines the diastolic distension and, consequently, the force of ventricular systolic contraction. On the other hand, the ventricle is a relatively output insensitive pump. Therefore, not only atrium contraction, but also predominantly the preceding ventricular systolic contraction is the main mechanism of the subsequent diastolic ventricular filling. We conclude that the presented model enables the study of basic concepts of cardiovascular physiology.

  7. Frank-starling control of a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael Charles; Gaddum, Nicholas Richard; Pearcy, Mark; Salamonsen, Robert F; Timms, Daniel Lee; Mason, David Glen; Fraser, John F

    2011-01-01

    A physiological control system was developed for a rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in which the target pump flow rate (LVADQ) was set as a function of left atrial pressure (LAP), mimicking the Frank-Starling mechanism. The control strategy was implemented using linear PID control and was evaluated in a pulsatile mock circulation loop using a prototyped centrifugal pump by varying pulmonary vascular resistance to alter venous return. The control strategy automatically varied pump speed (2460 to 1740 to 2700 RPM) in response to a decrease and subsequent increase in venous return. In contrast, a fixed-speed pump caused a simulated ventricular suction event during low venous return and higher ventricular volumes during high venous return. The preload sensitivity was increased from 0.011 L/min/mmHg in fixed speed mode to 0.47L/min/mmHg, a value similar to that of the native healthy heart. The sensitivity varied automatically to maintain the LAP and LVADQ within a predefined zone. This control strategy requires the implantation of a pressure sensor in the left atrium and a flow sensor around the outflow cannula of the LVAD. However, appropriate pressure sensor technology is not yet commercially available and so an alternative measure of preload such as pulsatility of pump signals should be investigated.

  8. Simulation of the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribarič, Samo; Kordaš, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    We developed a lumped parameter, computer-based model of an equivalent electronic circuit for a one-atrium one-ventricle (frog) heart attached to a vascular circuit, to simulate a basic concept of cardiovascular physiology, the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart. A series of simulations was performed, to observe changes in cardiovascular variables (e.g., arterial pressure, ventricular volume, and valve flows) if either preload or afterload was increased. The simulated data agreed qualitatively, and quantitatively when experimental data are available, with data obtained on amphibian or on mammalian myocardium. In addition, the data obtained in these simulations improve our understanding of the mechanism(s) whereby the heart muscle adapts itself to increased distension (increased preload) or to impeded systolic contraction (increased afterload). The analysis of the measured valve flows suggests that the ventricle is a highly input sensitive pump because the input pressure determines the diastolic distension and, consequently, the force of ventricular systolic contraction. On the other hand, the ventricle is a relatively output insensitive pump. Therefore, not only atrium contraction, but also predominantly the preceding ventricular systolic contraction is the main mechanism of the subsequent diastolic ventricular filling. We conclude that the presented model enables the study of basic concepts of cardiovascular physiology.

  9. Replication of the Frank-Starling response in a mock circulation loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Shaun D; Stevens, Michael; Timms, Daniel; Pearcy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Mock circulation loops (MCLs) are used to evaluate cardiovascular devices prior to in-vivo trials; however they lack the vital autoregulatory responses that occur in humans. This study aimed to develop and implement a left and right ventricular Frank-Starling response in a MCL. A proportional controller based on ventricular end diastolic volume was used to control the driving pressure of the MCL's pneumatically operated ventricles. Ventricular pressure-volume loops and end systolic pressure-volume relationships were produced for a variety of healthy and pathological conditions and compared with human data to validate the simulated Frank-Starling response. The non-linear Frank-Starling response produced in this study successfully altered left and right ventricular contractility with changing preload and was validated with previously reported data. This improvement to an already detailed MCL has resulted in a test rig capable of further refining cardiovascular devices and reducing the number of in-vivo trials.

  10. Assessment of the Frank-Starling relationship by two-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipprich, D A; Owen, C H; Lewis, C W; Gall, S A; Davis, J W; Kisslo, J A; Glower, D D

    1996-01-01

    The Frank-Starling relationship between left ventricular stroke work and end-diastolic minor-axis cross-sectional area was evaluated as a load-insensitive measure of inotropic state by two-dimensional echocardiography in 10 conscious dogs. Stroke work was calculated as the product of systolic change in cross-sectional area and either (1) beat-to-beat mean arterial pressure or (2) initial systolic blood pressure. Both Frank-Starling relationships were highly linear during preload variation (mean r = 0.96), sensitive to the inotropic state (slope increase with calcium 51% +/- 43% and 62% +/- 53%, respectively), and insensitive to afterload (r < 0.4, slope or x intercept versus afterload). Thus the Frank-Starling relationships derived from two-dimensional echocardiographic images and peripheral arterial pressure may be a useful and practical means of assessing inotropic state with minimally invasive measurements.

  11. Effect of thermal stress on Frank-Starling relations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, T.E.; Brothers, R.M.; Tollund, C.;

    2009-01-01

    The Frank-Starling 'law of the heart' is implicated in certain types of orthostatic intolerance in humans. Environmental conditions have the capacity to modulate orthostatic tolerance, where heat stress decreases and cooling increases orthostatic tolerance. The objective of this project was to test...... the hypothesis that heat stress augments and cooling attenuates orthostatic-induced decreases in stroke volume (SV) via altering the operating position on a Frank-Starling curve. Pulmonary artery catheters were placed in 11 subjects for measures of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and SV (thermodilution...... decreases in SV during heating (-48.7 +/- 6.7 ml) compared to normothermia (-33.2 +/- 7.4 ml) and to cooling (-10.3 +/- 2.9 ml; all P Frank-Starling curve because of attenuated decreases in SV per decrease...

  12. In the eyes of older adults: Self-reported age and adjustment in African and European older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humbold

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore older adults’ perceptions of subjective age and adjustment to ageing and to analyse the correlational structure of the pre-categories in our study: subjective age, indicators of adjustment to ageing and of personal age perception. An exploratory, descriptive mixed-methods design was utilised. A purposive sampling method was used to select 154 older adults aged between 75 and 99 years from three different nationalities. Semi-structured interviews were performed, addressing two core areas: subjective age and adjustment to ageing. Data was subjected to content analysis. Representation of the correlational structure of the precategories in our study (subjective age and indicators of adjustment to ageing were analysed by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Standardised instruments measured regular cognitive abilities. Five categories derived from interviews for subjective age: ‘adapted’, ‘disconnected’, ‘old’, ‘youthful’ and ‘tolerant’. A total of seven categories emerged as indicators of adjustment to ageing: ‘social networking’, ‘health’, ‘time perspective’, ‘spirituality’, ‘financial autonomy’, ‘professional activities’ and ‘fulfilment and leisure’. These results supported a model for each pre-category. Subjective age was explained by a two-factor model: ‘age-conscientious’ and ‘youthful’. A three-dimensional model formed by ‘reconciled’, ‘satisficers’ and ‘maximisers’ was indicated as a best-fit solution for adjustment to ageing. A three-dimensional overall model for PAP was formed by ‘age-cognisant’, ‘fulfilled’ and ‘satisficers’. The findings highlighted the underdeveloped potential of subjective age, adjustment to ageing and a personal age perception overall model for this population. Enhancing subjective age and adjustment to ageing might be an important target to improve older adults’ interventions’ outcomes.

  13. β-Arrestin mediates the Frank-Starling mechanism of cardiac contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Dennis M; Davis, Robert T; Warren, Chad M; Mao, Lan; Wolska, Beata M; Solaro, R John; Rockman, Howard A

    2016-12-13

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart is a physiological phenomenon that describes an intrinsic property of heart muscle in which increased cardiac filling leads to enhanced cardiac contractility. Identified more than a century ago, the Frank-Starling relationship is currently known to involve length-dependent enhancement of cardiac myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. However, the upstream molecular events that link cellular stretch to the length-dependent myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity are poorly understood. Because the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the multifunctional transducer protein β-arrestin have been shown to mediate mechanosensitive cellular signaling, we tested the hypothesis that these two proteins are involved in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. Using invasive hemodynamics, we found that mice lacking β-arrestin 1, β-arrestin 2, or AT1R were unable to generate a Frank-Starling force in response to changes in cardiac volume. Although wild-type mice pretreated with the conventional AT1R blocker losartan were unable to enhance cardiac contractility with volume loading, treatment with a β-arrestin-biased AT1R ligand to selectively activate β-arrestin signaling preserved the Frank-Starling relationship. Importantly, in skinned muscle fiber preparations, we found markedly impaired length-dependent myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in β-arrestin 1, β-arrestin 2, and AT1R knockout mice. Our data reveal β-arrestin 1, β-arrestin 2, and AT1R as key regulatory molecules in the Frank-Starling mechanism, which potentially can be targeted therapeutically with β-arrestin-biased AT1R ligands.

  14. Spinal opioids in adult patients with cancer pain: a systematic review: a European Palliative Care Research Collaborative (EPCRC) opioid guidelines project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Kaasa, Stein; Sjøgren, Per

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review, undertaken according to an initiative to revise European Association for Palliative Care guidelines on the use of opioids for cancer pain, which aimed to analyse analgesic efficacy and side effects of spinal opioids in adult cancer patients previously treated with systemic...

  15. Estimation of age-at-death for adult males using the acetabulum, applied to four Western European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissech, Carme; Estabrook, George F; Cunha, Eugenia; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2007-07-01

    Methods to estimate adult age from observations of skeletal elements are not very accurate and motivate the development of better methods. In this article, we test recently published method based on the acetabulum and Bayesian inference, developed using Coimbra collection (Portugal). In this study, to evaluate its utility in other populations, this methodology was applied to 394 specimens from four different documented Western European collections. Four strategies of analysis to estimate age were outlined: (a) each series separately; (b) on Lisbon collection, taken as a reference Coimbra collection; (c) on Barcelona collection, taken as a reference both Portuguese collections; and (d) on London collection taken as reference the three Iberian collections combined. Results indicate that estimates are accurate (83-100%). As might be expected, the least accurate estimates were obtained when the most distant collection was used as a reference. Observations of the fused acetabulum can be used to make accurate estimates of age for adults of any age, with less accurate estimates when a more distant reference collection is used.

  16. Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927): the scientist and the man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H

    2005-01-01

    The pre-eminent achievements of the English physician and physiologist Ernest Henry Starling were his quantitative explanation of the transcapillary transport of fluid, the discovery of the first hormone, secretin, and his formulation of the law of the heart. In some ways Starling was an outsider...... and he was the centre of several scientific and social controversies. However, throughout his life he stressed fundamental scientific attitudes and ideas with remarkable persistence and power, although also balance, and his scientific achievements have stood the test of time....

  17. Happiness and age in European adults: The moderating role of gross domestic product per capita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis.

  18. Common epigenetic variation in a European population of mentally healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnik, Annette; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; Egli, Tobias; Freytag, Virginie; Hartmann, Francina; Heck, Angela; Peter, Fabian; Spalek, Klara; Stetak, Attila; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Vukojevic, Vanja

    2016-12-01

    DNA methylation represents an important link between structural genetic variation and complex phenotypes. The study of genome-wide CpG methylation and its relation to traits relevant to psychiatry has become increasingly important. Here, we analyzed quality metrics of 394,043 CpG sites in two samples of 568 and 319 mentally healthy young adults. For 25% of all CpGs we observed medium to large common epigenetic variation. These CpGs were overrepresented in open sea and shore regions, as well as in intergenic regions. They also showed a strong enrichment of significant hits in association analyses. Furthermore, a significant proportion of common DNA methylation is at least partially genetically driven and thus may be observed similarly across tissues. These findings could be of particular relevance for studies of complex neuropsychiatric traits, which often rely on proxy tissues.

  19. Diffusion and topological neighbours in flocks of starlings : relating a model to empirical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K; Hildenbrandt, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Moving in a group while avoiding collisions with group members causes internal dynamics in the group. Although these dynamics have recently been measured quantitatively in starling flocks (Sturnus vulgaris), it is unknown what causes them. Computational models have shown that collective motion in gr

  20. Incubation in the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris : Resolution of the Conflict between Egg Care and Foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, R.H.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Biebach, H.

    1985-01-01

    Complementary studies on Starlings nesting on the Frisian island Schiermonnikoog included estimation of total energy expenditure of the parent birds, evaluation of the cost of incubation, experiments on the effect of manipulated nest temperature on incubation rhythm, and observation of prey intake r

  1. De Novo Adult Transcriptomes of Two European Brittle Stars: Spotlight on Opsin-Based Photoreception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Delroisse

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technology allows to obtain a deeper and more complete view of transcriptomes. For non-model or emerging model marine organisms, NGS technologies offer a great opportunity for rapid access to genetic information. In this study, paired-end Illumina HiSeqTM technology has been employed to analyse transcriptomes from the arm tissues of two European brittle star species, Amphiura filiformis and Ophiopsila aranea. About 48 million Illumina reads were generated and 136,387 total unigenes were predicted from A. filiformis arm tissues. For O. aranea arm tissues, about 47 million reads were generated and 123,324 total unigenes were obtained. Twenty-four percent of the total unigenes from A. filiformis show significant matches with sequences present in reference online databases, whereas, for O. aranea, this percentage amounts to 23%. In both species, around 50% of the predicted annotated unigenes were significantly similar to transcripts from the purple sea urchin, the closest species to date that has undergone complete genome sequencing and annotation. GO, COG and KEGG analyses were performed on predicted brittle star unigenes. We focused our analyses on the phototransduction actors involved in light perception. Firstly, two new echinoderm opsins were identified in O. aranea: one rhabdomeric opsin (homologous to vertebrate melanopsin and one RGR opsin. The RGR-opsin is supposed to be involved in retinal regeneration while the r-opsin is suspected to play a role in visual-like behaviour. Secondly, potential phototransduction actors were identified in both transcriptomes using the fly (rhabdomeric and mammal (ciliary classical phototransduction pathways as references. Finally, the sensitivity of O.aranea to monochromatic light was investigated to complement data available for A. filiformis. The presence of microlens-like structures at the surface of dorsal arm plate of O. aranea could potentially explain phototactic

  2. Effect of thermal stress on Frank-Starling relations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T E; Brothers, R M; Tollund, C; Dawson, E A; Nissen, P; Yoshiga, C C; Jons, C; Secher, N H; Crandall, C G

    2009-07-01

    The Frank-Starling 'law of the heart' is implicated in certain types of orthostatic intolerance in humans. Environmental conditions have the capacity to modulate orthostatic tolerance, where heat stress decreases and cooling increases orthostatic tolerance. The objective of this project was to test the hypothesis that heat stress augments and cooling attenuates orthostatic-induced decreases in stroke volume (SV) via altering the operating position on a Frank-Starling curve. Pulmonary artery catheters were placed in 11 subjects for measures of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and SV (thermodilution derived cardiac output/heart rate). Subjects experienced lower-body negative-pressure (LBNP) of 0, 15 and 30 mmHg during normothermia, skin-surface cooling (decrease in mean skin temperature of 4.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C (mean +/- s.e.m.) via perfusing 16 degrees C water through a tubed-lined suit), and whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature of 1.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C via perfusing 46 degrees C water through the suit). SV was 123 +/- 8, 121 +/- 10, 131 +/- 7 ml prior to LBNP, during normothermia, skin-surface cooling, and whole-body heating, respectfully (P = 0.20). LBNP of 30 mmHg induced greater decreases in SV during heating (-48.7 +/- 6.7 ml) compared to normothermia (-33.2 +/- 7.4 ml) and to cooling (-10.3 +/- 2.9 ml; all P < 0.05). Relating PCWP to SV indicated that cooling values were located on the flatter portion of a Frank-Starling curve because of attenuated decreases in SV per decrease in PCWP. In contrast, heating values were located on the steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve because of augmented decreases in SV per decrease in PCWP. These data suggest that a Frank-Starling mechanism may contribute to improvements in orthostatic tolerance during cold stress and orthostatic intolerance during heat stress.

  3. Endothelin-1 contributes to the Frank-Starling response in hypertrophic rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piuhola, Jarkko; Szokodi, István; Kinnunen, Pietari; Ilves, Mika; deChâtel, Rudolf; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Ruskoaho, Heikki

    2003-01-01

    Endothelin-1 is involved in mechanical load-induced cardiac growth processes; it also has effects on contractility. The interaction of endothelin-1 and the Frank-Starling response is unknown. The present study aimed to characterize the role of endothelin-1 in the regulation of the Frank-Starling response, one of the major mechanisms regulating cardiac contractile force, in both normal and hypertrophied hearts. Nontransgenic rat hearts and hypertrophic hearts of hypertensive double transgenic rats harboring human angiotensinogen and renin genes were studied in a Langendorff isolated heart setup with a liquid-filled balloon inside the left ventricle used to measure contractile parameters. The rats were studied at compensated phase, before showing any signs of heart failure. Compensated hypertrophy in double transgenic rat hearts resulted in improved contractility at a given level of preload when compared with nontransgenic rat hearts. Hearts of both rat lines showed preserved Frank-Starling responses, that is, increased contractile function in response to increased end-diastolic pressure. The mixed endothelin A/B receptor antagonist bosentan attenuated the Frank-Starling response by 53% (P<0.01) in the double transgenic hearts but not in nontransgenic hearts. The diastolic parameters remained unaffected. The left ventricles of the double transgenic rat hearts showed an 82% higher level of endothelin type A receptor mRNA and a 25% higher level of immunoreactive endothelin-1 compared with nontransgenic rat hearts. The type 1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist CV-11974 had no significant effect on contractile function in response to load in either strain. These results show that endogenous endothelin-1 contributes to the Frank-Starling response in hypertrophied rat hearts by affecting systolic performance.

  4. Association of Behavioral Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases With Physical and Mental Health in European Adults Aged 50 Years or Older, 2004–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Smpokos, Emmanouil; Micheli, Katerina; Vozikaki, Maria; Philalithis, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of illness and death worldwide; behavioral risk factors (BRFs) contribute to these diseases. We assessed the presence of multiple BRFs among European adults according to their physical and mental health status. Methods We used data from 26,026 adults aged 50 years or older from 11 countries that participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004–2005). BRFs (overweight or obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, and risky alcohol consumption) were assessed according to physical health (ie, presence of chronic diseases, disease symptoms, or limitations in activities of daily living) and mental health (depression) through multiple regression estimations. Results Overweight or obesity in men and physical inactivity in women were the most prevalent BRFs. Compared with physically active adults, physically inactive adults had a higher mean number of chronic diseases (1.33 vs 1.26) and chronic disease symptoms (1.55 vs 1.47). Risky alcohol consumption (≥4 servings of an alcohol beverage ≥3 times a week) was associated with a higher mean depression score (2.84 vs 2.47). Compared with adults with 0 or 1 BRF, adults with 2 or more BRFs had significantly higher odds of having 1 or more chronic diseases (men: 1.52; women: 1.73) and functional limitations (men: 1.65; women: 1.79) and higher prevalence of high blood pressure (37.8% vs 28.2). Belgian adults with BRFs had the highest mean number of chronic diseases or functional limitations among those who were overweight or obese and the highest mean number of chronic diseases and disease symptoms among those who smoked and were physically inactive. Conclusion We found revealed significant positive associations between BRFs and poor health among middle-aged and older European adults. Primary health care intervention programs should focus on developing ways to reduce BRF prevalence in this population. PMID:26378895

  5. Maternal yolk androgens in European starlings : affected by social environment or individual traits of the mother?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Corine M.; Pavlova, Denitza; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne

    2008-01-01

    Social competition among female birds has been shown to positively affect yolk androgen levels, perhaps providing a mechanism to communicate environmental conditions to offspring. Whether this relationship is due to social density or to differences among mothers that breed in different social situat

  6. On the Estimation of Time Dependent Lift of a European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris during Flapping Flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Stalnov

    Full Text Available We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wing bird flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists have attempted to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through two approaches, the unsteady thin airfoil theory and using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both approaches are presented over the duration of wingbeat cycles. Using long-time sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover both the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the unsteady lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lift component cannot assumed to be negligible and should be considered when estimating lift or power of birds in flapping motion.

  7. On the estimation of time dependent lift of a European Starling during flapping

    CERN Document Server

    Stalnov, Oksana; Kirchhefer, Adam J; Guglielmo, Christoper G; Kopp, Gregory A; Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wings in birds' flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists attempt to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of the unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through unsteady thin airfoil theory and lift calculation using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both are presented over wingbeat cycles. Using long sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lif...

  8. On the Estimation of Time Dependent Lift of a European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) during Flapping Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalnov, Oksana; Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam J; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Liberzon, Alexander; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wing bird flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists have attempted to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through two approaches, the unsteady thin airfoil theory and using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both approaches are presented over the duration of wingbeat cycles. Using long-time sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover both the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the unsteady lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lift component cannot assumed to be negligible and should be considered when estimating lift or power of birds in flapping motion.

  9. Variation in population levels of physical activity in European adults according to cross-European studies: a systematic literature review within DEDIPAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A.; Hecke, L. van; Verloigne, M.; Hendriksen, I.; Lakerveld, J.; Steene-Johannessen, J.; Vuillemin, A.; Koster, A.; Donnelly, A.; Ekelund, U.; Deforche, B.; Bourdeaudhuij, I. de; Brug, J.; Ploeg, H.P. van der

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a well-known public health risk that should be monitored at the population level. Physical activity levels are often surveyed across Europe. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of all existing cross-European studies that assess physical ac

  10. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  11. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P young adults.

  12. [Parasitic helminths of flying starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.) in their nesting area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J

    1987-10-01

    1.150 flying starlings and 226 pulli have been necropsied and their helminth parasites collected. Localities where the birds has been captured are given in table 1 and the map. Flying birds are parasited in the proportion of 97.1%. There are three trematodes species, eight cestodes, six nematodes and one acanthocephalan (table 2). Differences are noted according with the locality, the season and the age of the bird. Pulli are parasited by 47% with a very important difference between the two places. The number of parasitic species is lesser: one trematode, two cestodes and three nematodes. The helminthological fauna of belgian starlings seems common but more important and much varied that in the birds hibernating in North Africa.

  13. [Cardiohemodynamics and efficiency Frank-Starling mechanism in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeieva, N O; Kuz'menko, M O; Shimans'ka, T V; Sagach, V F

    2012-01-01

    We studied cardiohemodynamics and efficiency Frank-Starling mechanism in 6-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched Wistar rats, using pressure-volume (PV) conductance catheter system (Millar Instruments, Houston, TX) to evaluate systolic and diastolic function in vivo. Rats were anesthetized with urethane. Cardiohemodynamics analyzed using PVAN 3.6 (Millar Instruments). We found that systolic and diastolic function of the heart in spontaneously hypertensive rats were lower, than in controls. We have shown, inhibition of the efficiency Frank-Starling mechanism, increasing arterial stiffness in spontaneously hypertensive rats. It's shown, less efficiency heart work, with more energy and more oxygen consumption in spontaneously hypertensive rats, may be associated with increasing arterial stiffness and decrease functional reserve of the heart.

  14. The starling (Sturnus vulgaris) as an experimental model for staphylococcal infection of the avian foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J E; Needham, J R

    1981-07-01

    Inoculation of the footpad of the starling (Sturnus vulgaris) with a broth culture of Staphylococcus aureus resulted in a swelling of the foot and histological changes similar to those seen in bumblefoot in poultry and other species. In a number of cases S: aureus could be re-isolated. It is suggested that this could prove to be a useful model in the study of avian pododermatitis.

  15. The NO stimulator, Catestatin, improves the Frank-Starling response in normotensive and hypertensive rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, T; Quintieri, A M; Pasqua, T; Filice, E; Cantafio, P; Scavello, F; Rocca, C; Mahata, S K; Gattuso, A; Cerra, M C

    2015-08-01

    The myocardial response to mechanical stretch (Frank-Starling law) is an important physiological cardiac determinant. Modulated by many endogenous substances, it is impaired in the presence of cardiovascular pathologies and during senescence. Catestatin (CST:hCgA352-372), a 21-amino-acid derivate of Chromogranin A (CgA), displays hypotensive/vasodilatory properties and counteracts excessive systemic and/or intra-cardiac excitatory stimuli (e.g., catecholamines and endothelin-1). CST, produced also by the myocardium, affects the heart by modulating inotropy, lusitropy and the coronary tone through a Nitric Oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. This study evaluated the putative influence elicited by CST on the Frank-Starling response of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) hearts by using isolated and Langendorff perfused cardiac preparations. Functional changes were evaluated on aged (18-month-old) WKY rats and SHR which mimic human chronic heart failure (HF). Comparison to WKY rats, SHR showed a reduced Frank-Starling response. In both rat strains, CST administration improved myocardial mechanical response to increased end-diastolic pressures. This effect was mediated by EE/IP3K/NOS/NO/cGMP/PKG, as revealed by specific inhibitors. CST-dependent positive Frank-Starling response is paralleled by an increment in protein S-Nitrosylation. Our data suggested CST as a NO-dependent physiological modulator of the stretch-induced intrinsic regulation of the heart. This may be of particular importance in the aged hypertrophic heart, whose function is impaired because of a reduced systolic performance accompanied by delayed relaxation and increased diastolic stiffness.

  16. Titin and Troponin: Central Players in the Frank-Starling Mechanism of the Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Norio; Terui, Takako; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    The basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart is the intrinsic ability of cardiac muscle to produce greater active force in response to stretch, a phenomenon known as length-dependent activation. A feedback mechanism transmitted from cross-bridge formation to troponin C to enhance Ca2+ binding has long been proposed to account for length-dependent activation. However, recent advances in muscle physiology research technologies have enabled the identification of other factors involved ...

  17. Diffusion and topological neighbours in flocks of starlings: relating a model to empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K; Hildenbrandt, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Moving in a group while avoiding collisions with group members causes internal dynamics in the group. Although these dynamics have recently been measured quantitatively in starling flocks (Sturnus vulgaris), it is unknown what causes them. Computational models have shown that collective motion in groups is likely due to attraction, avoidance and, possibly, alignment among group members. Empirical studies show that starlings adjust their movement to a fixed number of closest neighbours or topological range, namely 6 or 7 and assume that each of the three activities is done with the same number of neighbours (topological range). Here, we start from the hypothesis that escape behavior is more effective at preventing collisions in a flock when avoiding the single closest neighbor than compromising by avoiding 6 or 7 of them. For alignment and attraction, we keep to the empirical topological range. We investigate how avoiding one or several neighbours affects the internal dynamics of flocks of starlings in our computational model StarDisplay. By comparing to empirical data, we confirm that internal dynamics resemble empirical data more closely if flock members avoid merely their single, closest neighbor. Our model shows that considering a different number of interaction partners per activity represents a useful perspective and that changing a single parameter, namely the number of interaction partners that are avoided, has several effects through selforganisation.

  18. Nitrite is a positive modulator of the Frank-Starling response in the vertebrate heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, Tommaso; Gattuso, Alfonsina; Imbrogno, Sandra; Mazza, Rosa; Tota, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Evidence from both mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates indicates that intracardiac nitric oxide (NO) facilitates myocardial relaxation, ventricular diastolic distensibility, and, consequently, the Frank-Starling response, i.e., the preload-induced increase of cardiac output. Since nitrite ion (NO(2)(-)), the major storage pool of bioactive NO, recently emerged as a cardioprotective endogenous modulator, we explored its influence on the Frank-Starling response in eel, frog, and rat hearts, used as paradigms of fish, amphibians, and mammals, respectively. We demonstrated that, like NO, exogenous nitrite improves the Frank-Starling response in all species, as indicated by an increase of stroke volume and stroke work (eel and frog) and of left ventricular (LV) pressure and LVdP/dt max (rat), used as indexes of inotropism. Unlike in frog and rat, in eel, the positive influence of nitrite appeared to be dependent on NO synthase inhibition. In all species, the effect was sensitive to NO scavengers, independent on nitroxyl anion, and mediated by a cGMP/PKG-dependent pathway. Moreover, the nitrite treatment increased S-nitrosylation of lower-molecular-weight proteins in cytosolic and membrane fractions. These results suggest that nitrite acts as a physiological source of NO, modulating through different species-specific mechanisms, the stretch-induced intrinsic regulation of the vertebrate heart.

  19. Frank-Starling mechanism retains recirculation fraction of myocardial Ca(2+) in the beating heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Araki, J; Mohri, S; Minami, H; Doi, Y; Fujinaka, W; Miyaji, K; Kiyooka, T; Oshima, Y; Iribe, G; Hirakawa, M; Suga, H

    2001-12-01

    Myocardial Ca(2+) handling in excitation-contraction coupling is the second primary determinant of energy or O(2) demand in a working heart. The intracellular and extracellular routes remove myocardial Ca(2+) that was released into the sarcoplasma with different Ca(2+): ATP stoichiometries. The intracellular route is twice as economical as the extracellular route. Therefore the fraction of total Ca(2+) removed via the sarcoplasmic reticulum, i.e., the recirculation fraction of intracellular Ca(2+) (RF), determines the economy of myocardial Ca(2+) handling. RF has conventionally been estimated as the exponential decay rate of postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP). However, we have found that PESP usually decays in alternans, but not exponentially in the canine left ventricle beating above 100 beats/min. We have succeeded in estimating RF from the exponential decay component of an alternans PESP. We previously found that the Frank-Starling mechanism or varied ventricular preload did not affect the economy of myocardial Ca(2+) handling. Then, to account for this important finding, we hypothesized that the Frank-Starling mechanism would not affect RF at a constant heart rate. We tested this hypothesis and found its supportive evidence in 11 canine left ventricles. We conclude that RF at a constant heart rate would remain constant, independent of the Frank-Starling mechanism.

  20. Report of the European Respiratory Society/European Cystic Fibrosis Society task force on the care of adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elborn, J Stuart; Bell, Scott C; Madge, Susan L; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Castellani, Carlo; Conway, Steven; De Rijcke, Karleen; Dembski, Birgit; Drevinek, Pavel; Heijerman, Harry G M; Innes, J Alistair; Lindblad, Anders; Marshall, Bruce; Olesen, Hanne V; Reimann, Andreas L; Solé, Ampara; Viviani, Laura; Wagner, Thomas O F; Welte, Tobias; Blasi, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The improved survival in people with cystic fibrosis has led to an increasing number of patients reaching adulthood. This trend is likely to be maintained over the next decades, suggesting a need to increase the number of centres with expertise in the management of adult patients with cystic fibrosis. These centres should be capable of delivering multidisciplinary care addressing the complexity of the disease, in addition to addressing the psychological burden on patients and their families. Further issues that require attention are organ transplantation and end of life management.Lung disease in adults with cystic fibrosis drives most of the clinical care requirements, and major life-threatening complications, such as respiratory infection, respiratory failure, pneumothorax and haemoptysis, and the management of lung transplantation require expertise from trained respiratory physicians. The taskforce therefore strongly reccommends that medical leadership in multidisciplinary adult teams should be attributed to a respiratory physician adequately trained in cystic fibrosis management.The task force suggests the implementation of a core curriculum for trainees in adult respiratory medicine and the selection and accreditation of training centres that deliver postgraduate training to the standards of the HERMES programme.

  1. Health, integrity, and doping in sports for children and young adults. A resolution of the European Academy of Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Francis P; Hoyer, Peter; Mazur, Artur; Siderius, Liesbeth; Grosek, Stefan; Stiris, Tom; Neubauer, David

    2017-04-01

    The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) is dedicated to promoting healthy lifestyles for children from birth into young adulthood. Physical exercise and leisure are essential to the development of healthy bodies, strong minds, and social skills. All children, without regard to their physical or mental capacities, should be provided with the time, the leadership, the facilities, and the equipment needed to exercise through sports while enjoying playing, even competing, in an environment appropriate to their capacities and aspirations. During exercise and sports, children should be assured of a safe and an appropriate environment that protects and promotes their human rights. Top sports that engage the best competitive athletes in an age group, in a region, in a country, or in the world should provide role models and even dreams for all children. These top sports, however, are also most usually surrounded by large political, economic, and/or business interests where only the best can compete while at times exacting a too high physical and/or psychological cost for those who have survived the cut, made the grade. Alongside this more and more children are being raised in environments with fewer open spaces as well as inside a media and digital culture making significantly less room for the enjoyment of physical exercise and leisure. Children's diets have also been changed dramatically by a significant intake of calorierich foods, which often have little nutritional value and which even a child's high metabolism rates not able to burn off efficiently. Conclusion With this Resolution, the EAP is calling for a renewed look at the role of sports and leisure in the lives of children and, by implication, at the way we structure, finance, and promote sports in Europe. The EAP is also asking that this Resolution be adopted by all organizers of sports involving children and young adults in Europe (and beyond), be that on the playground, in schools, in clubs, or in

  2. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  3. European Adult and Lifelong Education in Times of Crisis: Where is Social Justice when the Social Dimension turns into Social Cohesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    inequality. In doing so, I highlight not only how member states represent the primary source of revenue for the Union but also how they benefit in return from the redistribution of economic means through several financial tools and programmes. This also applies to areas such as education and vocational...... of society; for example, in terms of access to, benefit from and success in education and employment. In this contribution, I adopt a social justice perspective to examine the redistributive function of the European Union and the role it attributes to adult and lifelong education in alleviating social...... training. I will then investigate the role of joint Europe-wide strategies, such as the Lisbon Agenda or Europe 2020, which also frame regional priorities on how to best invest these funds. By examining adult and lifelong education policies created both before and after these strategies, I question...

  4. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong;

    2009-01-01

    weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake...

  5. Dietary acrylamide intake of adults in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition differs greatly according to geographical region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; Moskal, Aurelie; Ferrari, Pietro; Nicolas, Genevieve; Knaze, Viktoria; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Nailler, Laura; Teucher, Birgit; Grote, Verena A.; Boeing, Heiner; Clemens, Matthias; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Ramon Quiros, J.; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Gallo, Valentina; Oikonomou, Eleni; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocke, Marga C.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Ericson, Ulrika; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hjartaker, Anette; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Methodological differences in assessing dietary acrylamide (AA) often hamper comparisons of intake across populations. Our aim was to describe the mean dietary AA intake in 27 centers of 10 European countries according to selected lifestyle characteristics and its contributing food sources in the Eu

  6. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sandennan, Robbert; Wardle, Jane; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n = 10

  7. Essentials from the 2015 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Boesecke, C; Gisler, V

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines are intended for all clinicians involved in the care of HIV-positive persons, and are available in print, online, and as a free App for download for iPhone and Android. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: The 2015 version of the EACS guidelines...

  8. Extent of utilization of the Frank-Starling mechanism in conscious dogs. [preload effects on myocardial regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, D. H.; Vatner, S. F.; Heyndrickx, G. R.; Braunwald, E.

    1978-01-01

    The left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-dimension relationships in conscious dogs were studied; the ventricle was stressed to its limit in terms of myocardial preload in order to assess the extent of use of the Frank-Starling mechanism under these conditions. The preload was increased through volume loading with saline infusions, the provocation of global myocardial ischemia by constriction of the left main coronary artery, and infusion of methoxamine. While left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increased substantially in the reclining conscious animals, the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter did not increase, suggesting a minimum role for the Frank-Starling mechanism in this case.

  9. Functional significance of the Frank-Starling mechanism under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R; Dierberger, B; Kissling, G

    1992-11-01

    The functional significance of the Frank-Starling mechanism under physiological and pathophysiological conditions is discussed, based mainly on animal experiment results (in the dog, pig and rat). The dependence of individual stroke volume on end-diastolic volume can be described adequately using Frank's diagram. This can be illustrated by varying filling pressure (respiratory cycle, vascular tone in the capacitance system, body position, circulating blood volume) and by alterations in the duration of the filling period (heart rate and rhythm, rate of relaxation) and in ventricular compliance (wall thickness, fibrosis; contracture, rigor). The functional importance of the Frank-Starling mechanism lies mainly in adapting left to right ventricular output. During upright physical exercise an increase in end-diastolic volume due to the action of the peripheral muscle pump and increased venous tone can assist in enhancing stroke volume. Reduced contractility leads to a shift of the operating point to the right in the pressure-volume diagram, thus tending to prevent a decrease in stroke volume. However, the consequences of increased circulating blood volume in chronic heart failure are, as a rule, mainly detrimental (congestive symptoms; myocardial component of coronary resistance; cardiac energetics). Reduced contractility results in a flattening of the relation between stroke volume (or stroke work) and end-diastolic volume. Furthermore, the Starling mechanism is prevented from becoming effective if the sarcomere-length reserve is exhausted, or in the presence of inadequate sarcomere extension due to impaired relaxation or reduced distensibility of the ventricular wall. The latter is illustrated using the example of a dilated fibrotic left ventricle from a rat with experimental supravalvular aortic stenosis.

  10. On the application of the Carnahan–Starling method for hard hyperspheres in several dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorós, Jaime, E-mail: amorosj@unican.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005, Santander (Spain); Ravi, Suga, E-mail: suga_ravi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, National College, Tiruchirapalli, 620001 (India)

    2013-11-01

    The Carnahan–Starling (CS) method has been analysed for hard hyperspheres whose simulation data for the equation of state (EOS) are available at present (D=2–9). For lower dimensions (D=2–4) its strict application is successful and their purposes are fulfilled. On the other hand for remaining dimensions, the original procedure is not applicable as a whole. The obtained equations, the truncated virial equation and other equations have been compared with the simulation data whenever possible. The agreement is usually very satisfactory. In short, the proposed equations reproduce the behaviour of hard hyperspheres for low and moderate densities very well.

  11. Trend in obesity prevalence in European adult cohort populations during follow-up since 1996 and their predictions to 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne von Ruesten

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in obesity prevalence in recent years and to predict the obesity prevalence in 2015 in European populations. METHODS: Data of 97,942 participants from seven cohorts involved in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study participating in the Diogenes project (named as "Diogenes cohort" in the following with weight measurements at baseline and follow-up were used to predict future obesity prevalence with logistic linear and non-linear (leveling off regression models. In addition, linear and leveling off models were fitted to the EPIC-Potsdam dataset with five weight measures during the observation period to find out which of these two models might provide the more realistic prediction. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 6 years, the obesity prevalence in the Diogenes cohort increased from 13% to 17%. The linear prediction model predicted an overall obesity prevalence of about 30% in 2015, whereas the leveling off model predicted a prevalence of about 20%. In the EPIC-Potsdam cohort, the shape of obesity trend favors a leveling off model among men (R²  = 0.98, and a linear model among women (R² = 0.99. CONCLUSION: Our data show an increase in obesity prevalence since the 1990ies, and predictions by 2015 suggests a sizeable further increase in European populations. However, the estimates from the leveling off model were considerably lower.

  12. Starlings uphold principles of economic rationality for delay and probability of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Tiago; Vasconcelos, Marco; Kacelnik, Alex

    2013-04-07

    Rationality principles are the bedrock of normative theories of decision-making in biology and microeconomics, but whereas in microeconomics, consistent choice underlies the notion of utility; in biology, the assumption of consistent selective pressures justifies modelling decision mechanisms as if they were designed to maximize fitness. In either case, violations of consistency contradict expectations and attract theoretical interest. Reported violations of rationality in non-humans include intransitivity (i.e. circular preferences) and lack of independence of irrelevant alternatives (changes in relative preference between options when embedded in different choice sets), but the extent to which these observations truly represent breaches of rationality is debatable. We tested both principles with starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), training subjects either with five options differing in food delay (exp. 1) or with six options differing in reward probability (exp. 2), before letting them choose repeatedly one option out of several binary and trinary sets of options. The starlings conformed to economic rationality on both tests, showing strong stochastic transitivity and no violation of the independence principle. These results endorse the rational choice and optimality approaches used in behavioural ecology, and highlight the need for functional and mechanistic enquiring when apparent violations of such principles are observed.

  13. Use of the Frank-Starling mechanism during submaximal versus maximal upright exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, G D; Becker, L C; Fisher, M L; Gerstenblith, G; Renlund, D G; Fleg, J L; Weisfeldt, M L; Lakatta, E G

    1986-12-01

    To evaluate the extent to which the Frank-Starling mechanism is utilized during successive stages of vigorous upright exercise, absolute left ventricular end-diastolic volume and ejection fraction were determined by gated blood pool scintigraphy at rest and during multilevel maximal upright bicycle exercise in 30 normal males aged 26-50 yr, who were able to exercise to 125 W or greater. Left ventricular end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output were calculated at rest and during each successive 3-min stage of exercise [25, 50, 75, 100, and 125-225 W (peak)]. During early exercise (25 W), end-diastolic and stroke volumes increased (+17 +/- 1 and +31 +/- 4%, respectively), with no change in end-systolic volume. With further exercise (50-75 W) end-diastolic volume remained unchanged as end-systolic volume decreased (-12 +/- 4 and -24 + 5%, respectively). At peak exercise end-diastolic volume decreased to resting level, stroke volume remained at a plateau, and end-systolic volume further decreased (-48 +/- 7%). Thus the Frank-Starling mechanism is used early in exercise, perhaps because of a delay in sympathetic mobilization, and does not appear to play a role in the later stages of vigorous exercise.

  14. Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity : a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, S; Biebach, H; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding

  15. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril F M Marsaux

    Full Text Available Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet.Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD at baseline and were included in the present analyses.Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001. Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54-65% but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26-49%. Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day.We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study.

  16. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  17. Joint European League Against Rheumatism and European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association (EULAR/ERA-EDTA) recommendations for the management of adult and paediatric lupus nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsias, George K; Tektonidou, Maria; Amoura, Zahir; Aringer, Martin; Bajema, Ingeborg; Berden, Jo H M; Boletis, John; Cervera, Ricard; Dörner, Thomas; Doria, Andrea; Ferrario, Franco; Floege, Jürgen; Houssiau, Frederic A; Ioannidis, John P A; Isenberg, David A; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Lightstone, Liz; Marks, Stephen D; Martini, Alberto; Moroni, Gabriela; Neumann, Irmgard; Praga, Manuel; Schneider, Matthias; Starra, Argyre; Tesar, Vladimir; Vasconcelos, Carlos; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Zakharova, Helena; Haubitz, Marion; Gordon, Caroline; Jayne, David; Boumpas, Dimitrios T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop recommendations for the management of adult and paediatric lupus nephritis (LN). Methods The available evidence was systematically reviewed using the PubMed database. A modified Delphi method was used to compile questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. Results Immunosuppressive treatment should be guided by renal biopsy, and aiming for complete renal response (proteinuria <0.5 g/24 h with normal or near-normal renal function). Hydroxychloroquine is recommended for all patients with LN. Because of a more favourable efficacy/toxicity ratio, as initial treatment for patients with class III–IVA or A/C (±V) LN according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society 2003 classification, mycophenolic acid (MPA) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY) in combination with glucocorticoids is recommended. In patients with adverse clinical or histological features, CY can be prescribed at higher doses, while azathioprine is an alternative for milder cases. For pure class V LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria, MPA in combination with oral glucocorticoids is recommended as initial treatment. In patients improving after initial treatment, subsequent immunosuppression with MPA or azathioprine is recommended for at least 3 years; in such cases, initial treatment with MPA should be followed by MPA. For MPA or CY failures, switching to the other agent, or to rituximab, is the suggested course of action. In anticipation of pregnancy, patients should be switched to appropriate medications without reducing the intensity of treatment. There is no evidence to suggest that management of LN should differ in children versus adults. Conclusions Recommendations for the management of LN were developed using an evidence-based approach followed by expert consensus. PMID:22851469

  18. A case of low success of blind vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease on survival of adult European wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, Carlos; Moreno, Sacramento; Santoro, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) are commonly used in translocation programs conducted for the purpose of recovering wild European rabbit populations in Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems. In most cases rabbits are vaccinated 'blind' (i.e. without assessing their prior immunological status) for economic and logistic reasons. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of such an approach. We tested whether blind vaccination against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease improved rabbit survival in a rabbit translocation program where wild rabbits were kept in semi-natural conditions in three enclosures. We conducted nine capture sessions over two years (2008-2010) and used the information collected to compare the survival of vaccinated (n=511) versus unvaccinated (n=161) adult wild rabbits using capture-mark-recapture analysis. Average monthly survival was no different for vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals, both in the period between release and first capture (short-term) and after the first capture onward (long-term). Rabbit survival was lower in the short term than in the long term regardless of whether rabbits were vaccinated or not. Lower survival in the short-term could be due to the stress induced by the translocation process itself (e.g. handling stress). However, we did not find any overall effect of vaccination on survival which could be explained by two non-exclusive reasons. First, interference of the vaccine with the natural antibodies in the donor population. Due to donor populations have high density of rabbits with, likely, high prevalence of antibodies as a result of previous natural exposure to these diseases. Second, the lack of severe outbreaks during the study period. Based on our findings we argue that blind vaccination of adult rabbits in translocation programs may be often mostly ineffective and unnecessarily costly. In particular, since outbreaks are hard to predict

  19. Emergence of collective changes in travel direction of starling flocks from individual birds fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Jelic, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Shen, Edward; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    One of the most impressive features of moving animal groups is their ability to perform sudden coherent changes in travel direction. While this collective decision can be a response to an external perturbation, such as the presence of a predator, recent studies show that such directional switching can also emerge from the intrinsic fluctuations in the individual behaviour. However, the cause and the mechanism by which such collective changes of direction occur are not fully understood yet. Here, we present an experimental study of spontaneous collective turns in natural flocks of starlings. We employ a recently developed tracking algorithm to reconstruct three-dimensional trajectories of each individual bird in the flock for the whole duration of a turning event. Our approach enables us to analyze changes in the individual behavior of every group member and reveal the emergent dynamics of turning. We show that spontaneous turns start from individuals located at the elongated edges of the flocks, and then prop...

  20. Role of the giant elastic protein titin in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Norio; Granzier, Henk

    2004-04-01

    Increased ventricular volume enhances the systolic performance, a phenomenon known as Frank-Starling's law of the heart. At its basis is the ability of cardiac muscle to produce increased active force in response to increased muscle length. Although numerous studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular basis of length-dependent activation, the mechanism remains elusive. The giant protein titin (also known as connectin) is the third filament system in the sarcomere and is responsible for most passive stiffness of striated muscle in the physiological sarcomere length range. The force generated by titin is usually seen as passive and independent of active force generation. Recent findings, however, suggest that titin-based passive force modulates actin-myosin interaction, resulting in greater active force in response to stretch. In this short review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of length-dependent activation, focusing on the possible role of titin in its regulation.

  1. Multivariate analysis of physiological parameters reveals a consistent O3 response pattern in leaves of adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Markus; Deckmyn, Gaby; Op de Beeck, Maarten; Blumenröther, Manuela C; Oßwald, Wolfgang; Alexou, Maria; Jehnes, Sascha; Haberer, Kristine; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herbinger, Karin; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Bahnweg, Günther; Hanke, David; Wieser, Gerhard; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Matyssek, Rainer; Tausz, Michael

    2012-10-01

    • Increasing atmospheric concentrations of phytotoxic ozone (O(3) ) can constrain growth and carbon sink strength of forest trees, potentially exacerbating global radiative forcing. Despite progress in the conceptual understanding of the impact of O(3) on plants, it is still difficult to detect response patterns at the leaf level. • Here, we employed principal component analysis (PCA) to analyse a database containing physiological leaf-level parameters of 60-yr-old Fagus sylvatica (European beech) trees. Data were collected over two climatically contrasting years under ambient and twice-ambient O(3) regimes in a free-air forest environment. • The first principal component (PC1) of the PCA was consistently responsive to O(3) and crown position within the trees over both years. Only a few of the original parameters showed an O(3) effect. PC1 was related to parameters indicative of oxidative stress signalling and changes in carbohydrate metabolism. PC1 correlated with cumulative O(3) uptake over preceding days. • PC1 represents an O(3) -responsive multivariate pattern detectable in the absence of consistently measurable O(3) effects on individual leaf-level parameters. An underlying effect of O(3) on physiological processes is indicated, providing experimental confirmation of theoretical O(3) response patterns suggested previously.

  2. Exhaustion of Frank-Starling mechanism in conscious dogs with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komamura, K; Shannon, R P; Ihara, T; Shen, Y T; Mirsky, I; Bishop, S P; Vatner, S F

    1993-10-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the ability of the left ventricle to accommodate an increase in preload (Frank-Starling mechanism) in the presence of congestive heart failure (CHF) but in the absence of the complicating effects of hypertrophy and fibrosis. To accomplish this, the effects of volume loading were examined in eight conscious dogs during the control state and after 3 wk of right ventricular pacing (240 beats/min). CHF increased heart rate (by 16 +/- 5 from 92 +/- 5 beats/min), left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (by 17 +/- 2 from 10 +/- 1 mmHg), and LV end-diastolic volume (EDV; by 23 +/- 4 from 57 +/- 3 ml). Despite reduced LV ejection fraction (from 54 +/- 3 to 31 +/- 3%), there was no significant change in cardiac output (2.5 +/- 0.3 l/min) compared with control (2.7 +/- 0.2 l/min). Stroke volume was preserved (control 19 +/- 2 ml; CHF 18 +/- 2 ml) at a constant heart rate by a shift to the right in the relationship between LV stroke volume and EDV, indicating the importance of chronic ventricular dilatation in maintaining pump performance. In the control state, acute volume load increased LV EDV (by 17 +/- 2 ml) and stroke volume (by 11 +/- 2 ml), whereas in CHF it did not increase LV EDV or stroke volume. Scanning electron microscopy revealed areas of reduced collagen weave pattern surrounding myofibers. Myocyte cross-sectional area by transmission electron microscopy was significantly reduced, and there were multiple electron-dense expansions of the Z lines with disruption of the normal lateral sarcomere alignment. These morphological findings suggest that chronic ventricular dilatation utilized in CHF results from myocyte stretch and morphological intracellular rearrangement. Furthermore, the failing heart cannot further augment stroke volume by acutely increasing EDV in CHF, suggesting that the Frank-Starling reserve is essentially exhausted.

  3. Preload-based Starling-like control of rotary blood pumps: An in-vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Shaun D.; Salamonsen, Robert F.; Lovell, Nigel H.; Stevens, Michael C.; Pauls, Jo P.; Akmeliawati, Rini; Lim, Einly

    2017-01-01

    Due to a shortage of donor hearts, rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used to provide mechanical circulatory support. To address the preload insensitivity of the constant speed controller (CSC) used in conventional LVADs, we developed a preload-based Starling-like controller (SLC). The SLC emulates the Starling law of the heart to maintain mean pump flow (QP¯) with respect to mean left ventricular end diastolic pressure (PLVEDm) as the feedback signal. The SLC and CSC were compared using a mock circulation loop to assess their capacity to increase cardiac output during mild exercise while avoiding ventricular suction (marked by a negative PLVEDm) and maintaining circulatory stability during blood loss and severe reductions in left ventricular contractility (LVC). The root mean squared hemodynamic deviation (RMSHD) metric was used to assess the clinical acceptability of each controller based on pre-defined hemodynamic limits. We also compared the in-silico results from our previously published paper with our in-vitro outcomes. In the exercise simulation, the SLC increased QP¯ by 37%, compared to only 17% with the CSC. During blood loss, the SLC maintained a better safety margin against left ventricular suction with PLVEDm of 2.7 mmHg compared to -0.1 mmHg for CSC. A transition to reduced LVC resulted in decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and QP¯ with CSC, whilst the SLC maintained MAP and QP¯. The results were associated with a much lower RMSHD value with SLC (70.3%) compared to CSC (225.5%), demonstrating improved capacity of the SLC to compensate for the varying cardiac demand during profound circulatory changes. In-vitro and in-silico results demonstrated similar trends to the simulated changes in patient state however the magnitude of hemodynamic changes were different, thus justifying the progression to in-vitro evaluation. PMID:28212401

  4. Gender differentials in the evolution of cigarette smoking habits in a general European adult population from 1993–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Alan D

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Describe the recent evolution of cigarette smoking habits by gender in Geneva, where incidence rates of lung cancer have been declining in men but increasing in women. Methods Continuous cross-sectional surveillance of the general adult (35–74 yrs population of Geneva, Switzerland for 11 years (1993–2003 using a locally-validated smoking questionnaire, yielding a representative random sample of 12,271 individuals (6,164 men, 6,107 women. Results In both genders, prevalence of current cigarette smoking was stable over the 11-year period, at about one third of men and one quarter of women, even though smoking began at an earlier age in more recent years. Older men were more likely to be former smokers than older women. Younger men, but not women, tended to quit smoking at an earlier age. Conclusion This continuous (1993–2003 risk factor surveillance system, unique in Europe, shows stable prevalence of smoking in both genders. However, sharp contrasts in age-specific prevalence of never and former smoking and of ages at smoking initiation indicate that smoking continues a long-term decline in men but has still not reached its peak in women.

  5. Protein kinase C epsilon induces systolic cardiac failure marked by exhausted inotropic reserve and intact Frank-Starling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David E; Rundell, Veronica L M; Goldspink, Paul H; Urboniene, Dalia; Geenen, David L; de Tombe, Pieter P; Buttrick, Peter M

    2005-11-01

    Myofilament dysfunction is a common point of convergence for many forms of heart failure. Recently, we showed that cardiac overexpression of PKC epsilon initially depresses myofilament activity and then leads to a progression of changes characteristic of human heart failure. Here, we examined the effects of PKC epsilon on contractile reserve, Starling mechanism, and myofilament activation in this model of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy. Pressure-volume loop analysis and echocardiography showed that the PKC epsilon mice have markedly compromised systolic function and increased end-diastolic volumes. Dobutamine challenge resulted in a small increase in contractility in PKC epsilon mice but failed to enhance cardiac output. The PKC epsilon mice showed a normal length-dependent tension development in skinned cardiac muscle preparations, although Frank-Starling mechanism appeared to be compromised in the intact animal. Simultaneous measurement of tension and ATPase demonstrated that the maximum tension and ATPase were markedly lower in the PKC epsilon mice at any length or Ca2+ concentration. However, the tension cost was also lower indicating less energy expenditure. We conclude 1) that prolonged overexpression of PKC epsilon ultimately leads to a dilated cardiomyopathy marked by exhausted contractile reserve, 2) that PKC epsilon does not compromise the Frank-Starling mechanism at the myofilament level, and 3) that the Starling curve excursion is limited by the inotropic state of the heart. These results reflect the significance of the primary myofilament contractilopathy induced by phosphorylation and imply a role for PKC epsilon-mediated phosphorylation in myofilament physiology and the pathophysiology of decompensated cardiac failure.

  6. Recovery of the Frank-Starling mechanism by coenzyme Q10 in patients with load-induced contractility depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T

    1993-01-01

    Load-induced contractility depression, in which supernormal left ventricular ejection fraction and contractility at rest decrease by added afterload, is most often found in children with mitral valve prolapse who have symptoms. Patients have high ventricular end-diastolic pressure at rest, which is further increased by afterload challenge. The Frank-Starling mechanism may be maximally mobilized with high preload even at rest to compensate for the intrinsically depressed inotropic state. Therefore, preload reserve may be easily exhausted due to afterload addition. We aimed to determine left ventricular end-diastolic fiber length, stroke work, and contractility before and during handgrip by echocardiograms to obtain evidence for the Frank-Starling mechanism in patients and controls, including patients treated with coenzyme Q10. The subjects were divided into four groups, each consisting of 30 children aged 6-16 years: group 1, normals; group 2, patients; group 3, the same patients as in group 2 after coenzyme Q10 therapy; and group 4, patients with asymptomatic mitral valve prolapse. Baseline values and percentage increases in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and left ventricular wall stress showed no differences among the groups. Only in group 2 were the percentage increase in ejection fraction, fiber shortening velocity, contractility, and end-diastolic dimension strongly negative, despite supernormal baseline levels. In other groups, these were significantly positive, without intergroup differences. We conclude that in the heart with load-induced contractility depression, the Frank-Starling mechanism deviates from normal. The normal Frank-Starling mechanism was recovered due to coenzyme Q10, which may improve disturbed bioenergetic function at the molecular level.

  7. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, Maren, E-mail: maren.olbrich@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  8. Respiratory symptoms in adults are related to impaired quality of life, regardless of asthma and COPD: results from the European community respiratory health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakke Per S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory symptoms are common in the general population, and their presence is related to Health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective was to describe the association of respiratory symptoms with HRQoL in subjects with and without asthma or COPD and to investigate the role of atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, and lung function in HRQoL. Methods The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I and II provided data on HRQoL, lung function, respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, and BHR from 6009 subjects. Generic HRQoL was assessed through the physical component summary (PCS score and the mental component summary (MCS score of the SF-36. Factor analyses and linear regressions adjusted for age, gender, smoking, occupation, BMI, comorbidity, and study centre were conducted. Results Having breathlessness at rest in ECRHS II was associated with mean score (95% CI impairment in PCS of -8.05 (-11.18, -4.93. Impairment in MCS score in subjects waking up with chest tightness was -4.02 (-5.51, -2.52. The magnitude of HRQoL impairment associated with respiratory symptoms was similar for subjects with and without asthma/COPD. Adjustments for atopy, BHR, and lung function did not explain the association of respiratory symptoms and HRQoL in subjects without asthma and/or COPD. Conclusion Subjects with respiratory symptoms had poorer HRQoL; including subjects without a diagnosis of asthma or COPD. These findings suggest that respiratory symptoms in the absence of a medical diagnosis of asthma or COPD are by no means trivial, and that clarifying the nature and natural history of respiratory symptoms is a relevant challenge. Several community studies have estimated the prevalence of common respiratory symptoms like cough, dyspnoea, and wheeze in adults 123. Although the prevalence varies to a large degree between studies and geographical areas, respiratory symptoms are quite common. The prevalences of respiratory

  9. Systematics, morphology, and ecological history of the Mascarene starlings (Aves: Sturnidae) with the description of a new genus and species from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Julian Pender

    2014-08-12

    Two endemic starlings, both extinct, have been described from the Mascarene Islands of Réunion and Rodrigues: the Hoopoe Starling, Huppe or Réunion Crested Starling Fregilupus varius, which is known from 19 skins and a single Holocene proximal end of a fossil femur, and the Rodrigues Starling Necropsar rodericanus, which is known as specimens only from fossils of most skeletal elements. Both were recorded alive in early accounts of Mascarene faunas. A third species of starling Cryptopsar ischyrhynchus gen. nov. sp. nov. is described herein from fossils from Mauritius, but was never reported in the early literature. This paper provides an analysis of the Sturnidae of the Mascarene Islands based on newly discovered fossil remains, and details historical reports and accounts. Their ecology and extinction are interpreted from historical evidence. Necropsar, Cryptopsar and Fregilupus clearly form part of the same clade, but morphological analysis shows that Necropsar and Cryptopsar are more closely related to each other than to Fregilupus and may have been part of a different colonisation event. All three genera appear to have their origins in SE Asia and have morphological similarities with the SE Asian sturnid genera, Sturnia and Gracupica, so they presumably colonised the islands via island-hopping during lower sea level stands. 

  10. Effects of temperature on the nitric oxide-dependent modulation of the Frank-Starling mechanism: the fish heart as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelio, D; Garofalo, F; Capria, C; Tota, B; Imbrogno, S

    2013-02-01

    The Frank-Starling law is a fundamental property of the vertebrate myocardium which allows, when the end-diastolic volume increases, that the consequent stretch of the myocardial fibers generates a more forceful contraction. It has been shown that in the eel (Anguilla anguilla) heart, nitric oxide (NO) exerts a direct myocardial relaxant effect, increasing the sensitivity of the Frank-Starling response (Garofalo et al., 2009). With the use of isolated working heart preparations, this study investigated the relationship between NO modulation of Frank-Starling response and temperature challenges in the eel. The results showed that while, in long-term acclimated fish (spring animals perfused at 20 °C and winter animals perfused at 10 °C) the inhibition of NO production by L-N5 (1-iminoethyl)ornithine (L-NIO) significantly reduced the Frank-Starling response, under thermal shock conditions (spring animals perfused at 10 or 15 °C and winter animals perfused at 15 or 20 °C) L-NIO treatment resulted without effect. Western blotting analysis revealed a decrease of peNOS and pAkt expressions in samples subjected to thermal shock. Moreover, an increase in Hsp90 protein levels was observed under heat thermal stress. Together, these data suggest that the NO synthase/NO-dependent modulation of the Frank-Starling mechanism in fish is sensitive to thermal stress.

  11. Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heikkilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166,130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166,130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18. Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up, there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

  12. A sliding mode-based starling-like controller for implantable rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakouri, Mohsen A; Salamonsen, Robert F; Savkin, Andrey V; AlOmari, Abdul-Hakeem H; Lim, Einly; Lovell, Nigel H

    2014-07-01

    Clinically adequate implementation of physiological control of a rotary left ventricular assist device requires a sophisticated technique such as the recently proposed method based on the Frank-Starling mechanism. In this mechanism, the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the left ventricle at the end of diastole. To emulate this process, changes in pump speed need to automatically regulate pump flow to ensure that the combined output of the left ventricle and pump match the output of the right ventricle across changing cardiovascular states. In this approach, we exploit the linear relationship between estimated mean pump flow (Q ̅ est) and pump flow pulsatility (PIQp) in a tracking control algorithm based on sliding mode control. The immediate response of the controller was assessed using a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and pump from which could be extracted both Q ̅ est and PIQp. Two different perturbations from the resting state in the presence of left ventricular failure were tested. The first was blood loss requiring a reduction in pump flow to match the reduced output from the right ventricle and to avoid the complication of ventricular suction. The second was exercise, requiring an increase in pump flow. The sliding mode controller induced the required changes in Qp within approximately five heart beats in the blood loss simulation and eight heart beats in the exercise simulation without clinically significant transients or steady-state errors.

  13. The status of the Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum (Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Passeriformes: Sturnidae in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Naing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, the status of the Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum, in Southeast Asia has been unclear.  The origins of the few reported sightings, where commented upon, have often been listed as ‘uncertain’ or ‘unknown’ with the implication that some, maybe all, are escaped captivity birds.  The current paper brings together data on distribution, date of observation, and number of individuals to illustrate a pattern that clearly supports the view that records from Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore should be treated as ‘winter vagrants’.  With one exception, they are all of five birds or less and have been observed from October to March.  The paper includes the first authenticate record from Myanmar, which is the 1115th wild bird species listed for the country.  However, the status of a single record from Cambodia is treated with caution since it represents a considerable range extension and was observed on 01 April, which is relatively late in the season.  For these reasons, it is here listed as ‘origin uncertain’ until further data are available.  

  14. Emergence of collective changes in travel direction of starling flocks from individual birds' fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Jelic, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Shen, Edward; Viale, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    One of the most impressive features of moving animal groups is their ability to perform sudden coherent changes in travel direction. While this collective decision can be a response to an external alarm cue, directional switching can also emerge from the intrinsic fluctuations in individual behaviour. However, the cause and the mechanism by which such collective changes of direction occur are not fully understood yet. Here, we present an experimental study of spontaneous collective turns in natural flocks of starlings. We employ a recently developed tracking algorithm to reconstruct three-dimensional trajectories of each individual bird in the flock for the whole duration of a turning event. Our approach enables us to analyse changes in the individual behaviour of every group member and reveal the emergent dynamics of turning. We show that spontaneous turns start from individuals located at the elongated tips of the flocks, and then propagate through the group. We find that birds on the tips deviate from the mean direction of motion much more frequently than other individuals, indicating that persistent localized fluctuations are the crucial ingredient for triggering a collective directional change. Finally, we quantitatively verify that birds follow equal-radius paths during turning, the effects of which are a change of the flock's orientation and a redistribution of individual locations in the group.

  15. Perching but not foraging networks predict the spread of novel foraging skills in starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogert, Neeltje J; Nightingale, Glenna F; Hoppitt, William; Laland, Kevin N

    2014-11-01

    The directed social learning hypothesis suggests that information does not spread evenly through animal groups, but rather individual characteristics and patterns of physical proximity guide the social transmission of information along specific pathways. Network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) allows researchers to test whether information spreads following a social network. However, the explanatory power of different social networks has rarely been compared, and current models do not easily accommodate random effects (e.g. allowing for individuals within groups to correlate in their asocial solving rates). We tested whether the spread of two novel foraging skills through captive starling groups was affected by individual- and group-level random and fixed effects (i.e. sex, age, body condition, dominance rank and demonstrator status) and perching or foraging networks. We extended NBDA to include random effects and conducted model discrimination in a Bayesian context. We found that social learning increased the rate at which birds acquired the novel foraging task solutions by 6.67 times, and acquiring one of the two novel foraging task solutions facilitated the asocial acquisition of the other. Surprisingly, the spread of task solutions followed the perching rather than the foraging social network. Upon acquiring a task solution, foraging performance was facilitated by the presence of group mates. Our results highlight the importance of considering more than one social network when predicting the spread of information through animal groups. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  16. Cellular mechanisms for the slow phase of the Frank-Starling response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, W F; Sung, D; Lew, W Y; Garfinkel, A; McCulloch, A D

    1998-01-01

    Following a step increase in sarcomere length, isometric cardiac muscle tension increases instantaneously by the Frank-Starling mechanism. In isolated papillary muscle and myocytes, there is an additional significant rise in developed tension over the following 15 min due to an unknown mechanism. This slow change in tension could not be explained by mechanical heterogeneity of the muscle preparations or by an increase in myofilament sensitivity to Ca2+. The slow change in tension was not dependent on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ loading assessed with rapid cooling contractures, and was not significantly altered by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ depletion (ryanodine) or inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ reuptake (cyclopiazonic acid). We used the Luo-Rudy ionic model of the ventricular myocyte together with a model of the length-dependent myofilament activation by Ca2+ to examine the effects of step changes in the parameters of sarcolemmal ion fluxes as possible mechanisms for the slow change in stress. The slow increase in tension was simulated by step changes in the Na+-K+ pump or Na+ leak currents, suggesting that the slow change in stress may be caused by length induced changes in Na+ fluxes. The model also predicted a slow increase in the magnitude of the initial repolarization during phase 1 of the action potential. The combination of experimental and computational models used in this investigation represents a valuable technique in elucidating the cellular mechanisms of fundamental processes in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.

  17. Myosin head orientation: a structural determinant for the Frank-Starling relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, Gerrie P; Gore, David; Allen, Edward; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Irving, Thomas C; de Tombe, Pieter P

    2011-06-01

    The cellular mechanism underlying the Frank-Starling law of the heart is myofilament length-dependent activation. The mechanism(s) whereby sarcomeres detect changes in length and translate this into increased sensitivity to activating calcium has been elusive. Small-angle X-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the intact myofilament lattice undergoes numerous structural changes upon an increase in sarcomere length (SL): lattice spacing and the I(1,1)/I(1,0) intensity ratio decreases, whereas the M3 meridional reflection intensity (I(M3)) increases, concomitant with increases in diastolic and systolic force. Using a short (∼10 ms) X-ray exposure just before electrical stimulation, we were able to obtain detailed structural information regarding the effects of external osmotic compression (with mannitol) and obtain SL on thin intact electrically stimulated isolated rat right ventricular trabeculae. We show that over the same incremental increases in SL, the relative changes in systolic force track more closely to the relative changes in myosin head orientation (as reported by I(M3)) than to the relative changes in lattice spacing. We conclude that myosin head orientation before activation determines myocardial sarcomere activation levels and that this may be the dominant mechanism for length-dependent activation.

  18. Role of the Frank-Starling mechanism during maximal semisupine exercise after oral atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K; Vik-Mo, H

    1982-08-01

    Reproducible left ventricular dimensions were found by M-mode echocardiography in eight healthy men in the semisupine position during two maximal bicycle exercise tests, performed with four hours interval. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension did not increase during maximal exercise, while fractional shortening increased by a decrease in end-systolic dimension. Twelve men studied by the same procedure were given 100 mg atenolol orally just after the first test which conspicuously reduced their heart rate response to exercise. End-diastolic dimension increased significantly from rest to peak exercise after the administration of atenolol in contrast to that before beta blockade, and fractional shortening at maximal exercise increased compared with the preceding control test. We conclude that atenolol changes the left ventricular response to maximal semisupine exercise in normal man, with dilatation and a concomitant increase in systolic myocardial shortening. This suggests that atenolol during maximal exercise reveals the part played by the Frank-Starling mechanism in cardiac reserve. In addition to that mechanism, the increased ventricular emptying is probably also the result of reduced afterload after administration of atenolol.

  19. Titin/connectin-based modulation of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Norio; Granzier, Henk L

    2005-01-01

    The basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart is the increase in active force when muscle is stretched. Various findings have shown that muscle length, i.e., sarcomere length (SL), modulates activation of cardiac myofilaments at a given concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]). This augmented Ca2+ activation with SL, commonly known as "length-dependent activation", is manifested as the leftward shift of the force-pCa (= -log [Ca2+]) relation as well as by the increase in maximal Ca2+ -activated force. Despite the numerous studies that have been undertaken, the molecular mechanism(s) of length-dependent activation is (are) still not fully understood. The giant sarcomere protein titin/connectin is the largest protein known to date. Titin/connectin is responsible for most passive force in vertebrate striated muscle and also functions as a molecular scaffold during myofibrillogenesis. Recent studies suggest that titin/connectin plays an important role in length-dependent activation by sensing stretch and promoting actomyosin interaction. Here we review and extend this previous work and focus on the mechanism by which titin/connectin might modulate actomyosin interaction.

  20. Cardiac system bioenergetics: metabolic basis of the Frank-Starling law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Valdur; Dzeja, Petras; Schlattner, Uwe; Vendelin, Marko; Terzic, Andre; Wallimann, Theo

    2006-03-01

    The fundamental principle of cardiac behaviour is described by the Frank-Starling law relating force of contraction during systole with end-diastolic volume. While both work and respiration rates increase linearly with imposed load, the basis of mechano-energetic coupling in heart muscle has remained a long-standing enigma. Here, we highlight advances made in understanding of complex cellular and molecular mechanisms that orchestrate coupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with ATP utilization for muscle contraction. Cardiac system bioenergetics critically depends on an interrelated metabolic infrastructure regulating mitochondrial respiration and energy fluxes throughout cellular compartments. The data reviewed indicate the significance of two interrelated systems regulating mitochondrial respiration and energy fluxes in cells: (1) the creatine kinase, adenylate kinase and glycolytic pathways that communicate flux changes generated by cellular ATPases within structurally organized enzymatic modules and networks; and (2) a secondary system based on mitochondrial participation in cellular calcium cycle, which adjusts substrate oxidation and energy-transducing processes to meet increasing cellular energy demands. By conveying energetic signals to metabolic sensors, coupled phosphotransfer reactions provide a high-fidelity regulation of the excitation-contraction cycle. Such integration of energetics with calcium signalling systems provides the basis for 'metabolic pacing', synchronizing the cellular electrical and mechanical activities with energy supply processes.

  1. Myosin head orientation: a structural determinant for the Frank-Starling relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Gore, David; Allen, Edward; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Irving, Thomas C.; de Tombe, Pieter P. (IIT); (UIC)

    2011-09-06

    The cellular mechanism underlying the Frank-Starling law of the heart is myofilament length-dependent activation. The mechanism(s) whereby sarcomeres detect changes in length and translate this into increased sensitivity to activating calcium has been elusive. Small-angle X-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the intact myofilament lattice undergoes numerous structural changes upon an increase in sarcomere length (SL): lattice spacing and the I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} intensity ratio decreases, whereas the M3 meridional reflection intensity (I{sub M3}) increases, concomitant with increases in diastolic and systolic force. Using a short ({approx}10 ms) X-ray exposure just before electrical stimulation, we were able to obtain detailed structural information regarding the effects of external osmotic compression (with mannitol) and obtain SL on thin intact electrically stimulated isolated rat right ventricular trabeculae. We show that over the same incremental increases in SL, the relative changes in systolic force track more closely to the relative changes in myosin head orientation (as reported by IM3) than to the relative changes in lattice spacing. We conclude that myosin head orientation before activation determines myocardial sarcomere activation levels and that this may be the dominant mechanism for length-dependent activation.

  2. Titin and troponin: central players in the frank-starling mechanism of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Norio; Terui, Takako; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi

    2009-05-01

    The basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart is the intrinsic ability of cardiac muscle to produce greater active force in response to stretch, a phenomenon known as length-dependent activation. A feedback mechanism transmitted from cross-bridge formation to troponin C to enhance Ca(2+) binding has long been proposed to account for length-dependent activation. However, recent advances in muscle physiology research technologies have enabled the identification of other factors involved in length-dependent activation. The striated muscle sarcomere contains a third filament system composed of the giant elastic protein titin, which is responsible for most passive stiffness in the physiological sarcomere length range. Recent studies have revealed a significant coupling of active and passive forces in cardiac muscle, where titin-based passive force promotes cross-bridge recruitment, resulting in greater active force production in response to stretch. More currently, the focus has been placed on the troponin-based "on-off" switching of the thin filament state in the regulation of length-dependent activation. In this review, we discuss how myocardial length-dependent activation is coordinately regulated by sarcomere proteins.

  3. Myocardial response to incremental exercise in endurance-trained athletes: influence of heart rate, contractility and the Frank-Starling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Darren E R; Haykowsky, Mark J; Quinney, H Arthur; Blackmore, Derrick; Teo, Koon K; Humen, Dennis P

    2002-09-01

    Recent evidence indicates that endurance-trained athletes are able to increase their stroke volume (SV) throughout incremental upright exercise, probably due to a progressively greater effect of the Frank-Starling mechanism. This is contrary to the widely held belief that SV reaches a plateau at a submaximal heart rate (irrespective of fitness level), owing to a limitation in the time for diastolic filling. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether endurance-trained athletes rely on a progressively greater effect of the Frank-Starling mechanism throughout incremental exercise. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the effects of postural position on the cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Ten male cyclists participated in this investigation. Left ventricular function was assessed throughout incremental exercise in the supine and upright positions (counterbalanced) using radionuclide ventriculography. Stroke volume increased in a linear fashion during incremental exercise in both the upright and supine positions. The increases in cardiac output (Q) throughout incremental to maximal exercise (in both the supine and upright positions) were significantly related to changes in heart rate, myocardial contractility and the Frank-Starling mechanism. Percentage changes in end-diastolic volume and SV were significantly greater in the upright position versus the supine position, reflecting an increased reliance on the Frank-Starling effect to increase Q. We conclude from this investigation that highly trained endurance athletes are able to make progressively increasing usage of the Frank-Starling effect throughout incremental exercise. Postural position has a significant effect on the relative contribution of heart rate, myocardial contractility and the Frank-Starling mechanism to the increase in Q during exercise conditions.

  4. Abnormal splicing in the N-terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T impairs systolic function of the heart with preserved Frank-Starling compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Guozhen; Nan, Changlong; Huang, Xupei; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Abnormal splice-out of the exon 7-encoded segment in the N-terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T (cTnT-ΔE7) was found in turkeys and, together with the inclusion of embryonic exon (eTnT), in adult dogs with a correlation with dilated cardiomyopathy. Overexpression of these cTnT variants in transgenic mouse hearts significantly decreased cardiac function. To further investigate the functional effect of cTnT-ΔE7 or ΔE7+eTnT in vivo under systemic regulation, echocardiography was carried out in single and double-transgenic mice. No atrial enlargement, ventricular hypertrophy or dilation was detected in the hearts of 2-month-old cTnT-ΔE7 and ΔE7+eTnT mice in comparison to wild-type controls, indicating a compensated state. However, left ventricular fractional shortening and ejection fraction were decreased in ΔE7 and ΔE7+eTnT mice, and the response to isoproterenol was lower in ΔE7+eTnT mice. Left ventricular outflow tract velocity and gradient were decreased in the transgenic mouse hearts, indicating decreased systolic function. Ex vivo working heart function showed that high afterload or low preload resulted in more severe decreases in the systolic function and energetic efficiency of cTnT-ΔE7 and ΔE7+eTnT hearts. On the other hand, increases in preload demonstrated preserved Frank-Starling responses and minimized the loss of cardiac function and efficiency. The data demonstrate that the N-terminal variable region of cardiac TnT regulates systolic function of the heart.

  5. Modulation of the Cardiomyocyte Contraction inside a Hydrostatic Pressure Bioreactor: In Vitro Verification of the Frank-Starling Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Fassina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied beating mouse cardiac syncytia in vitro in order to assess the inotropic, ergotropic, and chronotropic effects of both increasing and decreasing hydrostatic pressures. In particular, we have performed an image processing analysis to evaluate the kinematics and the dynamics of those pressure-loaded beating syncytia starting from the video registration of their contraction movement. By this analysis, we have verified the Frank-Starling law of the heart in in vitro beating cardiac syncytia and we have obtained their geometrical-functional classification.

  6. Modulation of the cardiomyocyte contraction inside a hydrostatic pressure bioreactor: in vitro verification of the Frank-Starling law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, Lorenzo; Magenes, Giovanni; Gimmelli, Roberto; Naro, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We have studied beating mouse cardiac syncytia in vitro in order to assess the inotropic, ergotropic, and chronotropic effects of both increasing and decreasing hydrostatic pressures. In particular, we have performed an image processing analysis to evaluate the kinematics and the dynamics of those pressure-loaded beating syncytia starting from the video registration of their contraction movement. By this analysis, we have verified the Frank-Starling law of the heart in in vitro beating cardiac syncytia and we have obtained their geometrical-functional classification.

  7. Mechanoelectric feedback does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in the rat and guinea pig heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can alter its electrical properties. The effect can be large enough to induce ectopic beats or fibrillation. However, the role of MEF at physiological levels of mechanical stress is not clear. We have investigated alteration in action potential morphology in rat and guinea pig ventricle and in rat atrial tissue at levels of stretch near the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. Stretch of >100 mm.Hg End Diastolic Left Ventricular Pressure (EDLVP or rapidly applied stretch (EDLVP increased by 25 mm.Hg within 100 ms often triggered ectopic beats in isolated rat and guinea-pig hearts. However, ventricular epicardial monophasic action potentials (MAPs recorded during stretch to EDLVP up to 30 mm. Hg showed no consistent changes in action potential duration (at APD20, APD50 or APD80 in either species. MAP recording detected APD prolongation with very small concentrations of 4-AP (10 μM, confirming the discrimination of the recording technique. In isolated rat atrial strips, no changes in intracellular action potential morphology or membrane potential were seen when stretched to levels producing an optimum increase in contractility. We conclude that alteration in action potential morphology with stretch does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in ventricle of rat or guinea-pig isolated heart, or in rat atrial tissue.

  8. The Frank-Starling mechanism is not mediated by changes in rate of cross-bridge detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannenburg, T; Janssen, P M; Fan, D; de Tombe, P P

    1997-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the Frank-Starling relationship is mediated by changes in the rate of cross-bridge detachment in cardiac muscle. We simultaneously measured isometric force development and the rate of ATP consumption at various levels of Ca2+ activation in skinned rat cardiac trabecular muscles at three sarcomere lengths (2.0, 2.1, and 2.2 microns). The maximum rate of ATP consumption was 1.5 nmol.s-1.microliter fiber vol-1, which represents an estimated adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) rate of approximately 10 s-1 per myosin head at 24 degrees C. The rate of ATP consumption was tightly and linearly coupled to the level of isometric force development, and changes in sarcomere length had no effect on the slope of the force-ATPase relationships. The average slope of the force-ATPase relationships was 15.5 pmol.mN-1.mm-1. These results suggest that the mechanisms that underlie the Frank-Starling relationship in cardiac muscle do not involve changes in the kinetics of the apparent detachment step in the cross-bridge cycle.

  9. Exhaustion of the Frank-Starling mechanism in conscious dogs with heart failure induced by chronic coronary microembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert M; Jones, Bonita D; Corbly, Angela K; Ohad, Dan G; Smith, Gerald D; Sandusky, George E; Christe, Michael E; Wang, Jie; Shen, Weiqun

    2006-07-04

    The role of the Frank-Starling mechanism in the regulation of cardiac systolic function in the ischemic failing heart was examined in conscious dogs. Left ventricular (LV) dimension, pressure and systolic function were assessed using surgically implanted instrumentations and non-invasive echocardiogram. Heart failure was induced by daily intra-coronary injections of microspheres for 3-4 weeks via implanted coronary catheters. Chronic coronary embolization resulted in a progressive dilation of the left ventricle (12+/-3%), increase in LV end-diastolic pressure (118+/-19%), depression of LV dP/dt(max) (-19+/-4%), fractional shortening (-36+/-7%), and cardiac work (-60+/-9%), and development of heart failure, while the LV contractile response to dobutamine was depressed. A brief inferior vena caval occlusion in dogs with heart failure decreased LV preload to match the levels attained in their control state and caused a further reduction of LV dP/dt(max), fractional shortening, stroke work and cardiac work. Moreover, in response to acute volume loading, the change in the LV end-diastolic dimension-pressure (DeltaLVEDD-DeltaLVEDP) curve in the failing heart became steeper and shifted significantly to the left, while the increases in LV stroke work and cardiac work were blunted. Thus, our results suggest that the Frank-Starling mechanism is exhausted in heart failure and unable to further respond to increasing volume while it plays an important compensatory role in adaptation to LV dysfunction in heart failure.

  10. Disulfide-activated protein kinase G Iα regulates cardiac diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotcher, Jenna; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Kistamas, Kornel; Hadgraft, Natasha; Martin, Eva D; Worthington, Jenny; Rudyk, Olena; Rodriguez Cutillas, Pedro; Cuello, Friederike; Shattock, Michael J; Marber, Michael S; Conte, Maria R; Greenstein, Adam; Greensmith, David J; Venetucci, Luigi; Timms, John F; Eaton, Philip

    2016-10-26

    The Frank-Starling mechanism allows the amount of blood entering the heart from the veins to be precisely matched with the amount pumped out to the arterial circulation. As the heart fills with blood during diastole, the myocardium is stretched and oxidants are produced. Here we show that protein kinase G Iα (PKGIα) is oxidant-activated during stretch and this form of the kinase selectively phosphorylates cardiac phospholamban Ser16-a site important for diastolic relaxation. We find that hearts of Cys42Ser PKGIα knock-in (KI) mice, which are resistant to PKGIα oxidation, have diastolic dysfunction and a diminished ability to couple ventricular filling with cardiac output on a beat-to-beat basis. Intracellular calcium dynamics of ventricular myocytes isolated from KI hearts are altered in a manner consistent with impaired relaxation and contractile function. We conclude that oxidation of PKGIα during myocardial stretch is crucial for diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response.

  11. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of h...

  12. A Mutation in the Glutamate-rich Region of RBM20 Causes Dilated Cardiomyopathy through Missplicing of Titin and Impaired Frank-Starling Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Bollen, Ilse A E; Rasmussen, Torsten B;

    2016-01-01

    analysis revealed a dramatic shift from the less compliant N2B towards the highly compliant N2BA isoforms in RBM20(E913K/+) heart. Moreover, an increased sarcomere resting-length was observed in single cardiomyocytes and isometric force measurements revealed an attenuated Frank-Starling mechanism (FSM...

  13. Salmonella Detection and Aerobic Colony Count in Deep-Frozen Carcasses of House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus) and Starling (Sturnus Vulgaris) Intended for Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Braggio, Simonetta; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds are potential vehicles of zoonotic pathogen transmission to humans. The zoonotic concern increases for small wild birds like house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) which are hunted in developing countries and commercialised in Italy for human consumption. From June to October 2011, 330 house sparrows and 140 starlings were hunted and slaughtered. Deep-frozen carcasses were transported to Italy and stored for 6-8 months at -18°C. Aerobic colony count and Salmonella detection in carcasses were assessed following standard microbiological methods (ISO 4833:2003 and ISO 6579:2004, respectively). Carcasses of house sparrows showed higher levels of aerobic bacteria in comparison to starling carcasses (5.7 vs 3.2 log10 CFU/g). Moreover, 7 out of 11 lots of carcasses of house sparrows were positive for Salmonella. Among the 18 isolates of Salmonella, 14 were S. Typhimurium, 2 were S. Enteritidis, and 2 were not distinguishable. All of them were susceptible to antibiotics. All tested carcasses of starling were Salmonella negative. Deep-freezing was not efficient as a decontamination technique on carcasses of house sparrows.

  14. The failing human heart is unable to use the Frank-Starling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, R H; Böhm, M; Koch, A; Schmidt, U; Morano, I; Eissner, H J; Uberfuhr, P; Reichart, B; Erdmann, E

    1994-05-01

    There is evidence that the failing human left ventricle in vivo subjected to additional preload is unable to use the Frank-Starling mechanism. The present study compared the force-tension relation in human nonfailing and terminally failing (heart transplants required because of dilated cardiomyopathy) myocardium. Isometric force of contraction of electrically driven left ventricular papillary muscle strips was studied under various preload conditions (2 to 20 mN). To investigate the influence of inotropic stimulation, the force-tension relation was studied in the presence of the cardiac glycoside ouabain. In skinned-fiber preparations of the left ventricle, developed tension was measured after stretching the preparations to 150% of the resting length. To evaluate the length-dependent activation of cardiac myofibrils by Ca2+ in failing and nonfailing myocardium, the tension-Ca2+ relations were also measured. After an increase of preload, the force of contraction gradually increased in nonfailing myocardium but was unchanged in failing myocardium. There were no differences in resting tension, muscle length, or cross-sectional area of the muscles between both groups. Pretreatment with ouabain (0.02 mumol/L) restored the force-tension relation in failing myocardium and preserved the force-tension relation in nonfailing tissue. In skinned-fiber preparations of the same hearts, developed tension increased significantly after stretching only in preparations from nonfailing but not from failing myocardium. The Ca2+ sensitivity of skinned fibers was significantly higher in failing myocardium (EC50, 1.0; 95% confidence limit, 0.88 to 1.21 mumol/L) compared with nonfailing myocardium (EC50, 1.7; 95% confidence limit, 1.55 to 1.86 mumol/L). After increasing the fiber length by stretching, a significant increase in the sensitivity of the myofibrils to Ca2+ was observed in nonfailing but not in failing myocardium. These experiments provide evidence for an impaired force

  15. The European Medicines Agency review of ipilimumab (Yervoy) for the treatment of advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma in adults who have received prior therapy: summary of the scientific assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaizi, Zahra; van Zwieten-Boot, Barbara; Calvo, Gonzalo; Lopez, Arantxa Sancho; van Dartel, Maaike; Camarero, Jorge; Abadie, Eric; Pignatti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    On 13 July 2011 the European Commission issued a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union (EU) for ipilimumab for the treatment of advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma in adults who have received prior therapy. Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody that specifically blocks the inhibitory signal of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), resulting in T cell activation, proliferation and lymphocyte infiltration into tumours, leading to tumour cell death. The recommended induction regimen of ipilimumab is 3mg/kg administered intravenously over a 90 min period every 3 weeks for a total of four doses. In a phase 3 trial in patients with advanced melanoma, median overall survival for ipilimumab was 10 months versus 6 months for gp100, an experimental melanoma vaccine (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 0.87; p = 0.0026). Ipilimumab was most commonly associated with adverse reactions resulting from increased or excessive immune activity. Most of these, including severe reactions, resolved following initiation of appropriate medical therapy or withdrawal of ipilimumab. The most common side-effects (affecting more than 10% of patients) were diarrhoea, rash, pruritus, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite and abdominal pain. The objective of this paper is to summarise the scientific review of the application leading to approval in the EU. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of product characteristics (SmPC), are available on the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website (www.ema.europa.eu).

  16. Distance Education in European Higher Education--The Potential. Report 3 (of 3) of the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning Project. Extended Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Boampong, Angela; Holmberg, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This report is the third in a series published by the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) project. The IDEAL project ran from October 2013 to September 2015 with financial support from the EU Lifelong Learning Programme. The project aims to: (1) offer insights on the needs of adult learners to both policymakers and distance…

  17. Distance Education in European Higher Education--The Students. Report 2 (of 3) of the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Chripa; Holmberg, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This report is the second in a series published by the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) project. The IDEAL project ran from October 2013 to September 2015 with financial support from the EU Lifelong Learning Programme. The project aims to: (1) offer insights on the needs of adult learners to both policymakers and distance…

  18. Distance Education in European Higher Education--The Offer. Report 1 (of 3) of the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Chripa; Holmberg, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first in a series published by the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) project. The IDEAL project ran from October 2013 to September 2015 with financial support from the EU Lifelong Learning Programme. The project aims to: (1) offer insights on the needs of adult learners to both policymakers and distance…

  19. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the Europea

  20. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  1. European structuralism

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    European structuralism is a paradigm for the study of language developed by prominent European linguists during the inter-war period and the first decades after World War II that radically rejected the prevailing atomism of 19th century (particularly neo-grammarian) linguistics and language psychology.

  2. Blood pressure in young adults with and without a paternal history of premature coronary heart disease in Europe: the EARS study. [European arteriosclerosis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masana, L.; Farinaro, E.; Henauw, S. de; Nicaud, V.

    1996-01-01

    Objective : The European Arteriosclerosis Study (EARS) was designed to identify variables which discriminate subjects with a paternal history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) from controls and to study the distribution of these variables across Europe. In this article we report on the blood

  3. Preload-based starling-like control for rotary blood pumps: numerical comparison with pulsatility control and constant speed operation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mansouri

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate a preload-based Starling-like controller for implantable rotary blood pumps (IRBPs using left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (PLVED as the feedback variable. Simulations are conducted using a validated mathematical model. The controller emulates the response of the natural left ventricle (LV to changes in PLVED. We report the performance of the preload-based Starling-like controller in comparison with our recently designed pulsatility controller and constant speed operation. In handling the transition from a baseline state to test states, which include vigorous exercise, blood loss and a major reduction in the LV contractility (LVC, the preload controller outperformed pulsatility control and constant speed operation in all three test scenarios. In exercise, preload-control achieved an increase of 54% in mean pump flow ([Formula: see text] with minimum loading on the LV, while pulsatility control achieved only a 5% increase in flow and a decrease in mean pump speed. In a hemorrhage scenario, the preload control maintained the greatest safety margin against LV suction. PLVED for the preload controller was 4.9 mmHg, compared with 0.4 mmHg for the pulsatility controller and 0.2 mmHg for the constant speed mode. This was associated with an adequate mean arterial pressure (MAP of 84 mmHg. In transition to low LVC, [Formula: see text] for preload control remained constant at 5.22 L/min with a PLVED of 8.0 mmHg. With regards to pulsatility control, [Formula: see text] fell to the nonviable level of 2.4 L/min with an associated PLVED of 16 mmHg and a MAP of 55 mmHg. Consequently, pulsatility control was deemed inferior to constant speed mode with a PLVED of 11 mmHg and a [Formula: see text] of 5.13 L/min in low LVC scenario. We conclude that pulsatility control imposes a danger to the patient in the severely reduced LVC scenario, which can be overcome by using a preload-based Starling-like control approach.

  4. European Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    is the European Union. The EU’s doctrine of stabilization through association has laid foundations not only for its own establishment and later enlargement but also for its European Neighbourhood Policy and Crisis Management activities in the Eastern neighbourhood. These, like the Union’s early initiatives, build...... on the belief that conflicts between former belligerents can be transformed through association processes thought to bring peace to unstable regions. Examining whether this is actually the case, this contribution traces European peacebuilding from the early integration of post-World War Two economies in Western...

  5. Is there evidence of selection in the dopamine receptorD4 gene in Australian invasive starling populations?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee Ann ROLLINS; Michael R WHITEHEAD; Andrew P WOOLNOUGH; Ron SINCLAIR; William B SHERWIN

    2015-01-01

    Although population genetic theory is largely based on the premise that loci under study are selectively neutral, it has been acknowledged that the study of DNA sequence data under the influence of selection can be useful. In some circumstances, these loci show increased population differentiation and gene diversity. Highly polymorphic loci may be especially useful when studying populations having low levels of diversity overall, such as is often the case with threatened or newly established inva-sive populations. Using common starlingsSturnus vulgaris sampled from invasive Australian populations, we investigated se-quence data of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), a locus suspected to be under selection for novelty-seeking behaviour in a range of taxa including humans and passerine birds. We hypothesised that such behaviour may be advantageous when species encounter novel environments, such as during invasion. In addition to analyses to detect the presence of selection, we also esti-mated population differentiation and gene diversity usingDRD4 data and compared these estimates to those from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA sequence data, using the same individuals. We found little evidence for selection onDRD4 in starlings. However, we did find elevated levels of within-population gene diversity when compared to microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequence, as well as a greater degree of population differentiation. We suggest that sequence data from putatively non- neutral loci are a useful addition to studies of invasive populations, where low genetic variability is expected [Current Zoology 61 (3): 505–519, 2015].

  6. Use of the Frank-Starling mechanism during exercise is linked to exercise-induced changes in arterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Paul D; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Schulman, Steven P; Gerstenblith, Gary; Becker, Lewis C; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L; Lakatta, Edward G; Najjar, Samer S

    2012-01-01

    Effective arterial elastance(E(A)) is a measure of the net arterial load imposed on the heart that integrates the effects of heart rate(HR), peripheral vascular resistance(PVR), and total arterial compliance(TAC) and is a modulator of cardiac performance. To what extent the change in E(A) during exercise impacts on cardiac performance and aerobic capacity is unknown. We examined E(A) and its relationship with cardiovascular performance in 352 healthy subjects. Subjects underwent rest and exercise gated scans to measure cardiac volumes and to derive E(A)[end-systolic pressure/stroke volume index(SV)], PVR[MAP/(SV*HR)], and TAC(SV/pulse pressure). E(A) varied with exercise intensity: the ΔE(A) between rest and peak exercise along with its determinants, differed among individuals and ranged from -44% to +149%, and was independent of age and sex. Individuals were separated into 3 groups based on their ΔE(A)I. Individuals with the largest increase in ΔE(A)(group 3;ΔE(A)≥0.98 mmHg.m(2)/ml) had the smallest reduction in PVR, the greatest reduction in TAC and a similar increase in HR vs. group 1(ΔE(A)<0.22 mmHg.m(2)/ml). Furthermore, group 3 had a reduction in end-diastolic volume, and a blunted increase in SV(80%), and cardiac output(27%), during exercise vs. group 1. Despite limitations in the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac function, peak aerobic capacity did not differ by group because arterial-venous oxygen difference was greater in group 3 vs. 1. Thus the change in arterial load during exercise has important effects on the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac performance but not on exercise capacity. These findings provide interesting insights into the dynamic cardiovascular alterations during exercise.

  7. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  8. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole......During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males...

  9. Maintenance of response after open-label treatment with atomoxetine hydrochloride in international European and non-European adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a placebo-controlled, randomised withdrawal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Upadhyaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: We evaluated maintenance of response to atomoxetine during a 25-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised withdrawal period in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD who previously responded to atomoxetine during a 12 week open-label treatment period and maintained that response during a 12-week double-blind maintenance period. Methods: Patients (N = 2017, 18 to 50 years of age, diagnosed with ADHD from 152 outpatient sites in 18 countries received 12 weeks of open-label atomoxetine (40-100 mg/day followed by 12 weeks of double-blind maintenance (80 or 100 mg/day. Responders were randomized to atomoxetine (N = 266 or placebo (N = 258 for 25-weeks of double-blind treatment. The percentage of patients with a reduction >30% in their baseline Conners' ADHD Rating Scale Investigator-Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV total score and a score of <3 on the Clinical Global Impression ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S after 25 weeks was compared between treatment groups with a Fisher's exact test. Mean changes from baseline in the CAARS-Inv:SV and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Quality of Life (AAQoL were analysed. Results: Most patients enrolled (60% were from Europe. More atomoxetine- than placebo-treated patients maintained a satisfactory response postrandomisation (64.3% vs. 50.0%; p < .001. Time-to-relapse was significantly longer for atomoxetine than placebo (p = .004. Atomoxetine maintained greater improvements in ADHD symptoms compared with placebo (LS mean worsening in the CAARS-Inv:SV total score was 0.9 vs. 4.8 [ p < .001 ] and in the CGI-ADHD-S rating was 0.0 vs. 0.5 [ p < .001 ]. These results were supported by self- or observer-rated measures. Lastly, atomoxetine maintained greater improvements in quality of life compared with placebo (AAQoL total score was 0.4 vs. -4.0; p = .002. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that atomoxetine was superior to placebo in maintaining

  10. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  11. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  12. The European Medicines Agency Review of Pertuzumab for the treatment of adult patients with HER2-positive metastatic or locally recurrent unresectable breast cancer: summary of the scientific assessment of the committee for medicinal products for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix-Perales, Hector; Borregaard, Jeanett; Jensen, Kristina Bech; Ersbøll, Jens; Galluzzo, Sara; Giuliani, Rosa; Ciceroni, Cinzia; Melchiorri, Daniela; Salmonson, Tomas; Bergh, Jonas; Schellens, Jan H; Pignatti, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Pertuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the extracellular dimerization domain (subdomain II) of HER2. Based on the positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on March 4, 2013, a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union (EU) was issued for pertuzumab (Perjeta) for use in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for the treatment of adult patients with HER2-positive metastatic or locally recurrent unresectable breast cancer who have not received previous anti-HER2 therapy or chemotherapy for their metastatic disease. The demonstration of clinical benefit for pertuzumab was based on a single, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel versus placebo plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel in previously untreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. In the primary analysis, median progression-free survival was 18.5 months in the pertuzumab group compared with 12.4 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51-0.75; p dry skin, and neutropenia for pertuzumab compared with placebo. This paper summarizes the scientific review of the application leading to approval in the EU. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of product characteristics, are available on the EMA website (http://www.ema.europa.eu).

  13. Safety and tolerability of atomoxetine hydrochloride in a long-term, placebo-controlled randomized withdrawal study in European and non-European adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Camporeale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Safety and tolerability of atomoxetine were studied in the largest double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised withdrawal trial of atomoxetine (80 or 100 mg/day in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods: Patients (N = 2017, 18 to 50 years of age, with ADHD were enrolled from 18 countries. Patients who responded to atomoxetine during a 12-week open-label treatment phase and maintained that response during a 12-week double-blind maintenance phase were randomised to atomoxetine (N = 266 or placebo (N = 258 for 25 weeks of double-blind treatment. Treatment differences were compared for serious adverse events (AEs, treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs, discontinuation due to AEs, vital signs, body weight, and electrocardiograms. Results: During the 25-week double-blind treatment phase, discontinuations due to AEs were similar between atomoxetine and placebo (3.4% vs. 1.9%; P = .418. The percentage of patients experiencing >1 TEAE(s was significantly higher for atomoxetine than placebo (47.0% vs. 37.6%; P = .034, but there were no significant differences for any individual TEAE. Diastolic blood pressure (-0.1 vs. -2.3 mmHg, heart rate (-1.4 vs. -5.3 bpm, and weight (-0.2 vs. 1.1 kg were significantly different between atomoxetine and placebo (P 30 ms in Fridericia's QT correction (QTcF; 1.4% vs. 2.6% or Bazett's QT correction (QTcB; 2.8% vs. 2.6%. During the entire study, no patient had a QTcF or QTcB >500 ms, or an increase from baseline >60 ms. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that atomoxetine exhibited an acceptable safety profile in adults with ADHD after 1 year of treatment, and no clinically meaningful safety-related rebound effects were observed following abrupt discontinuation after 24 weeks of treatment.

  14. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of a questionnaire to assess quality of life in HIV-infected adults: the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavarro, Maria C; Pereira, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument in HIV Infection (WHOQOL-HIV-Bref). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factors analysis (CFA) were conducted on self-reported WHOQOL-HIV-Bref data from 1196 HIV-positive patients, frequenting the main departments of infectious diseases in Portugal. An EFA with a randomly chosen subsample suggested a five-domain structure for the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref. CFA validated this five-domain structure in a separate subsample, but also revealed that the original six-domain model fit the data. Accordingly, it was decided to use the original factor structure. Based on the original six domain structure, the European Portuguese version of WHOQOL-HIV-Bref showed acceptable internal consistency (alpha range: 0.61-0.80 across domains). All domains (with exception of Spirituality) clearly discriminated subjects considering the CD4+ T cell count subgroups. These findings revealed additional insights about the factor structure of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and provided evidence in support of the original six-domain structure. This instrument showed to be a cross-culturally valid measure of quality of life, particularly useful when addressing the impact of HIV not only on physical and psychological well-being but also on several domains beyond health.

  15. [Advanced resuscitation of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, F.K.; Lauritsen, T.L.; Torp-Pedersen, C.

    2008-01-01

    International and European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines for Resuscitation 2005 implicate major changes in resuscitation, including new universal treatment algorithms. This brief summary of Guidelines 2005 for advanced resuscitation of adult cardiac arrest victims is based upon the ERC...

  16. Host and disease factors are associated with cognitive function in European HIV-infected adults prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winston, A; Stöhr, W; Antinori, A;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Deficits in cognitive function remain prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this European multicentre study was to assess factors associated with cognitive function in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-infected subjects at the time of enrolment in the NEAT 001/Agence...... Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS) 143 study. METHODS: Prior to starting ART, seven cognitive tests exploring domains including episodic memory, verbal fluency, executive function and psychomotor speed were administered with scores standardized to z-score using the study population sample mean...... and standard deviation. The primary measure was overall z-score average (NPZ). We assessed associations between baseline factors and test results using multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Of 283 subjects with baseline cognitive assessments, 90% were male and 12% of black ethnicity. Median (interquartile...

  17. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the question: why has Danish minority policy shown such remarkable selectiveness with regard to Europeanization? This question is particularly pertinent given that Denmark is typically seen as an otherwise very efficient and keen complier, especially with EU norms and ru...

  18. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  19. Effects of Interaction Between Ventricular Assist Device Assistance and Autoregulated Mock Circulation Including Frank-Starling Mechanism and Baroreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen-Park, So-Hyun; Mahmood, Mohammad Nauzef; Müller, Indra; Turnhoff, Lisa Kathrin; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Sonntag, Simon Johannes

    2016-10-01

    A mock heart circulation loop (MHCL) is a hydraulic model simulating the human circulatory system. It allows in vitro investigations of the interaction between cardiac assist devices and the human circulatory system. In this study, a preload sensitive MHCL, the MHCLAUTO , was developed to investigate the interaction between the left ventricle and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). The Frank-Starling mechanism was modeled by regulating the stroke volume (SV) based on the measured mean diastolic left atrial pressure (MLAPdiast ). The baroreflex autoregulation mechanism was implemented to maintain a constant mean aortic pressure (MAP) by varying ventricular contractility (Emax ), heart rate (HR), afterload/systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and unstressed venous volume (UVV). The DP3 blood pump (Medos Medizintechnik GmbH) was used to simulate the LVAD. Characteristic parameters were measured in pathological conditions both with and without LVAD to assess the hemodynamic effect of LVAD on the MHCLAUTO . The results obtained from the MHCLAUTO show a high correlation to literature data. The study demonstrates the possibility of using the MHCLAUTO as a research tool to better understand the physiological interactions between cardiac implants and human circulation.

  20. Radionuclide ventriculographic responses to graded supine and upright exercise: critical role of the Frank-Starling mechanism at submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingart, R M; Wexler, J; Slagle, S; Scheuer, J

    1984-06-01

    To assess the influence of work load and posture on the response to exercise, 25 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 17 normal subjects underwent graded supine and upright exercise radionuclide ventriculography. In both groups, end-diastolic counts increased with supine exercise (p less than 0.001). The ejection fraction and peak systolic pressure-end-systolic volume relation increased in normal subjects (p less than 0.02), but not in patients with CAD. At upright rest, end-diastolic counts decreased in both groups (p less than 0.001) and then increased with exercise (p less than 0.001). The increase in end-diastolic counts was most pronounced on the transition from upright rest to the 150-kpm work load and resulted in a significant increase in stroke counts (p less than 0.05) for both patients with CAD and normal subjects, without a measurable change in the ejection fraction or the peak systolic pressure-end-systolic volume relation. Later in exercise, end-diastolic counts plateaued, and the ejection fraction and the peak systolic pressure, end-systolic volume relation increased only among normal subjects. Thus, low-level upright exercise is highly dependent on the Starling mechanism in both normal subjects and patients with CAD, with enhanced contractility apparent only during more vigorous exercise in normal subjects.

  1. Correlation between driving-related skill and alcohol use in young-adults from six European countries: the TEN-D by Night Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedzia Marcin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only few studies with small experimental samples investigated the impact of psychoactive substances on driving performance. We conducted a multicenter international cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation between alcohol use and driving-related skill as measured by brake reaction time (RT. Methods Before and after the entrance into randomly selected recreational sites from six European countries, all subjects aged 16-35 years, owning a driver license, were asked to compile a structured socio-demographic questionnaire and measure RT (SimuNomad3 driving simulator, breath alcohol concentration (BAC; Drager Alcoltest, and drug use (Oratect III saliva test, only at the exit. Mixed regression modeling was used to evaluate the independent association between RT and alcohol concentration or drug use. Results Before the entrance into the recreational site, 4534 subjects completed all assessments and composed the final sample. Their mean age was 23.1 ± 4.2y; 68.3% were males; 54.7% had BAC > 0 g/L (assumed alcoholics; 7.5% declared illegal drug assumption (mostly cannabis. After the exit, 3019 also completed the second assessment: 71.7% showed BAC > 0 g/L. Controlling for age, gender, educational level, occupation, driver license years, and drug use, BAC was positively associated with RT, achieving significance, however, only when BAC was higher than 0.49 g/L. Significant interaction terms were found between BAC and female gender or drug use, with highest RTs (> 1 sec. recorded among drug users with BAC > = 1 g/L. Conclusions This field study confirms previous experimental data on the negative impact of alcohol use on driving-related skill, supporting regulations and educational campaigns aimed at discouraging driving after consumption of psychoactive substances.

  2. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the starlings (Aves: Sturnidae) and mockingbirds (Aves: Mimidae): congruent mtDNA and nuclear trees for a cosmopolitan avian radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, Irby J; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2007-09-01

    We generated a comprehensive phylogeny for the avian families Sturnidae (starlings, mynas, Rhabdornis, oxpeckers, and allies) and Mimidae (mockingbirds, thrashers, and allies) to explore patterns of morphological and behavioral diversification. Reconstructions were based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from five coding genes (4108 bp), and nuclear intron sequences from four loci (2974 bp), for most taxa, supplemented with NDII gene sequences (1041 bp) derived from museum skin specimens from additional taxa; together the 117 sampled taxa comprise 78% of the 151 species in these families and include representatives of all currently or recently recognized genera. Phylogenetic analyses consistently identified nine major clades. The basal lineage is comprised of the two Buphagus oxpeckers, which are presently confined to Africa where they are obligately associated with large mammals. Some species in nearly all of the other major clades also feed on or around large vertebrates, and this association may be an ancestral trait that fostered the world-wide dispersal of this group. The remaining taxa divide into sister clades representing the New-World Mimidae and Old-World Sturnidae. The Mimidae are divided into two subclades, a group of Central American and West Indian catbirds and thrashers, and a pan-American clade of mockingbirds and thrashers. The Sturnidae are subdivided into six clades. The Phillipine endemic Rhabdornis are the sister lineage to a larger and substantially more recent radiation of South Asian and Pacific island starlings and mynas. A clade of largely migratory or nomadic Eurasian starlings (within which the basal lineage is the model taxon Sturnus vulgaris) is allied to three groups of largely African species. These reconstructions confirm that Buphagus should not be included in the Sturnidae, and identify many genera that are not monophyletic. They also highlight the substantial diversity among the major Sturnidae subclades in rates of species

  3. Calcium sensitivity and the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart are increased in titin N2B region deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Peng, Jun; Radke, Michael; Gotthardt, Michael; Granzier, Henk L

    2010-01-01

    Previous work suggests that titin-based passive tension is a factor in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart, by increasing length-dependent activation (LDA) through an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length. We tested this hypothesis in a mouse model (N2B KO model) in which titin-based passive tension is elevated as a result of the excision of the N2B element, one of cardiac titin’s spring elements. LDA was assessed by measuring the active tension-pCa (−log[Ca2+]) relationship at sarcomere length (SLs) of 1.95, 2.10 and 2.30 µm in WT and N2B KO skinned myocardium. LDA was positively correlated with titin-based passive tension, due to an increase in calcium sensitivity at the longer SLs in the KO. For example, at pCa 6.0 the KO:WT tension ratio was 1.28 ± 0.07 and 1.42 ± 0.04 at SLs of 2.1 and 2.3 µm, respectively. There was no difference in protein expression or phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins. We also measured the calcium sensitivity after PKA treating the skinned muscle and found that titin-based passive tension was also now correlated with LDA, with a slope that was significantly increased compared to no PKA treatment. Finally, we performed isolated heart experiments and measured the Frank-Starling relation (slope of developed wall stress-LV volume relation) as well as diastolic stiffness (slope of diastolic wall stress – volume relation). The FSM was more pronounced in the N2B KO hearts and the slope of the FSM correlated with diastolic stiffness. These findings support that titin-based passive tension triggers an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length, thereby playing an important role in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. PMID:20507834

  4. Regulatory mechanism of length-dependent activation in skinned porcine ventricular muscle: role of thin filament cooperative activation in the Frank-Starling relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terui, Takako; Shimamoto, Yuta; Yamane, Mitsunori; Kobirumaki, Fuyu; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi; Fukuda, Norio

    2010-10-01

    Cardiac sarcomeres produce greater active force in response to stretch, forming the basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. The purpose of this study was to provide the systematic understanding of length-dependent activation by investigating experimentally and mathematically how the thin filament "on-off" switching mechanism is involved in its regulation. Porcine left ventricular muscles were skinned, and force measurements were performed at short (1.9 µm) and long (2.3 µm) sarcomere lengths. We found that 3 mM MgADP increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the increase in thin filament cooperative activation. MgADP attenuated length-dependent activation with and without thin filament reconstitution with the fast skeletal troponin complex (sTn). Conversely, 20 mM of inorganic phosphate (Pi) decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the decrease in thin filament cooperative activation. Pi enhanced length-dependent activation with and without sTn reconstitution. Linear regression analysis revealed that the magnitude of length-dependent activation was inversely correlated with the rate of rise of active force. These results were quantitatively simulated by a model that incorporates the Ca(2+)-dependent on-off switching of the thin filament state and interfilament lattice spacing modulation. Our model analysis revealed that the cooperativity of the thin filament on-off switching, but not the Ca(2+)-binding ability, determines the magnitude of the Frank-Starling effect. These findings demonstrate that the Frank-Starling relation is strongly influenced by thin filament cooperative activation.

  5. Calcium sensitivity and the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart are increased in titin N2B region-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Peng, Jun; Radke, Michael; Gotthardt, Michael; Granzier, Henk L

    2010-09-01

    Previous work suggests that titin-based passive tension is a factor in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart, by increasing length-dependent activation (LDA) through an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length. We tested this hypothesis in a mouse model (N2B KO model) in which titin-based passive tension is elevated as a result of the excision of the N2B element, one of cardiac titin's spring elements. LDA was assessed by measuring the active tension-pCa (-log[Ca(2+)]) relationship at sarcomere length (SLs) of 1.95, 2.10, and 2.30 microm in WT and N2B KO skinned myocardium. LDA was positively correlated with titin-based passive tension due to an increase in calcium sensitivity at the longer SLs in the KO. For example, at pCa 6.0, the KO:WT tension ratio was 1.28+/-0.07 and 1.42+/-0.04 at SLs of 2.1 and 2.3 microm, respectively. There was no difference in protein expression or total phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins. We also measured the calcium sensitivity after PKA treating the skinned muscle and found that titin-based passive tension was also now correlated with LDA, with a slope that was significantly increased compared to no PKA treatment. Finally, we performed isolated heart experiments and measured the Frank-Starling relation (slope of developed wall stress-LV volume relation) as well as diastolic stiffness (slope of diastolic wall stress-volume relation). The FSM was more pronounced in the N2B KO hearts and the slope of the FSM correlated with diastolic stiffness. These findings support that titin-based passive tension triggers an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length, thereby playing an important role in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart.

  6. Frank-Starling心脏定律探讨—Frank-Starling定律并非定律%To Investigate the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart——the Frank-Starling law is not a law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何川; 何培芳

    2012-01-01

    The law of the heart,Frank-Starling Law of the Heart (FSLH),says that the energy of cardiac contraction (cardiac work) is a function of the length of the muscle fiber (MFL)/the end-diastolic volume (EDV).The authors of this paper investigate into the FSLH via multidisciplinary knowledge from various angles and hold that:1)In the heart-lung preparation devised by Starling and his colleagues,which was aimed at studying the relationship between the inflow and cardiac work,the dog heart being put beneath the venous reservoir,relying on its own gravity,the blood in the venous reservoir flows into the right ventricle.That experimental condition is far from the physiological reality of human body vein hemodynamics.Therefore,the authors of this paper do not consider that the Frank-Starling phenomenon (the outflow increased with the rising of the filling pressure) observed in their experiments is a law of the heart working.2)The FSLH emphasizes the MFL/EDV,but it neglects the change in the MFL (e.g.,neglecting the end-systolic volume,ESV,i.e.,the end-point of the ventricular wall movement during the contraction).Lacking the ESV,the cardiac work (W) can not be calculated——the FSLH expression in the law of the heart working does not correspond to the basic principle of the “work” in physics.3)The mathematical relationship in the accepted formula for calculating the cardiac work “Stroke work =P × (EDV-ESV) ” shows that the stroke work does not always increase with the advent of the increased EDV,and does not always decrease with the advent of the decreased EDV either——there is no functional relation between the W and the EDV.Therefore,the authors of this paper hold that the FSLH expressing the fundamental principle of the heart working is a failure,and it is not a true law.%心脏搏动作功的规律:心脏收缩释放的能量(作功)是心肌纤维长度/心室舒张末期容积(EDV)的函数,即Frank-Starling心脏定律(简称“定律”),被誉为心

  7. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Wilson, T E; Seifert, T; Secher, N H; Crandall, C G

    2010-09-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole-body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0.06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction in the SV to PCWP ratio during LBNP was comparable to that observed during normothermia (4.8 +/- 2.3 ml mmHg(1); P = 0.78). These data support the hypothesis that a Frank-Starling mechanism contributes to compromised blood pressure control during simulated haemorrhage in heat-stressed individuals, and extend those findings by showing that volume infusion corrects this deficit by shifting the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve.

  8. Linearity of the Frank-Starling relationship in the intact heart: the concept of preload recruitable stroke work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glower, D D; Spratt, J A; Snow, N D; Kabas, J S; Davis, J W; Olsen, C O; Tyson, G S; Sabiston, D C; Rankin, J S

    1985-05-01

    The Frank-Starling relationship generally has been examined with filling pressure as the index of preload, resulting in a curvilinear function that plateaus at higher filling pressures. To investigate this relationship further in the intact heart, 32 dogs were chronically instrumented with left ventricular and pleural micromanometers and with regional (10 dogs) or global (22 dogs) ultrasonic dimension transducers. Seven days after implantation, left ventricular pressure and regional or global dimensions were recorded in the conscious state. After autonomic blockade, preload was varied by vena caval occlusion. Myocardial function was assessed by calculating regional or global stroke work, and preload was measured as end-diastolic segment length or chamber volume. The relationship between stroke work and either end-diastolic segment length or chamber volume (termed the preload recruitable stroke work relationship) was highly linear in every study (mean r = .97) and could be quantified by a slope (MW) and x-intercept (LW). Previous nonlinear relationships between stroke work and filling pressure seemed to reflect the exponential diastolic pressure-volume curve. Over the physiologic range of systolic arterial pressures produced by infusion of nitroprusside or phenylephrine, no significant change was observed in MW or LW in the normal dog. Calcium infusion increased both regional and global MW by 71 +/- 19% and 65 +/- 9%, respectively (p less than .02), with no significant change in LW. To normalize for ventricular geometry and heart rate, stroke work was computed from circumferential stress-strain data and converted to myocardial power output, which was then plotted against end-diastolic circumferential strain. This relationship also was highly linear, and the slope, Mmp (mW/cm3 of myocardium), is proposed as a potential measure of intrinsic myocardial performance independent of loading, geometry, and heart rate.

  9. The role of the Frank-Starling law in the transduction of cellular work to whole organ pump function: a computational modeling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Niederer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a multi-scale biophysical electromechanics model of the rat left ventricle at room temperature. This model has been applied to investigate the relative roles of cellular scale length dependent regulators of tension generation on the transduction of work from the cell to whole organ pump function. Specifically, the role of the length dependent Ca(2+ sensitivity of tension (Ca(50, filament overlap tension dependence, velocity dependence of tension, and tension dependent binding of Ca(2+ to Troponin C on metrics of efficient transduction of work and stress and strain homogeneity were predicted by performing simulations in the absence of each of these feedback mechanisms. The length dependent Ca(50 and the filament overlap, which make up the Frank-Starling Law, were found to be the two dominant regulators of the efficient transduction of work. Analyzing the fiber velocity field in the absence of the Frank-Starling mechanisms showed that the decreased efficiency in the transduction of work in the absence of filament overlap effects was caused by increased post systolic shortening, whereas the decreased efficiency in the absence of length dependent Ca(50 was caused by an inversion in the regional distribution of strain.

  10. The role of the Frank-Starling law in the transduction of cellular work to whole organ pump function: a computational modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Steven A; Smith, Nicolas P

    2009-04-01

    We have developed a multi-scale biophysical electromechanics model of the rat left ventricle at room temperature. This model has been applied to investigate the relative roles of cellular scale length dependent regulators of tension generation on the transduction of work from the cell to whole organ pump function. Specifically, the role of the length dependent Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension (Ca(50)), filament overlap tension dependence, velocity dependence of tension, and tension dependent binding of Ca(2+) to Troponin C on metrics of efficient transduction of work and stress and strain homogeneity were predicted by performing simulations in the absence of each of these feedback mechanisms. The length dependent Ca(50) and the filament overlap, which make up the Frank-Starling Law, were found to be the two dominant regulators of the efficient transduction of work. Analyzing the fiber velocity field in the absence of the Frank-Starling mechanisms showed that the decreased efficiency in the transduction of work in the absence of filament overlap effects was caused by increased post systolic shortening, whereas the decreased efficiency in the absence of length dependent Ca(50) was caused by an inversion in the regional distribution of strain.

  11. Two seconds is all it takes: European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase levels of circulating glucocorticoids after witnessing a brief raptor attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake C; Smith, Adam D; Bebus, Sara E; Schoech, Stephan J

    2016-02-01

    Researchers typically study "acute" activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by measuring levels of circulating glucocorticoids in animals that have been exposed to a predator or a cue from a predator (e.g., odor), or have experienced a standardized capture-and-restraint protocol, all of which are many minutes in duration. However, exposure to predators in the "wild", either as the subject of an attack or as a witness to an attack, is generally much shorter as most depredation attempts upon free-living animals last raptor attack upon a conspecific, a human "attack" (i.e., a researcher handling a conspecific), and an undisturbed control. Witnesses of a raptor attack responded with CORT levels comparable to that induced by a standardized capture-and-restraint protocol. Glucocorticoid levels of individuals following the control treatment were similar to baseline levels, and those that witnessed a human "attack" had intermediate levels. Our results demonstrate that witnessing a predator attack of very brief duration triggers a profound adrenocortical stress response. Given the considerable evidence of a role for glucocorticoids in learning and memory, such a response may affect how individuals learn to recognize and appropriately react to predators.

  12. The European Medicines Agency Review of Pertuzumab for the treatment of adult patients with HER2-positive metastatic or locally recurrent unresectable breast cancer : summary of the scientific assessment of the committee for medicinal products for human use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boix-Perales, Hector; Borregaard, Jeanett; Jensen, Kristina Bech; Ersbøll, Jens; Galluzzo, Sara; Giuliani, Rosa; Ciceroni, Cinzia; Melchiorri, Daniela; Salmonson, Tomas; Bergh, Jonas; Schellens, Jan H; Pignatti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pertuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the extracellular dimerization domain (subdomain II) of HER2. Based on the positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on March 4, 2013, a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union (EU

  13. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  14. 评Frank-Starling心脏定律——Frank-Starling定律并非定律%A Comment on the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart——The Frank-Starling Law is not a Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何川; 何培芳

    2009-01-01

    心脏收缩释放的能量(作功)是心肌纤维长度(心室舒张末期容积,EDV)的函数,即Frank-Starling(FS)心脏作功定律,被誉为心脏生理学中的"经典"理论,对此,笔者从各种不同角度进行了探讨:首先分析了Frank伸展离体心肌和Starling心肺制备实验与动物生理学实际的差异、以及人们在实验中观测到的增加心肌前负荷引起其收缩力增强的现象(FS现象),认为(1)在正常生理条件下的动物体内,来自心脏以外的、如同Starling心肺制备实验中那样人工控制心室充盈压力升高、引起EDV增加的那种血液的重力动力是不存在的;(2)另一方面,人为地增加前负荷,那是改变了心肌收缩时的外环境条件;(3)由此而激发出的FS现象,是心脏适应其外环境条件变化所作出的反应;(4)此种心肌收缩力增强的反应,需通过心肌细胞内部与收缩过程发生有关的心肌兴奋收缩和化学力学偶联等一系列生化机制(不恒定因素)方能得以实现;因此(5)根据他们实验中观测到的FS现象,在逻辑上不能得出前负荷这一心肌收缩时的外环境条件变化调控其作功的推论,换言之,所有的在实验中被激发出来的FS现象,都不足以成为支持FS心脏定律的证据.然后,引用国内外公认的计算心脏每搏射血作功(W)的生物物理学公式"W=PX(EDV-ESV)",证明了W和EDV之间没有函数关系.根据心脏作功的生物物理学基本原理,笔者认为Frank-Starling心脏定律表达的不是心脏作功的规律.

  15. Mechanism of the Frank-Starling law--a simulation study with a novel cardiac muscle contraction model that includes titin and troponin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Natalie S; Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2006-09-01

    A stretch-induced increase of active tension is one of the most important properties of the heart, known as the Frank-Starling law. Although a variation of myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity with sarcomere length (SL) change was found to be involved, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully clarified. Some recent experimental studies indicate that a reduction of the lattice spacing between thin and thick filaments, through the increase of passive tension caused by the sarcomeric protein titin with an increase in SL within the physiological range, promotes formation of force-generating crossbridges (Xbs). However, the mechanism by which the Xb concentration determines the degree of cooperativity for a given SL has so far evaded experimental elucidation. In this simulation study, a novel, rather simple molecular-based cardiac contraction model, appropriate for integration into a ventricular cell model, was designed, being the first model to introduce experimental data on titin-based radial tension to account for the SL-dependent modulation of the interfilament lattice spacing and to include a conformational change of troponin I (TnI). Simulation results for the isometric twitch contraction time course, the length-tension and the force-[Ca(2+)] relationships are comparable to experimental data. A complete potential Frank-Starling mechanism was analyzed by this simulation study. The SL-dependent modulation of the myosin binding rate through titin's passive tension determines the Xb concentration which then alters the degree of positive cooperativity affecting the rate of the TnI conformation change and causing the Hill coefficient to be SL-dependent.

  16. Titin strain contributes to the Frank-Starling law of the heart by structural rearrangements of both thin- and thick-filament proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait-Mou, Younss; Hsu, Karen; Farman, Gerrie P.; Kumar, Mohit; Greaser, Marion L.; Irving, Thomas C.; de Tombe, Pieter P. (UW); (Loyola); (IIT)

    2016-04-29

    We determined that the Frank–Starling mechanism of the heart is due, in part, to modulation of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity by sarcomere length (SL) [length-dependent activation (LDA)]. The molecular mechanism(s) that underlie LDA are unknown. Recent evidence has implicated the giant protein titin in this cellular process, possibly by positioning the myosin head closer to actin. To clarify the role of titin strain in LDA, we isolated myocardium from either WT or homozygous mutant (HM) rats that express a giant splice isoform of titin, and subjected the muscles to stretch from 2.0 to 2.4 μm of SL. Upon stretch, HM compared with WT muscles displayed reduced passive force, twitch force, and myofilament LDA. Time-resolved small-angle X-ray diffraction measurements of WT twitching muscles during diastole revealed stretch-induced increases in the intensity of myosin (M2 and M6) and troponin (Tn3) reflections, as well as a reduction in cross-bridge radial spacing. Independent fluorescent probe analyses in relaxed permeabilized myocytes corroborated these findings. X-ray electron density reconstruction revealed increased mass/ordering in both thick and thin filaments. The SL-dependent changes in structure observed in WT myocardium were absent in HM myocardium. Our results reveal a correlation between titin strain and the Frank–Starling mechanism. The molecular basis underlying this phenomenon appears not to involve interfilament spacing or movement of myosin toward actin but, rather, sarcomere stretch-induced simultaneous structural rearrangements within both thin and thick filaments that correlate with titin strain and myofilament LDA.

  17. Titin strain contributes to the Frank-Starling law of the heart by structural rearrangements of both thin- and thick-filament proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Mou, Younss; Hsu, Karen; Farman, Gerrie P; Kumar, Mohit; Greaser, Marion L; Irving, Thomas C; de Tombe, Pieter P

    2016-02-23

    The Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart is due, in part, to modulation of myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity by sarcomere length (SL) [length-dependent activation (LDA)]. The molecular mechanism(s) that underlie LDA are unknown. Recent evidence has implicated the giant protein titin in this cellular process, possibly by positioning the myosin head closer to actin. To clarify the role of titin strain in LDA, we isolated myocardium from either WT or homozygous mutant (HM) rats that express a giant splice isoform of titin, and subjected the muscles to stretch from 2.0 to 2.4 μm of SL. Upon stretch, HM compared with WT muscles displayed reduced passive force, twitch force, and myofilament LDA. Time-resolved small-angle X-ray diffraction measurements of WT twitching muscles during diastole revealed stretch-induced increases in the intensity of myosin (M2 and M6) and troponin (Tn3) reflections, as well as a reduction in cross-bridge radial spacing. Independent fluorescent probe analyses in relaxed permeabilized myocytes corroborated these findings. X-ray electron density reconstruction revealed increased mass/ordering in both thick and thin filaments. The SL-dependent changes in structure observed in WT myocardium were absent in HM myocardium. Overall, our results reveal a correlation between titin strain and the Frank-Starling mechanism. The molecular basis underlying this phenomenon appears not to involve interfilament spacing or movement of myosin toward actin but, rather, sarcomere stretch-induced simultaneous structural rearrangements within both thin and thick filaments that correlate with titin strain and myofilament LDA.

  18. The cross-bridge dynamics is determined by two length-independent kinetics: Implications on muscle economy and Frank-Starling Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiad Pavlov, Daria; Landesberg, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying the Frank-Starling Law of the heart and the skeletal muscle force-length relationship are not clear. This study tested the effects of sarcomere length (SL) on the average force per cross-bridge and on the rate of cross-bridge cycling in intact rat cardiac trabeculae (n=9). SL was measured by laser diffraction and controlled with a fast servomotor to produce varying initial SLs. Tetanic contractions were induced by addition of cyclopiazonic acid, to maintain a constant activation. Stress decline and redevelopment in response to identical ramp shortenings, starting at various initial SLs, was analyzed. Both stress decline and redevelopment responses revealed two distinct kinetics: a fast and a slower phase. The duration of the rapid phases (4.2 ± 0.1 msec) was SL-independent. The second slower phase depicted a linear dependence of the rate of stress change on the instantaneous stress level. Identical slopes (70.5 ± 1.6 [1/s], p=0.33) were obtained during ramp shortening at all initial SLs, indicating that the force per cross-bridge and cross-bridge cycling kinetics are length-independent. A decrease in the slope at longer SLs was obtained during stress redevelopment, due to internal shortening. The first phase is attributed to rapid changes in the average force per cross-bridge. The second phase is ascribed to both cross-bridge cycling between its strong and weak conformations and to changes in the number of strong cross-bridges. Cross-bridge cycling kinetics and muscle economy are length-independent and the Frank-Starling Law cannot be attributed to changes in the force per cross-bridge or in the single cross-bridge cycling rates.

  19. European Network Against Racism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    From the point of view of social movement theory, ENAR (European Network Against Racism) is a strange creature. Partly being an outcome of the European Year Against Racism celebrated in 1997, ENAR was created in 1998 explicitly as an interlocutor with the European Commission in terms of its...

  20. Eliminating Language Barriers Online at European Prisons (ELBEP): A Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip

    2011-01-01

    ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…

  1. Globalisation, Transnational Policies and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education--This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper…

  2. Adult and lifelong education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Holford, John; Mohorčič Špolar, Vida

    2014-01-01

    The contributions published in this special issue of Globalisation, Societies and Education draw from an international conference “Trans-nationalization of Educational Policy Making: Implications for Adult and Lifelong Learning”, held in Nottingham on 10-12 February 2012. The conference...... was organised by the Research Network on Policy Studies on Adult Education, established under the auspices of the European Society for the Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA). The aim of the conference was to explore how globalisation affects agency and policy processes in the area of adult and lifelong...... education, and the conditions or structures under which policy processes occur. The objective was to deepen understanding of how scientific inquiry – as a means of comprehending and interpreting current processes and their implications – can accompany and support contemporary developments in adult...

  3. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the princip......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  4. Professionalisation of adult educators in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Milana, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    Increasing interest in lifelong learning has led to increasing interest in adult education and training and, at European level, increasing interest in the qualification of those who are going to teach the growing number of adults expected to take part in adult education and training. The article......, which is based on the Danish results of a European project on the qualification of (prospective) adult educators, shows that in spite of a long tradition of adult education, this increased interest in the qualification of adult educators is only vaguely mirrored in Danish plans and strategies for adult...... education, where quality is mainly defined in terms of usefulness for the labour market. The study is carried out as a combination of document analysis of relevant policy papers and narrative interviews with participants in qualification programmes for adult educators....

  5. Europeanization and Transnational States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove Kaj; Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states.......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... and the transformation of states provides an extensive comparative survey of the central governments in four Scandinavian countries and analyses the ways in which the European Union has influenced the day-to-day work of their state administrations. It includes coverage of: Denmark, a long-standing member of the European...

  6. The European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper it is generally examined the institution of the European arrest warrant according to the latest changes and additions through the adoption of a new European legislative act. The paper is a continuation of research in the area of judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. It may be useful to the judicial bodies with the responsibilities of issuing and executing a specific European arrest warrant and to academics and students in law schools. The research results, the essential contribution, the originality consist of the general examination of the institution, the critical remarks and proposals for amending and completing certain provisions insufficiently clear.

  7. Differential Outcomes of Adult Education on Adult Learners' Increase in Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien

    2015-01-01

    To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…

  8. A European perspective on e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2004-01-01

    E-learning at Work , edited by Anne Marie Kanstrup. Roskilde Universitetsforlag, pages Pp.15-29. 2004 Short description: Based on a survey of 149 European e-learning and adult vocational training projects, the author presents examples of how ICT facilitates a positive change and development...... of workplace-related learning. Abstract: Based on a survey of 149 European e-learning and adult vocational training projects, the author presents examples of how ICT facilitates a positive change and development of workplace-related learning.The chapter ends with a suggestion for a historical categorisation...... of e-learning, taking into consideration the technological development and the interplay with the changing learning paradigms. Key learnings from the projects indicate that ICT has already provided workplaces with a range of new tools for workplace learning. But the projects also seem to indicate...

  9. Effects of crustacean cardioactive peptide on the hearts of two Orthopteran insects, and the demonstration of a Frank-Starling-like effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sara R; da Silva, Rosa; Lange, Angela B

    2011-04-01

    Like vertebrate cardiovascular systems, the dorsal vessel of the Orthopteran insects Baculum extradentatum and Locusta migratoria is under myogenic as well as neural control, through the action of neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones. It was previously shown that the excitatory neuropeptide, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), triggers an increase in heart rate in B. extradentatum, and CCAP-like immunoreactivity is present in the innervation to the heart in many insects. In the present study, CCAP resulted in a dose-dependent increase in heart rate and hemolymph flow velocity, or cardiac output, in B. extradentatum. In contrast, CCAP led to a significant increase in stroke volume and cardiac output in L. migratoria without modifying heart rate or aortic contraction frequency. Hemolymph flow through the excurrent ostia of L. migratoria, small openings or valves on the posterior aorta and anterior heart, was inhibited with increasing concentrations of CCAP, with complete inhibition seen at 10(-7) M CCAP. In the locust, CCAP increases the volume of hemolymph in the dorsal vessel by the synchronous closing of the excurrent ostia, resulting in more forceful heart contractions and increased stroke volume and cardiac output, without modifying heart rate through a physiological mechanism analogous to the Frank-Starling mechanism in vertebrates. Therefore, crustacean cardioactive peptide alters the contractile properties of cardiac tissue in both B. extradentatum and L. migratoria, allowing for an increase in blood flow and circulation.

  10. Correlating and Predicting the Solubilities of Solid n-Alkanes in Supercritical Ethane Using Carnahan-Starling-van der Waals Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红茹; 李淑芬; 沈炳谦

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities of some solid n-alkanes in supercritical ethane were correlated and predicted in this pa-per using the Carnahan-Starling-van der Waals model with a density-dependent parameter of a12. At a given tem-perature, the linear fit of the parameter of a12 and the density of the supercritical solvent was used for solubility correlation, resulting in an average absolute average relative deviation (AARD) of 8.68%, which was between the values of the semiempirical models and the other compressed gas models used in this article. In the linear fit of the parameter of a12 and the density of the solvent, the regressed slope m and intercept n of the linear fit can be corre-lated with the carbon atom number of solid n-alkanes and then the solubilities of solid n-alkanes in supercritical ethane can be predicted with the intercept n and slope m. The average AARD in solubility prediction was 26.99%.

  11. The European Geoparks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NickolasZouros

    2004-01-01

    The European Geoparks Network was established in June 2000 by four regions of different European Countries--France, Germany, Spain and Greece--with similar natural and socioeconomic characteristics. These four regions are rural areas, with a particular geological heritage, natural beauty and high cultural potential, all facing problems of slow economic development,

  12. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...

  13. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  14. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union’s ...

  15. Theorizing European societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, M.R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Explores key sociological concepts and theory in relation to European crises, identity, inequality and social order. It offers a firm understanding of the modernization of Europe and everyday European life, while not neglecting the historical context. Essential reading for students of sociology in E

  16. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  17. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual Medi

  18. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  19. Institutionalization through Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    to the question of Europeanization. The main argument is that the EC’s ongoing push for the Pan-European idea, through pressures and enabling structures, have contributed to the promotion of a process of institutionalization with re-nationalization and affirmation of national film-cultural diversity as its main...

  20. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  1. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether......NB: For those interested in our use of the Issuecrawler in this paper, please see our more recent web science paper entitled "Tracing Eurosceptic Party Networks via Hyperlink Network Analysis and #FAIL!ng: Can Web Crawlers Keep up with Web Design?", where we outline the limitations we uncovered...... while using the Issuecrawler. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the, perhaps paradoxical, phenomenon of Europeanization of Eurosceptic parties and the role the internet played in this process during the campaign for the European Parliament elections of May 2014. We exemplify this phenomenon...

  2. Adult Education in the Danish Modernization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2014-01-01

    at local participants and contexts and a globalization process which redefines the cultural environment and presents a new and challenging agenda for adult learning. I will apply a rather general framework of historical analysis of adult education which is derived from and related to European modernization......The aim of this article is to provide an input for a discussion about the situation of a Danish (Nordic) model of adult education in the context of European policy as well as globalization. The article will seek to conceptualize the tension between adult education which is founded in and aiming...... (Salling Olesen 2009) on the history of Danish adult education and the possible contemporary impacts of this history (Salling Olesen 1985;1989). It looks at the societal nature of adult learning and hence the societal functions of adult education, and emphasizes the historical dimension in the sense...

  3. The European Medicines Agency Review of Abiraterone for the Treatment of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer in Adult Men After Docetaxel Chemotherapy and in Chemotherapy-Naïve Disease: Summary of the Scientific Assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Arantxa Sancho; Hemmings, Robert James; Jiménez, Jorge Camarero; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocio; Gallego, Isabel García; Giménez, Elena Valencia; O'Connor, Daniel; Giuliani, Rosa; Salmonson, Tomas; Pignatti, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    On September 5, 2011, abiraterone was approved in the European Union in combination with prednisone or prednisolone for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in adult men whose disease has progressed on or after a docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimen. On December 18, 2012, the therapeutic indication was extended to include the use of abiraterone in combination with prednisone or prednisolone for the treatment of metastatic CRPC in adult men who are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic after failure of androgen deprivation therapy in whom chemotherapy is not yet clinically indicated. Abiraterone is a selective, irreversible inhibitor of cytochrome P450 17α, an enzyme that is key in the production of androgens. Inhibition of androgen biosynthesis deprives prostate cancer cells from important signals for growth, even in cases of resistance to castration. At the time of European Union approval and in a phase III trial in CRPC patients who had failed at least one docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimen, median overall survival for patients treated with abiraterone was 14.8 months versus 10.9 months for those receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval 0.54–0.77; p < .0001). In a subsequent phase III trial in a similar but chemotherapy-naïve patient population, median radiographic progression-free survival was 16.5 months for patients in the abiraterone treatment arm versus 8.3 months for patients in the placebo arm (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.45–0.62; p < .0001). Abiraterone was most commonly associated with adverse reactions resulting from increased or excessive mineralocorticoid activity. These were generally manageable with basic medical interventions. The most common side effects (affecting more than 10% of patients) were urinary tract infection, hypokalemia, hypertension, and peripheral edema. PMID:23966222

  4. Evidence-Based Policy-Making: The Usability of the Eurostat Adult Education Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeren, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on European education policy which is driven by benchmarks and indicators. While the European benchmark on adult lifelong learning participation--15% to be achieved by 2020--is measured by the Labour Force Survey, the Eurostat Adult Education Survey (AES) was designed to better understand the topic of adult lifelong learning…

  5. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  6. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  7. European journals on microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  8. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours...... to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  9. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  10. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  11. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  12. MOOCs, the European way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How the European approach to MOOCs is largely that of a pedagogical innovation whereas the initial US xMOOCs were largely seen as a vehicle to make education cheaper, to export American quality education to developing countries

  13. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  14. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo;

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...... the European university landscape according to the following dimensions: history/foundation of university, dynamics of growth, specialization pattern, subject mix, funding composition, offer profile and productivity....

  15. European Agricultural Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    This bulletin is a supplement to the Europe Team's Situation and Outlook Series and expands upon material traditionally presented as an appendix in the annual Europe Report. This report presents an extensive statistical database on European agriculture. The geographic scope covers most of the countrias of Europe, including the 15 member states of the European Union (Austria. Belgium. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy. Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, a...

  16. Fatty acids are important for the Frank-Starling mechanism and Gregg effect but not for catecholamine response in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, P; Chiribiri, A; Gattullo, D; Penna, C; Rastaldo, R; Recchia, F A

    2002-11-01

    In some pathophysiological conditions myocardial metabolism can switch from mainly long chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation to mainly glucose oxidation. Whether the predominant fatty acid or glucose oxidation affects cardiac performance has not been defined. In a buffer perfused isovolumetrically contracting rat heart, oxidation of endogenous pool LCFA was avoided by inhibiting carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase I (CPT-I) with oxfenicine (2 mM). In order to restore fatty acid oxidation, hexanoate (1 mM), which bypasses CPT-I inhibition, was added to the perfusate. Three groups of hearts were subjected to either an increase in left ventricular volume (VV, +25%) or an increase in coronary flow (CF, +50%), or inotropic stimulation with isoproterenol (10(-8) and 10(-6) m). The increase in VV (the Frank-Starling mechanism) increased rate-pressure product (RPP) by 21 +/- 2% under control conditions, but only by 6 +/- 2% during oxfenicine-induced CPT-I inhibition. The contractile response to changes in VV recovered after the addition of hexanoate. Similar results were obtained in hearts, in which an increase in CF was elicited (the Gregg phenomenon). Isoproterenol caused a similar increase in contractility regardless of the presence of oxfenicine or hexanoate. In all groups, a commensurate increase in oxygen consumption accompanied the increase in contractility. The fatty acid oxidation is necessary for an adequate contractile response of the isolated heart to increased pre-load or flow, whereas the inotropic response to adrenergic beta-receptor stimulation is insensitive to changes in substrate availability.

  17. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  18. Frank-Starling心脏定律的证明方法探讨%Discussing the Proof Method of the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何川; 何培芳

    2013-01-01

    本文目的在于探讨Frank-Starling心脏定律的科学证明方法.认为证明某一理论的真实性应该包括理论证明(引用科学概念的定义、公理和定律等去判断它的真实性)和实验证明两个方面.理论证明必须首先完成,然后才是设计合理的实验以证明该理论的真实性.理论证明和科学实验的关系是:二者均能否定错误理论,但任何实验结果都不能否定正确的理论证明.众所周知,生命现象有其独特的生物学规律,但它也服从有关的物理学、化学和数学等表达的一般物质的运动规律,因此,心脏作功遵守低级物质的运动形态规律.Frank-Starling定律对心脏搏动作功规律的表达是:心脏收缩释放的能量(作功)是心肌纤维初长度/心室舒张末期容积的函数.显然,该理论对心脏作功规律的表达没有包含收缩时心肌纤维长度的变化情况(例如,没有表达心室收缩末期容积的变化),如此表达心脏作功的规律,不符合物理学中关于作功的定义:Frank-Starling心脏定律不是一个真实的定律.既然理论证明已经十分清楚地显示了Frank-Starling心脏定律是错误的,那么,否定它,只须阐明为什么根据Frank和Starling的实验结果不能推导得出Frank-Star-ling心脏定律理论的理由而不一定再需要做出否定它的实验证明.%The method of proving the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart (FSLH) is discussed here in this paper. In order to prove the authenticity of a theory, two things are to be done: 1) deriving theoretic evidences (referring to definitions of scientific concepts, axioms and laws); 2) collecting experimental evidences. The first, the theoretic evidence should be derived. The second is to design the reasonable experiments to prove the authenticity of the theory. The relationship between the theoretic evidences and the experimental evidences is that both of them can negate a wrong theory, but any experimental results cannot

  19. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  20. The european paediatric legislation: benefits and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi Francesca

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of availability of appropriate medicines for children is an extensive and well known problem. Paediatricians and Physicians who take care of the paediatric population are primarily exposed to cope with this negative situation very often as more than half of the children are prescribed off-label or unlicensed medicines. Discussion Medicinal products used to treat this population should be subjected to ethical research of high quality and be explicitly authorised for use in children as it happens in adults. For that reason, and following the US experience, the European Paediatric Regulation has been amended in January 2007 by the European Commission. The objective of the Paediatric Regulation is to improve the development of high quality and ethically researched medicines for children aged 0 to 17 years, to facilitate the availability of information on the use of medicines for children, without subjecting children to unnecessary trials, or delaying the authorisation of medicines for use in adults. Summary The Paediatric Regulation is dramatically changing the regulatory environment for paediatric medicines in Europe and is fuelling an increased number of clinical trials in the paediatric population. Nevertheless, there are some risks and pitfalls that need to be anticipated and controlled in order to ensure that children will ultimately benefit from this European initiative.

  1. Preoperative assessment and classification of benign laryngotracheal stenosis : a consensus paper of the European Laryngological Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, Ph.; Dikkers, F. G.; Eckel, H.; Sittel, C.; Piazza, C.; Campos, G.; Remacle, M.; Peretti, G.

    2015-01-01

    Adult and pediatric laryngotracheal stenoses (LTS) comprise a wide array of various conditions that require precise preoperative assessment and classification to improve comparison of different therapeutic modalities in a matched series of patients. This consensus paper of the European Laryngologica

  2. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  3. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  4. Making European Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    education, and government policy intersect in the lives of young Muslims and inform their developing religious beliefs and practices. Mark Sedgwick’s introduction provides a framework for theorizing Muslimness in the European context, arguing that Muslim children must navigate different and sometimes......Making European Muslims provides an in-depth examination of what it means to be a young Muslim in Europe today, where the assumptions, values and behavior of the family and those of the majority society do not always coincide. Focusing on the religious socialization of Muslim children at home...

  5. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

  6. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  7. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  8. Teaching European Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  9. Becoming Pan-European?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Brüggemann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    be platforms of a transnational European discourse. Four ideal-types of transnational media can be distinguished: (1) national media with a transnational mission, (2) international media, (3) pan-regional media and (4) global media. Within this framework the article analyses transnational media in Europe...

  10. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  11. Tasty European Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>An European Union delegation paid an official visit to China from March 25 to 30 to attend the opening ceremony of Shanghai International Food and Beverage Exhibition, the largest ever held in the city. The EU set a special stall to display high-quality food from its members.

  12. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2016-01-01

    allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...

  13. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  14. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  15. Case study: Teaching European Active Citizenship (TEACh)-course, EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sorensen, Tore

    2007-01-01

    Learning for democratic citizenship has been the object of several projects supported by the European Commission, under the Socrates / Grundtvig 1.1. Action. Nonetheless only very few had the specific aim of exploring the relations between learning for democratic citizenship and non-formal adult...... for different professionals in education. Thirdly, the course is to be considered on the edge of non-formal and formal learning activities, as it is organized accordingly to the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). Participants are awarded 3 ECTS points to be spent in a variety of learning and working...... as capacity building in linking research and supply in adult education. Secondly, the course addresses a very special audience: Adult educators in a variety of learning contexts - i.e. including lower and upper secondary school teachers. Thus it falls within the broader category of in-service training...

  16. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...

  17. Old European Couples' Retirement Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Ranzani, Marco

    This study investigates old European couples' retirement choices in order to bridge the gap between the European and the American literature. The typical European family approaching retirement is a dual-earner family: the dataset used in this paper reveals that 78 percent of working males is marr...

  18. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  19. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  20. 心脏作功的生物数学关系质疑Frank-Starling 心脏作功定律%Questioning the frank-starling law of the heart in perspective of the bio-mathematical relation on the heart working

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何川; 何培芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective The theory that the energy of cardiac contraction (cardiac work,or heart working) is a function of the length of the muscle fiber (the end-diastolic volume,EDV) is known as the Frank-Starling law of the heart,which is reputed as the law of the cardiac work,and has been esteemed as trustworthy.This paper tests the truthfulness of the law from a new perspective of bio-physics and bio-mathematical relationship on the heart working.We know that a force does not do work when there is no displacement in the direction of this force.At a stage of the EDV,the heart has not yet begun its contraction (the length of myocardial fibers and the EDV have not changed),there is no systolic force doing work at all,and there is no functional relationship between the cardiac work and the initial length of myocardial fibers (EDV).At a stage of the contraction,generally,the heart working (W) is represented by the ejection of a volume (V) of blood under a pressure (P).The W during each contraction is calculated by multiplying the V of blood ejected by the P:W=P×V.Because the V is equal to the EDV minus the ESV,a formula was derived as:W=P× (EDV- ESV).That formula has been accepted ever since unanimously and universally.Nevertheless,viewed from the bio-mathematical relationship among the parameters W,P,EDV and ESV in the formula,it can be seen that there is no such functional relation between the W and the EDV.Here,the authors of this paper affirm that the Frank-Starling law of the heart is a failure to express the objective condition of the heart working from the biomathematic angle of the cardiac work,and it is not a true law.%心脏收缩释放的能量(作功)是心肌纤堆长度的函数,或谓心脏作功是心室舒张末期容积(EDV)的函数,即著名的Frank-Starling心脏定律,被认为是心脏作功的规律的正确表达.众所用知,对于一个力,当在这个力的方向上没有位移时是不作功的.在心室舒张末期,心脏尚未开始收缩,

  1. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  2. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  3. DISCURSUL EUROPEAN: SINTAGME SI PARADIGME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina CMECIU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to interpret some of the most frequently usedparadigms and syntagms belonging to the European discourse since Romania joined theEuropean Union against the background of cultural postmodernism. The process ofcommunication, that is of encoding and decoding messages, circumscribes, on the one hand,a type of two-way journey (from European authoritative institutions to a local individualand from the latter back to European heights and, on the other hand, the awareness of adouble citizenship mentality (both Romanian and European.

  4. Polymyositis - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  5. VET Workers' Problem-Solving Skills in Technology-Rich Environments: European Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Cincinnato, Sebastiano; Malin, Antero; De Wever, Bram

    2014-01-01

    The European workplace is challenging VET adults' problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs). So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults' skills to date. The present study (N = 50 369) focuses on gaining…

  6. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  7. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  8. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...

  9. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  10. European Conference on Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2010-12-01

    The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own.

  11. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  12. Qualification of Adult Educators in Europe: Insights From the Portuguese Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Paulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of the European Union in defining an adult education policy and the way European countries appropriate those guidelines and implement them in their realities. These policies have been widening and diversifying adult education, creating the necessity of qualifying educational professionals. With the implementation of some adult education political measures, new educational practices were developed and new professional activities were born.

  13. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling the ...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....... the term interdependence. Thereafter, the thesis critically examines the most common measures of self and appropriates some of these measures for use in the current empirical study. More concretely, the current study compares self-descriptions and autobiographical memories of individuals from post......-Communist Europe and Scandinavia. The study’s results exemplify participants’ interdependence, whether in the form of their relational and group self-descriptions or their autobiographical memories recalled to different interpersonal cue words. On the whole, the current thesis contributes with novel data...

  14. European Cenozoic rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Peter A.

    1992-07-01

    The European Cenozoic rift system extends from the coast of the North Sea to the Mediterranean over a distance of some 1100 km; it finds its southern prolongation in the Valencia Trough and a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic chain crossing the Atlas ranges. Development of this mega-rift was paralleled by orogenic activity in the Alps and Pyrenees. Major rift domes, accompanied by subsidence reversal of their axial grabens, developed 20-40 Ma after beginning of rifting. Uplift of the Rhenish Shield is related to progressive thermal lithospheric thinning; the Vosges-Black Forest and the Massif Central domes are probably underlain by asthenoliths emplaced at the crust/mantle boundary. Evolution of this rift system, is thought to be governed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and by early phases of a plate-boundary reorganization that may lead to the break-up of the present continent assembly.

  15. Westinghouse European trainee program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, G. [Safety and Licensing Department, Westinghouse Electric Spain, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company is proud of giving its employees the possibility to work and act globally. The company's European Trainee Program provides an opportunity to work within different fields of business within Westinghouse, participating in a wide range of projects and experiencing and learning from the different cultures of the company. In 2006 the first Trainee Program started with seven Swedish Trainees. During these eighteen months they worked 12 months in Sweden and then went off to six-month-assignments in France and in the US. In April 2008, the first European Trainee Program was launched with ten Trainees from four different countries: five from Sweden, two from Germany, two from Spain and one from Belgium. As with the previous program, its length was eighteen months. During the first year, the European Trainees had the opportunity to work in various areas within their country of hire, as well as to visit different Westinghouse headquarters in Europe and the US to learn more about the global business. Their kick-off session took place in Vaesteraas, Sweden in April 2008. During four days, the Trainees participated in group dynamic exercises as well as presentations of the business of Westinghouse abroad and in Sweden. Two of the most interesting parts of this session were the visits to the Fuel Factory and to the Field Services mock-ups. The second session took place in June 2008 in Monroeville, Pennsylvania (USA), where Westinghouse had its main headquarters, nowadays located in Cranberry, PA. During two weeks, the trainees got to know even more about Westinghouse through visits, lectures and forums for open discussions. The visits comprised for example the tubing factory at Blairsville, the Field Services main headquarters in Madison and the George Westinghouse Research and Technology Park near Pittsburgh. The meetings included presentations of each Westinghouse business unit, detailed information about future projects and round table

  16. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...

  17. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renami...

  18. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    announced by Descartes degenerates to the pseudo-materialistic consumo ergo sum.”98 One major point in this development is that both on the national...change the patron -client relationship.270 The European solution to this asymmetrical relationship led the European Community to further diversify

  19. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  20. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding m

  1. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in 2010

  2. HISTORY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan V t man

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate how the project of the ‘European Union’ evolved both in the interwar period and in the years following the Second World War, focusing on promoters of the idea of federal Europe who attempted to find the best ways for building a suitable European Community development. The establishment of three European Communities in the 50`s, although they were mainly orientated economically also involved political cooperation, thus contributing to a new federal vision. Evolution of the European Communities has been marked by the widening of their accession of new members and by the review of the institutive treaties in order to speed and flexibly achieve those objectives. Given the constant changing of modern world, the European leaders had to agree on new rules that would take into account political, economic and social changes, while also meeting the aspirations and hopes of the Europeans. Signing the Lisbon Treaty was the recognition that the EU needs to modernize and to have effective and consistent tools, not only adapted to the functioning of a Union extended to 27 countries, but also to the rapid changes of the present day world. The Lisbon Treaty clearly defined objectives and values of the European Union on peace, democracy, human rights, justice, equality, rule of law durability and also set up a stable institutional framework which gives the ability to obtain better results closer to expectations of European citizens.

  3. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  4. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  5. European Union Directive Documents on Informal Continuous Education of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Blažienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are rapid economic and social changes happening in Lithuania. In order for people to adjust to new farming conditions, it is very important to acquire and use actual information, to gain new competences. Therefore the purpose of all educational measures is to create an efficient and harmonious continuous training and educational system which would be generally available, which would ensure that labour force meets the requirements of labour market and which provides an opportunity to lifelong learning. The most valuable products are actual information, knowledge, skills. Special attention should be drawn, to professional training and common education of all the employed. Knowledge in application of new technologies, learning about meeting the standards of quality, understanding environmental issues and importance of preserving landscape and cultural heritage, improving skills of initiativeness, business, and communication. Only continuous improvement of qualification and re-qualification can assure lasting activities. Without continuous and effective education of all the population, which is generally available and meets the demands of vast majority, successful development of Lithuanian Republic is impossible.

  6. European environmental stratifications and typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazeu, G.W,; Metzger, M.J.; Mücher, C.A.;

    2011-01-01

    A range of new spatial datasets classifying the European environment has been constructed over the last few years. These datasets share the common objective of dividing European environmental gradients into convenient units, within which objects and variables of interest have relatively homogeneous...... characteristics. The stratifications and typologies can be used as a basis for up-scaling, for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, for the representative selection of sites for studies across the continent and for the provision of frameworks for modeling exercises and reporting at the European...... scale. This paper provides an overview of five recent European stratifications and typologies, constructed for contrasting objectives, and differing in spatial and thematic detail. These datasets are: the Environmental Stratification (EnS), the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP), the Spatial...

  7. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  8. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  9. ELLAN – European Later Life Active Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for cooperation throughout Europe to meet new challenges in professional work with older people seems to be undeniable. Therefore, it is regarded as essential to build on both, inter- and transnational partnerships between Higher Education Institutes and transprofessional...... partnerships, including older adults on the one hand and students on the other hand, as experts of their own experience. In this context the EU-funded Project ELLAN (2013 – 2016) takes place with a consortium of 28 partners from all over Europe. Educational Philosophy or theory: The overarching aim of ELLAN...... is to develop a European Core Competencies Framework for working with older people (ECCF) in the horizon of positive ageing and social cohesion. Moreover, the ECCF is being developed as an instrument for transnational curriculum design in this field. Consequently, the project is designed to share good practice...

  10. European integration, financial resources and the absorption of European funds in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The regional integration has the purpose to enhance the income in the region, which may be achieved through getting higher economic results by using the production factors more efficiently, increasing their mobility and benefiting from the access to a comprehensive knowledge base. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration, financial resources and, absorption of European funds. The paper proposes an analysis of financial framework by means of data and statistics provided by European institution, national statistics institutions and international statistics institutions. The financial framework is a mechanism designed to ensure a strict budgetary discipline of the maximum spending cap for each major area of European Union budget. This mechanism is drawing on the basis of political and economic priorities. One of the main objectives should be the expenditure forecasting, annual budgets, so they be situated under overall cap, knowing that achieving long-term economic growth depends on the financial incentives that the European Union can sustain.

  11. Depressed Frank-Starling mechanism in the left ventricular muscle of the knock-in mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy with troponin T deletion mutation ΔK210.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahiro; Kobirumaki-Shimozawa, Fuyu; Kagemoto, Tatsuya; Fujii, Teruyuki; Terui, Takako; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Hongo, Kenichi; Morimoto, Sachio; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Norio

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that the Frank-Starling mechanism is coordinately regulated in cardiac muscle via thin filament "on-off" equilibrium and titin-based lattice spacing changes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the deletion mutation ΔK210 in the cardiac troponin T gene shifts the equilibrium toward the "off" state and accordingly attenuate the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of active force production, via reduced cross-bridge formation. Confocal imaging in isolated hearts revealed that the cardiomyocytes were enlarged, especially in the longitudinal direction, in ΔK210 hearts, with striation patterns similar to those in wild type (WT) hearts, suggesting that the number of sarcomeres is increased in cardiomyocytes but the sarcomere length remains unaltered. For analysis of the SL dependence of active force, skinned muscle preparations were obtained from the left ventricle of WT and knock-in (ΔK210) mice. An increase in SL from 1.90 to 2.20μm shifted the mid-point (pCa50) of the force-pCa curve leftward by ~0.21pCa units in WT preparations. In ΔK210 muscles, Ca(2+) sensitivity was lower by ~0.37pCa units, and the SL-dependent shift of pCa50, i.e., ΔpCa50, was less pronounced (~0.11pCa units), with and without protein kinase A treatment. The rate of active force redevelopment was lower in ΔK210 preparations than in WT preparations, showing blunted thin filament cooperative activation. An increase in thin filament cooperative activation upon an increase in the fraction of strongly bound cross-bridges by MgADP increased ΔpCa50 to ~0.21pCa units. The depressed Frank-Starling mechanism in ΔK210 hearts is the result of a reduction in thin filament cooperative activation.

  12. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher...... as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert...

  13. European XFEL (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    European X-Ray FEL – free electron laser is under construction in DESY Hamburg. It is scheduled to be operational at 2015/16 at a cost more than 1 billion Euro. The laser uses SASE method to generate x-ray light. It is propelled by an electron linac of 17,5GeV energy and more than 2km in length. The linac uses superconducting SRF TESLA technology working at 1,3 GHz in frequency. The prototype of EXFEL is FLASH Laser (200 m in length), where the “proof of principle” was checked, and from the technologies were transferred to the bigger machine. The project was stared in the nineties by building a TTF Laboratory -Tesla Test Facility. The EXFEL laser is a child of a much bigger teraelectronovolt collider project TESLA (now abandoned in Germany but undertaken by international community in a form the ILC). A number of experts and young researchers from Poland participate in the design, construction and research of the FLASH and EXFEL lasers.

  14. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural intensifi......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  15. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  16. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    Gend en Loos and Costa V. ENEL. The jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the ECSC was allegedly conservative dominated by technical and economic considerations less than adventurous activism. Recent historical research has demonstrated the complexity of the legal landscape of the 1950s, in which...... the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making....

  17. Remuneration in European Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Tóth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the new rules to be applied in the European Union, data on compensation of material risk takers are to be disclosed from year 2014. This paper overviews the different expectations regarding remuneration of bank managers highlighting the requirements of European Parliament and Council. Furthermore, it analyses data of 18 European banks disclosed based on the new lawful requirements. Based on empirical study it proves there is correlation between number of material risk takers and value of total assets. However this correlation is not too strong.

  18. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  19. Open Education 2030: Planning the Future of Adult Learning in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina; Punie, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning and open education have become key elements on the European Agenda. This paper presents the first results of a foresight activity that aims to contribute to an understanding of how "Opening up Education" can improve adult learning in Europe in the future. It argues that to open up adult learning two main challenges must be…

  20. Post Crisis European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop, Napoleon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is still evolving, at least from the point of view of some features making the entire process of its reversing very difficult - uncertainties, confusions and lack of investors` trust. More then that, every rim of the Atlantic Ocean has its own opinion as to the timing of the exit stimulus measures. There are prevailing risks taken into consideration when we talk about the next stage of the economic growth e.g. its sustainability on a log run or inflaming the inflation. It is for sure, that according to the core economic policies practiced either in USA or Europe, in Europe what count most is the danger of the inflation, if the right time of stopping the flood of the governmental funds to the real economy is not well chosen. The economic situation in Europe, as all over the world, in spite of some signs that the economy is on the right track ( South East Asia, USA or Germany, there are a lot of doubts as to the assurance that recession is over and there is no way for an immediate return. Notabilities in economics see that governmental intervention should be continued, just because the economic growth consigned by statistics is not convincing. Convictions, if they exist, are blended with a lot of obsessions which in my opinion are making up a serious agenda of the debates in Europe: budgetary deficit in excess, danger of the inflation, new regulation of the financial sector, credibility of the euro zone. Romania has to be involved in all these debates as it is passing through all the mentioned difficulties which need solutions within the frame of European standards, as a member of the EU.

  1. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from...

  2. EUROPEAN MANAGERIAL PROFESSION AND BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Liset Ivascu

    2009-01-01

    The European manager‘s behavior must be flexible and adaptable to the behaviors of various employees of the enterprise. Its flexibility enables the manager to act efficiently in the current, so mobile environment

  3. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  4. Proton Football European Championship 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:

  5. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  6. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  7. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts. Th...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems....

  8. Do European capital flows comove?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Contessi; Pierangelo DePace

    2008-01-01

    We study the cross-sectional correlations of net, total, and disaggregated capital flows for the major source and recipient European Union countries. We seek evidence of changes in these correlations since the introduction of the euro to understand whether the European Union can be considered a unique entity with regard to its international capital flows. We first use Ng's (2006) "uniform spacing" methodology to rank cross-sectional correlations (i.e., which flows comove more) and to shed lig...

  9. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  10. Integrated modeling of European migration

    OpenAIRE

    Raymer, James; Wiśniowski, Arkadiusz; Forster, Jonathan J.; Peter W. F. Smith; Bijak, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    International migration data in Europe are collected by individual countries with separate collection systems and designs. As a result, reported data are inconsistent in availability, definition and quality. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian model to overcome the limitations of the various data sources. The focus is on estimating recent international migration flows amongst 31 countries in the European Union and European Free Trade Association from 2002 to 2008, using data collated by Euro...

  11. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  12. A European Res publica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Zetterquist

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the fundamental constitutional enigma of the European Union (EU, namely whether the EU can be considered as a (from its Member States separate and independent constitutional legal order. The EU is often referred to as a legal order sui generis, i.e. of a unique character that defies traditional definitions. More specifically, the notion of an independent and separate EU is at odds with the idea of the sovereign state. The notion of the EU as a legal order sui generis is too much influenced by the models of the sovereign state and sovereignty (in the vein of Thomas Hobbes. The key component in the Hobbesian idea of sovereignty is freedom as non-interference. A sovereign state is consequently a state that is free from, i.e. not interfered with by, external actors like, for example, the EU. Put differently, either the EU is sovereign or the Member States are sovereign. By shifting the perspective to a neo-Roman republican understanding of freedom as non-domination the constitutional picture of the EU will become more nuanced. Res publica is best understood as what citizens hold in common and above their narrow self-interest. According to a republican notion of the constitution the purpose of the law is to eliminate the possibility of arbitrary domination. For that reason, not all interference is to be considered as a restriction of freedom but only those restrictions that cannot be justified according to the res publica. Viewed through the republican prism it can be argued that the EU represents an important advancement in securing freedom as non-domination without implying that the EU must become a state. The fundamental enigma can thus be rephrased as a clash between two diverging concepts of freedom. Whereas the EU will always be at odds with the idea of sovereignty (however framed it will be much easier to reconcile with the republican ideal. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837332

  13. The European cardiac resynchronization therapy survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickstein, Kenneth; Bogale, Nigussie; Priori, Silvia; Auricchio, Angelo; Cleland, John G.; Gitt, Anselm; Limbourg, Tobias; Linde, Cecilia; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Brugada, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Aims The European cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) survey is a joint initiative taken by the Heart Failure Association and the European Heart Rhythm Association of the European Society of Cardiology. The primary aim of this survey is to describe current European practice associated with CRT i

  14. Agenda setting in the European Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrova Petrova, Petya

    2014-01-01

    The European Council, the institution bringing together the Heads of State and Government of the European Union member states, has played an important role in steering the European integration process. This dissertation analyses the nature of the European Council’s agenda in relation to the institut

  15. Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law.......Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law....

  16. Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit

    CERN Document Server

    European Gender Summit, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit to the European Parliament and the Council, the European Commission, the Council of Europe, EU Member and Associate States, Science Institutions. Developing Systematic Implementation Strategy to Advance EU Policy on Gender Equality in Science, as part of HORIZON 2020, European Research Area and Innovation Union.

  17. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  18. EUROPEANIZATION OF ROMANIAN FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Popescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various aspects of the Europeanization of Romanian foreign policy: elite socialization, bureaucratic reorganization, institutional and policy adaptation to the requirements and exigencies of EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP, projection of national interests onto CFSP agenda and decisions. There is very little written in the literature on the subject of Romanian foreign policy Europeanization. From this standpoint this article fills a gap and indicates an area of research in need to be explored. The paper is using a series of Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA documents related to its organizational changes as well as a number of interviews with diplomats. It is trying to test in the case of Romania a few relevant theses written by significant authors with reference to the Europeanization of other Member States. It draws a number of conclusions – most of them confirming important theses on Europeanization. It ends by remarking the uneven character and the short length of the Romanian foreign policy Europeanization.

  19. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  20. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    on Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and suffers by being 'out of sight and out of mind'. What kind of life is there in soil? What do we mean by soil biodiversity? What is special about soil biology? How do our activities affect soil ecosystems? What are the links between soil biota...... and climate change? The first ever European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity uses informative texts, stunning photographs and maps to answer these questions and other issues. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity functions as a comprehensive guide allowing non-specialists to access information about this unseen...... Biodiversity'. Starting with the smallest organisms such as the bacteria, this segment works through a range of taxonomic groups such as fungi, nematodes, insects and macro-fauna to illustrate the astonishing levels of heterogeneity of life in soil. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity is more than just...

  1. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  2. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  3. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  4. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  5. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    -brokers. The paper puts forward the hypothesis that the Nordic countries as small states have had a considerable influence on the EU's policies towards Africa in the current century. The ‘Nordicization' is the result of the fact that the Nordics traditionally have had a high moral profile in international affairs...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  6. The birth of the European Crystallographic Committee (ECC) and of the European Crystallographic Meetings (ECMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the circumstances of the establishment of the European Crystallographic Committee, now the European Crystallographic Association, a regional associate of the IUCr, and of the European Crystallographic Meetings.

  7. Europeanization and social movement mobilization during the European sovereign debt crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses Europeanization of social movements in the context of the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Europeanization occurs when movements collaborate, or make horizontal communicative linkages with movements in other countries, contest authorities beyond the state, frame issues as Eur...

  8. EUROPEAN FUNDS MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS—A CASE STUDY OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUNDS IN ROMANIA FROM 2007 TO 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Foris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on fund financing management of one of the utmost important European Union funds, the European Social Fund (ESF, and its implementation in Romania in its post adherence period (2007-2013.  In this respect, the main aspects regarding the management and implementation of this program in Romania, as compared to other European countries, are analyzed taking into consideration the declared objectives at its launching moment. Through a defective management, these objectives have not reached their target, whereas the educational market of continuous adult education has been strongly distorted from the competitive point of view. Moreover, due to inadequate financial management, many of the involved agencies—private companies, schools, constitutive parts of the civil society, have gone bankrupted—the fact that would lead to a serious social imbalance.The research part of this article, being implied in the management of the most important strategic projects of this program (projects in qualifications for the spa tourism, agro-tourism, and food industry, presents a critical point of view on ESF management at a national level and highlights a set of proposals and recommendations, so that, between 2014 and 2020, Romania should be aligned with the European standards regarding the performance in implementing programs with non-reimbursable financing.

  9. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Clare; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Haerle, Stephan K

    2015-01-01

    minor complications (3%) were reported following SNB. Disease-specific survival was 94%. The sensitivity of SNB was 86% and the negative predictive value 95%. CONCLUSION: These data show that SNB is a reliable and safe oncological technique for staging the clinically N0 neck in patients with T1 and T2...... in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB...

  10. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...... were instrumental in this regard. However, the critics succeeded in weakening the initially strong focus on the transition from job security to employment security and the divisions between insiders and outsiders in the labour market. In contrast to some decision-making on the European Employment...

  11. What Is Medieval European Literature?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borsa; Christian Høgel; Lars Boje Mortensen; Elizabeth Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The editors of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures explain the scope and purpose of the new journal by mapping out the significance and possible meanings of the three key terms of the subtitle: ‘literature,’ ‘medieval,’ ‘Europe.’ The specific theme of Issue 1 is introduced: ‘Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation.’ With respect to this theme, theoretical problems concerning teleology and the present possibilities for liter...

  12. [The European mouflon, Ovis musimon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, W A

    1996-09-15

    Until a couple of decades ago, the European mouflon found on the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Cyprus was considered an independent wild species and last representative of the European wild sheep. However, recent research has shown that there have not been wild sheep in Europe since the late Pleistocene. Archeological investigation in Corsica has shown that the mouflon is not a wild sheep but a primitive domestic sheep brought to the islands by farmers from the Near East and which then became wild (feral).

  13. The European integration in criminal field the European arrest warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Marco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with some thesis in connection with the European arrest warrant experience, what will be an interesting test for many EU countries. It affects prerogatives always reserved to state-power and main expression of national sovereignty. Anyway, bringing up to the theoretical elaboration of the so-called "third pillar", it needs to set them in action, and verify if European states are really willing to create a common juridical space putting apart claims and prejudices. Most of appraisals addressed to European arrest warrant seem to repudiate just the principle of mutual confidence in respective judiciary systems, principle the new form of cooperation is based on. Briefly, they assert a decision issued by another Member State wouldn't assure all guarantees as own juridical system. Reform would surely have been more effective and consistent if, before creating a common procedure substantial rules were set. European arrest warrant was born in order to replace the long and complex extradition system with a quick and effective tool, fit for contrasting new forms of criminality, that are able to profit boundary openings in order to escape justice.

  14. Scientific education and European citizenship. Suggestions and results from the European project SEDEC (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceriani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts seemingly distant from each other, scientific education and European citizenship, have been the basis for "SEDEC - Science Education for the Development of European Citizenship", a European project funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates/Comenius programme, aiming at producing training material addressed to European teachers. Started in autumn 2005, the project will end in 2008 with an in-service training course for European teachers and educators.

  15. We are European Citizens. Playing to learn to be european

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz LEGEREN LAGO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts of the educational systems of different countries in recent years, European reports agree that students in schools of Primary and Secondary Europe still increase their level of knowledge about basic issues of European Union. To do this, initial and ongoing training of teachers remains a key issue, an also the material introduced into classrooms that have to be more innovative and attractive educational resources for students.We present the design process and development of two educational games aimed at students in Primary and Secondary Europe in order to improve their  knowledge about  the European Union through the game experience. Our work was developed in the 2013-14 course in 11 schools in the city of Vigo (Pontevedra, as part of a larger project, "We are European Citizens" funded by the EU within the Jean Monnet Programme " Learning Europe at School ".We intended thereby answer the following questions: Is it possible that with new resources such as educational games with the EU as its main theme, students of Primary and Secondary Europe showing more interest in acquiring basic knowledge about it ?; ¿Improve this game with their level of knowledge about the EU ?.In order to know the perception about European Union in the classrooms of  Vigo, we made an initial diagnosis of attitudes and prior knowledge of students in Primary and Secondary educational materials and resources that are used for teachers and students for teaching and learning of this content. Once the baseline is established, a multidisciplinary team adapted academic learning content of European issues, launched courses of theoretical and practical training for teachers and project designed and developed an interactive entertainment for students consisting of two multilingual video games (an adventure game and a simulation. Finally we evaluate the level of satisfaction among students and teachers regarding training courses and new designed tools. In this

  16. Becoming an adult: A proposed typology of adult status based on a study of Spanish youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Torres, Francisca

    2015-06-01

    Emerging adulthood is a transitional period which has been examined in relatively few studies in Southern European countries. This study has two aims: (1) to determine the features of emerging adulthood in Spain based on criteria for adulthood and experiential dimensions; and (2) to explore whether variations in these criteria are related to gender and adult status (self-classification as an adult and adult role adoption). Participants included 347 young Spanish people, aged 18-30, who completed a questionnaire about their conceptions of adulthood. They used similar criteria for adulthood to other Western countries, placing an extremely strong emphasis on psychological maturity criteria in comparison with role transition indicators. Important variations were observed in both the importance and achievement of criteria for adulthood according to gender and adult status. The results likewise suggest there may be different psychosocial profiles associated with each adult status group. The relevance of this classification to future research in the field of emerging adulthood is discussed.

  17. Development of health over four years among middle-aged and older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Older adults in Eastern and Central European countries have a higher risk of developing poor self-rated health over four years. The same geographical pattern is seen for a higher risk of developing hypertension and diabetes. Low educational level significantly increases the risk of developing poor...

  18. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in t

  19. Analytical approaches to food-based dietary guidelines in the European setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Valsta, L.M.; Welten, D.C.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To show the effects of statistical approaches of data analysis to be used in the development of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG). Setting: Databases from dietary surveys in 6 European countries. Results: Quantile analysis based on iron intake among adult women resulted in differences

  20. The informal networks in food procurement by older people - A cross European comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turrini, Aida; D'Addezio, Laura; Maccati, Fabrizia

    2010-01-01

    networks in food procurement methods among adults aged 65 years and older, and compares differences across eight European countries. Food shopping ways (FSW), identified by quantitative analysis (cluster analysis and correspondence analysis), guided the content qualitative analysis which was carried out...

  1. Globalization, transnational policies and adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    the conceptual and methodological framework of my analysis. I proceed to examine the active role played by UNESCO and the EU in promoting adult education as a policy object at transnational level, and unpack the specific problem „representations. that are substantiated by these organizations. I argue......In this article I examine policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. In doing so, I critically examine how globalization processes are constructed as policy...... problems when these transnational political agents propose adult education as a response. My main argument is that while UNESCO presents the provision of adult education as a means for governments to globally overcome disadvantages experienced by their own citizenry, the EU institutionalizes learning...

  2. Adult education for democratic citizenship in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    " of the lifelong learning strategy. Accordingly, civic competence, which "equips individuals to fully participate in civic life", has been identified by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (2006: 17) as a key competence to be given priority in all member states in the years to come...... from education to learning for democratic citizenship within the European discourse, the emphasis on lifelong learning and the consequent equal recognition of in-school and out-of-school learning activities, most empirical research in the field of education for democratic citizenship remains primarily...... concerned with school-aged pupils. When available, research which focuses on the links between adult education and learning for democratic citizenship is highly theoretical and rarely supported by empirical evidence....

  3. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Karin; Scheepstra, Adriana; Gille, Johan; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The European Arctic has been recently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities. This is reflected in an on-going interest from the industry, regulators and the public. However, current and future prospects are highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importe

  4. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets i

  5. On some Western European Aphids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille Ris Lambers, D.

    1939-01-01

    1. The genus Atheroides Haliday Of this genus 3 Western European species are known : A. serrulatus Hal. (syn. festucae Mordv.?), A. hirtellus Hal. (syn. A. junci Laing) and A. brevicornis Laing. a) A. serrulatus Hal. is quite common. It lives on Poa annua often, but prefers species of grass with nar

  6. A European Social Simulation Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moss, S

    2002-01-01

    This is a proposal to form a European Social Simulation Association (ESSA). ESSA is intended to coordinate with similar organisations in North America, Latin America and Australasia and other regions to organise an international federation to support the development of social simulation research, ed

  7. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  8. The European Approach to Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the character of European (Union’s) privacy law and policy in the field of online media and electronic communications. Contrary to current understanding, this field of law is more fragmented and ill-developed than is often assumed, in particular by those discussing pri

  9. When Culture Hampers European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Petersen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with Denmark’s skeptical attitude towards the EU cooperation. From a hermeneutical-institutional approach the aim of this article is to analyze why Denmark has been rejecting several initiatives from the EU. It illustrates how different democratic understandings hamper European...

  10. Impacts of European livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, M.A.; Vries, De Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering t

  11. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favali, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: emsopp@ingv.it; Beranzoli, Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma (Italy)

    2009-04-11

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  12. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  13. European ecological networks and greenways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Külvik, M.; Kristiansen, I.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been renew

  14. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  15. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of cybe

  16. European Solar Telescope: Progress status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the present status of the development of the design of the European Solar Telescope is described. The telescope is devised to have the best possible angular resolution and polarimetric performance, maximizing the throughput of the whole system. To that aim, adaptive optics and multi-c

  17. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  18. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII. The Const

  19. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  20. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  1. 5th European Rheology Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Global sustainable development of the world economy requires better understanding and utilization of natural recourses. In this endeavor rheology has an indispensable role. The Rheology Conferences are therefore always an important event for science and technology. The Fifth European Rheology Conference, held from September 6 to 11 in the Portoro-z, Slovenia, will be the first AlI-European rheology meeting after the formal constitution of the European Society ofRheology. As such it will be a special historical event. At this meeting the European Society of Rheology will introduce the Weissenberg Medal, to be bestowed every four years to an individual for hislhers contribution to the field of Rheology. The recipient ofthe first award will be professor G. Marrucci ofthe Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Italy. Two mini Symposia will be part of the Conference. The first, on Industrial Rheology, will commemorate the late professor G. Astarita. The second will honor the eightieth birthday of professor N.W. Tschoeg...

  2. Beyond "Ability": Some European Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on European approaches to differentiation that do not entail fatalistic determinism. It describes two challenging initiatives in Denmark, where democratic learning and learning for democracy are enshrined in law. Other examples come from Germany, from the Bielefeld laboratory school and a sixth form college, where planning for…

  3. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  5. Implementing the European SEA Directive in planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    The paper describes how the European SEA Directive can complement the existing planning practice in Denmark.......The paper describes how the European SEA Directive can complement the existing planning practice in Denmark....

  6. Judicial policy-making and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2011-01-01

    Judicial policy-making is having an increasing impact on political domains traditionally guarded by national sovereignty. This paper examines how the European judiciary has expanded Community competences into the policy domains of welfare and immigration, followed by subsequent Europeanization...

  7. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  8. Meeting US and European supplier control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Medical device manufacturers operating under European quality system requirements are sometimes surprised to learn that their supplier control procedures do not fully meet United States (US) requirements. This article discusses important differences between US and European requirements for controlling suppliers.

  9. European labs fight back against cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1997-01-01

    Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.

  10. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roger

    2014-11-04

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control was set up in 2005 to strengthen Europe's defences against infectious diseases. The centre is an independent agency of the European Union and is based in Stockholm, Sweden.

  11. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  12. European Businesses Remain Confident about China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On June 30th, 2009, the European Union Chamber of Commerce in China launches its sixth annual European Chamber Business Confidence Survey, which is published in partnership with Roland Berger Strategy Consultants.

  13. Range size patterns in European freshwater trematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieltges, David; Hof, Christian; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe

    2011-01-01

    Aim We investigated the relationship between host and parasite diversity as well as latitudinal gradients in parasite diversity on a continental scale in European freshwater trematodes. Location European freshwaters. Methods We extracted distributional data for 564 freshwater trematodes across 25...

  14. The European Mathematical Society Ethics Committee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    The Executive Committee of the European Mathematical Society created an Ethics Committee in the Spring of 2010.......The Executive Committee of the European Mathematical Society created an Ethics Committee in the Spring of 2010....

  15. Recommendations of the European Board for the Specialty Cardiology (EBSC) for education and training in basic cardiology in Europe. The Executive Committee of the European Board for the Specialty Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The Cardiology Monosection of the UEMS and the European Society of Cardiology have created a European Board for the Specialty of Cardiology whose task is to prove guidelines for training and training institutions. The recommendations are presented here and in summary require at least 3 years education and training in basic cardiology (after at least 2 years of a common trunk of general internal medicine) at an approved institution with adequate exposure to all aspects of adult cardiological practice.

  16. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  17. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Jürgen M Bauer; Boirie, Yves; Cederholm, Tommy; Landi, Francesco; Martin, Finbarr C; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Rolland, Yves; Schneider, Stéphane M; Topinková, Eva; Vandewoude, Maurits; Zamboni, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) developed a practical clinical definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for age-related sarcopenia. EWGSOP included representatives from four participant organisations, i.e. the European Geriatric Medicine Society, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics—European Region and the International Association of Nutrition and Aging. These organisation...

  18. Barriers to oral health across selected European countries and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John

    2017-01-12

    In this review we consider oral-health access among older adults within and between the USA and various European countries with regard to possible primary financial and modifiable secondary non-financial factors. For older adults, the likelihood of using dental services has been associated, in the health literature, with a multiplicity of factors. These factors are traditionally classified into predisposing, enabling and need categories, and can be further classified into modifiable and non-modifiable subcategories. This raises the question of which single factor or group of factors has the most influence in keeping older adults from seeking care, and how these influences might differ between the USA and various other (European) countries. As it turns out, there is variation in the magnitude of effects across certain measurable potential barriers, but generally it takes a combination of characteristics associated with non-use to have a substantial impact.

  19. Flexibilization of labour in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Holman

    2015-01-01

    Labour market flexibilization has been at the heart of the ‘extended relaunch’ of European integration (the completion of the Single Market and the introduction of the euro in 2002) from the start in the 1980s. Yet the parallel Europeanization of labour market policies, via the European Employment S

  20. The European Emissions Trading Scheme case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeben, J.A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Within European climate change and energy policy, the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) occupies a prominent role. This article considers the developing case law of the European courts on the EU ETS. Specific attention is paid to the role of the different actors within the EU ETS and the im

  1. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common f

  2. The case for a European Social Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.; Egmont - The Royal Institute for International Relations,

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the notion of a ‘European Social Union’, in which European countries would cooperate with an explicit social purpose. A European Social Union should not be seen as an idealistic bridge too far. Instead, a Social Union is both desirable and necessary for the eurozone and wider

  3. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European shock

  4. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  5. The European Constitution; La constitucion Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, A.

    2004-07-01

    The convention on the Future of Europe, convened after the European Council of Laeken, in December 2001, has submitted the complete project to the European Council for a Treaty to create a Constitution for Europe which is aimed at developing an economic and political European Union, defining its specific competencies and the roles of the various national parliaments. (Author)

  6. Making Citizens, Being European? European Symbolism in Slovenian Citizenship Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjac, Marinko; Pušnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Citizenship education has been an important part of the European Union's (EU) agenda to integrate a European dimension into schools' curricula. The usage of European symbolism in citizenship education curriculum material has been an especially important (yet understudied) means not only to promote a distinct European identity and increase…

  7. Security Economics and European Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  8. MAPPING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Avadanei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the main tendencies influencing European capitalmarkets development. In order to point out their implications, we structured our study onfour chapters. The first one illustrates the consolidation of stock exchanges at the Europeanlevel; the seconds presents some considerations about the deregulation/re-regulation of EUcapital markets; the third section highlights the globalization implications on their evolutionand the fourth one indicates the effects of financial innovation. The progressive integrationof European capital markets over the past decade contributed to the lowering of capital costas a result of increased risk diversification opportunities and reduced transaction costs dueto the specialization of financial system provisions. Moreover, the expansion of thesemarkets improved firms financing decisions, leading to an increased share of non-bankfunding sources.

  9. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    , Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...... to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent...

  10. Pan-European pension funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardiancich, Igor

    2011-01-01

    components within the occupational pension domain did not occur, slowing down the development of pan-European pension plans. Nonetheless the road towards a single occupational pension market is still open, with first positive results emerging from the greater involvement of corporate and supranational actors...... spaces. At the trans-national level, the European Commission's 2003 Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision (IORP) Directive created the illusion that a single market for occupational pensions would shortly be within reach. This did not happen, however, as IORPs - being at one and the same...... time financial vehicles and social insurance institutions - embody the constitutional asymmetry between policies promoting market efficiency and policies promoting social protection. Whereas the elimination of financial and tax barriers has proceeded smoothly, harmonization of the social and labour...

  11. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  12. NATIONAL VERSUS EUROPEAN VERSUS INTERNATIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mariana MIHALACHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight the fact that the modern national state, oscillates on an orbit of conflict of laws, often marked by delegations of powers from the national to the supranational level. The movement of people, goods and services have always pointed out, through their national element, the appearance of conflicts of laws in the context of their migration to other national spaces, being carriers of cross-border implications. This issue is characterized by geopolitical developments in the international community that created the United Nations Organization and other alliances and delegated competence of interstate conflicts to the International Court of Justice on the one hand, in order to avoid another world conflagrations. In another train of thoughts the geopolitical world is constantly changing and its appearance, the geopolitical construction leads to a new system of law, the European one and other conflicts of laws which I symbolically call national versus European.

  13. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...... years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize...... the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden...

  14. TAXATION TRENDS IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GRIGORE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work contains an economic analysis of the tax rates and revenue ratios of the European Union Member States. The paper also includes the structural reform initiatives that have been high on the tax policy agenda in last period. Despite the fairly short span of time, a wide spectrum of tax reforms was implemented or are going to be implemented (the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base, the key reform initiatives including dual income taxes and flat taxes, the elimination of harmful tax competition, the simplification and rationalization of the current VAT rates structure or key elements contributing to the establishment of the VAT anti-fraud strategy within the EU. The main objective of this paper is to present a fairly view of the structure, level and trends of taxation in the European Union over the last ten years.

  15. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  16. European Environmental Priorities: an Integrated Economic and Environmental Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa K; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  17. Brain death: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Murphy, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    Some of the seminal steps toward the recognition and definition of brain death were European. There is a general consensus on both the medical concept of brain death in Europe as well as the minimum fundamental clinical standards that are required for its diagnosis-the absence of consciousness, brainstem reflexes, and the ability to breathe in the absence of reversible or confounding conditions. Two aspects of brain death determination are addressed in this article. The authors analyze how brain death is diagnosed across Europe, identifying both the similarities and differences that exist between countries (the latter mainly concerning ancillary tests, timing, and the number of physicians involved in the brain death determination). In addition, they describe the very considerable variations in when brain death determinations are made between and within individual European countries, and propose that they are due to differences in the end-of-life care practices in patients with irreversible brain injuries, medical attitudes, and organ donation practices. Although legislation is available to standardize the brain death diagnosis process in most individual European countries, there are still disparities across Europe as a whole. The current variation in practice makes a continental consensus for the definition of brain death imperative.

  18. International Heliophysical Year: European Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, C.

    2007-08-01

    The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

  19. ECONOMIC CHALLENGES FOR EUROPEAN DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CONSTANTINESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of a common European Union (EU defence is on the frontline of political and media discussions, in light of the recent evolutions in the security and defence environment. The main challenge in this respect is related to the realism and feasibility of moving beyond political declarations towards a more concrete implementation of a common defence policy, considering the numerous political, military and economic factors involved. The aim of this paper is to analyse the challenges faced by the concept of a common European defence from an economic point of view, considering the evolution of the defence expenditures in the EU member states, compared to the wider European and the global trend. Also, the paper will focus on the impact the economic crisis and the ensuing austerity measures had on the member states and on their cooperation in developing a common approach on defence, with a view on the ways ahead and recommendations on overcoming the difficult challenges in this respect.

  20. The European Network of Uropathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Berney, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    In pathology there is a need to rapidly disseminate professional information to the appropriate target groups. This is a surprisingly difficult task on an international level. Therefore, the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP) was recently organized by the Uropathology Working Group of the Eu......In pathology there is a need to rapidly disseminate professional information to the appropriate target groups. This is a surprisingly difficult task on an international level. Therefore, the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP) was recently organized by the Uropathology Working Group...... of the European Society of Pathology. The purposes were to establish a channel for distribution of information about uropathology, such as guidelines, consensus documents, meetings and courses; to organize research collaborations; and to set up mechanisms for survey studies. ENUP has recruited a total of 374...... conducted. Here we report on the methods used to organize this novel information network. We think that ENUP could serve as a model for other fields of pathology and other geographic regions....

  1. European standards and regulation - CEN/CENELEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, J. [AENOR, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-27

    An overview is given of the European Standards structure, as well as the general Directives and Regulations related to the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Sector. The importance of standardisation, both on quality and as a strategic tool for manufacturers, is stressed. Participation in the elaboration of standards makes it possible to reflect a manufacturer`s technology in the standards. Voluntary standardisation can be used as a differentiating element. European standards for the HVAC sector are being elaborated by the European Standardisation Committee (CEN), the European Electrotechnical Standardisation Committee (CENELEC) and by the European Telecommunication Institute (ETSI)

  2. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsselt, René J T; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in the field of gerontology in the European Nordic countries is elaborated. Third, two postgraduate Gerontology and Geriatrics programs offered by the European Centre of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Malta are presented. In 1995, the Centre was designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for healthy aging. To provide a context for these initiatives, a short overview is presented of developments in the European Higher Education Area, and the current state and recent developments in gerontology training in Europe is elaborated. The article concludes with discussion of the feasibility and sustainability of European internationalization efforts in education and training in gerontology.

  3. Insulin resistance in Chileans of European and indigenous descent: evidence for an ethnicity x environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban, adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant "ethnicity x environment" interaction for HOMA(IR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p((interaction = 0.0003, such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMA(IR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004 with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMA(IR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance.

  4. Adult Education and Lifelong Learning. The case of GSAE (General Secretary for Adult Education in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Kalogiannakis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The participation rates in adult education in Greece are low in comparison with other European countries. Within the framework of the present research an effort has been undertaken in order to evaluate the program of training instructors of adults through distance learning education hosted by the GSAE (General Secretary for Adult Education and the ICAE (Institute for the Continuing Adult Education in Greece. Among the most important outcomes of this research was considered to be the positive attitude of the participants concerning the program in general as well as the electronic educational material distributed. Furthermore, the hybrid educational process selected for use by the program was thought to be particularly flexible. As for the program’s negative aspects, the main problems noted were the distance certain trainees had to cover in order to participate physically during the scheduled meetings, as well as the technical issues arose within the e-learning environment.

  5. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  6. Adult flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  7. Reflections on the Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Framework of Public Policies in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The discussion in this article is based on recent research carried out by the author recently on adult education public policies and her participation in the Adult Learning Practitioners in Europe (ALPINE) project coordinated by Research voor Beleid (The Netherlands) and funded by the European Commission. The analysis presented here stresses the…

  8. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  9. What do we know about adult education for democratic citizenship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings from the study of research literature on Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship, carried out in nine EU memner states. The literature review was designed as the building block for a European Stocktaking study on lifelong learning for democratic citizenship t...

  10. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  11. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change.

  12. An important day for European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Today is an important day for the future of European science. It is the day on which CERN’s relationship with the European Union reaches maturity. Ever since the early 1950s, CERN and the European project have grown together. CERN was a child of the European movement: the first discussions at Denis de Rougemont’s European Cultural Conference in Lausanne in 1949 led directly to the foundation of CERN in 1954. More recently, the European Union has become an Observer at the CERN Council, links between CERN and the EU have strengthened as Europe has pursued the goal of creating a European Research Area, and CERN has benefited from European support for projects as varied as Grid computing and future accelerator R&D, not forgetting, of course, the numerous Marie Curie fellows whose careers have received a boost thanks to European funds. Today, that collaboration goes one step further with the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the European C...

  13. European Energy Law. Report IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, U.; Roggenkamp, M.M. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    The European Energy Law Report IV presents an overview of the most important legal developments in the field of EU and national energy law as discussed at the 2006 European Energy Law Seminar. It examines recent developments in EU and National Law affecting the energy sector. This includes the increasing use of EU competition law to liberalise the energy markets, the long-awaited implementation of the 2003 Electricity and Gas Directives in Germany and an assessment of Regulation 1775/2005 and its effect on the European gas market. Besides the energy market liberalisation, the Community is increasingly paying attention to the need for a sustainable and clean energy supply. The second part of the book therefore includes chapters on legal issues resulting from the experiences on emission trading in 2005-2007, the regulatory challenges resulting from the new Commission Energy Policy, the impact of the Amsterdam and Berlin Fora on EU Energy policy, and the EU policy framework on energy efficiency. An important tool for improving energy efficiency is the introduction of white certificates. The third part of the report presents the basic principles of white certificates as well as practical experiences and policies in some member states like Italy, France, The Netherlands and the UK. The final part of the report considers several issues related to the development and use of subsea electricity interconnectors and pays special attention to the development of the NorNed cable. It raises the need for a Treaty perspective on the developments of such subsea interconnectors. Then some regulatory views on the development of the NorNed cable and market coupling through the cable are presented. Finally, the economic and regulatory distinction between regulated and merchant interconnectors is discussed.

  14. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  15. European Nucleotide Archive in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Ana Luisa; Alako, Blaise; Amid, Clara; Cerdeño-Tarrága, Ana; Clarke, Laura; Cleland, Iain; Fairley, Susan; Gibson, Richard; Goodgame, Neil; ten Hoopen, Petra; Jayathilaka, Suran; Kay, Simon; Leinonen, Rasko; Liu, Xin; Martínez-Villacorta, Josué; Pakseresht, Nima; Rajan, Jeena; Reddy, Kethi; Rosello, Marc; Silvester, Nicole; Smirnov, Dmitriy; Vaughan, Daniel; Zalunin, Vadim; Cochrane, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) offers a rich platform for data sharing, publishing and archiving and a globally comprehensive data set for onward use by the scientific community. With a broad scope spanning raw sequencing reads, genome assemblies and functional annotation, the resource provides extensive data submission, search and download facilities across web and programmatic interfaces. Here, we outline ENA content and major access modalities, highlight major developments in 2016 and outline a number of examples of data reuse from ENA. PMID:27899630

  16. European Energy Law. Report VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, U.; Roggenkamp, M.M. (eds.)

    2010-04-15

    The European Energy Law Report VII presents in four parts an overview of the most important legal developments in the field of EU and national energy and climate change law as discussed at the 2009 European Energy Law Seminar. The first part examines recent developments in EU climate change regulation. It includes an overview of the revision of the EU Directive governing CO2 emissions trading and a more detailed analysis of the new allocation regime, including the auctioning of emission rights. This is followed by an analysis of the competitiveness of the new EU emissions trading Directive and recent developments in the US regarding emissions trading. The second part focuses on the energy liberalisation process and the Third Energy Package. Following an overview of recent developments in EU competition law and the impact of the Sector Inquiry on the energy sector, this part concentrates particularly on the new Internal Energy Market Directives and most particularly on the legality of the unbundling provisions. Subsequently, the focus is on the role of the TSOs. After an analysis of the need for an increased cooperation of the German TSOs, another chapter discusses the need for more consolidation in the European gas transmission market and the role of regulation therein. Is there a new role for nuclear energy? In order to secure long term energy supply, the focus turns again to nuclear energy. The third part of this report discusses two elements of nuclear liability. First, it analyses the issue of the possible privatisation of the nuclear sector and its impact on long term liability. Although the focus is on the UK nuclear sector, a comparison is made with some other regulatory regimes. Next, the role of nuclear energy is discussed as an instrument to reduce CO2 emissions and, more particularly as a means to reach the 20-20-20 targets. The question is raised whether the international rules on civil liability provide sufficient protection to victims of nuclear

  17. popscience - European Researchers Night 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeanneret, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Vendredi 26 septembre 2014, le CERN célèbrera la Nuit européenne des chercheurs à Genève et à St-Genis-Pouilly. Le thème de l’édition 2014 est inspiré d’Andy Warhol : « Pop science is for everyone ». On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”.

  18. Letter to European Science Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Département de Linguistique AppliquéeEt de Didactique des languesDirecteur : Claude Springerhttp://dladl.u-strasbg.fr Dr. Rüdiger KleinEUROCORES Programme CoordinatorEuropean Science Foundation1, quai Lezay MarnésiaBP 90015F-67080 Strasbourg Cedex Strasbourg, le 22 mai 2006 Dear colleague, The Editorial Board of the journal ALSIC (Apprentissage des langues et système d’information et de communication which comprises 45 people from universities in 9 different countries was astonished to note...

  19. European perspectives of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU.

  20. Energy challenges. A European answer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Hans ten [EURELECTRIC, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-01

    The European electricity sector is facing four main challenges: a very challenging investment climate, relatively low electricity demand, the continued expansion of electricity from subsidised renewable energy sources, and the unexpected weakness of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS). EURELECTRIC's answers to these challenges revolve around a more consistent framework with the ETS as the key driver of decarbonisation, the integration of renewables into the market and a less distortive approach to their development, a renewed focus on energy infrastructure as a means of completing the internal energy market, and an improved strategy for RD and D.

  1. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU memb......-EMU members and stronger for old than new EU members. For EMU countries, the integration is weaker the lower the credit rating is. During the recent crisis periods, the integration is weaker, particularly for EMU countries....

  2. The new European wind atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    database. Although the project participants will come from the 27 member states it is envisioned that the project will be opened for global participation through test benches for model development and sharing of data – climatologically as well as experimental. Experiences from national wind atlases...... will be utilized, such as the Indian, the South African, the Finnish, the German, the Canadian atlases and others....... European Wind Atlas” aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions; standing on three legs: A data bank from a series of intensive measuring campaigns; a thorough examination and redesign of the model chain from global, mesoscale to microscale models and creation of the wind atlas...

  3. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  4. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  5. Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-12-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education - This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper investigates how globalisation processes are constructed as policy problems when these transnational political agents propose adult education as a response. The author's main argument is that while UNESCO presents the provision of adult education as a means for governments worldwide to overcome disadvantages experienced by their own citizenry, the EU institutionalises learning experiences as a means for governments to sustain regional economic growth and political expansion. After reviewing the literature on globalisation to elucidate the theories that inform current understanding of contemporary economic, political, cultural and ecological changes as political problems, she presents the conceptual and methodological framework of her analysis. The author then examines the active role played by UNESCO and the EU in promoting adult education as a policy objective at transnational level, and unpacks the specific problem "representations" that are substantiated by these organisations. She argues that UNESCO and EU processes assign specific values and meanings to globalisation, and that these reflect a limited understanding of the complexity of globalisation. Finally, she considers two of the effects produced by these problem representations.

  6. Prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to first-line ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy for adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas An exploratory, retrospective analysis on large series from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleiffer, S.; Ouali, M.; van Glabbeke, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are generally treated similarly, regardless of great differences between STS subtypes, disease presentation and patients' characteristics. As ifosfamide is frequently applied in first line systemic therapy, we aimed to establish ...... contribute to further treatment individualisation of advanced STS patients. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  7. Lead dietary exposure in the European population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Lead is a natural environmental contaminant, but its use in the past in water pipes, paint and petrol increased its general presence. Food is the major source of human exposure to lead. Lead accumulates in the body and most seriously affects the developing central nervous system in young children. There is no recommended tolerable intake level as there is no evidence of thresholds for a number of critical health effects. Legislative measures have been gradually introduced to reduce exposure by removing lead from paint, food cans, water pipes and petrol. The current study examined 144,206 analytical results for lead in food collected during a nine-year period. More than half of the foods tested had levels of lead at less than detection or quantification limits. The mean lead levels varied between 0.3 µg/kg for infant follow-on formulae to 4,300 µg/kg for dietetic products with an overall median across all categories of 21.4 µg/kg. Food lead levels decreased by about 23 % between 2003 and 2010, although this should be interpreted cautiously. Mean lifetime dietary exposure was estimated at 0.68 µg/kg b.w. per day in the European population based on middle bound mean lead occurrence. Exposure was highest for toddlers and other children with 1.32 and 1.03 µg/kg b.w. per day, respectively, while the two infant surveys ranged between 0.83 and 0.91 µg/kg b.w. per day. Adult exposure was estimated at 0.50 µg/kg b.w. per day. The elderly and very elderly population groups had similar profiles to the adult age group, while adolescents had slightly higher estimated dietary exposure. Important food category contributors include bread and rolls (8.5 %, tea (6.2 %, tap water (6.1 %, potatoes and potato products (4.9 %, fermented milk products (4.2% and beer and beer-like beverages (4.1 %, although this will vary between age groups and surveys.

  8. The European Public on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarta, Ancuta-Gabriela

    This study explorers the European public on social media by discussing the case of communicative interactions taking place on the official Facebook page of the European Parliament. Based on the theoretical framework conceptualizing the public and the public sphere on social network sites, the study...... examines the European social media public from two perspectives. The first is a top-down, institutional perspective of European Parliament, based on a case-study approach to the way this European institution constructs and addresses the public through its social media communication. The second is a bottom......-up perspective of the public of social media users, informed by a content analysis of Facebook comments and a discourse analysis of live chat interactions with Members of the European Parliament. Results confirm a discursive potential of the Facebook public of users. In the case of the Facebook comment threads...

  9. Summer Schools for European teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Summer Schools have been organised by the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) for European teachers. The first was organised in La Seu d'Urgell, Spain, the second was organised in 1998 in Fregene, Italy and the third in 1999, during the week of the eclipse in Briey, France, on the line of total darkness. We had a cloudy eclipse, but fortunately we could observe it. We are preparing the 4th one next July in Tavira, Portugal. A group of 50 participants are involved in each Summer School. In the last one the participants were from 14 countries. The activities are organised in General Lectures, Working Groups and Workshops to reduced groups and day and night Observations. To increase communication, each Summer School has three official languages: the language of the host country, English and another well-known by the participants. The proceedings are published beforehand with all the contents to facilitate participation. Each paper appears in English and another language. The activities are organised in General Lectures, Working Groups and Workshops to reduced groups and day and night Observations. To increase communication, each Summer School has three official languages: the language of the host country, English and another well-known by the participants. The proceedings are published beforehand with all the contents to facilitate participation. Each paper appears in English and another language.

  10. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development.

  11. European EVA decompression sickness risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Lorenz; Wenzel, Jürgen; Skoog, A. I.; Luck, S.; Svensson, Bengt

    For the first manned flight of Hermes there will be a capability of performing EVA. The European EVA Space Suit will be an anthropomorphic system with an internal pressure of 500 hPa of pure oxygen. The pressure reduction from the Hermes cabin pressure of 1013 hPa will induce a risk for Decompression Sickness (DCS) for the EVA crewmember if no adequate protective procedures are implemented. Specific decompression procedures have to be developed. From a critical review of the literature and by using knowledge gained from research conducted in the past in the fields of diving and aerospace medicine safe protective procedures are proposed for the European EVA scenario. An R factor of 1.2 and a tissue half-time ( t1/2) of 360 minutes in a single-tissue model have been identified as appropriate operational values. On the basis of an acceptable risk level of approximately 1%, oxygen prebreathing times are proposed for (a) direct pressure reduction from 1013 hPa to a suit pressure of 500 hPa, and (b) staged decompression using a 700 hPa intermediate stage in the spacecraft cabin. In addition, factors which influence individual susceptibility to DCS are identified. Recommendations are also given in the areas of crew selection and medical monitoring requirements together with therapeutic measures that can be implemented in the Hermes scenario. A method for demonstration of the validity of proposed risks and procedures is proposed.

  12. European Integration and Labour Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julda Kielyte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies how European integration might affect the migration of workers in the enlarged EU. Unlike the reduced-form migration models, we base our empirical analysis on the theory of economic geography à la Krugman (1991, which provides an alternative modelling of migration pull and push factors. Parameters of the theoretical model are estimated econometrically using historical migration data. Our empirical findings suggest that European integration would trigger selective migration between the countries in the enlarged EU. In the Baltics, Lithuania would gain about 7.25% of the total work force. In the Visegrád Four, the share of the mobile labour force would increase the most in Hungary, 8.35%, compared to the pre-integration state. Our predictions for the East-West migration are moderate and lower than those of reduced-form models: between 5.44% (from the Baltics and 3.61% (from the Visegrád Four would emigrate to the EU North. Because migrants not only follow market potential, but also shape the region’s market potential, the long-run agglomeration forces are sufficiently weak to make a swift emergence of a core-periphery pattern in the enlarged EU very unlikely.

  13. Citizenship Education Development: European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Suslov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the European experience of the citizenship education developmentan important aspect of internal policy in the most countries. The education in question is considered to be the democratic citizenship training aimed at developing the loyal attitude to different value priorities in society, social responsibility, active citizenship position, awareness of democratic rights, capability of using and protecting them.The author looks at the transformation of citizenship education concept in the last three decades from the civics education (i.e. history, political science, law, etc. to the democratic citizen education. The paper analyzes differ- ent approaches to citizenship education in several European countries including the post-soviet ones. It is emphasized that both in western and eastern Europe a lot of effort is made for spreading and supporting the education in question. The author recommends considering the foreign experience of integrating the democratic citizenship education into the state academic curricula at the primary, secondary and higher school levels. 

  14. Is European Defense a Bridge too Far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-08

    complex security protocol was developed to share classified information. 6 After 9/11 The world changed dramatically the morning of 11 September 2001...European defense. This question, basic to defining a strategy of European security, is still pending and underlies all other debates and decisions...Internet; accessed 15 December 2005. 18 Grupo de Estudios Estrategicos GEES, “The Spanish Identity in the European Defence Industry,” Analisis 12, 8

  15. The spatialization of the european project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper argues the need for more critical analysis of the ?spatialisation of the European Project? than has been the case in much previous academic work on the European Union`s spatial policy so far. The focus is on the EU, and the way that this huge institutional and territorial setting...... is organised, driven and imagined according to a particular hegemonic spatiality which gives shape to the political, economic, social and territorial dimensions of the European project....

  16. Is there a European medical sociology?

    OpenAIRE

    Henckes, Nicolas; Baszanger, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Is there a European sociology of health, illness and medicine – or, in short, a European medical sociology? While the answer to this question would certainly have been negative just a few years ago, this chapter argues that over the last thirty years a series of new analyses have emerged in the field which have laid the groundwork for a medical sociology at the European level. These examine how health issues are increasingly framed as consumer goods, public issues and ...

  17. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PRIORITY - THE SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ignat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At the level of European Union, starting from the necessity of insurance economic growth, social community law gradually developed, benefitting by sinuous construction, extremely complex, beingcontinuously transformed. Familiarization with the model of social community law prescribed by European Union represents not only a forward step in the process of harmonization with community law, but also an alignment in settlement of European Union, which finally establishes the modernization of the whole domestic law system.

  18. Book Review: Diversity in European Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Machková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The case book “Diversity in European Marketing” is the result of the scientific cooperation of the CEMS Marketing Faculty Group. Prestigious Central European Universities - Corvinius University of Budapest and University of Economic, Prague - are members of CEMS - the Global Alliance in Management Education of 26 leading business schools and 70 multinational companies. Four authors from these two Universities share in this book their experience of Central European Marketing specifics.

  19. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  20. The European Union Response to Regional Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    into force of the Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia, 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies, 2010), 18. 4 Felix Arteaga , The European...Management in the Neighborhood and Beyond. 2008. 14 Felix Arteaga , The European Security and Defense Policy after the entry into force of the...Felix Arteaga , The European Security and Defense Policy after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia, 145-B. Spanish

  1. Energy challenges: European viewpoints and French answers

    OpenAIRE

    Bosiljka Britvić Vetma; Marc Gjidara

    2013-01-01

    The European Union attempts to improve the European energy market so that it is better coordinated because in a unified Europe it is no longer possible to act in isolation. The production of energy form renewable sources of great proportions demands a mutually linked European energy market if the aims established in the “Energy and Climate” programme and adopted in 2009 are to be achieved. The aim of this paper is to establish how the principles of European Law influence legal norming in ener...

  2. European Integration and Postcolonial Sovereignty Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    observation, textual, legal and institutional analysis for a new theoretical approach to understanding the strategic possibilities and subjectivity of non-sovereign entities in international politics. Bringing together research on European integration and postcolonial theory, European Integration......This book examines how sovereignty works in the context of European integration and postcolonialism. Focusing on a group of micro-polities associated with the European Union, it offers a new understanding of international relations in the context of modern sovereignty. This book offers a systematic...

  3. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  4. The Political History of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli......This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration...

  5. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...... diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs...... across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments...

  6. European Energy Law. Report III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, U.; Roggenkamp, M.M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The European Energy Law Report III presents an overview of the most important legal developments in the field of EU and national energy law as discussed at the 2005 European Energy Law Seminar. It examines the Commission's recent progress report on the implementation of the 2003 energy directives, its sector inquiry regarding competition conditions in the energy markets, and its recent policy on vertical and conglomerate mergers in the light of its ongoing concern as to the increased levels of concentration in Europe's energy markets. The investigation of the Bundeskartellamt in Germany concerns the role of long-term downstream gas supply agreements in a liberalised market. Regulators are increasingly confronted with the need to secure the quality of electricity supply in a competitive market. After an analysis of how electricity distribution companies can be regulated with respect to quality of supply, separate chapters from Italy and the Netherlands discuss national developments in detail. The role of LNG is increasing in the European gas market. The book discusses the main components of the short-term LNG sale and purchase agreements, the rules regarding non-discriminatory access to existing regasification terminals as well as the establishment of new LNG import terminals in the EU and the extent to which such installations can be exempted from the applicable regime on regulated third-party access. The book examines several legal developments regarding energy infrastructure. Whereas the 2003 energy directives provide for a legal unbundling of the downstream energy transmission and distribution companies, some Member States (Denmark and the Netherlands) go beyond this requirement and have introduced ownership unbundling in order to guarantee the establishment of an independent system operator. Recent developments in the North Sea include the establishment of a Framework Agreement, aiming at a simplification of rules and procedures for new projects

  7. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  8. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  9. EERA and Its European Conferences on Educational Research: A Patchwork of Research on European Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, Edwin; Hofbauer, Susann

    2014-01-01

    The process of Europeanisation is closely linked to the process of an emerging European Educational Research Area and an education research identity. The European Conferences on Educational Research (ECER), European Educational Research Association (EERA) and its networks are involved in new directions and strands of educational research in…

  10. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new s...

  11. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : a consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology rese

  12. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and region...

  13. The european hematology association roadmap for european hematology research: A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Engert (Andreas); C.L. Balduini (Carlo); A. Brand (Anneke); B. Coiffier (B.); C. Cordonnier (Charlotte); H. Döhner (Hartmut); De Wit, T.D. (Thom Duyvené); Eichinger, S. (Sabine); W.E. Fibbe (Willem); Green, T. (Tony); De Haas, F. (Fleur); A. Iolascon (Achille); T. Jaffredo (Thierry); Rodeghiero, F. (Francesco); Sall Es, G. (Gilles); J.J. Schuringa; J.-L. André (Jean-Luc); I. André-Schmutz (Isabelle); A. Bacigalupo; P-Y. Bochud (Pierre-Yves); M.L. den Boer (Monique); C. Bonini (Chiara); C. Camaschella (Clara); A. Cant (Andrew); M.D. Cappellini (Maria); M. Cazzola; Celso, C.L. (Cristina Lo); M.A. Dimopoulos (Meletios); Douay, L. (Luc); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); H. Einsele (Hermann); A.J.M. Ferreri (Andrés J.M.); De Franceschi, L. (Lucia); Gaulard, P. (Philippe); B. Göttgens (Berthold); A. Greinacher (Andreas); P. Gresele (Paolo); J. Gribben (John); De Haan, G. (Gerald); Hansen, J.-B. (John-Bjarne); A. Hochhaus (Andreas); Kadir, R. (Rezan); S.V. Kaveri (Srini); Kouskoff, V. (Valerie); Kühne, T. (Thomas); Kyrle, P. (Paul); P. Ljungman; Maschmeyer, G. (Georg); S. Mendez-Ferrer (S.); Milsom, M. (Michael); Mummery, C. (Christine); G.J. Ossenkoppele (Gert); A. Pecci (Alessandro); F. Peyvandi (Flora); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak); P.H. Reitsma; J.M. Ribera (Josep Maria); Risitano, A. (Antonio); Rivella, S. (Stefano); W. Ruf (Wolfram); Schroeder, T. (Timm); Scully, M. (Marie); G. Socie (Gerard); F.J.T. Staal (Frank); S. Stanworth (Simon); Stauder, R. (Reinhard); S. Stilgenbauer (S.); Tamary, H. (Hannah); K. Theilgaard-Mönch (K.); Thein, S.L. (Swee Lay); H. Tilly (Herve); M. Trneny (Marek); Vainchenker, W. (William); A.M. Vannucchi (Alessandro); Viscoli, C. (Claudio); Vrielink, H. (Hans); Zaaijer, H. (Hans); Zanella, A. (Alberto); Zolla, L. (Lello); J.J. Zwaginga (Jaap); Martinez, P.A. (Patricia Aguilar); E. van den Akker (Eric); Allard, S. (Shubha); N.P. Anagnou (Nicholas); Andolfo, I. (Immacolata); Andrau, J.-C. (Jean-Christophe); Angelucci, E. (Emanuele); D.J. Anstee (David J.); Aurer, I. (Igor); H. Avet-Loiseau (Hervé); Y. Aydinok (Yesim); Bakchoul, T. (Tamam); Balduini, A. (Alessandra); Barcellini, W. (Wilma); Baruch, D. (Dominique); Baruchel, A. (André); J. Bayry (Jagadeesh); Bento, C. (Celeste); A. van den Berg (Anemone); Bernardi, R. (Rosa); Bianchi, P. (Paola); A. Bigas (Anna); A. Biondi (Andrea); Bohonek, M. (Milos); Bonnet, D. (Dominique); Borchmann, P. (Peter); Borregaard, N. (Niels); Brækkan, S. (Sigrid); M.R.M. Van Den Brink (Marcel R. M.); Brodin, E. (Ellen); L. Bullinger (Lars); C. Buske (Christian); Butzeck, B. (Barbara); J. Cammenga (Jörg); G. Campo (Gianluca); I. Carbone; Cervantes, F. (Francisco); S. Cesaro; P. Charbord (Pierre); F.H.J. Claas (Frans); Cohen, H. (Hannah); Conard, J. (Jacqueline); Coppo, P. (Paul); Vives Corron, J.-L. (Joan-Lluis); Da Costa, L. (Lydie); Davi, F. (Frederic); H.R. Delwel (Ruud); Dianzani, I. (Irma); Domanović, D. (Dragoslav); Donnelly, P. (Peter); Drnovšek, T.D. (Tadeja Dovč); M. Dreyling (Martin); Du, M.-Q. (Ming-Qing); Dufour, C. (Carlo); C. Durand (Charles); Efremov, D. (Dimitar); A. Eleftheriou (Androulla); Elion, J. (Jacques); M. Emonts (Marieke); M. Engelhardt (Monika); Ezine, S. (Sophie); J.H.F. Falkenburg (Frederik); Favier, R. (Remi); M. Federico (M.); P. Fenaux (Pierre); J. Fitzgibbon (Jude); Flygare, J. (Johan); R. Foà; L. Forrester (Lesley); Galacteros, F. (Frederic); Garagiola, I. (Isabella); C. Gardiner (Chris); Garraud, O. (Olivier); Van Geet, C. (Christel); H. Geiger (Hartmut); J. Geissler (Jan); U. Germing (Ulrich); Ghevaert, C. (Cedric); D. Girelli (Domenico); Godeau, B. (Bertrand); Gökbuget, N. (Nicola); H. Goldschmidt (Hartmut); A.C. Goodeve; T. Graf (Thomas); Graziadei, G. (Giovanna); Griesshammer, M. (Martin); Gruel, Y. (Yves); F. Guilhot (François); Von Gunten, S. (Stephan); I.C. Gyssens (Inge); J.P. Halter (Joerg P.); C.N. Harrison (Claire N.); C.L. Harteveld (Cornelis); Hellström-Lindberg, E. (Eva); Hermine, O. (Olivier); Higgs, D. (Douglas); Hillmen, P. (Peter); Hirsch, H. (Hans); Hoskin, P. (Peter); G. Huls (Gerwin); Inati, A. (Adlette); Johnson, P. (Peter); Kattamis, A. (Antonis); Kiefel, V. (Volker); M. Kleanthous (Marina); Klump, H. (Hannes); Krause, D. (Daniela); Hovinga, J.K. (Johanna Kremer); Lacaud, G. (Georges); Lacroix-Desmazes, S. (Sébastien); Landman-Parker, J. (Judith); Legouill, S. (Steven); Lenz, G. (Georg); M. Von Lilienfeld-Toal (Marie); M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); Lopez-Guillermo, A. (Armando); Lopriore, E. (Enrico); Lozano, M. (Miguel); E. Macintyre; M. Makris (M.); Mannhalter, C. (Christine); J.H.A. Martens (Joost); S. Mathas (Stephan); Matzdorff, A. (Axel); A. Medvinsky (Alexander); Menendez, P. (Pablo); G. Migliaccio (Giovanni); Miharada, K. (Kenichi); Mikulska, M. (Malgorzata); V. Minard (Véronique); Montalbán, C. (Carlos); De Montalembert, M. (Mariane); E. Montserrat (Emili); P.-E. Morange (P.); Mountford, J. (Joanne); Muckenthaler, M. (Martina); C. Müller-Tidow (Carsten); Mumford, A. (Andrew); B. Nadel (Bertrand); Navarro, J.-T. (Jose-Tomas); El Nemer, W. (Wassim); Noizat-Pirenne, F. (France); O’Mahony, B. (Brian); J. Oldenburg (Johannes); Olsson, M. (Martin); R.A. Oostendorp (Robert); A. Palumbo (Antonio); F. Passamonti (Francesco); R. Patient (Roger); De Latour, R.P. (Regis Peffault); F. Pflumio (Françoise); Pierelli, L. (Luca); Piga, A. (Antonio); Pollard, D. (Debra); M.H.G.P. Raaijmakers (Marc H.G.P.); J. Radford (John); Rambach, R. (Ralf); Koneti Rao, A.; Raslova, H. (Hana); Rebulla, P. (Paolo); Rees, D. (David); V. Ribrag (Vincent); A.W. Rijneveld (Anita); Rinalducci, S. (Sara); T. Robak (Tadeusz); Roberts, I. (Irene); Rodrigues, C. (Charlene); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); Rosenwald, A. (Andreas); Rule, S. (Simon); R. Russo (Roberta); Saglio, G. (Guiseppe); Sanchez, M. (Mayka); Scharf, R.E. (Rüdiger E.); Schlenke, P. (Peter); Semple, J. (John); J. Sierra (Jorge); So-Osman, C. (Cynthia); Soria, J.M. (José Manuel); K. Stamatopoulos (K.); Stegmayr, B. (Bernd); H. Stunnenberg (Henk); D.W. Swinkels (Dorine); Barata, J.P.T. (João Pedro Taborda); T. Taghon (Tom); Taher, A. (Ali); E. Terpos (Evangelos); Thachil, J. (Jecko); Tissot, J.D. (Jean Daniel); I.P. Touw (Ivo); Toye, A. (Ash); Trappe, R. (Ralf); Traverse-Glehen, A. (Alexandra); Unal, S. (Sule); S. Vaulont (Sophie); V. Viprakasit (Vip); Vitolo, U. (Umberto); R. van Wijk (Richard); Wójtowicz, A. (Agnieszka); S. Zeerleder (Sacha); B. Zieger (Barbara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hem

  14. A European legal method? On European private law and scientific method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hesselink

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between European private law and scientific method. It argues that a European legal method is a good idea. Not primarily because it will make European private law scholarship look more scientific, but because a debate on the method of a normative science necess

  15. National And European Law: Problem Of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to one of the main problems for all integration communities –problem of implementation of the integration law norms in the national legal system of member states. Author, on the example of certain member states of the European Union considers mechanism of the European Union law action in it's member states. In the article constitutional norms of the number of member states which set a ratio of the national and European laws are analyzed. According to the principle of competence giving, member states voluntary transfer part of the competence to the European Union. Competences which are transferred to the member states are the competences of the European Union. In the course of research author investigates opinions of scientists and analyze regulations. Author pays separate attention to the question of the European Union creation. For example, author notes that consideration by the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe of the question of compliance of the Treaty to the Constitution of Germany became neither more nor less a most important milestone on the way of Treaty on the European Union ratification by Germany. In the decision on this matter Court defined a number of reference points for the purpose of possible excise if the European integration elimination out of those limits which are set for the government of Germany by its Constitution. The decision of the Constitutional Court of Germany though meant approval of the Treaty on the European Union in the political sense, it was nevertheless unambiguously directed against broad interpretation and federalist vision of the European integration. It is obvious that states, on the basis of constitutional norms may leave contracts that are burdensome for them. It concerns not only international treaties, but also Treaties of the European Union.

  16. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  17. A systematic review of Hepatitis C virus treatment uptake among people who inject drugs in the European Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Maticic, Mojca;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fifteen million adults in the World Health Organization European Region are estimated to have active hepatitis C infection. Intravenous drug use is a major hepatitis C transmission route in this region, and people who inject drugs (PWID) constitute a high-risk and high-prevalence popu...

  18. Functional disability of mental disorders and comparison with physical disorders : a study among the general population of six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist-Bouwman, MA; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; Ormel, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of mental and physical disorders with multiple domains of functioning and compare the two. Method: Data were derived from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a general population study in which adults (n > 21 000) from Belgium, France, Ge

  19. Prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to first-line ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy for adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas An exploratory, retrospective analysis on large series from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC-STBSG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleiffer, S.; Ouali, M.; van Glabbeke, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are generally treated similarly, regardless of great differences between STS subtypes, disease presentation and patients' characteristics. As ifosfamide is frequently applied in first line systemic therapy, we aimed to establish...... prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to ifosfamide-based therapy. Methods: A retrospective, exploratory analysis was performed on data from 1337 advanced STS patients who received first-time ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy. For predictive factor analysis, 660 patients treated with doxorubicin...

  20. European perspectives on security research

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Europe’s networked societies of today are shaped by a growing interconnection in almost all areas of life. The complexity of our infrastructures and the concurrent accessibility to means of destruction by terrorist groups and individual perpetrators call for innovative security solutions. However, such evolving innovations inevitably raise fundamental questions of concern in our societies. How do we balance the imperatives of securing our citizens and infrastructures on the one hand, and of protecting of our sacredly held civil liberties on the other? The topical network ‘Safety and Security’ of acatech – the German Academy of Science and Engineering – invited experts from the science academies of various European countries to share their perspectives on security research and the aspect of safety during a two-day workshop hosted by the Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut in March 2010. This publication is a compilation of contributions made during the workshop.

  1. Kant's Theory of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      Abstract:Immanuel Kant developed a rather wide range of concepts to describe the process of an "ever broader union" of European states. Kant's theory posed a dilemma with two aspects. On the one hand republican states were free, and on the other they were obliged to follow rules of a union......, but to let it cooperate with other states rather than to isolate it. Kant observes a guarantee that such a form of integration could emerge and succeed, because the military powers of Europe had to develop complexities of separated powers in their organisation of states. Underneath the unity of isolated...... "autonomous" states, strong convergence processes took place in those separated subsystems that were functional to well-organised states....

  2. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen and Liefferink's edited volume takes a different approach to comparative environmental policy studies. It looks at how domestic environmental policies and activities In six specific countries (Sweden, Austria, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway) have affected...... environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...... to enable a regional agreement to be reached, and at other times they need to use regional policy-making as a way to put pressure on domestic constituencies....

  3. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  4. European Conference on Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias; Data Science, Learning by Latent Structures, and Knowledge Discovery; ECDA 2013

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises papers dedicated to data science and the extraction of knowledge from many types of data: structural, quantitative, or statistical approaches for the analysis of data; advances in classification, clustering, and pattern recognition methods; strategies for modeling complex data and mining large data sets; applications of advanced methods in specific domains of practice. The contributions offer interesting applications to various disciplines such as psychology, biology, medical and health sciences; economics, marketing, banking, and finance; engineering; geography and geology;  archeology, sociology, educational sciences, linguistics, and musicology; library science. The book contains the selected and peer-reviewed papers presented during the European Conference on Data Analysis (ECDA 2013) which was jointly held by the German Classification Society (GfKl) and the French-speaking Classification Society (SFC) in July 2013 at the University of Luxembourg.

  5. Scientific Legitimation of the European Union’s Competence Development Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Sergio Maniscalco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an accessible account of the policy making process of the European Union in the arena of adult skills and competence development. In particular, the way skill standards for adult learners is designed in the EU official statements is investigated, analyzing the developments in the European Union’s adult education policies since the Lisbon process was launched in order to verify to what extent they are evidence-based and legitimated through scientific research and specific ex-ante studies. In fact, because of the ageing work force in Europe, but also in the light of the recent economic downturns and the increased labor market’s flexibility and dynamics, many governments have tried to foster the involvement and participation of adults in lifelong learning paths for them to suit the transformations of the knowledge-based societies and be active and competitive even in older ages. This empirical paper is based on literature review and content analysis of the relevant policy documents and official EU statements. The main findings show how, beyond declared purposes and political slogans, the way the EU is shaping the adult learners’ upskilling significantly appears to aim at the substantial bolstering of basic and digital skills in order to cope with the knowledge economy rather than giving emphasis to more comprehensive sets of competences for lifelong learning and active ageing, which are going to be needed more than ever in the years to come.

  6. Protection promotion and cooperation in the European semiconductor industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    in the European market. Using strategies that involve world-wide cooperation, European firms are beginning to carve out secure places for themselves in what is now a world market. Joint ventures have been critical in bringing European firms up to world performance levels, but extra-European as well as intra......-European cooperation has been essential...

  7. SKILLS MISMATCH OF THE YOUNG PEOPLE AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatos Roxana

    2015-07-01

    are: What are the main types of skills mismatch? What are the main ways to measure skills mismatch? What are the indicators of skills mismatch? What is the level of over-education and under-education in European countries? How to calculate skills mismatch between demand and supply of labor at European level? What factors explain the different labor market chances of young people compared to adults? What are the predictors at the macro level and individual level of skills mismatch?

  8. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O3) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics.Presently, ambient ground-level O3 concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult con...

  9. Is there a European way of war?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennesson, P.; Breuer, F.; de Franco, Chiara;

    2009-01-01

    Europe is the region of the world where the network of security institutions is the densest. Yet, these institutions did not erase differences about conceptions of force employment among European countries and between European countries and the United States. Why have concepts of military power...

  10. European Perspectives on the Learning Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, Barry; Cressey, Peter; Tomassini, Massimo; Kelleher, Michael; Poell, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper, based on a publication entitled "Facing up to the Learning Organisation Challenge," published in April 2003, provides an overview of the main questions emerging from recent European research projects related to the topic of the learning organisation. The rationale for focusing on this topic is the belief that the European Union goals…

  11. Transnational Lives in European Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in European education began, and how…

  12. European Higher Health Care Education Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Liisa; Kelly, Hélène; Bergknut, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the European Curriculum in Cultural Care Project (2005-2009), which aimed at developing a curriculum framework for the enhancement of cultural competence in European health care education. The project was initiated and supported by the Consortium of Institutes in Higher...

  13. European Analytical Criteria: Past, Present and Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhaecke, L.; Gowik, P.; Bizec, Le B.; Ginkel, van L.A.; Bichon, E.; Blokland, M.H.; Brabander, de H.F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the past, present, and (possible) future of the European analytical criteria for residues are described. The elaboration of the revision of Commission Decision 93/256/EC was a long process starting in 1996 and ending with the formation of a European Commission (EC) working group in 19

  14. ESMN / European Solar Physics Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    I briefly present the European Solar Magnetometry Network as a contemporary example of solar physics collaboration across European borders,and I place it in larger-scale context by discussing the past and future of Europe-wide solar physics organization.Solar physics from space is inherently transna

  15. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    group, the perception of the rigidity in European social psychology can also versus flexibility of the style adopted be gotten from Doise and Moscovici ...group’s Reference existence and its uniqueness with Doise-, W., and S. Moscovici , eds., Cur- respect to other groups) influences at rent Issues in European

  16. UDRIVE : the European naturalistic driving study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Barnard, Y. Baumann, M. Augros, X. & Utesch, F.

    2014-01-01

    UDRIVE is the first large-scale European Naturalistic Driving Study on cars, trucks and powered two wheelers. The acronym stands for “European naturalistic Driving and Riding for Infrastructure & Vehicle safety and Environment”. Naturalistic driving can be defined as a study undertaken to provide in

  17. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the dif

  18. European teachers and new educational technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Repetto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the current status on initial and in-service teachers' use of ICT for education in Europe. The paper describes the results of an analysis conducted in uTeacher, a European project devoted to developing a European Framework on teachers' skills in using new technologies for education.

  19. The Pan European Ecological Network: PEEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Bouwma, I.M.; Griffioen, A.J.; Walters, L.J.; Doorn, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The pan European biological and landscape diversity strategy (PEBDLS) was developed under the auspices of the Council of Europe in order to achieve the effective implementation of the convention of biological diversity (CBD) at the European level. A key element of PEBLDS has been the development of

  20. The Words That Buoy the European Impulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenraad, Robert; Tousignant, Nathalie; Castano, Emanuele; Bestgen, Yves; Dumoulin, Michel

    With a view on analyzing the deeper trends in the European discourse that will shape the European Union's (EU's) future, a study examined 121 speeches made by EU political leaders over the period 1985-1997 and concorded and statisticized which words were used, how often, where, and when with the help of a computer-aided content analysis engine.…