WorldWideScience

Sample records for adult dorsal spinal

  1. Dorsal spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Sanghvi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old female patient presented with diffuse pain in the dorsal region of the back of 3 months duration. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an extramedullary, extradural space occupative lesion on the right side of the spinal canal from D5 to D7 vertebral levels. The mass was well marginated and there was no bone involvement. Compression of the adjacent thecal sac was observed, with displacement to the left side. Radiological differential diagnosis included nerve sheath tumor and meningioma. The patient underwent D6 hemilaminectomy under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, the tumor was purely extradural in location with mild extension into the right foramina. No attachment to the nerves or dura was found. Total excision of the extradural compressing mass was possible as there were preserved planes all around. Histopathology revealed cavernous hemangioma. As illustrated in our case, purely epidural hemangiomas, although uncommon, ought to be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural soft tissue masses. Findings that may help to differentiate this lesion from the ubiquitous disk prolapse, more common meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors are its ovoid shape, uniform T2 hyperintense signal and lack of anatomic connection with the neighboring intervertebral disk or the exiting nerve root. Entirely extradural lesions with no bone involvement are rare and represent about 12% of all intraspinal hemangiomas.

  2. Langerhans′ cell histiocytosis involving posterior elements of the dorsal spine: An unusual cause of extradural spinal mass in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra K Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells occurring as an isolated lesion or as part of a systemic proliferation. It is commoner in children younger than 10 years of age with sparing of the posterior elements in more than 95% of cases. We describe a case of LCH in an adult female presenting with paraplegia. MRI revealed a well-defined extradural contrast enhancing mass at D2-D4 vertebral level involving the posterior elements of spine. D2-5 laminectomy with excision of lesion was performed which lead to marked improvement of patients neurological status. Histopathology was suggestive of eosinophilic granuloma. We describe the case, discuss its uniqueness and review the literature on this rare tumor presentation.

  3. Collateral sprouting of uninjured primary afferent A-fibers into the superficial dorsal horn of the adult rat spinal cord after topical capsaicin treatment to the sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, R J; Doubell, T P; Coggeshall, R E; Woolf, C J

    1996-08-15

    That terminals of uninjured primary sensory neurons terminating in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord can collaterally sprout was first suggested by Liu and Chambers (1958), but this has since been disputed. Recently, horseradish peroxidase conjugated to the B subunit of cholera toxin (B-HRP) and intracellular HRP injections have shown that sciatic nerve section or crush produces a long-lasting rearrangement in the organization of primary afferent central terminals, with A-fibers sprouting into lamina II, a region that normally receives only C-fiber input (Woolf et al., 1992). The mechanism of this A-fiber sprouting has been thought to involve injury-induced C-fiber transganglionic degeneration combined with myelinated A-fibers being conditioned into a regenerative growth state. In this study, we ask whether C-fiber degeneration and A-fiber conditioning are both necessary for the sprouting of A-fibers into lamina II. Local application of the C-fiber-specific neurotoxin capsaicin to the sciatic nerve has previously been shown to result in C-fiber damage and degenerative atrophy in lamina II. We have used B-HRP to transganglionically label A-fiber central terminals and have shown that 2 weeks after topical capsaicin treatment to the sciatic nerve, the pattern of B-HRP staining in the dorsal horn is indistinguishable from that seen after axotomy, with lamina II displaying novel staining in the identical region containing capsaicin-treated C-fiber central terminals. These results suggest that after C-fiber injury, uninjured A-fiber central terminals can collaterally sprout into lamina II of the dorsal horn. This phenomenon may help to explain the pain associated with C-fiber neuropathy. PMID:8756447

  4. Glial glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase regulate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Enshe; Yan, Xisheng; Weng, Han-Rong

    2012-05-01

    Decreased GABAergic synaptic strength ('disinhibition') in the spinal dorsal horn is a crucial mechanism contributing to the development and maintenance of pathological pain. However, mechanisms leading to disinhibition in the spinal dorsal horn remain elusive. We investigated the role of glial glutamate transporters (GLT-1 and GLAST) and glutamine synthetase in maintaining GABAergic synaptic activity in the spinal dorsal horn. Electrically evoked GABAergic inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs), spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs were recorded in superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons of spinal slices from young adult rats. We used (2S,3S)-3-[3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoylamino]benzyloxy]aspartate (TFB-TBOA), to block both GLT-1 and GLAST and dihydrokainic acid to block only GLT-1. We found that blockade of both GLAST and GLT-1 and blockade of only GLT-1 in the spinal dorsal horn decreased the amplitude of GABAergic eIPSCs, as well as both the amplitude and frequency of GABAergic sIPSCs or miniature IPSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of glial glutamine synthetase had similar effects on both GABAergic eIPSCs and sIPSCs. We provided evidence demonstrating that the reduction in GABAergic strength induced by the inhibition of glial glutamate transporters is due to insufficient GABA synthesis through the glutamate-glutamine cycle between astrocytes and neurons. Thus, our results indicate that deficient glial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase significantly attenuate GABAergic synaptic strength in the spinal dorsal horn, which may be a crucial synaptic mechanism underlying glial-neuronal interactions caused by dysfunctional astrocytes in pathological pain conditions. PMID:22339645

  5. TWIK-Related Spinal Cord K+ Channel Expression Is Increased in the Spinal Dorsal Horn after Spinal Nerve Ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Hee Youn; Zhang, Enji; Park, Sangil; Chung, Woosuk; Lee, Sunyeul; Kim, Dong Woon; Ko, Youngkwon; Lee, Wonhyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channel (TRESK) has recently been discovered and plays an important role in nociceptor excitability in the pain pathway. Because there have been no reports on the TRESK expression or its function in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in neuropathic pain, we analyzed TRESK expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. Materials and Methods We established a SNL mouse model by using the L5-6 spinal nerves ligation. We used re...

  6. SURGICAL ANATOMY OF DORSAL ROOT ENTRY ZONE OF CERVICAL SPINAL NERVES : CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Arun Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study is to determine the detailed morphometric data of Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ of cervical spinal nerves. This knowledge is necessary for diagnosis, treatment and surgical management of pain due to many conditions like brachial plexus avulsion injury, post-herpetic neuralgia, phantom pain and cancer pain involved in cervical myelo-radiculopathy. There are fewer studies reported in this field of DREZ. Materials and Methods: Twenty five adult formalin fixed cadavers are taken for this study. Conventional Spinal cord dissection is followed as per Cunningham’s Dissection Mannual. Findings: The parameters included are Number of dorsal rootlets, Longitudinal Length of DREZ, Distance between two successive DREZ, Length of dorsal rootlets, Distance between right and left DREZ, Distance between DREZ and Ligamentum denticulatum, Cranial angles of Superior & inferior rootlets. Results: Results were noted for all the parameters and are compared with the previous studies. The significant observations are obtained. Conclusion: Surgical anatomy of Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ of cervical spinal nerves will be useful for the neurosurgeons doing Drezotomy procedure, in which the nociceptive fibres alone are specifically severed with preservation of other sensations

  7. Spinal Deformity, Dorsal Kyphosis and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kuran

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been show that spine deformity index is a better indicator of the functional capacity of the osteoporotic patient than the number of vertebral fractures. In order to investigate the relation between spinal deformity, dorsal kyphosis and the bone mineral density, we undertook the following study. In 40 postmenopausal women (age 59,1±7 spine deformity index (SDI was calculated by lateral roentgenograms of the dorsal and lumbar spine. 25 subjects at premenopausal age were also x-rayed to find the normal limits. Dorsal kyphosis (DK was measured by Cobb’s angle. Bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured by DEXA. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Student’s t-test were used as statistical analysis. The results show that there was a significant correlation between DK and SDI. BMD's at femoral neck and lumbar spine were not correlated with DK and SDI (p>0,05. In patients with 40 degrees. The difference was not significant. We conclude that as the spinal deformity increases, DK is expected to increase and BMD is expected to decrease.

  8. Expression Profile of Tumor Endothelial Marker 7 and a Putative Ligand in the Rat Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglion

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lih; Lee, Kyu-Yeol; Park, Hwan-Tae; Kang, Dong-Sik

    2007-01-01

    Study Design To analyze the expression profile of tumor endothelial marker 7 (TEM7) in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Purpose To investigate the expression profile of TEM7 in the spinal cord and DRG of adult and developing rats. Overview of Literature Tumor endothelial marker 7 (TEM7) is a putative transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in the tumor endothelium and in cerebellar neurons. Methods In the present study, the expression profile of TEM7 in the spinal cord a...

  9. Sensory and spinal inhibitory dorsal midline crossing is independent of Robo3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Daniel Comer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Commissural neurons project across the midline at all levels of the central nervous system, providing bilateral communication critical for the coordination of motor activity and sensory perception. Midline crossing at the spinal ventral midline has been extensively studied and has revealed that multiple developmental lineages contribute to this commissural neuron population. Ventral midline crossing occurs in a manner dependent on Robo3 regulation of Robo/Slit signaling and the ventral commissure is absent in the spinal cord and hindbrain of Robo3 mutants. Midline crossing in the spinal cord is not limited to the ventral midline, however. While prior anatomical studies provide evidence that commissural axons also cross the midline dorsally, little is known of the genetic and molecular properties of dorsally-crossing neurons or of the mechanisms that regulate dorsal midline crossing. In this study, we describe a commissural neuron population that crosses the spinal dorsal midline during the last quarter of embryogenesis in discrete fiber bundles present throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Using immunohistochemistry, neurotracing, and mouse genetics, we show that this commissural neuron population includes spinal inhibitory neurons and sensory nociceptors. While the floor plate and roof plate are dispensable for dorsal midline crossing, we show that this population depends on Robo/Slit signaling yet crosses the dorsal midline in a Robo3-independent manner. The dorsally-crossing commissural neuron population we describe suggests a substrate circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal spinal cord.

  10. SDF1 in the dorsal corticospinal tract promotes CXCR4+ cell migration after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hosung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1 and its major signaling receptor, CXCR4, were initially described in the immune system; however, they are also expressed in the nervous system, including the spinal cord. After spinal cord injury, the blood brain barrier is compromised, opening the way for chemokine signaling between these two systems. These experiments clarified prior contradictory findings on normal expression of SDF1 and CXCR4 as well as examined the resulting spinal cord responses resulting from this signaling. Methods These experiments examined the expression and function of SDF1 and CXCR4 in the normal and injured adult mouse spinal cord primarily using CXCR4-EGFP and SDF1-EGFP transgenic reporter mice. Results In the uninjured spinal cord, SDF1 was expressed in the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST as well as the meninges, whereas CXCR4 was found only in ependymal cells surrounding the central canal. After spinal cord injury (SCI, the pattern of SDF1 expression did not change rostral to the lesion but it disappeared from the degenerating dCST caudally. By contrast, CXCR4 expression changed dramatically after SCI. In addition to the CXCR4+ cells in the ependymal layer, numerous CXCR4+ cells appeared in the peripheral white matter and in the dorsal white matter localized between the dorsal corticospinal tract and the gray matter rostral to the lesion site. The non-ependymal CXCR4+ cells were found to be NG2+ and CD11b+ macrophages that presumably infiltrated through the broken blood-brain barrier. One population of macrophages appeared to be migrating towards the dCST that contains SDF1 rostral to the injury but not towards the caudal dCST in which SDF1 is no longer present. A second population of the CXCR4+ macrophages was present near the SDF1-expressing meningeal cells. Conclusions These observations suggest that attraction of CXCR4+ macrophages is part of a programmed response to injury and that modulation of the

  11. Oscillatory interaction between dorsal root excitability and dorsal root potentials in the spinal cord of the turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Lezama, R; Perrier, J F; Hounsgaard, J

    1999-01-01

    The response to dorsal root stimulation, at one to two times threshold, was investigated in the isolated cervical enlargement of the turtle spinal cord. At frequencies near 10 Hz the synaptic response in motoneurons and the cord dorsum potential, after an initial lag time, oscillated in amplitude...... with a period of more than 1 s. The mono- and polysynaptyic postsynaptic response in motoneurons, the pre- and postsynaptic component of the cord dorsum potential and the dorsal root potential oscillated in synchrony. These oscillations were only observed with stimulus frequencies in the range 9-11 Hz....... The oscillating response could only be evoked from stimulus sites to which dorsal root potentials were conducted from the spinal cord (2-3 mm). At more distant stimulus sites cyclic variations in amplitude of the cord dorsum potential and the synaptic response in motoneurons were not observed. During...

  12. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E;

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...

  13. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Galbavy

    Full Text Available Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC, and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days, or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3; whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however

  14. Evidence that dorsal locus coeruleus neurons can maintain their spinal cord projection following neonatal transection of the dorsal adrenergic bundle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, B B

    1989-01-01

    In adult rats, locus coeruleus neurons which extend axons to the spinal cord are found only at mid-rostrocaudal levels of the nucleus, where they are essentially confined to its ventral, wedge-shaped half (Satoh et al. 1980; Westlund et al. 1983; Loughlin et al. 1986). However, during early postnatal development, coeruleospinal cells are found throughout the locus coeruleus (Cabana and Martin 1984; Chen and Stanfield 1987). This developmental restriction of the distribution of coeruleospinal neurons is due to axonal elimination rather than to cell death, since neurons retrogradely labeled through their spinal axons perinatally are still present in the dorsal portion of the locus coeruleus at survival periods beyond the age at which these cells lose their spinal projection (Chen and Stanfield 1987). I now report that if axons ascending from the locus coeruleus are cut by transecting the dorsal adrenergic bundle on the day of birth, a more widespread distribution of coeruleospinal neurons is retained beyond the perinatal period. These results not only indicate that the absence of the normally maintained collateral of a locus coeruleus neuron is sufficient to prevent the elimination of a collateral which would otherwise be lost, but also may imply that during normal postnatal development the presence of the maintained collateral is somehow causally involved in the elimination of the transient collateral. PMID:2612596

  15. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  16. Silent NMDA receptor-mediated synapses are developmentally regulated in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H; Doubell, T P; Moore, K A; Woolf, C J

    2000-02-01

    In vitro whole cell patch-clamp recording techniques were utilized to study silent pure-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses in lamina II (substantia gelatinosa, SG) and lamina III of the spinal dorsal horn. To clarify whether these synapses are present in the adult and contribute to neuropathic pain, transverse lumbar spinal cord slices were prepared from neonatal, naive adult and adult sciatic nerve transected rats. In neonatal rats, pure-NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were elicited in SG neurons either by focal intraspinal stimulation (n = 15 of 20 neurons) or focal stimulation of the dorsal root (n = 2 of 7 neurons). In contrast, in slices from naive adult rats, no silent pure-NMDA EPSCs were recorded in SG neurons following focal intraspinal stimulation (n = 27), and only one pure-NMDA EPSC was observed in lamina III (n = 23). Furthermore, in rats with chronic sciatic nerve transection, pure-NMDA EPSCs were elicited by focal intraspinal stimulation in only 2 of 45 SG neurons. Although a large increase in Abeta fiber evoked mixed alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and NMDA receptor-mediated synapses was detected after sciatic nerve injury, Abeta fiber-mediated pure-NMDA EPSCs were not evoked in SG neurons by dorsal root stimulation. Pure-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs are therefore a transient, developmentally regulated phenomenon, and, although they may have a role in synaptic refinement in the immature dorsal horn, they are unlikely to be involved in receptive field plasticity in the adult. PMID:10669507

  17. Nikolaus Friedreich and degenerative atrophy of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Koeppen, Arnulf H.

    2013-01-01

    Nikolaus Friedreich (1825-1882) presented clinical findings in 6 patients with a severe hereditary disorder of the nervous system and secured full autopsies in 4 of them. He was fascinated by the spinal cord lesions in the siblings of two unrelated families, and in the first 3 of his 5 long articles stressed the destruction of the dorsal columns. He recognized the relatively minor symmetrical lesions of the anterolateral fasciculi but did not separate dorsal spinocerebellar tracts (Flechsig’s...

  18. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in res...

  19. Reversal of neurochemical alterations in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia by Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors in a rat model of spinal nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Xue, Yaping; Yan, Yanhua; Lin, Minjie; Yang, Jiajia; Huang, Jianzhong; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-07-01

    The rodent Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptor subtype C has been demonstrated to inhibit pathological pain. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the reversal of pain hypersensitivity by the selective MrgC receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) in a rat model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of BAM8-22 (0.1-10nmol) attenuated mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner on day 10 after SNL. The antiallodynia effect of BAM8-22 was abolished by MrgC receptor antibody, but not by naloxone. I.t. BAM8-22 (10nmol) inhibited SNL-induced upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthesis (nNOS) and phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn. The BAM8-22 treatment reversed the SNL-induced astrocyte activation, increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the spinal cord. BAM8-22 also reversed the upregulation of fractalkine and IL-1β in small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, the BAM8-22 exposure suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase of nNOS and IL-1β in the DRG explant cultures and the BAM8-22-induced suppression disappeared in the presence of MrgC receptor antibody. The present study provides evidence that activation of MrgC receptors inhibits nerve injury-induced increase of pronociceptive molecules in DRG neurons, suppressing astrocyte activation, the upregulation of excitatory mediators and phosphorylation of transcription factors in the spinal dorsal horn. As MrgC receptors are unequally expressed in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, this study suggests that targeting MrgC receptors could be a new therapy for neuropathic pain with limited unwanted effects. PMID:27018398

  20. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Holstege, Jan; de Graaff, Wim; Hossaini, Mehdi; Cano, S.C.; Jaarsma, Dick; Deschamps, Jacqueline; Akker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough Hox gene expression has been linked to motoneuron identity, a role of these genes in development of the spinal sensory system remained undocumented. Hoxb genes are expressed at high levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Hoxb8 null mutants manifest a striking phenotype of excessive grooming and hairless lesions on the lower back. Applying local anesthesia underneath the hairless skin suppressed excessive grooming, indicating that this behavior depends on peripheral...

  1. Sensory Afferents Regenerated into Dorsal Columns after Spinal Cord Injury Remain in a Chronic Pathophysiological State

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Andrew M.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Mendell, Lorne M.; Levine, Joel M.

    2007-01-01

    Axon regeneration after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) can be promoted by combinatorial treatments that increase the intrinsic growth capacity of the damaged neurons and reduce environmental factors that inhibit axon growth. A prior peripheral nerve conditioning lesion is a well established means of increasing the intrinsic growth state of sensory neurons whose axons project within the dorsal columns of the spinal cord. Combining such a prior peripheral nerve conditioning lesion with t...

  2. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Although Hox gene expression has been linked to motoneuron identity, a role of these genes in development of the spinal sensory system remained undocumented. Hoxb genes are expressed at high levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Hoxb8 null mutants manifest a striking phenotype of excessive grooming and hairless lesions on the lower back. Applying local anesthesia underneath the hairless skin suppressed excessive grooming, indicating that this behavior depends on peripheral nerve activ...

  3. The majority of dorsal spinal cord gastrin releasing peptide is synthesized locally whereas neuromedin B is highly expressed in pain- and itch-sensing somatosensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming Michael S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Itch is one of the major somatosensory modalities. Some recent findings have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (Grp is expressed in a subset of dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and functions as a selective neurotransmitter for transferring itch information to spinal cord interneurons. However, expression data from public databases and earlier literatures indicate that Grp mRNA is only detected in dorsal spinal cord (dSC whereas its family member neuromedin B (Nmb is highly expressed in DRG neurons. These contradictory results argue that a thorough characterization of the expression of Grp and Nmb is warranted. Findings Grp mRNA is highly expressed in dSC but is barely detectable in DRGs of juvenile and adult mice. Anti-bombesin serum specifically recognizes Grp but not Nmb. Grp is present in a small number of small-diameter DRG neurons and in abundance in layers I and II of the spinal cord. The reduction of dSC Grp after dorsal root rhizotomy is significantly different from those of DRG derived markers but similar to that of a spinal cord neuronal marker. Double fluorescent in situ of Nmb and other molecular markers indicate that Nmb is highly and selectively expressed in nociceptive and itch-sensitive DRG neurons. Conclusion The majority of dSC Grp is synthesized locally in dorsal spinal cord neurons. On the other hand, Nmb is highly expressed in pain- and itch-sensing DRG neurons. Our findings provide direct anatomic evidence that Grp could function locally in the dorsal spinal cord in addition to its roles in DRG neurons and that Nmb has potential roles in nociceptive and itch-sensitive neurons. These results will improve our understanding about roles of Grp and Nmb in mediating itch sensation.

  4. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-05-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  5. Peripheral nerve injury increases glutamate-evoked calcium mobilization in adult spinal cord neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Doolen Suzanne; Blake Camille B; Smith Bret N; Taylor Bradley K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Central sensitization in the spinal cord requires glutamate receptor activation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. We used Fura-2 AM bulk loading of mouse slices together with wide-field Ca2+ imaging to measure glutamate-evoked increases in extracellular Ca2+ to test the hypotheses that: 1. Exogenous application of glutamate causes Ca2+ mobilization in a preponderance of dorsal horn neurons within spinal cord slices taken from adult mice; 2. Glutamate-evoked Ca2+ mobiliz...

  6. Dorsal ectopic breast in a case of spinal dysraphism: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin K Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An ectopic breast, that is present at a distance from the embryonic milk line, is an uncommon condition in the normal population. We describe a case with the presence of a breast in the dorsal region occurring in a patient with meningomyelocele and split cord malformation type I. A dorsally situated breast in a case of split cord malformation has never been reported previously in the literature. This case report highlights that an ectopic breast could be a marker of occult spinal dysraphism. This lesion should be corrected only after appropriate radiological investigations ascertain the underlying pathology.

  7. SURGICAL ANATOMY OF DORSAL ROOT ENTRY ZONE OF CERVICAL SPINAL NERVES : CADAVERIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    A Arun Kumar; Sudha Seshayyan; V.Tamilalagan; Sindou, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study is to determine the detailed morphometric data of Dorsal Root Entry Zone (DREZ) of cervical spinal nerves. This knowledge is necessary for diagnosis, treatment and surgical management of pain due to many conditions like brachial plexus avulsion injury, post-herpetic neuralgia, phantom pain and cancer pain involved in cervical myelo-radiculopathy. There are fewer studies reported in this field of DREZ. Materials and Methods: Twenty five...

  8. Dorsal root potential produced by a TTX-insensitive micro-circuitry in the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Delgado-Lezama, R; Hounsgaard, J

    2000-01-01

    1, The mechanisms underlying the dorsal root potential (DRP) were studied in transverse slices of turtle spinal cord. DRPs were evoked by stimulating one filament in a dorsal root and were recorded from another such filament. 2. The DRP evoked at supramaximal stimulus intensity was reduced but not...

  9. Expressing Constitutively Active Rheb in Adult Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Enhances the Integration of Sensory Axons that Regenerate Across a Chondroitinase-Treated Dorsal Root Entry Zone Following Dorsal Root Crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E; Detloff, Megan R; Côté, Marie-Pascale; Tom, Veronica J

    2016-01-01

    While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush. Additionally, we posited that if we combined that approach with digestion of upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) at the DREZ with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), we would promote regeneration of sensory axons across the DREZ into the spinal cord. We first assessed if this strategy promotes neuritic growth in an in vitro model of the glial scar containing CSPG. ChABC allowed for some regeneration across the once potently inhibitory substrate. Combining ChABC treatment with expression of caRheb in DRG significantly improved this growth. We then determined if this combination strategy also enhanced regeneration through the DREZ after dorsal root crush in adult rats in vivo. After unilaterally crushing C4-T1 dorsal roots, we injected AAV5-caRheb or AAV5-GFP into the ipsilateral C5-C8 DRGs. ChABC or PBS was injected into the ipsilateral dorsal horn at C5-C8 to digest CSPG, for a total of four animal groups (caRheb + ChABC, caRheb + PBS, GFP + ChABC, GFP + PBS). Regeneration was rarely observed in PBS-treated animals, whereas short-distance regrowth across the DREZ was observed in ChABC-treated animals. No difference in axon number or length between the ChABC groups was observed, which may be related to intraganglionic inflammation induced by the

  10. An Acetylcholinesterase Antibody-Based Quartz Crystal Microbalance for the Rapid Identification of Spinal Ventral and Dorsal Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Sui; Yingbin Ge; Wujun Liu; Zhao, Zongbao K.; Ning Zhang; Xiaojian Cao

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in ventral and dorsal spinal roots can be used to differentiate the spinal nerves. Although many methods are available to assay AChE, a rapid and sensitive method has not been previously developed. Here, we describe an antibody-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assay and its application for the quantification of AChE in the solutions of ventral and dorsal spinal roots. The frequency variation of the QCM device corresponds to the l...

  11. The bHLH factor Olig3 coordinates the specification of dorsal neurons in the spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, T.; Anlag, K.; Wildner, H.; Britsch, S; Treier, M; Birchmeier, C.

    2005-01-01

    Neurons of the dorsal horn integrate and relay sensory information and arise during development in the dorsal spinal cord, the alar plate. Class A and B neurons emerge in the dorsal and ventral alar plate, differ in their dependence on roof plate signals for specification, and settle in the deep and superficial dorsal horn, respectively. We show here that the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene Olig3 is expressed in progenitor cells that generate class A (dI1-dI3) neurons and that Olig3 is an ...

  12. Three-Dimensional Distribution of Sensory Stimulation-Evoked Neuronal Activity of Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons Analyzed by In Vivo Calcium Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIDA, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established i...

  13. Depletion of vesicular zinc in dorsal horn of spinal cord causes increased neuropathic pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, Seung; Danscher, Gorm; Schrøder, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    neuropathic pain we applied Chung's rodent pain model on BALB/c mice, and traced zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) proteins and zinc ions with immunohistochemistry and autometallography (AMG), respectively. Under anesthesia the left fifth lumbar spinal nerve was ligated in male mice in order to produced neuropathic...... pain. The animals were then sacrificed 5 days later. The ZnT3 immunoreactivity was found to have decreased significantly in dorsal horn of fourth, fifth, and sixth lumbar segments. In parallel with the depressed ZnT3 immunoreactivity the amount of vesicular zinc decreased perceptibly in superficial...

  14. Altered acetylcholinesterase levels in the spinal cord anterior horn and dorsal root ganglion following sciatic nerve ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang; Pei Wang; Songhe Yang; Jingfeng Xue

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve ischemia has been shown to result in ischemic fiber degeneration and axoplasmic transport disturbance. However, the effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in relevant cells following sciatic nerve ischemia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To observe AChE concentration changes following peripheral nerve ischemia. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present comparative observation, neuroanatomical experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory Animal of Chengde Medical College between 2006 and 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 20 healthy, adult, Wistar rats were randomized into two groups (n = 10): 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia. METHODS: Ischemia injury was induced in the unilateral sciatic nerve (experimental side) through ligation of the common iliac artery. The contralateral side received no intervention, and served as the control side. Rats in the 8-day ischemia and 14-day ischemia groups were allowed to survive for 8 and 14 days, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The L5 lumbar spinal cord and the L5 dorsal root ganglion were removed from both sides and sectioned utilizing a Leica vibrating slicer. AChE cellular expression was detected using Karnovsky-Root, and the number of AChE-positive cells and average gray value were analyzed using a MiVnt image analysis system. RESULTS: In the 8-day ischemia group, AChE-positive cell numbers were significantly less in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord anterior horn of the experimental side, but the average gray value was significantly greater, compared with the control side (P < 0.05). These changes were more significant in the 14-day ischemia group than in the 8-day ischemia group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Peripheral nerve ischemia leads to decreased AChE expression in the associated cells in a time-dependent manner.

  15. Developmentally Regulated Expression of HDNF/NT-3 mRNA in Rat Spinal Cord Motoneurons and Expression of BDNF mRNA in Embryonic Dorsal Root Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernfors, Patrik; Persson, Håkan

    1991-01-01

    Northern blot analysis was used to demonstrate high levels of hippocampus-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin-3 (HDNF/NT-3) mRNA in the embryonic day (E) 13 - 14 and 15 - 16 spinal cord. The level decreased at E18 - 19 and remained the same until postnatal day (P) 1, after which it decreased further to a level below the detection limit in the adult. In situ hybridization revealed that the NT-3 mRNA detected in the developing spinal cord was derived from motoneurons and the decrease seen at E18 - 19 was caused by a reduction in the number of motoneurons expressing NT-3 mRNA. The distribution of NT-3 mRNA-expressing cells in the E15 spinal cord was very similar to the distribution of cells expressing choline acetyltransferase or nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) mRNA. Moreover, a striking similarity between the developmentally regulated expression of NT-3 and NGFR mRNA was noted in spinal cord motoneurons. A subpopulation of all neurons in the dorsal root ganglia expressed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA from E13, the earliest time examined, to adulthood. These results are consistent with a trophic role of NT-3 for proprioceptive sensory neurons innervating the ventral horn, and imply a local action of BDNF for developing sensory neurons within the dorsal root ganglia. PMID:12106253

  16. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I-III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D.; Abraira, Victoria E.; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I–III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty i...

  17. Spinal shortening and monosegmental posterior spondylodesis in the management of dorsal and lumbar unstable injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A Aly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with spinal injuries have been treated in the past by laminectomy in an attempt to decompress the spinal cord. The results have shown insignificant improvement or even a worsening of neurologic function and decreased stability without effectively removing the anterior bone and disc fragments compressing the spinal cord. The primary indication for anterior decompression and grafting is narrowing of the spinal canal with neurologic deficits that cannot be resolved by any other approach. One must think of subsequent surgical intervention for increased stability and compressive posterior fusion with short-armed internal fixators. Aim: To analyze the results and efficacy of spinal shortening combined with interbody fusion technique for the management of dorsal and lumbar unstable injuries. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients with traumatic fractures and or fracture-dislocation of dorsolumbar spine with neurologic deficit are presented. All had radiologic evidence of spinal cord or cauda equina compression, with either paraplegia or paraparesis. Patients underwent recapping laminoplasty in the thoracic or lumbar spine for decompression of spinal cord. The T-saw was used for division of the posterior elements. After decompression of the cord and removal of the extruded bone fragments and disc material, the excised laminae were replaced exactly in situ to their original anatomic position. Then application of a compression force via monosegmental transpedicular fixation was done, allowing vertebral end-plate compression and interbody fusion. Results: Lateral Cobb angle (T10-L2 was reduced from 26 to 4 degrees after surgery. The shortened vertebral body united and no or minimal loss of correction was seen. The preoperative vertebral kyphosis averaged +17 degrees and was corrected to +7 degrees at follow-up with the sagittal index improving from 0.59 to 0.86. The segmental local kyphosis was reduced from +15 degrees to −3

  18. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the thoracic spinal cord in an adult: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamojit Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA in a 35-year-old Asian male with history of paraparesis for last 6 months. A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an intramedullary mass lesion occupying most of the thecal sac at the level of 10 th and 11 th dorsal vertebrae, with extensive contrast enhancement. Spinal PMA in an adult is an extremely rare entity, with only two reported cases in the literature, until date. This appears to be the first reported case of spinal PMA in an adult with isolated thoracic spinal cord involvement.

  19. Distribution of α-synuclein in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia in an autopsy cohort of elderly persons

    OpenAIRE

    Sumikura, Hiroyuki; Takao, Masaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinji; Nakano, Yuta; Uchino, Akiko; Nogami, Akane; Saito, Yuko; Mochizuki, Hideki; Murayama, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Background Lewy body–related α-synucleinopathy (LBAS, the abnormal accumulation of pathologic α-synuclein) is found in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and sympathetic ganglia, of Parkinson’s disease patients. However, few studies have focused on the distribution of LBAS in the spinal cord, primary sensory neurons, and preganglionic sympathetic nerves. Results We analyzed 265 consecutive subjects with LBAS who underwent autopsy at a g...

  20. Key role for spinal dorsal horn microglial kinin B1 receptor in early diabetic pain neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couture Réjean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial kinin B1R in diabetic pain neuropathy. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p., and 4 days later, two specific inhibitors of microglial cells (fluorocitrate, 1 nmol, i.t.; minocycline, 10 mg/kg, i.p. were administered to assess the impact on thermal hyperalgesia, allodynia and mRNA expression (qRT-PCR of B1R and pro-inflammatory markers. Spinal B1R binding sites ((125I-HPP-desArg10-Hoe 140 were also measured by quantitative autoradiography. Inhibition of microglia was confirmed by confocal microscopy with the specific marker Iba-1. Effects of intrathecal and/or systemic administration of B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK and antagonists (SSR240612 and R-715 were measured on neuropathic pain manifestations. Results STZ-diabetic rats displayed significant tactile and cold allodynia compared with control rats. Intrathecal or peripheral blockade of B1R or inhibition of microglia reversed time-dependently tactile and cold allodynia in diabetic rats without affecting basal values in control rats. Microglia inhibition also abolished thermal hyperalgesia and the enhanced allodynia induced by intrathecal des-Arg9-BK without affecting hyperglycemia in STZ rats. The enhanced mRNA expression (B1R, IL-1β, TNF-α, TRPV1 and Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the STZ spinal cord were normalized by fluorocitrate or minocycline, yet B1R binding sites were reduced by 38%. Conclusion The upregulation of kinin B1R in spinal dorsal horn microglia by pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed as a crucial mechanism in early pain neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats.

  1. Plateau-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    1. In transverse slices of the spinal cord of the turtle, intracellular recordings were used to characterize and analyse the responses to injected current and activation of primary afferents in dorsal horn neurones. 2. A subpopulation of neurones, with cell bodies located laterally in the deep do...

  2. Delta opioid receptors presynaptically regulate cutaneous mechanosensory neuron input to the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C; Mennicken, Françoise; O'Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Woodbury, C Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I; MacDermott, Amy B; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-03-19

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  3. Direct communication of the spinal subarachnoid space with the rat dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukal, Marek; Klusáková, Ilona; Dubový, Petr

    2016-05-01

    The anatomical position of the subarachnoid space (SAS) in relation to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and penetration of tracer from the SAS into DRG were investigated. We used intrathecal injection of methylene blue to visualize the anatomical position of the SAS in relation to DRG and immunostaining of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for detecting arachnoid limiting the SAS. Intrathecal administration of fluorescent-conjugated dextran (fluoro-emerald; FE) was used to demonstrate direct communication between the SAS and DRG. Intrathecal injection of methylene blue and DPP-IV immunostaining revealed that SAS delimited by the arachnoid was extended up to the capsule of DRG in a fold-like recess that may reach approximately half of the DRG length. The arachnoid was found in direct contact to the neuronal body-rich area in the angle between dorsal root and DRG as well as between spinal nerve roots at DRG. Particles of FE were found in the cells of DRG capsule, satellite glial cells, interstitial space, as well as in small and medium-sized neurons after intrathecal injection. Penetration of FE from the SAS into the DRG induced an immune reaction expressed by colocalization of FE and immunofluorescence indicating antigen-presenting cells (MHC-II+), activated (ED1+) and resident (ED2+) macrophages, and activation of satellite glial cells (GFAP+). Penetration of lumbar-injected FE into the cervical DRG was greater than that into the lumbar DRG after intrathecal injection of FE into the cisterna magna. Our results demonstrate direct communication between DRG and cerebrospinal fluid in the SAS that can create another pathway for possible propagation of inflammatory and signaling molecules from DRG primary affected by peripheral nerve injury into DRG of remote spinal segments. PMID:26844624

  4. Milnacipran inhibits glutamatergic N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor activity in Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohno Tatsuro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antidepressants, which are widely used for treatment of chronic pain, are thought to have antinociceptive effects by blockade of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. However, these drugs also interact with various receptors such as excitatory glutamatergic receptors. Thermal hyperalgesia was induced by intrathecal injection of NMDA in rats. Paw withdrawal latency was measured after intrathecal injection of antidepressants. The effects of antidepressants on the NMDA and AMPA-induced responses were examined in lamina II neurons of rat spinal cord slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The effects of milnacipran followed by application of NMDA on pERK activation were also investigated in the spinal cord. Results Intrathecal injection of milnacipran (0.1 μmol, but not citalopram (0.1 μmol and desipramine (0.1 μmol, followed by intrathecal injection of NMDA (1 μg suppressed thermal hyperalgesia. Milnacipran (100 μM reduced the amplitude of NMDA (56 ± 3 %, 64 ± 5 % of control-, but not AMPA (98 ± 5 %, 97 ± 5 % of control-mediated currents induced by exogenous application and dorsal root stimulation, respectively. Citalopram (100 μM and desipramine (30 μM had no effect on the amplitude of exogenous NMDA-induced currents. The number of pERK-positive neurons in the group treated with milnacipran (100 μM, but not citalopram (100 μM or desipramine (30 μM, followed by NMDA (100 μM was significantly lower compared with the NMDA-alone group. Conclusions The antinociceptive effect of milnacipran may be dependent on the drug’s direct modulation of NMDA receptors in the superficial dorsal horn. Furthermore, in addition to inhibiting the reuptake of monoamines, glutamate NMDA receptors are also important for analgesia induced by milnacipran.

  5. Neurological complications in adult spinal deformity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Justin A; Reid, Patrick; Kim, Han Jo

    2016-09-01

    The number of surgeries performed for adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been increasing due to an aging population, longer life expectancy, and studies supporting an improvement in health-related quality of life scores after operative intervention. However, medical and surgical complication rates remain high, and neurological complications such as spinal cord injury and motor deficits can be especially debilitating to patients. Several independent factors potentially influence the likelihood of neurological complications including surgical approach (anterior, lateral, or posterior), use of osteotomies, thoracic hyperkyphosis, spinal region, patient characteristics, and revision surgery status. The majority of ASD surgeries are performed by a posterior approach to the thoracic and/or lumbar spine, but anterior and lateral approaches are commonly performed and are associated with unique neural complications such as femoral nerve palsy and lumbar plexus injuries. Spinal morphology, such as that of hyperkyphosis, has been reported to be a risk factor for complications in addition to three-column osteotomies, which are often utilized to correct large deformities. Additionally, revision surgeries are common in ASD and these patients are at an increased risk of procedure-related complications and nervous system injury. Patient selection, surgical technique, and use of intraoperative neuromonitoring may reduce the incidence of complications and optimize outcomes. PMID:27250041

  6. Noxious mechanical heterotopic stimulation induces inhibition of the spinal dorsal horn neuronal network: analysis of spinal somatosensory-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Gallardo, J; Eblen-Zajjur, A

    2016-09-01

    Most of the endogenous pain modulation (EPM) involves the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). EPM including diffuse noxious inhibitory controls have been extensively described in oligoneuronal electrophysiological recordings but less attention had been paid to responses of the SDH neuronal population to heterotopic noxious stimulation (HNS). Spinal somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) offer the possibility to evaluate the neuronal network behavior, reflecting the incoming afferent volleys along the entry root, SDH interneuron activities and the primary afferent depolarization. SEP from de lumbar cord dorsum were evaluated during mechanical heterotopic noxious stimuli. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) were Laminectomized (T10-L3). The sural nerve of the left hind paw was electrically stimulated (5 mA, 0.5 ms, 0.05 Hz) to induce lumbar SEP. The HNS (mechanic clamp) was applied sequentially to the tail, right hind paw, right forepaw, muzzle and left forepaw during sural stimulation. N wave amplitude decreases (-16.6 %) compared to control conditions when HNS was applied to all areas of stimulation. This effect was more intense for muzzle stimulation (-23.5 %). N wave duration also decreased by -23.6 %. HNS did not change neither the amplitude nor the duration of the P wave but dramatically increases the dispersion of these two parameters. The results of the present study strongly suggest that a HNS applied to different parts of the body is able to reduce the integrated electrical response of the SDH, suggesting that not only wide dynamic range neurons but many others in the SDH are modulated by the EPM. PMID:27207681

  7. Neuronal labeling patterns in the spinal cord of adult transgenic Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stil, Aurélie; Drapeau, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We describe neuronal patterns in the spinal cord of adult zebrafish. We studied the distribution of cells and processes in the three spinal regions reported in the literature: the 8th vertebra used as a transection injury site, the 15th vertebra mainly used for motor cell recordings and also for crush injury, and the 24th vertebra used to record motor nerve activity. We used well-known transgenic lines in which expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by promoters to hb9 and isl1 in motoneurons, alx/chx10 and evx1 interneurons, ngn1 in sensory neurons and olig2 in oligodendrocytes, as well as antibodies for neurons (HuC/D, NF and SV2) and glia (GFAP). In isl1:GFP fish, GFP-positive processes are retained in the upper part of ventral horns and two subsets of cell bodies are observed. The pattern of the transgene in hb9:GFP adults is more diffuse and fibers are present broadly through the adult spinal cord. In alx/chx10 and evx1 lines we respectively observed two and three different GFP-positive populations. Finally, the ngn1:GFP transgene identifies dorsal root ganglion and some cells in dorsal horns. Interestingly some GFP positive fibers in ngn1:GFP fish are located around Mauthner axons and their density seems to be related to a rostrocaudal gradient. Many other cell types have been described in embryos and need to be studied in adults. Our findings provide a reference for further studies on spinal cytoarchitecture. Combined with physiological, histological and pathological/traumatic approaches, these studies will help clarify the operation of spinal locomotor circuits of adult zebrafish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 642-660, 2016. PMID:26408263

  8. Functional expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in spinal motoneurons of the adult turtle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Canto-Bustos

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR. In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons.

  9. Curcumin exerts antinociceptive effects by inhibiting the activation of astrocytes in spinal dorsal horn and the intracellular extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in rat model of chronic constriction injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Feng-tao; LIANG Jiang-jun; LIU Ling; CAO Ming-hui; LI Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of glial cells and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain.Curcumin can alleviate the symptom of inflammatory pain by inhibiting the production and release of interleukin and tumor necrosis factor.However,whether curcumin affects neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury and the possible mechanism involved are still unknown.This study investigated the effects of tolerable doses of curcumin on the activation of astrocytes and ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn in rat model of neuropathic pain.Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:a control (sham operated) group,and chronic constriction injury groups (to induce neuropathic pain) that were either untreated or treated with curcumin.Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia thresholds were measured.The distribution and morphological changes of astrocytes were observed by immunofluorescence.Western blotting was used to detect changes in the expression of glial flbrillary acid protein (GFAP) and phosphorylated ERK.Results Injured rats showed obvious mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia.The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes,and the fluorescence intensity of GFAP were significantly increased in the spinal dorsal horn of injured compared with control rats.The soma of astrocytes also appeared hypertrophied in injured animals.Expression of GFAP and phosphorylated ERK was also significantly increased in the spinal dorsal hom of injured compared with control rats.Curcumin reduced the injury-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia,the increase in the fluorescence intensity of GFAP and the hypertrophy of astrocytic soma,activation of GFAP and phosphorylation of ERK in the spinal dorsal horn.Conclusions Curcumin can markedly alleviate nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.The analgesic effect of curcumin may be attributed to its inhibition of

  10. Persistent At-Level Thermal Hyperalgesia and Tactile Allodynia Accompany Chronic Neuronal and Astrocyte Activation in Superficial Dorsal Horn following Mouse Cervical Contusion Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Jaime L.; Hala, Tamara J; Putatunda, Rajarshi; Sannie, Daniel; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, sensory abnormalities, including neuropathic pain, often result from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI can induce cellular changes in the CNS, termed central sensitization, that alter excitability of spinal cord neurons, including those in the dorsal horn involved in pain transmission. Persistently elevated levels of neuronal activity, glial activation, and glutamatergic transmission are thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability of these dorsal horn neurons, which can le...

  11. The majority of dorsal spinal cord gastrin releasing peptide is synthesized locally whereas neuromedin B is highly expressed in pain- and itch-sensing somatosensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Michael S; Ramos, Daniel; Han, Seung Baek; Zhao, JianYuan; Son, Young-Jin; Luo, Wenqin

    2012-01-01

    Background Itch is one of the major somatosensory modalities. Some recent findings have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (Grp) is expressed in a subset of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and functions as a selective neurotransmitter for transferring itch information to spinal cord interneurons. However, expression data from public databases and earlier literatures indicate that Grp mRNA is only detected in dorsal spinal cord (dSC) whereas its family member neuromedin B (Nmb) is high...

  12. The majority of dorsal spinal cord gastrin releasing peptide is synthesized locally whereas neuromedin B is highly expressed in pain- and itch-sensing somatosensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming Michael S; Ramos Daniel; Han Seung; Zhao Jianyuan; Son Young-Jin; Luo Wenqin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Itch is one of the major somatosensory modalities. Some recent findings have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (Grp) is expressed in a subset of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and functions as a selective neurotransmitter for transferring itch information to spinal cord interneurons. However, expression data from public databases and earlier literatures indicate that Grp mRNA is only detected in dorsal spinal cord (dSC) whereas its family member neuromedin B (Nmb...

  13. Restoration of shoulder abduction by transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach: a clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Shi-bing; HOU Chun-lin; CHEN De-song; GU Yu-dong

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years, transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve has become a routine procedure for restoration of shoulder abduction. However, the operation via the traditional supraclavicular anterior approach often leads to partial denervation of the trapezius muscle. The purpose of the study was to introduce transfer of the spinal accessory nerve through dorsal approach, using distal branch of the spinal accessory nerve, to repair the suprascapular nerve for restoration of shoulder abduction, and to observe its therapeutic effect.Methods From January to October 2003, a total of 11 patients with a brachial plexus injury and an intact or nearly intact spinal accessory nerve were treated by transferring the spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach. The patients were followed up for 18 to 26 months [mean (23.5 ±5.2) months] to evaluate their shoulder abduction and function of the trapezius muscle. The outcomes were compared with those of 26 patients treated with traditional anterior approach. And the data were analyzed by Student's t test using SPSS 10.5.Results In the 11 patients, the spinal accessory nerves were transferred to the suprascapular nerve through the dorsal approach successfully. Intact function of the upper trapezius was achieved in all of them. In the patients,the location of the two nerves was relatively stable at the level of superior margin of the scapula, the mean distance between them was (4.2±1.4) cm, both the nerves could be easily dissected and end-to-end anastomosed without any tension. During the follow-up, the first electrophysiological sign of recovery of the infraspinatus appeared at (6.8±2.7) months and the first sign of restoration of the shoulder abduction at (7.6±2.9) months after the operation, which were earlier than that after the traditional operation [(8.7±2.4) months and (9.9±2.8)months, respectively; P<0.05]. The postoperative shoulder abduction was 62.8°± 12

  14. Principles of electrical stimulation and dorsal column mapping as it relates to spinal cord stimulation: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubbu, Chitra; Flagg, Artemus; Williams, Kayode

    2013-02-01

    The last 30 years have witnessed the growth of spinal cord stimulation as a treatment modality for an increasing number of chronic pain conditions. In spite of this growth, one of the greatest criticisms is the lack of concrete evidence for the mechanism of action. With the ever increasing enlightenment with regards to the neurophysiology of pain, and the development of more dynamic neuroimaging techniques, the opportunity to better define the mechanism of action of the spinal cord stimulator will continue to expand. In the interim, clinicians will benefit from the consolidation of the available knowledge that will enhance the effective use of the device. This review serves to provide an overview of the key principles of electrical stimulation and dorsal column mapping as it relates to spinal cord stimulation. We aim at enhancing the understanding regarding the basis for successful placement of leads and manipulation of electrical parameters. PMID:23299905

  15. Adult-Onset Leukoencephalopathy with Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Involvement and Normal Lactate: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdem Ertürk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and high lactate (LBSL is a recently described leukoencephalopathy with a genetically proven underlying defect. Clinical features are slowly progressive pyramidal, cerebellar and dorsal column dysfunction with childhood or rarely adult onset. The genetic basis of the disease was recently identified, which concerned mutations in the DARS2 gene encoding mitochondrial aspartly-tRNA synthetase. The disease has distinct magnetic resonance imaging findings including inhomogeneous cerebral white matter abnormalities and selective brain stem and spinal cord tract involvement. Additionally, there are usually increased lactate levels on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS of the abnormal white matter. In this case report, we describe the clinical and radiological features of a patient with genetically proven adult-onset LBSL and normal lactate levels on MRS.

  16. Decision Making Algorithm for Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongjung J; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Cheh, Gene; Cho, Samuel K; Rhim, Seung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    Adult spinal deformity (ASD) is one of the most challenging spinal disorders associated with broad range of clinical and radiological presentation. Correct selection of fusion levels in surgical planning for the management of adult spinal deformity is a complex task. Several classification systems and algorithms exist to assist surgeons in determining the appropriate levels to be instrumented. In this study, we describe our new simple decision making algorithm and selection of fusion level for ASD surgery in terms of adult idiopathic idiopathic scoliosis vs. degenerative scoliosis. PMID:27446511

  17. Different types of spinal afferent nerve endings in stomach and esophagus identified by anterograde tracing from dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Nick J; Kyloh, Melinda; Beckett, Elizabeth A; Brookes, Simon; Hibberd, Tim

    2016-10-15

    In visceral organs of mammals, most noxious (painful) stimuli as well as innocuous stimuli are detected by spinal afferent neurons, whose cell bodies lie in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). One of the major unresolved questions is the location, morphology, and neurochemistry of the nerve endings of spinal afferents that actually detect these stimuli in the viscera. In the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, there have been many anterograde tracing studies of vagal afferent endings, but none on spinal afferent endings. Recently, we developed a technique that now provides selective labeling of only spinal afferents. We used this approach to identify spinal afferent nerve endings in the upper GI tract of mice. Animals were anesthetized, and injections of dextran-amine were made into thoracic DRGs (T8-T12). Seven days post surgery, mice were euthanized, and the stomach and esophagus were removed, fixed, and stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Spinal afferent axons were identified that ramified extensively through many rows of myenteric ganglia and formed nerve endings in discrete anatomical layers. Most commonly, intraganglionic varicose endings (IGVEs) were identified in myenteric ganglia of the stomach and varicose simple-type endings in the circular muscle and mucosa. Less commonly, nerve endings were identified in internodal strands, blood vessels, submucosal ganglia, and longitudinal muscle. In the esophagus, only IGVEs were identified in myenteric ganglia. No intraganglionic lamellar endings (IGLEs) were identified in the stomach or esophagus. We present the first identification of spinal afferent endings in the upper GI tract. Eight distinct types of spinal afferent endings were identified in the stomach, and most of them were CGRP immunoreactive. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3064-3083, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27019197

  18. Deafferentation causes a loss of presynaptic bombesin receptors and supersensitivity of substance P receptors in the dorsal horn of the cat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, V J; Shults, C W; Park, C H; Tizabi, Y; Moody, T W; Chronwall, B M; Culver, M; Chase, T N

    1985-09-23

    Bombesin (BN)- and substance P (SP)-containing neurons are found in the dorsal root ganglia, and project to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The present study was undertaken to determine if chronic deafferentation of the cat spinal cord would affect BN or SP receptors in the spinal cord. Ten and 30 days after a unilateral lumbosacral dorsal rhizotomy, BN and SP receptor binding was evaluated autoradiographically using iodinated ligands to bind to these receptors in vitro. The normal distribution of BN receptors detected by this method was restricted to the head of the dorsal horn. Deafferentation caused a 38% and 22% decline in BN receptor binding in laminae I-IV at 10 or 30 days postoperatively, respectively. These data suggest that 'presynaptic' BN receptors are found on the central nervous system terminals of primary sensory afferents. Normal SP receptor distribution was most dense in lamina X, not in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. Deafferentation caused an initial decline in SP receptor binding in laminae I-II, followed by a 14% increase at 30 days in comparison to the unoperated side of the spinal cord. This delayed supersensitivity of SP receptors was confirmed in a separate experiment using a homogenate binding assay. These data are discussed with respect to the potential roles of receptor supersensitivity or subsensitivity in the development of deafferentation-induced changes in reactivity of dorsal horn neurons to nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli. PMID:2413960

  19. Actions of the GABAB agonist, (-)-baclofen, on neurones in deep dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Allerton, C. A.; Boden, P. R.; Hill, R G

    1989-01-01

    1. The electrophysiological actions of the GABAB agonist, (-)-baclofen, on deep dorsal horn neurones were studied using an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord of 9-16 day old rat. 2. On all neurones tested, (-)-baclofen (100 nM-30 microM) had a hyperpolarizing action which was associated with a reduction in apparent membrane input resistance. The increase in membrane conductance was dose-dependent and had a Hill coefficient of 1.0. 3. The (-)-baclofen-activated hyperpolarization persisted...

  20. 5-HT1A receptors mediate the effect of the bulbospinal serotonin system on spinal dorsal horn nociceptive neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlan, F P; Murphy, A Z; Behbehani, M M

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined whether the effect of stimulation of the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is mediated by spinal cord dorsal horn serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptors in the rat. This hypothesis predicts that nociceptive dorsal horn units inhibited by NRM stimulation or iontophoretic 5-HT application would also be inhibited by iontophoresis of the selective 5-HT1A agonists 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and buspirone. A total of 78 dorsal horn wide-dynamic-range neurons were recorded. Overall, 62% of the cells tested (48/78) were responsive to electrical stimulation of the NRM with the predominant response being inhibitory (38/48; 79%). Fifty-eight cells were tested for their response to both NRM stimulation and 8-OH-DPAT iontophoresis: 20/58 cells were inhibited by NRM stimulation and 50% of the cells inhibited by NRM stimulation were also inhibited by 8-OH-DPAT. Fifty-two cells were tested for their response to both NRM stimulation and buspirone iontophoresis: 14/52 cells were inhibited by NRM stimulation with 9/14 similarly inhibited by buspirone. To examine whether exogenously applied serotonin produced an effect through 5-HT1A receptors, the effect of both 5-HT and 8-OH-DPAT iontophoresis was tested on 57 dorsal horn neurons. The majority of cells (25/57) were inhibited by 5-HT application; 15/25 were similarly inhibited by 8-OH-DPAT. The response of 48 dorsal horn cells to 5-HT and buspirone iontophoresis was compared. Forty-four percent (21/48) of the cells were inhibited by 5-HT; 16/21 were also inhibited by buspirone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8309982

  1. Retinoic acid receptor beta2 and neurite outgrowth in the adult mouse spinal cord in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jonathan; So, Po-Lin; Barber, Robert D; Vincent, Karen J; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Kingsman, Susan M; Maden, Malcolm

    2002-10-01

    Retinoic acid, acting through the nuclear retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), stimulates neurite outgrowth from peripheral nervous system tissue that has the capacity to regenerate neurites, namely, embryonic and adult dorsal root ganglia. Similarly, in central nervous system tissue that can regenerate, namely, embryonic mouse spinal cord, retinoic acid also stimulates neurite outgrowth and RARbeta2 is upregulated. By contrast, in the adult mouse spinal cord, which cannot regenerate, no such upregulation of RARbeta2 by retinoic acid is observed and no neurites are extended in vitro. To test our hypothesis that the upregulation of RARbeta2 is crucial to neurite regeneration, we have transduced adult mouse or rat spinal cord in vitro with a minimal equine infectious anaemia virus vector expressing RARbeta2. After transduction, prolific neurite outgrowth occurs. Outgrowth does not occur when the cord is transduced with a different isoform of RARbeta nor does it occur following treatment with nerve growth factor. These data demonstrate that RARbeta2 is involved in neurite outgrowth, at least in vitro, and that this gene may in the future be of some therapeutic use. PMID:12235288

  2. Electroacupuncture reduces the evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in ankle-sprained rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat. Dorsal horn neuron responses to ankle movements or compr...

  3. A novel transverse push-pull microprobe: in vitro characterization and in vivo demonstration of the enzymatic production of adenosine in the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, S L; Sluka, K A; Arnold, M A

    2001-01-01

    Adenosine produces analgesia in the spinal cord and can be formed extracellularly through enzymatic conversion of adenine nucleotides. A transverse push-pull microprobe was developed and characterized to sample extracellular adenosine concentrations of the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Samples collected via this sampling technique reveal that AMP is converted to adenosine in the dorsal horn. This conversion is decreased by the ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor, alpha,beta-methylene ADP. Related behavioral studies demonstrate that AMP administered directly to the spinal cord can reverse the secondary mechanical hyperalgesia characteristic of the intradermal capsaicin model of inflammatory pain. The specific adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT) inhibits the antihyperalgesia produced by AMP. This research introduces a novel microprobe that can be used as an adjunct sampling technique to microdialysis and push-pull cannulas. Furthermore, we conclude that AMP is converted to adenosine in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord by ecto-5'-nucleotidase and subsequently may be one source of adenosine, acting through adenosine A(1) receptors in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which produce antihyperalgesia. PMID:11145997

  4. Exercise alleviates hypoalgesia and increases the level of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Severo do Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treadmill training on nociceptive sensitivity and immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, diabetic and trained diabetic. Treadmill training was performed for 8 weeks. The blood glucose concentrations and body weight were evaluated 48 h after diabetes induction and every 30 days thereafter. The nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using the tail-flick apparatus. The animals were then transcardially perfused, and the spinal cords were post-fixed, cryoprotected and sectioned in a cryostat. Immunohistochemistry for calcitonin gene-related peptide analysis was performed on the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. RESULTS: The nociceptive sensitivity analysis revealed that, compared with the control and trained diabetic animals, the latency to tail deflection on the apparatus was longer for the diabetic animals. Optical densitometry demonstrated decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in diabetic animals, which was reversed by treadmill training. CONCLUSION: We concluded that treadmill training can alleviate nociceptive hypoalgesia and reverse decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of diabetic animals without pharmacological treatment.

  5. fMRI Evidence for Dorsal Stream Processing Abnormality in Adults Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Leutcher, Russia Ha-Vinh; Millet, Veronique; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of premature birth on the functional neuroanatomy of the dorsal stream of visual processing. fMRI was recorded while sixteen healthy participants, 8 (two men) adults (19 years 6 months old, SD 10 months) born premature (mean gestational age 30 weeks), referred to as Premas, and 8 (two men) matched controls (20…

  6. Rabies virus infection of cultured adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Castellanos; Hernán Hurtado; Janeth Arias; Alvaro Velandia

    1996-01-01

    An in vitro model of adult dorsal root ganglion neurons infection by rabies virus is described. Viral marked neurotropism is observed, and the percentage and the degree of infection of the neurons is higher than in non neuronal cells, even if neurons are the minority of the cells in the culture. The neuritic tree is also heavily infected by the virus.

  7. Rabies virus infection of cultured adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Castellanos

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro model of adult dorsal root ganglion neurons infection by rabies virus is described. Viral marked neurotropism is observed, and the percentage and the degree of infection of the neurons is higher than in non neuronal cells, even if neurons are the minority of the cells in the culture. The neuritic tree is also heavily infected by the virus.

  8. Dorsal intramedullary spinal epidermoid cysts: Report of two cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cincu Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramedullary epidermoid cysts of the spinal cord are rare tumors, especially those not associated with spinal dysraphism. About 50 cases have been reported in the literature. Of these, only seven cases have had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies. We report two cases of spinal intramedullary epidermoid cysts with MR imaging. Both were not associated with spina bifida. In one patient, the tumor was located at D4 vertebral level; while in the other, within the conus medullaris. The clinical features, MRI characteristics and surgical treatment of intramedullary epidermoid cyst are presented with relevant review of the literature.

  9. Information to cerebellum on spinal motor networks mediated by the dorsal spinocerebellar tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecina, Katinka; Fedirchuk, Brent; Hultborn, Hans

    peripheral sensory input to the cerebellum in general, and during rhythmic movements such as locomotion and scratch. In contrast, the VSCT was seen as conveying a copy of the output of spinal neuronal circuitry, including those circuits generating rhythmic motor activity (the spinal central pattern generator......, overall, there is a greater similarity between DSCT and VSCT activity than previously acknowledged. Indeed the majority of DSCT cells can be driven by spinal CPGs for locomotion and scratch without phasic sensory input. It thus seems natural to propose the possibility that CPG input to some of these...

  10. Peripheral nerve injury increases glutamate-evoked calcium mobilization in adult spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doolen Suzanne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central sensitization in the spinal cord requires glutamate receptor activation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. We used Fura-2 AM bulk loading of mouse slices together with wide-field Ca2+ imaging to measure glutamate-evoked increases in extracellular Ca2+ to test the hypotheses that: 1. Exogenous application of glutamate causes Ca2+ mobilization in a preponderance of dorsal horn neurons within spinal cord slices taken from adult mice; 2. Glutamate-evoked Ca2+ mobilization is associated with spontaneous and/or evoked action potentials; 3. Glutamate acts at glutamate receptor subtypes to evoked Ca2+ transients; and 4. The magnitude of glutamate-evoked Ca2+ responses increases in the setting of peripheral neuropathic pain. Results Bath-applied glutamate robustly increased [Ca2+]i in 14.4 ± 2.6 cells per dorsal horn within a 440 x 330 um field-of-view, with an average time-to-peak of 27 s and decay of 112 s. Repeated application produced sequential responses of similar magnitude, indicating the absence of sensitization, desensitization or tachyphylaxis. Ca2+ transients were glutamate concentration-dependent with a Kd = 0.64 mM. Ca2+ responses predominantly occurred on neurons since: 1 Over 95% of glutamate-responsive cells did not label with the astrocyte marker, SR-101; 2 62% of fura-2 AM loaded cells exhibited spontaneous action potentials; 3 75% of cells that responded to locally-applied glutamate with a rise in [Ca2+]i also showed a significant increase in AP frequency upon a subsequent glutamate exposure; 4 In experiments using simultaneous on-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging, glutamate elicited a Ca2+ response and an increase in AP frequency. AMPA/kainate (CNQX- and AMPA (GYKI 52466-selective receptor antagonists significantly attenuated glutamate-evoked increases in [Ca2+]i, while NMDA (AP-5, kainate (UBP-301 and class I mGluRs (AIDA did not. Compared to sham controls, peripheral nerve injury

  11. Signaling proteins in spinal parenchyma and dorsal root ganglion in rat with spinal injury-induced spasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupcová Skalníková, Helena; Navarro, R.; Marsala, S.; Hrabáková, Rita; Vodička, Petr; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana; Marsala, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2013), s. 41-57. ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10044; GA TA ČR TA01011466; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : spinal cord trauma * spasticity * hyper-reflexia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.929, year: 2013

  12. A Surgery Protocol for Adult Zebrafish Spinal Cord Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Fang; Jin-Fei Lin; Hong-Chao Pan; Yan-Qin Shen; Melitta Schachner

    2012-01-01

    Adult zebrafish has a remarkable capability to recover from spinal cord injury,providing an excellent model for studying neuroregeneration.Here we list equipment and reagents,and give a detailed protocol for complete transection of the adult zebrafish spinal cord.In this protocol,potential problems and their solutions are described so that the zebrafish spinal cord injury model can be more easily and reproducibly performed.In addition,two assessments are introduced to monitor the success of the surgery and functional recovery:one test to assess free swimming capability and the other test to assess extent of neuroregeneration by in vivo anterograde axonal tracing.In the swimming behavior test,successful complete spinal cord transection is monitored by the inability of zebrafish to swim freely for 1 week after spinal cord injury,followed by the gradual reacquisition of full locomotor ability within 6 weeks after injury.As a morphometric correlate,anterograde axonal tracing allows the investigator to monitor the ability of regenerated axons to cross the lesion site and increasingly extend into the gray and white matter with time after injury,confirming functional recovery.This zebrafish model provides a paradigm for recovery from spinal cord injury,enabling the identification of pathways and components of neuroregeneration.

  13. Expression and transport of Angiotensin II AT1 receptors in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel, Jaroslav; Tang, Hui; Brimijoin, Stephen; Moughamian, Armen; Nishioku, Tsuyoshi; Benicky, Julius; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the role of Angiotensin II in the regulation of peripheral sensory and motor systems, we initiated a study of the expression, localization and transport of Angiotensin II receptor types in the rat sciatic nerve pathway, including L4–L5 spinal cord segments, the corresponding dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and the sciatic nerve.

  14. Effect of propofol on glutamate-induced activation and elated inflammatory cytokines of astrocytes from spinal cord dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengming Qin; Qing Li; Juying Liu; Tao Zhu; Yong Xiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astrocytes participate in central nervous system-mediated physiological or pathological processes, such as pain. Activated dorsal horn astrocytes from the spinal cord produce nerve active substances and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-I beta (IL-1 β ), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a ), which play important roles in pain transduction and regulation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different doses of propofol on activation of cultured spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes induced by glutamate, as well as changes in IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-a, and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) expression in rats, and to explore the dose relationship of propofnl. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The cellular and molecular biology experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory of Yunyang Medical College between March 2006 and December 2007. MATERIALS: Forty healthy, Wistar rats, aged 2-3 days, were selected. Propofol was provided by Zeneca, UK; glutamate by Sigma, USA; EPICS XL flow cytometry by Beckman culture, USA; rabbit-anti-mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibody kit and inflammatory cytokine detection kit were provided by Zhongshan Biotechnology Company Ltd., Beijing; multimedia color pathologic image analysis system was a product of Nikon, Japan. METHODS: Astrocytes were harvested from T11-L6spinal cord dorsal horn of Wistar rats and incubated for 3 weeks. The cells were divided into seven groups, according to various treatment conditions: control group was cells cultured in Hank's buffered saline solution; intralipid group was cells cultured in intralipid (0.2 mL/L); glutamate group was cells cultured with 100 μ mol/L glutamate; propofol group was cells cultured with 250 μ mol/L propofol; three glutamate plus propofol groups were cultured in 100 μ mol/L of glutamate, followed by 5, 25, and 250 μ mol/L of prnpofol 10 minutes later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GFAP-labeled astrocytes were analyzed using a multimedia

  15. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I-III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D; Abraira, Victoria E; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I-III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty in identifying glutamatergic synapses with light microscopy. Although there are numerous potential targets for antibodies, these are difficult to visualize with immunocytochemistry, because of protein cross-linking following tissue fixation. Although this can be overcome by antigen retrieval methods, these lead to difficulty in detecting other antigens. The aim of this study was to test whether the postsynaptic protein Homer can be used to reveal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal horn. Immunostaining for Homer gave punctate labeling when viewed by confocal microscopy, and this was restricted to synapses at the ultrastructural level. We found that Homer puncta were colocalized with the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit, but not with the inhibitory synapse-associated protein gephyrin. We also examined several populations of glutamatergic axons and found that most boutons were in contact with at least one Homer punctum. These results suggest that Homer antibodies can be used to reveal the great majority of glutamatergic synapses without antigen retrieval. This will be of considerable value in tracing synaptic circuits, and also in investigating plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in pain states. PMID:27185486

  16. Protein composition and synthesis in the adult mouse spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of spinal cord proteins were studied in adult mice subjected to unilateral crush or electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve. The protein composition of spinal tissue was determined using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with subcellular fractionation. Comparisons of mouse spinal cord and brain revealed similarities in the types but differences in the concentrations of myelin associated proteins, nuclear histones and other proteins. Comparisons with sciatic nerve proteins demonstrated differences in types of proteins but similarities in the concentration of myelin proteins and nuclear histones. The short term (less than 2 hrs.) incorporation of radioactive amino acids into spinal cord proteins revealed heterogeneous rates of incorporation. Neither nerve crush six days prior to testing nor sciatic nerve stimulation had a significant effect on the protein composition or amino acid incorporation rates of spinal cord tissue. These observations suggest that known differences in spinal cord function following alterations in nerve input may be dependent upon different mechanisms than have been found in the brain

  17. Central connectivity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-expressing axons in the brain stem and spinal dorsal horn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Sook Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channels mediate the detection of noxious and innocuous cold and are expressed by primary sensory neurons, but little is known about the processing of the TRPM8-mediated cold information within the trigeminal sensory nuclei (TSN and the spinal dorsal horn (DH. To address this issue, we characterized TRPM8-positive (+ neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and investigated the distribution of TRPM8+ axons and terminals, and their synaptic organization in the TSN and in the DH using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8+ neurons. TRPM8 was expressed in a fraction of small myelinated primary afferent fibers (23.7% and unmyelinated fibers (76.3%, suggesting that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via C and Aδ afferents. TRPM8+ axons were observed in all TSN, but at different densities in the dorsal and ventral areas of the rostral TSN, which dominantly receive sensory afferents from intra- and peri-oral structures and from the face, respectively. While synaptic boutons arising from Aδ and non-peptidergic C afferents usually receive many axoaxonic contacts and form complex synaptic arrangements, TRPM8+ boutons arising from afferents of the same classes of fibers showed a unique synaptic connectivity; simple synapses with one or two dendrites and sparse axoaxonic contacts. These findings suggest that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via a specific subset of C and Aδ afferent neurons and is processed in a unique manner and differently in the TSN and DH.

  18. Incidence of surgical site infection following adult spinal deformity surgery: an analysis of patient risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pull ter Gunne, Albert F.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Cohen, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) following spinal surgery is a frequent complication and results in higher morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Patients undergoing surgery for spinal deformity (scoliosis/kyphosis) have longer surgeries, involving more spinal levels and larger blood losses than typical spinal procedures. Previous research has identified risk factors for SSI in spinal surgery, but few studies have looked at adult deformity surgeries. We retrospectively performed a large case...

  19. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  20. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  1. Differential expression patterns of K(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter 2 in neurons within the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Fariba; Holló, Krisztina; Hegedűs, Krisztina; Kis, Gréta; Hegyi, Zoltán; Dócs, Klaudia; Kasugai, Yu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Antal, Miklós

    2015-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glycine-mediated hyperpolarizing inhibition is associated with a chloride influx that depends on the inwardly directed chloride electrochemical gradient. In neurons, the extrusion of chloride from the cytosol primarily depends on the expression of an isoform of potassium-chloride cotransporters (KCC2s). KCC2 is crucial in the regulation of the inhibitory tone of neural circuits, including pain processing neural assemblies. Thus we investigated the cellular distribution of KCC2 in neurons underlying pain processing in the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats by using high-resolution immunocytochemical methods. We demonstrated that perikarya and dendrites widely expressed KCC2, but axon terminals proved to be negative for KCC2. In single ultrathin sections, silver deposits labeling KCC2 molecules showed different densities on the surface of dendritic profiles, some of which were negative for KCC2. In freeze fracture replicas and tissue sections double stained for the β3-subunit of GABAA receptors and KCC2, GABAA receptors were revealed on dendritic segments with high and also with low KCC2 densities. By measuring the distances between spots immunoreactive for gephyrin (a scaffolding protein of GABAA and glycine receptors) and KCC2 on the surface of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-immunoreactive dendrites, we found that gephyrin-immunoreactive spots were located at various distances from KCC2 cotransporters; 5.7 % of them were recovered in the middle of 4-10-µm-long dendritic segments that were free of KCC2 immunostaining. The variable local densities of KCC2 may result in variable postsynaptic potentials evoked by the activation of GABAA and glycine receptors along the dendrites of spinal neurons. PMID:25764511

  2. Neuronal intrinsic properties shape naturally-evoked sensory inputs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia eReali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic electrophysiological properties arising from specific combinations of voltage-gated channels are fundamental for the performance of small neural networks in invertebrates, but their role in large-scale vertebrate circuits remains controversial. Although spinal neurons have complex intrinsic properties, some tasks produce high-conductance states that override intrinsic conductances, minimizing their contribution to network function. Because the detection and coding of somato-sensory information at early stages probably involves a relatively small number of neurons, we speculated that intrinsic electrophysiological properties are likely involved in the processing of sensory inputs by dorsal horn neurons (DHN. To test this idea, we took advantage of an integrated spinal cord–hindlimbs preparation from turtles allowing the combination of patch-clamp recordings of DHN embedded in an intact network, with accurate control of the extracellular milieu. We found that plateau potentials and low threshold spikes (LTS -mediated by L- and T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively- generated complex dynamics by interacting with naturally evoked synaptic potentials. Inhibitory receptive fields could be changed in sign by activation of the LTS. On the other hand, the plateau potential transformed sensory signals in the time domain by generating persistent activity triggered on and off by brief sensory inputs and windup of the response to repetitive sensory stimulation. Our findings suggest that intrinsic properties dynamically shape sensory inputs and thus represent a major building block for sensory processing by DHN. Intrinsic conductances in DHN appear to provide a mechanism for plastic phenomena such as dynamic receptive fields and sensitization to pain.

  3. Marked depletion of dorsal spinal cord substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide with intact skin flare responses in multiple system atrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, P; Bannister, R; McGregor, G P; Ghatei, M A; Mulderry, P K; Bloom, S R

    1988-01-01

    In view of the presence of neuropeptides in spinal cord autonomic pathways, their regional concentration was studied in post mortem thoracic cord from four cases of multiple system atrophy with progressive autonomic failure (MSA). A marked depletion was observed of substance P, its related peptide substance K, and of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), particularly in dorsal regions where peptide-containing sensory fibres terminate. As substance P and CGRP in primary sensory fibres are co...

  4. Tlx1/3 and Ptf1a control the expression of distinct sets of transmitter and peptide receptor genes in the developing dorsal spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Zhao, Congling; Huang, Menggui; Huang, Tianwen; Fan, Mingran; Xie, Zhiqin; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Xiaolin; Xia, Guannan; Geng, Junlan; Cheng, Leping

    2012-06-20

    Establishing the pattern of expression of transmitters and peptides as well as their receptors in different neuronal types is crucial for understanding the circuitry in various regions of the brain. Previous studies have demonstrated that the transmitter and peptide phenotypes in mouse dorsal spinal cord neurons are determined by the transcription factors Tlx1/3 and Ptf1a. Here we show that these transcription factors also determine the expression of two distinct sets of transmitter and peptide receptor genes in this region. We have screened the expression of 78 receptor genes in the spinal dorsal horn by in situ hybridization. We found that receptor genes Gabra1, Gabra5, Gabrb2, Gria3, Grin3a, Grin3b, Galr1, and Npy1r were preferentially expressed in Tlx3-expressing glutamatergic neurons and their derivatives, and deletion of Tlx1 and Tlx3 resulted in the loss of expression of these receptor genes. Furthermore, we obtained genetic evidence that Tlx3 uses distinct pathways to control the expression of receptor genes. We also found that receptor genes Grm3, Grm4, Grm5, Grik1, Grik2, Grik3, and Sstr2 were mainly expressed in Pax2-expressing GABAergic neurons in the spinal dorsal horn, and their expression in this region was abolished or markedly reduced in Ptf1a and Pax2 deletion mutant mice. Together, our studies indicate that Tlx1/3 and Ptf1a, the key transcription factors for fate determination of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal spinal cord, are also responsible for controlling the expression of two distinct sets of transmitter and peptide receptor genes. PMID:22723691

  5. Minocycline enhances inhibitory transmission to substantia gelatinosa neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H-Z; Ma, L-X; Lv, M-H; Hu, T; Liu, T

    2016-04-01

    Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, is well known for its antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. Modulation of synaptic transmission is one of the analgesic mechanisms of minocycline. Although it has been reported that minocycline may suppress excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission, it remains unclear whether it could affect inhibitory synaptic transmission, which also plays a key role in modulating pain signaling. To examine the effect of minocycline on synaptic transmission in rat spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) using whole-cell patch-clamp recording at a holding potential of 0 mV. Bath application of minocycline significantly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of sIPSCs in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 85. The enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission produced by minocycline was not affected by the glutamate receptor antagonists CNQX and D-APV or by the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Moreover, the potency of minocycline for facilitating sIPSC frequency was the same in both glycinergic and GABAergic sIPSCs without changing their decay phases. However, the facilitatory effect of minocycline on sIPSCs was eliminated in a Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution or by co-administration with calcium channel blockers. In summary, our data demonstrate that baseline inhibitory synaptic transmission in SG neurons is markedly enhanced by minocycline. This may function to decrease the excitability of SG neurons, thus leading to a modulation of nociceptive transmission. PMID:26826332

  6. Transplantation of an Acutely Isolated Bone Marrow Fraction Repairs Demyelinated Adult Rat Spinal Cord Axons

    OpenAIRE

    SASAKI, MASANORI; HONMOU, OSAMU; Akiyama, Yukinori; Uede,Teiji; Hashi,Kazuo; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2001-01-01

    The potential of bone marrow cells to differentiate into myelin-forming cells and to repair the demyelinated rat spinal cord in vivo was studied using cell transplantation techniques. The dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord was demyelinated by x-irradiation treatment, followed by microinjection of ethidium bromide. Suspensions of a bone marrow cell fraction acutely isolated from femoral bones in LacZ transgenic mice were prepared by centrifugation on a density gradient (Ficoll-Paque) to remov...

  7. Intact sciatic myelinated primary afferent terminals collaterally sprout in the adult rat dorsal horn following section of a neighbouring peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubell, T P; Mannion, R J; Woolf, C J

    1997-03-31

    Peripheral nerve section induces sprouting of the central terminals of axotomized myelinated primary afferents outside their normal dorsoventral termination zones in lamina I, III, and IV of the dorsal horn into lamina II, an area that normally only receives unmyelinated C-fiber input. This axotomy-induced regenerative sprouting is confined to the somatotopic boundaries of the injured nerve in the spinal cord. We examined whether intact myelinated sciatic afferents are able to sprout novel terminals into neighbouring areas of the dorsal horn in the adult rat following axotomy of two test nerves, either the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh or the saphenous nerve. These peripheral nerves have somatotopically organized terminal areas in the dorsal horn that overlap in some areas and are contiguous in others, with that of the sciatic central terminal field. Two weeks after cutting either the posterior cutaneous or the saphenous nerve, intact sciatic myelinated fibers labelled with the B fragment of cholera toxin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (B-HRP) sprouted into an area of lamina II normally only innervated by the adjacent injured test nerve. This collateral sprouting was strictly limited, however, to those particular areas of the dorsal horn where the A-fiber terminal field of the control sciatic and the C-fiber terminal field of the injured test nerve overlapped in the dorsoventral plane. No mediolateral sprouting was seen into those areas of neuropil solely innervated by the test nerve. We conclude that intact myelinated primary afferents do have the capacity to collaterally sprout, but that any resultant somatotopic reorganization of central projections is limited to the dorsoventral plane. These changes may contribute to sensory hypersensitivity at the edges of denervated skin. PMID:9073085

  8. The up-regulation of IL-6 in DRG and spinal dorsal horn contributes to neuropathic pain following L5 ventral root transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xu-Hong; Na, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Guang-Jie; Chen, Qiu-Ying; Cui, Yu; Chen, Feng-Ying; Li, Yong-Yong; Zang, Ying; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2013-03-01

    Our previous works have shown that pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in neuropathic pain produced by lumber 5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT). In the present work we evaluate the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6), another key inflammatory cytokine, in the L5-VRT model. We found that IL-6 was up-regulated in the ipsilateral L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglian (DRG) neurons and in bilateral lumbar spinal cord following L5-VRT. Double immunofluorescence stainings revealed that in DRGs the increased immunoreactivity (IR) of IL-6 was almost restricted in neuronal cells, while in the spinal dorsal horn IL-6-IR up-regulated in both glial cells (astrocyte and microglia) and neurons. Intrathecal administration of IL-6 neutralizing antibody significantly delayed the induction of mechanical allodynia in bilateral hindpaws after L5-VRT. Furthermore, inhibition of TNF-α synthesis by intraperitoneal thalidomide prevented both mechanical allodynia and the up-regulation of IL-6 in DRGs following L5-VRT. These data suggested that the increased IL-6 in afferent neurons and spinal cord contribute to the development of neuropathic pain following motor fiber injury, and that TNF-α is responsible for the up-regulation of IL-6. PMID:23261764

  9. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor regulates glutamatergic synaptic inputs to the spinothalamic tract neurons of the spinal cord deep dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Cui, L; Kim, J; Kim, S J

    2009-05-01

    The spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons in the spinal dorsal horn play an important role in transmission and processing of nociceptive sensory information. Although transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors are present in the spinal cord dorsal horn, their physiological function is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the role of TRPV1 in modulating neuronal activity of the STT neurons through excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on STT neurons labeled by a retrograde fluorescent tracer injected into the ventral posterior lateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus. Capsaicin (1 microM) increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) without changing the amplitude or decay time constant of mEPSC. In contrast, capsaicin had no distinct effect on GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC). Capsazepine (10 microM), a TRPV1 receptor antagonist, abolished the effect of capsaicin on mEPSCs. Capsazepine itself did not affect the baseline amplitude and frequency of mEPSC. The effect of capsaicin on mEPSC was also abolished by removal of external Ca(2+), but not by treatment with Cd(2+). Furthermore, capsaicin increased the firing activity of the STT neurons and this increase in neuronal activity by capsaicin was abolished in the presence of non-N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and NMDA receptor antagonists, 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX) and (R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV). These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 potentiates the glutamate release from excitatory terminals of primary afferent fibers and subsequently increases the neural activity of STT neurons of the rat spinal cord deep dorsal horn. PMID:19236908

  10. Axotomy of tributaries of the pelvic and pudendal nerves induces changes in the neurochemistry of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons and the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carly J; Tomasella, Eugenia; Malet, Mariana; Seroogy, Kim B; Hökfelt, Tomas; Villar, Marcelo J; Gebhart, G F; Brumovsky, Pablo R

    2016-05-01

    Using immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized changes in the expression of several neurochemical markers in lumbar 4-sacral 2 (L4-S2) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron profiles (NPs) and the spinal cord of BALB/c mice after axotomy of the L6 and S1 spinal nerves, major tributaries of the pelvic (targeting pelvic visceral organs) and pudendal (targeting perineum and genitalia) nerves. Sham animals were included. Expression of cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 3 (ATF3), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT) types 1 and -2 was analysed seven days after injury. L6-S1 axotomy induced dramatic de novo expression of ATF3 in many L6-S1 DRG NPs, and parallel significant downregulations in the percentage of CGRP-, TRPV1-, TH- and VGLUT2-immunoreactive (IR) DRG NPs, as compared to their expression in uninjured DRGs (contralateral L6-S1-AXO; sham mice); VGLUT1 expression remained unaltered. Sham L6-S1 DRGs only showed a small ipsilateral increase in ATF3-IR NPs (other markers were unchanged). L6-S1-AXO induced de novo expression of ATF3 in several lumbosacral spinal cord motoneurons and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons; in sham mice the effect was limited to a few motoneurons. Finally, a moderate decrease in CGRP- and TRPV1-like-immunoreactivities was observed in the ipsilateral superficial dorsal horn neuropil. In conclusion, injury of a mixed visceral/non-visceral nerve leads to considerable neurochemical alterations in DRGs matched, to some extent, in the spinal cord. Changes in these and potentially other nociception-related molecules could contribute to pain due to injury of nerves in the abdominopelvic cavity. PMID:25749859

  11. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  12. Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in Sensory Neurons of Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Momeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG undergo apoptosis after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to investigate sensory neuron death and the mechanism involved in the death of these neurons in cultured DRG.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, L5 DRG from adult mouse were dissected and incubated in culture medium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Freshly dissected and cultured DRG were then fixed and sectioned using a cryostat. Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were investigated using fluorescent staining (Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 and the terminal Deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method respectively. To study the role of caspases, general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD.fmk, 100 μM and immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 were used.Results: After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in culture, sensory neurons not only displayed morphological features of apoptosis but also they appeared TUNEL positive. The application of Z-VAD.fmk inhibited apoptosis in these neurons over the same time period. In addition, intense activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity was found both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of these neurons after 24 and 48 hours.Conclusion: Results of the present study show caspase-dependent apoptosis in the sensory neurons of cultured DRG from adult mouse.

  13. Spinal metastasis of medulloblastoma in adults: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuro-ectodermal malignant tumor most commonly seen in childhood and rarely and uncommonly in adult age. Treatment consists of surgery followed by radiotherapy. In the case of a relapse there is no overall accepted treatment. Tumor metastasis can be seen along the neural axis, lymph nodes, soft tissues, bones and distant organs. Case Outline. In this paper we present a 45-year-old female patient with a thoraco-spinal extramedullary metastatic medulloblastoma and progressive neurological deterioration seen 11 months after the first operation and description of magnetic resonance and intraoperative finding. Conclusion. Although rare, the presence of metastasis is a poor prognostic factor. The treatment options for patients with metastases are limited and their prognosis continues to remain poor.

  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn of a rat model of formalin-induced inflammatory pain following intrathecal injection of butorphanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yichun Wang; Yuan Zhang; Qulian Guo; Xiaohong Liu; Mingde Wang; Hui Luo

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and animal experiments have proved that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect. However, whether the analgesic effect is associated with activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor remains unclear. This study presumed that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect on formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rats, and its analgesic effect is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptors. Concurrently, ketamine was injected into the intrathecal space, which is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, to determine the analgesic mechanism of butorphanol. The total reflection time in phase 1 and phase 2 of rat hind paws carding action was reduced when the butorphanol dose was increased to 25 μg,or a low dose of butorphanol was combined with ketamine. Intrathecal injection of a high dose of butorphanol alone or a Iow dose of butorphanol combined with ketamine can remarkably reduce NMDA receptor expression in the L5 spinal dorsal horn of formalin-induced pain rats. The results suggest that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has analgesic effects on formalin-induced inflammatory pain, and remarkably reduces NMDA receptor expression in the rat spinal dorsal horn.Ketamine strengthens this analgesic effect. The analgesic mechanism of intrathecal injection of butorphanol is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptor activation.

  15. Involvement of opioid receptors in the CGRP8-37-induced inhibition of the activity of wide-dynamic-range neurons in the spinal dorsal horn of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2004-07-01

    The present study was performed to explore the involvement of opioid receptors in the calcitonin gene-related peptide 8-37 (CGRP8-37, an antagonist of CGRP receptor)-induced inhibition of the activity of wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neurons in the spinal dorsal horn of rats. Extracellular recording was performed with a multibarrelled glass micropipette, and the chemicals were delivered by micro-iontophoresis. The discharge frequency of WDR neurons was evoked by subcutaneous electrical stimulation applied to the ipsilateral hindpaw. Iontophoretic application of CGRP8-37 by an ejection current of 160 nA induced significant inhibition of the discharge frequency of WDR neurons. The inhibitory effect of CGRP8-37 on the activity of WDR neurons was attenuated by later iontophoretic application of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Furthermore, the effect of CGRP8-37 was attenuated by either iontophoretic application of the kappa-receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or the mu-receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) but not by the delta-receptor antagonist naltrindole. The results indicate that kappa- and mu-opioid receptors on the membrane of WDR neurons are involved in the modulation of CGRP8-37-induced antinociception in dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats. PMID:15197748

  16. Alteration of forebrain neurogenesis after cervical spinal cord injury in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Solenne eFELIX

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI triggers a complex cellular response at the injury site, leading to the formation of a dense scar tissue. Despite this local tissue remodeling, the consequences of SCI at the cellular level in distant rostral sites (i.e. brain, remain unknown. In this study, we asked whether cervical SCI could alter cell dynamics in neurogenic areas of the adult rat forebrain. To this aim, we quantified BrdU incorporation and determined the phenotypes of newly generated cells (neurons, astrocytes, or microglia during the subchronic and chronic phases of injury. We find that subchronic SCI leads to a reduction of BrdU incorporation and neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. By contrast, subchronic SCI triggers an increased BrdU incorporation in the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain, where most of the newly generated cells are identified as microglia. In chronic condition 90 days after SCI, BrdU incorporation returns to control levels in all regions examined, except in the hippocampus, where SCI produces a long-term reduction of neurogenesis, indicating that this structure is particularly sensitive to SCI. Finally, we observe that SCI triggers an acute inflammatory response in all brain regions examined, as well as a hippocampal-specific decline in BDNF levels, which could explain the SCI-mediated distant effects on forebrain neurogenesis. This study provides the first demonstration that forebrain neurogenesis is vulnerable to a distal SCI.

  17. Lentiviral gene transfer into the dorsal root ganglion of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Frank

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentivector-mediated gene delivery into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is a promising method for exploring pain pathophysiology and for genetic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, a series of modified lentivector particles with different cellular promoters, envelope glycoproteins, and viral accessory proteins were generated to evaluate the requirements for efficient transduction into neuronal cells in vitro and adult rat DRG in vivo. Results In vitro, lentivectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α promoter and pseudotyped with the conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G envelope exhibited the best performance in the transfer of EGFP into an immortalized DRG sensory neuron cell line at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs, and into primary cultured DRG neurons at higher MOIs. In vivo, injection of either first or second-generation EF1α-EGFP lentivectors directly into adult rat DRGs led to transduction rates of 19 ± 9% and 20 ± 8% EGFP-positive DRG neurons, respectively, detected at 4 weeks post injection. Transduced cells included a full range of neuronal phenotypes, including myelinated neurons as well as both non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptive unmyelinated neurons. Conclusion VSV-G pseudotyped lentivectors containing the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α-EGFP expression cassette demonstrated relatively efficient transduction to sensory neurons following direct injection into the DRG. These results clearly show the potential of lentivectors as a viable system for delivering target genes into DRGs to explore basic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, with the potential for future clinical use in treating chronic pain.

  18. Loss of inhibitory tone on spinal cord dorsal horn spontaneously and nonspontaneously active neurons in a mouse model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Maria Carmen; Dhanasobhon, Dhanasak; Yalcin, Ipek; Schlichter, Rémy; Cordero-Erausquin, Matilde

    2016-07-01

    Plasticity of inhibitory transmission in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) is believed to be a key mechanism responsible for pain hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain syndromes. We evaluated this plasticity by recording responses to mechanical stimuli in silent neurons (nonspontaneously active [NSA]) and neurons showing ongoing activity (spontaneously active [SA]) in the SDH of control and nerve-injured mice (cuff model). The SA and NSA neurons represented 59% and 41% of recorded neurons, respectively, and were predominantly wide dynamic range (WDR) in naive mice. Nerve-injured mice displayed a marked decrease in the mechanical threshold of the injured paw. After nerve injury, the proportion of SA neurons was increased to 78%, which suggests that some NSA neurons became SA. In addition, the response to touch (but not pinch) was dramatically increased in SA neurons, and high-threshold (nociceptive specific) neurons were no longer observed. Pharmacological blockade of spinal inhibition with a mixture of GABAA and glycine receptor antagonists significantly increased responses to innocuous mechanical stimuli in SA and NSA neurons from sham animals, but had no effect in sciatic nerve-injured animals, revealing a dramatic loss of spinal inhibitory tone in this situation. Moreover, in nerve-injured mice, local spinal administration of acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, restored responses to touch similar to those observed in naive or sham mice. These results suggest that a shift in the reversal potential for anions is an important component of the abnormal mechanical responses and of the loss of inhibitory tone recorded in a model of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:26934510

  19. Dopamine from the brain promotes spinal motor neuron generation during development and adult regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Michell M; Norris, Anneliese; Ohnmacht, Jochen; Patani, Rickie; Zhong, Zhen; Dias, Tatyana B; Kuscha, Veronika; Scott, Angela L; Chen, Yu-Chia; Rozov, Stanislav; Frazer, Sarah L; Wyatt, Cameron; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Patton, E Elizabeth; Panula, Pertti; Chandran, Siddharthan; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2013-06-10

    Coordinated development of brain stem and spinal target neurons is pivotal for the emergence of a precisely functioning locomotor system. Signals that match the development of these far-apart regions of the central nervous system may be redeployed during spinal cord regeneration. Here we show that descending dopaminergic projections from the brain promote motor neuron generation at the expense of V2 interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord by activating the D4a receptor, which acts on the hedgehog pathway. Inhibiting this essential signal during early neurogenesis leads to a long-lasting reduction of motor neuron numbers and impaired motor responses of free-swimming larvae. Importantly, during successful spinal cord regeneration in adult zebrafish, endogenous dopamine promotes generation of spinal motor neurons, and dopamine agonists augment this process. Hence, we describe a supraspinal control mechanism for the development and regeneration of specific spinal cell types that uses dopamine as a signal. PMID:23707737

  20. Brainstem and thalamic projections from a craniovascular sensory nervous centre in the rostral cervical spinal dorsal horn of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y; Broman, J; Zhang, M;

    2009-01-01

    To examine the ascending projections from the headache-related trigeminocervical complex in rats, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the ventrolateral dorsal horn of segments C1 and C2, a region previously demonstrated to receive input from sensory nerves in cranial blood vessels...

  1. Depression of presynaptic excitation by the activation of vanilloid receptor 1 in the rat spinal dorsal horn revealed by optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we show that capsaicin (CAP depresses primary afferent fiber terminal excitability by acting on vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1 channels of primary afferent fibers in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP- and temperature-dependent manner using two optical imaging methods. First, transverse slices of spinal cord were stained with a voltage-sensitive dye and the net excitation in the spinal dorsal horn was recorded. Prolonged treatment (>20 min with the TRPV1 channel agonist, CAP, resulted in a long-lasting inhibition of the net excitation evoked by single-pulse stimulation of C fiber-activating strength. A shorter application of CAP inhibited the excitation in a concentration-dependent manner and the inhibition was reversed within several minutes. This inhibition was Ca++-dependent, was antagonized by the TRPV1 channel antagonist, capsazepine (CPZ, and the P2X and P2Y antagonist, suramin, and was facilitated by the P2Y agonist, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP. The inhibition of excitation was unaffected by bicuculline and strychnine, antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors, respectively. Raising the perfusate temperature to 39°C from 27°C inhibited the excitation (-3%/°C. This depressant effect was antagonized by CPZ and suramin, but not by the P2X antagonist, 2', 3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP. Second, in order to record the presynaptic excitation exclusively, we stained the primary afferent fibers anterogradely from the dorsal root. CAP application and a temperature increase from 27°C to 33°C depressed the presynaptic excitation, and CPZ antagonized these effects. Thus, this study showed that presynaptic excitability is modulated by CAP, temperature, and ATP under physiological conditions, and explains the reported central actions of CAP. These results may have clinical importance, especially for the control of pain.

  2. Lumbar spinal mobility changes among adults with advancing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Adamu Saidu

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : Using these data, we developed normative values of spinal mobility for each sex and age group. This study helps the clinicians to understand and correlate the restrictions of lumbar spinal mobility due to age and differentiate the limitations due to disease.

  3. The detailed somatotopic organization of the dorsal horn in the lumbosacral enlargement of the cat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P; Meyers, D E; Snow, P J

    1986-03-01

    The somatotopic organization of spinocervical tract cells and unidentified dorsal horn neurons that lie in the same depth range as the spinocervical tract cells has been examined in detail in the lumbosacral enlargement of cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. Only gentle hair movement or light touch of glabrous skin were used as stimuli. Within the region of the dorsal horn containing these neurons there is a precise somatotopic organization. However, there is considerable variation between animals in the relationship between the somatotopic map and the lumbosacral segmental boundaries. The somatotopic map described here is considered to be restricted to a 300- to 500-micron thick lamina. In the medial half to two-thirds of this lamina in the L6 and L7 segments the toes are represented in a rostrocaudal sequence from toe 2 to toe 5. Over the most medial 200-500 micron of this part of the dorsal horn are found cells that respond to stimulation of the glabrous skin of the toe pads and the central pad. The toe representation is surrounded by a strip of foot representation, which is in turn surrounded by a strip of leg representation. The most lateral part of the lamina curves ventrally in the L6 and L7 segments and contains a continuous rostrocaudal representation of the skin of the thigh. In this region are found both spinocervical tract cells and unidentified dorsal horn neurons with receptive fields on the thigh. The skin of the hindlimb is represented such that a line of discontinuity runs down the posteromedial thigh, leg, and foot. Skin lateral to this line is represented caudally, while skin medial to it is represented rostrally. PMID:3958785

  4. Brainstem and thalamic projections from a craniovascular sensory nervous centre in the rostral cervical spinal dorsal horn of rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Broman, Jonas; Zhang, Mengliang; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    To examine the ascending projections from the headache-related trigeminocervical complex in rats, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the ventrolateral dorsal horn of segments C1 and C2, a region previously demonstrated to receive input from sensory nerves in cranial blood vessels. Following injections into laminae I-II, BDA-labelled terminations were found bilaterally in several nuclei in the pons and the midbrain, including the pontine reticular nucleus, the parabrachial nucl...

  5. Effects of sciatic nerve transection on glucose uptake in the presence and absence of lactate in the frog dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, F; Horst, A; Kucharski, L C; Silva, R S M; Faccioni-Heuser, M C; Partata, W A

    2014-08-01

    Frogs have been used as an alternative model to study pain mechanisms because the simplicity of their nervous tissue and the phylogenetic aspect of this question. One of these models is the sciatic nerve transection (SNT), which mimics the clinical symptoms of "phantom limb", a condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In mammals, the SNT increases glucose metabolism in the central nervous system, and the lactate generated appears to serve as an energy source for nerve cells. An answerable question is whether there is elevated glucose uptake in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after peripheral axotomy. As glucose is the major energy substrate for frog nervous tissue, and these animals accumulate lactic acid under some conditions, bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus were used to demonstrate the effect of SNT on DRG and spinal cord 1-[14C] 2-deoxy-D-glucose (14C-2-DG) uptake in the presence and absence of lactate. We also investigated the effect of this condition on the formation of 14CO2 from 14C-glucose and 14C-L-lactate, and plasmatic glucose and lactate levels. The 3-O-[14C] methyl-D-glucose (14C-3-OMG) uptake was used to demonstrate the steady-state tissue/medium glucose distribution ratio under these conditions. Three days after SNT, 14C-2-DG uptake increased, but 14C-3-OMG uptake remained steady. The increase in 14C-2-DG uptake was lower when lactate was added to the incubation medium. No change was found in glucose and lactate oxidation after SNT, but lactate and glucose levels in the blood were reduced. Thus, our results showed that SNT increased the glucose metabolism in the frog DRG and spinal cord. The effect of lactate on this uptake suggests that glucose is used in glycolytic pathways after SNT. PMID:25627385

  6. Effects of intrathecal injection of glial cell inhibitor on spinal cord astrocytes following chronic compression of dorsal root ganglia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianhong Zhang; Wen Shen; Mingde Wang; Yinming Zeng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astrocytes are considered to provide nutritional support in the central nervous system. However, recent studies have confirmed that astrocytes also play an important role in chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of intrathecal injection of fluorocitrate, minocycline or both on astrocyte activation and proliferation in the spinal dorsal horn of compressed dorsal root ganglion in rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neurology randomized controlled animal study was performed at the Jiangsu Institute of Anesthesia Medicine, from September 2006 to April 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 96 male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 6-8 weeks, were selected for this study. Following intrathecal catheterization, 80 rats underwent steel bar insertion into the L4-5 intervertebral foramina to make a stable compression on the L4-5 posterior root ganglion. Thus rat models of ganglion compression were established. Minocycline and fluorocitrate were purchased from Sigma, USA. METHODS: A total of 96 rats were randomly and equally divided into six groups. Rat L4, L5 transverse process and intervertebral foramina were exposed in the sham operation group, but without steel bar insertion. The model group did not receive any manipulations. Rats in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) group were intrathecally injected with 0.01 mmol/L PBS (20 μL). Rats in the fluorocitrate group were subjected to 1 μmol/L fluorocitrate (20 μL). Rats in the minocycline group were intrathecally injected with 5 g/L minocycline (20 μL). Rats in the minocycline and fluorocitrate group received a mixture (20 μL) of 5 g/L minocycline and 1 μmol/L fluorocitrate. Following model establishment, drugs were administered once a day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 7 and 14 days following model induction, glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn was measured by immunofluorescence microscopy. Six sections with significant glial fibrillary acidic protein -positive expression were

  7. Pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, C. A.; Cole, A. A.; L. Watson; Webb, J K; Johnston, I. D.; Kinnear, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long term effects of anterior spinal surgery on pulmonary function in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis. A study was therefore undertaken of pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in this group of patients. METHODS: Fourteen patients (12 women) of mean age 26.5 years (range 17-50, 10 > or = 20 years) were studied. All 14 patients underwent thoracotomy and anterior arthrodesis, and five also underwent posterior arthrodesis. Scol...

  8. Repair of acutely injured spinal cord through constructing tissue-engineered neural complex in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Yu; GUO Qing-shan; WANG Ai-min; WU Si-yu; XING Shu-xing; ZHANG Zhong-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct tissue-engineered neural complex in vitro and study its effect in repairing acutely injured spinal cord in adult rats. Methods: Neural stem cells were harvested from the spinal cord of embryo rats and propagated in vitro. Then the neural stem cells were seeded into polyglycolic acid scaffolds and co-cultured with extract of embryonic spinal cord in vitro. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the microstructure of this complex. Animal model of spine semi-transection was made and tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted by surgical intervention. Six weeks after transplantation, functional evaluation and histochemistry were applied to evaluate the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction. Results: The tissue-engineered neural complex had a distinct structure, which contained neonatal neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted into the injured spinal cord, the cell components such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, could survive and keep on developing. The adult rats suffering from spinal cord injury got an obvious neurological recovery in motor skills. Conclusions: The tissue-engineered neural complex appears to have therapeutic effects on the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction of the adult rats with spinal cord injury.

  9. Effect of thyroxine on munc-18 and syntaxin-1 expression in dorsal hippocampus of adult-onset hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset hypothyroidism induces a variety of impairments on hippocampus- dependent neurocognitive functioningin which many synaptic proteins in hippocampus neurons are involved. Here, we observed the effect of adult-onset hypothyroidism on the expression of syntaxin-1 and munc-18 in the dorsal hippocampus and whether the altered proteins could be restored by levothyroxine (T4 treatment. All rats were separated into 4 groups randomly: hypothyroid group, 5μg T4/100 g body weight (BW treated group, 20 μg T4/100g BW treated group and control group. The radioimmunoassay kits were applied to assay the levels of serum T3 and T4, and the levels of syntaxin-1 and munc-18 in hippocampus were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Both analysis corroborated that syntaxin-1 in the hypothyroid group was significantly higher. Munc-18 was lower in four layers of CA3 and dentate gyrus by immunohistochemistry. After two weeks of treatment with 5 μg T4/100g BW for hypothyroidism, syntaxin-1 levels were completely restored, whereas the recovery of munc-18 only located in two of the four impaired layers. Twenty μg T4/100g BW treatment normalized munc-18 levels. These data suggested that adult-onset hypothyroidism induced increment of syntaxin-1 and decrement of munc-18 in the dorsal hippocampus, which could be restored by T4 treatment. Larger dosage of T4 caused more effective restorations.

  10. Osteolysis and Cervical Cord Compression Secondary to Silicone Granuloma Formation around a Dorsal Spinal Cord Stimulator: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimar, John R; Endriga, David T; Carreon, Leah Y

    2016-06-01

    Spinal cord stimulators (SCSs) have long been in use as a modality for the management of numerous pain pathologies. Along with commonly anticipated morbidities such as displacement, failure (due to fracture or breakage), or infection, there have also been rare but well-documented complications of fibrous scarring, resulting in spinal cord compression. This is the first known case that demonstrates osteolysis and bony destruction of the vertebrae adjacent to the SCS along with the foreign-body granulomatous reaction. A 61-year-old man who underwent prior posterior cervical implantation with an SCS followed by multiple revisions presented with progressive paresthesias, numbness, and weakness of his upper extremities 10 years later. The SCS was removed followed by decompression, and instrumented fusion of the cervical spine. Histopathologic analysis reveals foreign-body reaction to the SCS and its silicone debris. Tissue cultures were negative for bacterial, fungal, or mycobacterial infection. No malignancy was seen. The current case illustrates the inherent possibility of foreign-body granulomatous reactions with SCS and its silicone particulate matter, made unique in this instance by the associated bony destruction of the adjacent vertebrae. PMID:27247910

  11. Reevaluation of the Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Cutaneous Vasodilation during Dorsal Spinal Cord Stimulation: Are Multiple Mechanisms Active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, J E; Foreman, R D; Chandler, M J; Barron, K W

    1998-04-01

    Objective. In addition to treatment of refractory chronic pain in patients with peripheral vascular disease, dorsal spinal cord stimulation (DCS) increases cutaneous blood flow to the extremities and may have a limb-saving effect. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the cutaneous vasodilation due to DCS. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital (60 mg/kg, i.p.). A unipolar ball electrode was placed on the left side of the exposed spinal cord at approximately the L1-L2 level. Blood flow was concurrently recorded from both hindpaw foot pads with laser Doppler flowmeters. Blood flow responses were assessed during 1 min of DCS (0.6 mA at 50 Hz, 0.2 msec pulse duration) at 10 min intervals. To determine the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system in the blood flow response to DCS, the role of ganglionic transmission, alpha-adrenergic receptors, beta-adrenergic receptors, and adrenal catecholamine secretion were investigated using adrenergic receptor antagonists. Results. Hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, i.v.), an autonomic ganglionic receptor antagonist, did not attenuate the cutaneous vasodilation during DCS. Phentolamine (3 mg/kg, i.v.), a nonselective alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, also did not attenuate the DCS-induced increase in peripheral cutaneous blood flow. On the other hand, prazosin (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.), a selective alpha-1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, attenuated the DCS response but this may, at least, be partly due to a vehicle effect. Propranolol (5 mg/kg, i.v.), a nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, attenuated the DCS response while adrenal demedullation did not. Conclusion. Overall, our results show that DCS-induced vasodilation can occur through mechanisms that are independent of sympathetic outflow. PMID:22150941

  12. Physiological properties of enkephalin-containing neurons in the spinal dorsal horn visualized by expression of green fluorescent protein in BAC transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofuji Takefumi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enkephalins are endogenous opiates that are assumed to modulate nociceptive information by mediating synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, including the spinal dorsal horn. Results To develop a new tool for the identification of in vitro enkephalinergic neurons and to analyze enkephalin promoter activity, we generated transgenic mice for a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC. Enkephalinergic neurons from these mice expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the preproenkephalin (PPE gene (penk1 promoter. eGFP-positive neurons were distributed throughout the gray matter of the spinal cord, and were primarily observed in laminae I-II and V-VII, in a pattern similar to the distribution pattern of enkephalin-containing neurons. Double immunostaining analysis using anti-enkephalin and anti-eGFP antibodies showed that all eGFP-expressing neurons contained enkephalin. Incubation in the presence of forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, increased the number of eGFP-positive neurons. These results indicate that eGFP expression is controlled by the penk1 promoter, which contains cyclic AMP-responsive elements. Sections obtained from sciatic nerve-ligated mice exhibited increased eGFP-positive neurons on the ipsilateral (nerve-ligated side compared with the contralateral (non-ligated side. These data indicate that PPE expression is affected by peripheral nerve injury. Additionally, single-neuron RT-PCR analysis showed that several eGFP positive-neurons in laminae I-II expressed glutamate decarboxylase 67 mRNA and that some expressed serotonin type 3 receptors. Conclusions These results suggest that eGFP-positive neurons in laminae I-II coexpress enkephalin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, and are activated by forskolin and in conditions of nerve injury. The penk1-eGFP BAC transgenic mouse contributes to the further characterization of enkephalinergic neurons in the transmission and

  13. Clinical features of adult spinal muscular atrophy:46 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun He; Ping Zhang; Guanghui Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a kind of degenerative disease of nervous system. There are 4 types in clinic, especially types Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ are common, and the researches on those 3 types are relative mature. Type Ⅳ is a kind of adult spinal muscular atrophy (ASMA), which has low incidence rate and is often misdiagnosed as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, cervical syndrome, or others.OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical features of 46 ASMA patients and analyze the relationship between course and activity of daily living.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Departments of Neurology of the 81 Hospital of Chinese PLA, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical College and General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 46 ASMA patients were selected from the Departments of Neurology of the 81Hospital of Chinese PLA, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical College and General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA between April 1998 and January 2002. All patients were consentient. Among 46 cases, there were 37 males and 9 females with the mean age of 42 years. The patients' courses in all ranged from 6 months to 23 years, concretely, courses of 37 cases were less than or equal to 5 years, and those of 9 cases were more than or equal to 6 years.METHODS : ① All the 46 ASMA patients were asked to check blood sedimentation, anti O, serum creatinine,creatine, blood creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and muscular biopsy as early as possible. ② X-ray was used to measure plain film of cervical vertebra borderline film of cranium and neck at proximal end of upper limb of 25 cases and plain film of abdominal vertebra at proximal end of lower limb of 17 cases.③ Cerebrospinal fluid of lumbar puncture was checked on 42 cases, for routine examination, biochemical examination, and immunoglobulin examination. Electromyogram (EMG) was also examined to 42 cases. ④ Barthel index

  14. Kalsiyum Kanal Blokeri Verapamilin Spinal Reflekslere Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞÇI, N.; GENÇ, O.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of calcium channel blocker verapamil on spinal reflexes were studied. Verapamil 5, 50, (iM locally. 10,20 mg/kg was administradet intraperitoneally and 10, 50, 100 (iM localyy. Experiments on adult spinal cats (n=10) were conducted. Animals weighing 1,5-3 kg were anesthetized with ketamine (45 mg/kg intramuscular) and artiflcally ventilated. Animals were spinalized at Cj level and a laminectomy was performed in the lumbosacral region. The ventral and dorsal roots of segment Lg were...

  15. Peripheral inflammation facilitates Abeta fiber-mediated synaptic input to the substantia gelatinosa of the adult rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H; Doubell, T P; Woolf, C J

    1999-01-15

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in thick adult rat transverse spinal cord slices with attached dorsal roots to study changes in fast synaptic transmission induced by peripheral inflammation. In slices from naive rats, primary afferent stimulation at Abeta fiber intensity elicited polysynaptic EPSCs in only 14 of 57 (25%) SG neurons. In contrast, Abeta fiber stimulation evoked polysynaptic EPSCs in 39 of 62 (63%) SG neurons recorded in slices from rats inflamed by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) 48 hr earlier (p < 0.001). Although the peripheral inflammation had no significant effect on the threshold and conduction velocities of Abeta, Adelta, and C fibers recorded in dorsal roots, the mean threshold intensity for eliciting EPSCs was significantly lower in cells recorded from rats with inflammation (naive: 33.2 +/- 15.1 microA, n = 57; inflamed: 22.8 +/- 11.3 microA, n = 62, p < 0.001), and the mean latency of EPSCs elicited by Abeta fiber stimulation in CFA-treated rats was significantly shorter than that recorded from naive rats (3.3 +/- 1.8 msec, n = 36 vs 6.0 +/- 3.5 msec, n = 12; p = 0.010). Abeta fiber stimulation evoked polysynaptic IPSCs in 4 of 25 (16%) cells recorded from naive rat preparations and 14 of 26 (54%) SG neurons from CFA-treated rats (p < 0.001). The mean threshold intensity for IPSCs was also significantly lower in CFA-treated rats (naive: 32.5 +/- 15.7 microA, n = 25; inflamed: 21. 9 +/- 9.9 microA, n = 26, p = 0.013). The facilitation of Abeta fiber-mediated input into the substantia gelatinosa after peripheral inflammation may contribute to altered sensory processing. PMID:9880605

  16. 幻肢痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元和突触数量的变化%Changes in the number of synapses and neurons in spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of phantom limb pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菁艳; 彭彬; 杨正伟; 闵苏

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in the number of synapses and neurons in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of phantom limb pain. Methods Eleven healthy adult SD rats of both sexes weighing 209-300 g were randomly divided into 2 groups: sham operation group (group S, n = 5) and phantom limb pain group (group P, n = 6). Phantom limb pain was induced by resection of a 0.5 cm segment of unilateral sciatic nerve in group P. In group S unilateral sciatic nerve was exposed but not transected. The animals were observed for autotomy and scored (0 = no autotomy, 13 = the worst autotomy) after operation and were sacrificed on the 28th day after operation. The L3-6 segment of the spinal cord was removed for determination of the number of neurons (by Nissl's staining) and synapses (by synaptophysin immuno-histochemistry).Results In group S no animal developed autotomy. In group P autotomy started from the 2nd day after operation and the score reached 9-11. The number of the neurons in the spinal dorsal horn in all 4 segments and the number of synapses in L3 and 16 segments were comparable between the two sides and the 2 groups. The number of synapses in the spinal dorsal horn of L4and L5 segment was significantly larger in the operated side than in the contralateral side in group P. Conclusion The number of synapses in the spinal dorsal horn significantly increases in animals with plantom limb pain which induces no increase in the number of neurons in the spinal dorsal horn.%目的 探讨幻肢痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元和突触数量的变化.方法 健康成年SD大鼠11只,雄雌不拘,体重290~300 g,随机分为2组:假手术组(S组,n=5)和单侧坐骨神经横断组(P组,n=6).术后持续观察P组大鼠自噬情况,并进行自噬评分.术后28 d时,取L3~6节段脊髓组织,分别进行尼氏染色(显示神经元)和突触素免疫组织化学染色(显示突触数量),计数手术侧和非手术侧脊髓背角神经元和突触的数量.结果 P

  17. Role of minimally invasive surgery for adult spinal deformity in preventing complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chun-Po; Mosley, Yusef I; Uribe, Juan S

    2016-09-01

    With the aging population, there is a rising prevalence of degenerative spinal deformity and need of surgical care for these patients. Surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is often fraught with a high rate of complications. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has for the past decade been adopted by spine surgeons to treat ASD in the hopes of reducing access-related morbidity and perioperative complications. The benefits of MIS approach in general and recent development of MIS techniques to avoid long-term complications such as pseudoarthrosis or proximal junctional kyphosis are reviewed. PMID:27411527

  18. A Comprehensive Analysis of the SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification and Confounding Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Dennis Winge; Hansen, Lars Valentin; Dragsted, Casper Rokkjær;

    2016-01-01

    hoc analyses were performed for each SRS-Schwab modifier. Age, history of spine surgery, and aetiology of spinal deformity were considered potential confounders and their influence on the association between SRS-Schwab modifiers and aggregated Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores was evaluated with...... confounding variables. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification includes sagittal modifiers considered important for HRQOL and the clinical impact of the classification has been validated in patients from the International Spine Study Group database; however, equivocal...

  19. The change of T-wave on electrocardiogram after epinephrine test dose in spinal anesthetized adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeong Woo; Kim, Deokyu; Choi, Hyun Ho; Kim, Dong Chan

    2010-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the efficacy of a T-wave change after the IV administration of low dose epinephrine containing the test dose during spinal anesthesia. Methods Eighty healthy adults undergoing spinal anesthesia were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided randomly into the following 4 groups: Group S (n = 20) received 3 ml of normal saline, group L (n = 20) received 3 ml of 1.0% lidocaine, group E5 received 3 ml of 1.0% lidocaine with epinephrine 5 µg, and group E10 r...

  20. Culture of Schwann cells of human embryonic spinal cord dorsal root%人胚胎脊髓背根雪旺氏细胞的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林绿标; 林旭妍; 肖哲; 许益民

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索人胚胎雪旺氏细胞的分离、培养和纯化的方法,为将来雪旺氏细胞移植奠定基础.方法 从胎儿脊髓背根中分离培养雪旺氏细胞,利用雪旺氏细胞与纤维母细胞的不同贴壁特性,综合利用酶消化、时间差和阿糖胞苷抑制等方法,达到分离和纯化人雪旺氏细胞的目的.结果 雪旺氏细胞大部份呈梭形,两端有突起,少数呈多角形.免疫组化示这些细胞呈S-100抗原阳性,细胞纯度达99%.结论 本方法分离、培养的人雪旺氏细胞纯度高,是一种有效的培养方法.%Objective To explore the separation, culture and purification methods of human embryonic Schwann cells in order to lay the foundation for future transplantation of Schwann cells. Methods The Schwann cells were separated from the fetal spinal cord dorsal root. Based on the different adherent properties of Schwann cells and fibroblasts, enzymatic digestion, time difference, cytarabine inhibition and other methods were used to separate and purify human Schwann cells. Results The majority of Schwann cells were fusiform, with protrusion on both ends, and the minority was polygonal. Immuno-histochemistry showed that these cells were antigen S-100 positive and the cell purity degree reached up to 99%. Conclusion The cells separated and cultured with this method show high cell purity, thereby it is an effective culture method.

  1. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Progenitors Assist Functional Sensory Axon Regeneration after Dorsal Root Avulsion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeber, Jan; Trolle, Carl; König, Niclas; Du, Zhongwei; Gallo, Alessandro; Hermans, Emmanuel; Aldskogius, Håkan; Shortland, Peter; Zhang, Su-Chun; Deumens, Ronald; Kozlova, Elena N

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal root avulsion results in permanent impairment of sensory functions due to disconnection between the peripheral and central nervous system. Improved strategies are therefore needed to reconnect injured sensory neurons with their spinal cord targets in order to achieve functional repair after brachial and lumbosacral plexus avulsion injuries. Here, we show that sensory functions can be restored in the adult mouse if avulsed sensory fibers are bridged with the spinal cord by human neural ...

  2. Antiallodynic effects of alpha lipoic acid in an optimized RR-EAE mouse model of MS-neuropathic pain are accompanied by attenuation of upregulated BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nemat; Gordon, Richard; Woodruff, Trent M; Smith, Maree T

    2015-06-01

    Neuropathic pain may affect patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early disease. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-mouse model of MS, chronic alpha lipoic acid (ALA) treatment reduced clinical disease severity, but MS-neuropathic pain was not assessed. Hence, we investigated the pain-relieving efficacy and mode of action of ALA using our optimized relapsing-remitting (RR)-EAE mouse model of MS-associated neuropathic pain. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35-55 and adjuvants (Quil A and pertussis toxin) to induce RR-EAE; sham-mice received adjuvants only. RR-EAE mice received subcutaneous ALA (3 or 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or vehicle for 21 days (15-35 d.p.i.; [days postimmunization]); sham-mice received vehicle. Hindpaw hypersensitivity was assessed blinded using von Frey filaments. Following euthanasia (day 35 d.p.i.), lumbar spinal cords were removed for immunohistochemical and molecular biological assessments. Fully developed mechanical allodynia in the bilateral hindpaws of vehicle-treated RR-EAE mice was accompanied by marked CD3(+) T-cell infiltration, microglia activation, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) signaling in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Consequently, phospho-ERK, a marker of central sensitization in neuropathic pain, was upregulated in the spinal dorsal horn. Importantly, hindpaw hypersensitivity was completely attenuated in RR-EAE mice administered ALA at 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) but not 3 mg kg(-1) day(-1). The antiallodynic effect of ALA (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was associated with a marked reduction in the aforementioned spinal dorsal horn markers to match their respective levels in the vehicle-treated sham-mice. Our findings suggest that ALA at 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) produced its antiallodynic effects in RR-EAE mice by reducing augmented CD3(+) T-cell infiltration and BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:26171221

  3. Differential expression of Wnts after spinal cord contusion injury in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María Fernández-Martos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability that has no clinically accepted treatment. Functional decline following spinal cord injury is caused by mechanical damage, secondary cell death, reactive gliosis and a poor regenerative capacity of damaged axons. Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that play key roles in different developmental processes although little is known of the expression patterns and functions of Wnts in the adult central nervous system in normal or diseased states. FINDINGS: Using qRT-PCR analysis, we demonstrate that mRNA encoding most Wnt ligands and soluble inhibitors are constitutively expressed in the healthy adult spinal cord. Strikingly, contusion spinal cord injury induced a time-dependent increase in Wnt mRNA expression from 6 hours until 28 days post-injury, and a narrow peak in the expression of soluble Wnt inhibitors between 1 and 3 days post-injury. These results are consistent with the increase in the migration shift, from day 1 to 7, of the intracellular Wnt signalling component, Dishevelled-3. Moreover, after an initial decrease by 1 day, we also found an increase in phosphorylation of the Wnt co-receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, and an increase in active β-catenin protein, both of which suffer a dramatic change, from a homogeneous expression pattern in the grey matter to a disorganized injury-induced pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for Wnts in spinal cord homeostasis and injury. We demonstrate that after injury Wnt signalling is activated via the Wnt/β-catenin and possibly other pathways. These findings provide an important foundation to further address the function of individual Wnt proteins in vivo and the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury.

  4. Abundance of gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in adult Mosquitofish spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Fraser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Dye-coupling”, whole-mount immunohistochemistry for gap junction channel protein connexin 35 (Cx35, and freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL reveal an abundance of electrical synapses/gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in the 14th spinal segment that innervates the adult male gonopodium of Western Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Mosquitofish. To study gap junctions’ role in fast motor behavior, we used a minimally-invasive neural-tract-tracing technique to introduce gap junction-permeant or -impermeant dyes into deep muscles controlling the gonopodium of the adult male Mosquitofish, a teleost fish that rapidly transfers (complete in 50 of the 62 gap junctions at mixed synapses are in the 14th spinal segment. Our results support and extend studies showing gap junctions at mixed synapses in spinal cord segments involved in control of genital reflexes in rodents, and they suggest a link between mixed synapses and fast motor behavior. The findings provide a basis for studies of specific roles of spinal neurons in the generation/regulation of sex-specific behavior and for studies of gap junctions’ role in regulating fast motor behavior. Finally, the CoPA IN provides a novel candidate neuron for future studies of gap junctions and neural control of fast motor behaviors.

  5. Severed corticospinal axons recover electrophysiologic control of muscle activity after x-ray therapy in lesioned adult spinal cord.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalderon, N; Fuks, Z

    1996-01-01

    Mechanical injury to the adult mammalian spinal cord results in permanent loss of structural integrity at the lesion site and of the brain-controlled function distal to the lesion. Some of these consequences were permanently averted by altering the cellular constituents at the lesion site with x-irradiation delivered within a critical time window after injury. We have reported in a separate article that x-irradiation of sectioned adult rat spinal cord resulted in restitution of structural con...

  6. Alteration of Forebrain Neurogenesis after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    OpenAIRE

    ValeryAMatarazzo; PatrickGauthier

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers a complex cellular response at the injury site, leading to the formation of a dense scar tissue. Despite this local tissue remodeling, the consequences of SCI at the cellular level in distant rostral sites (i.e. brain), remain unknown. In this study, we asked whether cervical SCI could alter cell dynamics in neurogenic areas of the adult rat forebrain. To this aim, we quantified BrdU incorporation and determined the phenotypes of newly generated cells (neuron...

  7. Combined spinal epidural anesthesia for laparoscopic appendectomy in adults: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S Mane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is one of the most common surgical procedures and is the procedure of choice for most of the elective abdominal surgeries performed preferably under endotracheal general anesthesia. Technical advances in the field of laparoscopy have helped to reduce surgical trauma and discomfort, reduce anesthetic requirement resulting in shortened hospital stay. Recently, regional anaesthetic techniques have been found beneficial, especially in patients at a high risk to receive general anesthesia. Herewith we present a case series of laparoscopic appendectomy in eight American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA I and II patients performed under spinal-epidural anaesthesia. Methods: Eight ASA Grade I and II adult patients undergoing elective Laparoscopic appendectomy received Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia. Spinal Anaesthesia was performed at L 2 -L 3 interspace using 2 ml of 0.5% (10 mg hyperbaric Bupivacaine mixed with 0.5ml (25 micrograms of Fentanyl. Epidural catheter was inserted at T 10 -T 11 interspace for inadequate spinal anaesthesia and postoperative pain relief. Perioperative events and operative difficulty were studied. Systemic drugs were administered if patients complained of shoulder pain, abdominal discomfort, nausea or hypotension. Results: Spinal anaesthesia was adequate for surgery with no operative difficulty in all the patients. Intraoperatively, two patients experienced right shoulder pain and received Fentanyl, one patient was given Midazolam for anxiety and two were given Ephedrine for hypotension. The postoperative period was uneventful. Conclusion: Spinal anaesthesia with Hyperbaric Bupivacaine and Fentanyl is adequate and safe for elective laparoscopic appendectomy in healthy patients but careful evaluation of the method is needed particularly in compromised cardio respiratory conditions.

  8. A 3D nanofibrous hydrogel and collagen sponge scaffold promotes locomotor functional recovery, spinal repair, and neuronal regeneration after complete transection of the spinal cord in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system neurons in adult mammals display limited regeneration after injury, and functional recovery is poor following complete transection (>4 mm gap) of a rat spinal cord. A novel combination scaffold composed of 3D nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix and a honeycomb collagen sponge was used to promote spinal repair and locomotor functional recovery following complete transection of the spinal cord in rats. We transplanted this scaffold into 5 mm spinal cord gaps and assessed spinal repair and functional recovery using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. The BBB score of the scaffold-transplanted group was significantly higher than that of the PBS-injected control group from 24 d to 4 months after the operation (P < 0.001–0.01), reaching 6.0  ±  0.75 (mean ± SEM) in the transplant and 0.70  ±  0.46 in the control groups. Neuronal regeneration and spinal repair were examined histologically using Pan Neuronal Marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, growth-associated protein 43, and DAPI. The scaffolds were well integrated into the spinal cords, filling the 5 mm gaps with higher numbers of regenerated and migrated neurons, astrocytes, and other cells than in the control group. Mature and immature neurons and astrocytes in the scaffolds became colocalized and aligned longitudinally over >2 mm, suggesting their differentiation, maturation, and function. The spinal cord NF200 content of the transplant group, analyzed by western blot, was more than twice that of the control group, supporting the histological results. Transplantation of this novel scaffold promoted functional recovery, spinal repair, and neuronal regeneration. (paper)

  9. Hypericum perforatum Attenuates Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Dorsal Root Ganglion of Rats: Involvement of TRPM2 and TRPV1 Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ümit Sinan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Şenol, Nilgün; Ghazizadeh, Vahid

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress and cytosolic Ca(2+) overload have important roles on apoptosis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after spinal cord injury (SCI). Hypericum perforatum (HP) has an antioxidant property in the DRGs due to its ability to modulate NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C pathways. We aimed to investigate the protective property of HP on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry through transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in SCI-induced DRG neurons of rats. Rats were divided into four groups as control, HP, SCI, and SCI + HP. The HP groups received 30 mg/kg HP for three concessive days after SCI induction. The SCI-induced TRPM2 and TRPV1 currents and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration were reduced by HP. The SCI-induced decrease in glutathione peroxidase and cell viability values were ameliorated by HP treatment, and the SCI-induced increase in apoptosis, caspase 3, caspase 9, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization values in DRG of SCI group were overcome by HP treatment. In conclusion, we observed a protective role of HP on SCI-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 and TRPV1 in the DRG neurons. Our findings may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of SCI by HP. Graphical Abstract Possible molecular pathways of involvement of Hypericum perforatum (HP) on apoptosis, oxidative stress, and calcium accumulation through TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels in DRG neurons of SCI-induced rats. The TRPM2 channel is activated by ADP-ribose and oxidative stress through activation of ADP-ribose pyrophosphate although it was inhibited by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA) and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2APB). The TRPV1 channel is activated by oxidative stress and capsaicin and it is blocked by capsazepine. Injury in the DRG can result in augmented ROS release, leading to Ca(2+) uptake through

  10. Spinal metastasis of medulloblastoma in adults: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Živković Nenad; Berisavac Iva; Marković Marko; Milenković Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuro-ectodermal malignant tumor most commonly seen in childhood and rarely and uncommonly in adult age. Treatment consists of surgery followed by radiotherapy. In the case of a relapse there is no overall accepted treatment. Tumor metastasis can be seen along the neural axis, lymph nodes, soft tissues, bones and distant organs. Case Outline. In this paper we present a 45-year-old female patient with a thoraco-sp...

  11. Expression and role of PAK6 after spinal cord injury in adult rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Xiang-dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To observe p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6 expression and its possible role after spinal cord injury (SCI in adult rat. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to spinal cord injury. To explore the pathological and physiological significance of PAK6, the expression patterns and distribution of PAK6 were observed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: Western blot analysis showed PAK6 protein level was significantly up-regulated on day 2 and day 4, then reduced and had no up-regulation till day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the expression of PAK6 was significantly increased on day 4 compared with the control group. Besides, double immunofluorescence staining showed PAK6 was primarily expressed in the neurons and astrocytes in the control group. While after injury, the expression of PAK6 was increased significantly in the astrocytes and neurons, and the astrocytes were largely proliferated. We also examined the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and found its change was correlated with the expression of PAK6. Importantly, double immunofluorescence staining revealed that cell proliferation evaluated by PCNA appeared in many PAK6-expressing cells on day 4 after injury. Conclusion: The up-regulation of PAK6 in the injured spinal cord may be associated with glial proliferation. Key words: PAK6 protein, human; p21-activated kinases; Spinal cord injury; Astrocytes

  12. Influences of olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 陈燕涛; 程志安

    2002-01-01

    To observe whether olfactory ensheathing cells could be used to promote axonal regeneration in a spontaneously nonregenerating system. Methods: After laminectomy at the lower thoracic level, the spinal cords of adult rats were exposed and completely transected at T10. A suspension of ensheathing cells was injected into the lesion site in 12 adult rats, and control D/F-12 (1∶1 mixture of DMEM and Hams F-12) was injected in 12 adult rats. Six weeks and ten weeks after cell transplantation, the rats were evaluated by climbing test and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) monitoring. The samples were procured and studied with histologicl and immunohistochemical methods. Results: At the 6th week after cell transplantation, all the rats in both the transplanted and control groups were paraplegic and the MEPs could not be recorded. At the 10th week after cell transplantation, of 7 rats in the control group, 2 rats had muscles contraction of the lower extremities, 2 rats had hips and/or knees active movement; and 5 rats MEPs could be recorded in the hind limbs in the transplanted group (n=7). None of the rats in the control group had functional improvement and no MEPs recorded (n=7). Numerous regenerating axons were observed through the transplantation and continued to regenerate into the denervated host tract. Cell labelling using anti-Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (anti-NGFR) indicated that the regenerated axons were derived from the appropriate neuronal source and that donor cells migrated into the denervated host tract. But axonal degeneration existed and regenerating axons were not observed within the spinal cords of the adult rats with only D/F-12 injection. Conclusions: The axonal regeneration in the transected adult rat spinal cord is possible after ensheathing cells transplantation.

  13. Influence of cryopreserved olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation on axonal regeneration in spinal cord of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧勇; 殷德振; 唐勇; 吴燕峰; 程志安; 杨睿; 黄霖

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of cryopreserved olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) transplantation on axonal regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord injury in adult rats.Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided into experimental and control groups, each group having 12 rats. The spinal cord injury was established by transecting the spinal cord at T10 level with microsurgery scissors.OECs were purified from SD rat olfactory bulb and cultured in DMEM ( Dulbecco's minimum essential medium) and cryopreserved (-120℃) for two weeks.OECs suspension[(1-1.4)×105/ul] was transplanted into transected spinal cord, while the DMEM solution was injected instead in the control group. At 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation, the rats were evaluated with climbing test and MEP ( moter evoked potentials) monitoring. The samples of spinal cord were procured and studied with histological and immunohisto chemical stainings.Results: At 6 weeks after transplantation, all of the rats in both transplanted and control groups were paraplegic, and MEPs could not be recorded. Morphology of transplanted OECs was normal, and OECs were interfused with host well. Axons could regrow into gap tissue between the spinal cords. Both OECs and regrown axons were immunoreactive for MBP. No regrown axons were found in the control group. At 12 weeks after transplantation, 2 rats (2/7) had lower extremities muscle contraction, 2 rats (2/7) had hip and/or knee active movement, and MEP of 5 rats (5/7) could be recorded in the calf in the transplantation group. None of the rats (7/ 7) in the control group had functional improvement, and none had MEPs recorded. In the transplanted group,histological and immunohistochemical methods showed the number of transplanted OECs reduced and some regrown axons had reached the end of transected spinal cord.However, no regrown axons could be seen except scar formation in the control group.Conclusions: Cryopreserved OECs could integrated with the host and

  14. Impact of spine surgery complications on costs associated with management of adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeramaneni, Samrat; Robinson, Chessie; Hostin, Richard

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of the consequences of spine surgery complications is warranted to optimize patient-reported outcomes and contain the rising health care costs associated with the management of adult spinal deformity (ASD). We systematically searched PubMed and Scopus databases using keywords "adult spinal deformity surgery," "complications," and "cost" for published studies on costs of complications associated with spinal surgery, with a particular emphasis on ASD and scoliosis. In the 17 articles reviewed, we identified 355,354 patients with 11,148 reported complications. Infection was the most commonly reported complication, with an average treatment cost ranging from $15,817 to $38,701. Hospital costs for patients with deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and surgical site infection were 2.3 to 3.1 times greater than for patients without those complications. An effort to collect and characterize data on cost of complications is encouraged, which may help health care providers to identify potential resources to limit complications and overall costs. PMID:27278531

  15. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions significantly reversed the weight-bearing deficit and the overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn in the monosodium iodoacetate induced model of osteoarthritis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom of osteoarthritis (OA. Clinical data suggest that subchondral bone lesions contribute to the occurrence of joint pain. The present study investigated the effect of the inhibition of subchondral bone lesions on joint pain. METHODS: Osteoarthritic pain was induced by an injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the rat knee joint. Zoledronic acid (ZOL, a third generation of bisphosphonate, was used to inhibit subchondral bone lesions. Joint histomorphology was evaluated using X-ray micro computed tomography scanning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activity of osteoclast in subchondral bone was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Joint pain was evaluated using weight-bearing asymmetry, the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and spinal glial activation status using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1 immunofluorescence. Afferent neurons in the DRGs that innervated the joints were identified using retrograde fluorogold labeling. RESULTS: MIA injections induced significant histomorphological alterations and joint pain. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions by ZOL significantly reduced the MIA-induced weight-bearing deficit and overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn at 3 and 6 weeks after MIA injection; however, joint swelling and synovial reaction were unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions alleviated joint pain. Subchondral bone lesions should be a key target in the management of osteoarthritic joint pain.

  16. Role of calcitonin gene-related peptide and its antagonist on the evoked discharge frequency of wide dynamic range neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Lundeberg, Thomas; Yu, Long Chuan

    2002-01-15

    The present study was performed to explore the effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its antagonist CGRP8-37 on the evoked discharge frequency of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats. Recording was performed with a multibarrelled glass micropipette and the chemicals were delivered by iontophoresis. The discharge of WDR neurons was evoked by transdermic electrical stimulation applied on the ipsilateral hindpaw. (1) Iontophoretic application of CGRP at an ejection current of 100 nA increased the discharge frequency of WDR neurons significantly. (2) Iontophoretic application of CGRP8-37 at an ejection current of 80 or 160 nA induced significant decreases in the discharge frequency of WDR neurons, but not at 40 nA. (3) Iontophoretic application of CGRP8-37 not only antagonized the CGRP-induced increase in the evoked discharge frequency of WDR neurons but also induced a significant decrease in the evoked discharge frequency of WDR neurons compared to basal levels. The results indicate that CGRP and its receptors play a facilitary role on the transmission and/or modulation of nociceptive information in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats. PMID:11738245

  17. Localized giant cell tumors in the spinal column radiologic presentation. Tumor de celulas gigantes localizado en la columna dorsal: presentacion radiologica poco frecuente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Echeverria, M.A.; Parra Blanco, J.A.; Pagola Serrano, M.A.; Mellado Santos, J.M.; Bueno Lopez, J.; Gonzalez Tutor, A. (Hospital Marques Valdecilla. Santander (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Given the uncommonness of the location of giant cell tumors (GCT) in the spinal column and the limited number of studies published, we present a case of GCT located in the spinal column, which involved both vertebral bodies and partially destroyed the adjacent rib. (Author)

  18. Transplantation of CNTF-expressing adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes remyelination and functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Qilin; He, Qian; Wang, Yaping; Cheng, Xiaoxin; Howard, Russell M.; Yiping ZHANG; DeVries, William H.; Shields, Christopher B.; Magnuson, David S.K.; Xu, Xiaoming; Kim, Dong H.; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Demyelination contributes to the dysfunction after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). We explored whether the combination of neurotrophic factors and transplantation of adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) could enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective neurotrophic factor to promote oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and survival of OPCs in vitro. OPCs were infected with retroviruses expressin...

  19. Growth-associated protein 43 immunoreactivity in the superficial dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord is localized in atrophic C-fiber, and not in sprouted A-fiber, central terminals after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubell, T P; Woolf, C J

    1997-09-15

    Peripheral nerve injury induces the up-regulation in dorsal root ganglion cells of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and its transport to the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, where it is located primarily in unmyelinated axons and growth-cone like structures. Peripheral nerve injury also induces the central terminals of axotomized myelinated axons to sprout and form novel synaptic contacts in lamina II of the dorsal horn. To investigate whether the sprouting of A-fiber central terminals into lamina II is the consequence of GAP-43 incorporation into their terminal membranes, we have used an ultrastructural analysis with double labelling to identify the localization of GAP-43 immunoreactivity. Transganglionic transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was used to identify C-fiber terminals. Transganglionic transport of the B fragment of cholera toxin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (B-HRP) was used to label A-fiber sciatic nerve central terminals in combination with GAP-43 immunocytochemistry. GAP-43 was found to colocalize only with WGA-HRP- and not with B-HRP-labelled synapses or axons. In addition, many single-labelled GAP-43 synapses were observed. Many of the WGA-HRP-labelled terminals that were characterized by degenerative changes were GAP-43 immunoreactive. Our results indicate that peripheral nerve injury induces novel synapse formation of A fibers in lamina II but that up-regulated levels of GAP-43 are present mainly in other axon projections to the superficial dorsal horn. PMID:9303528

  20. Study Protocol- Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections for Spinal Stenosis (LESS: a double-blind randomized controlled trial of epidural steroid injections for lumbar spinal stenosis among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedly Janna L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the most common causes of low back pain among older adults and can cause significant disability. Despite its prevalence, treatment of spinal stenosis symptoms remains controversial. Epidural steroid injections are used with increasing frequency as a less invasive, potentially safer, and more cost-effective treatment than surgery. However, there is a lack of data to judge the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections for spinal stenosis. We describe our prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial that tests the hypothesis that epidural injections with steroids plus local anesthetic are more effective than epidural injections of local anesthetic alone in improving pain and function among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods We will recruit up to 400 patients with lumbar central canal spinal stenosis from at least 9 clinical sites over 2 years. Patients with spinal instability who require surgical fusion, a history of prior lumbar surgery, or prior epidural steroid injection within the past 6 months are excluded. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either ESI with local anesthetic or the control intervention (epidural injections with local anesthetic alone. Subjects receive up to 2 injections prior to the primary endpoint at 6 weeks, at which time they may choose to crossover to the other intervention. Participants complete validated, standardized measures of pain, functional disability, and health-related quality of life at baseline and at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. The primary outcomes are Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and a numerical rating scale measure of pain intensity at 6 weeks. In order to better understand their safety, we also measure cortisol, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, weight, and blood pressure at baseline, and at 3 and 6 weeks post-injection. We also obtain data on resource utilization

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  2. Estudo do alcance do retalho do músculo grande dorsal para o revestimento cutâneo da coluna An anatomic study of latissimus dorsi and its suitability for spinal soft tissue coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Moutinho da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A crescente indicação cirúrgica na terapêutica das patologias da coluna vertebral, ocasionada pela melhoria tecnológica aplicada ao tratamento cirúrgico, que proporciona cada vez mais uma cirurgia mais segura, mais rápida, menos invasiva e com melhores resultados funcionais, tem nos levado a um aumento nas complicações pós-operatórias da coluna vertebral. As complicações podem ser mecânicas, biológicas, estruturais ou relacionadas ao material de síntese. As infecções em cirurgia de coluna vertebral, embora raras, ocorrem em 3-6%, constituem um dilema para o cirurgião de coluna, além de graves desdobramentos clínicos para o paciente. A importância do uso do retalho do grande dorsal esta implicada na tentativa de cobertura de partes moles e melhora no padrão vascular regional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a confiabilidade do retalho do músculo grande dorsal para cobertura de defeitos cutâneos na coluna. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram dissecados 17 músculos grande dorsal de cadáver e medido o quanto eles passavam da linha média na altura de C7, T7 e transição toracolombar. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: O estudo anatômico realizado comprovou a eficácia desse método.INTRODUCTION: There has been a dramatic increase in spine surgery. New surgical instrumentation and less invasive techniques make surgical procedure faster, safer, achieving better functional results. With this increasing number of operations, the number of back surgery failures has also increased. Complications may be mechanical, biological, or related to problems on instrumentation frames. The rate of spinal infections lies between 3-6 % and it´s still a challenge. After debridement and removal of all infected nonviable soft tissue, it is sometimes difficult to obtain wound closure. Pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap coverage provides wound healing by promoting vascularized tissue to reduce dead spaces, enhancing local oxygen delivery, and facilitating

  3. Does social support impact depression in caregivers of adults ageing with spinal cord injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of social support in predicting depression in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted for this study. Setting Participants were recruited from multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA and Miami, FL. Subjects Community-dwelling caregivers of aging adults with SCI (N=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. Main measures The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured caregiver depression symptom levels. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined the effect of social support (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) on depressive symptoms levels for the caregivers of adults aging with SCI, controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results Caregivers were, on average, 53 years old (SD=15) and care-recipients were 55 years old (SD=13). Average Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores indicated that sixty-nine (40%) caregivers had significant depressive symptoms (mean 8.69, SD=5.5). Negative social interactions (β̂ =.27, P<.01) and social integration (β̂ =−.25, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of depressive symptom levels in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that negative social interactions and social integration are associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Negative social interactions and social integration should be investigated in assessments and interventions intended to target caregiver depressive symptom levels. PMID:23117350

  4. Evidence for specialized rhythm-generating mechanisms in the adult mammalian spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Alain; Gossard, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-19

    Locomotion and scratch are characterized by alternation of flexion and extension phases within one hindlimb, which are mediated by rhythm-generating circuitry within the spinal cord. By definition, the rhythm generator controls cycle period, phase durations, and phase transitions. The aim was to determine whether rhythm-generating mechanisms for locomotion and scratch are similar in adult decerebrate cats. The regulation of cycle period during fictive scratching was evaluated, as were the effects of specific sensory inputs on phase durations and transitions during spontaneous fictive locomotion and pinna-evoked fictive scratching. Results show that cycle period during fictive scratching varied predominantly with flexion phase duration, contrary to spontaneous fictive locomotion, where cycle period varied with extension phase duration. Ankle dorsiflexion greatly increased extension phase duration and cycle period during fictive locomotion but did not alter cycle period during scratching. Moreover, stimulating the plantaris (ankle extensor muscle) nerve during flexion reset the locomotor rhythm to extension but not the scratch rhythm. Stimulating the plantaris nerve during extension prolonged the extension phase and cycle period during fictive locomotion but not during fictive scratching. Stimulating the sartorius nerve (hip flexor muscle) during early flexion reduced the flexion phase and cycle period during fictive locomotion, but considerably prolonged the flexion phase and cycle period during fictive scratching. These data indicate that cycle period, phase durations, and phase transitions are not regulated similarly during fictive locomotion and scratching, with or without sensory inputs, providing evidence for specialized rhythm-generating mechanisms within the adult mammalian spinal cord. PMID:20484648

  5. Effects of C8 ventral root avulsion or transection on spinal alpha motoneurons in adult rats A qualitative light and electron microscopic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khulood M.AL-Khater; Bassem Y.Sheikh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Nerve root avulsion is a frequent finding in patients with brachial plexus injury following road traffic accidents or as a result of severe arm traction during complicated deliveries.This injury constitutes a challenging clinical and surgical problem.The orphological characteristics of motoneurons after nerve root avulsion deserve further analysis.OBJECTIVE:To study the different morphological changes of u -motoneurons under light and electron microscopy after C8 spinal ventral rootlets avulsion and transection at various stages.DESIGN:Controlled animal study.SETTING:Department of Anatomy,King Faisal University.MATERIALS:The experiment was carried out at the Department of Anatomy,College of Medicine,King Faisal University between January 2005 and March 2006.Six adult Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-350 g, irrespective of gender,were used for this study.The animals were bred at the animal house,College of Medicine,King Faisal University,and fed on rat maintenance diet.Water and standard diet were supplied ad libitum.Animal interventions were carried out according to animal ethical standards.METHODS:Three animals were randomly chosen for avulsion of the right ventral rootlets of C8 spinal nerves.The other three received transection of the right ventral rootlets of C8 spinal nerves.①Avulsion experiment:After rats were anesthetized,the right ventral rootlets of C8 spinal nerves were identified.The ventral rootlets were avulsed from the spinal cord by traction with a fine hook(Fine Science Tools Inc.,No. 10031-13,Germany).Traction was exerted in a direction parallel to the course of the spinal root.Under the operating microscope,the Cs segment was exactly located.After checking the successfulness of the surgical procedure,the Ca segment was separated from the spinal cord.The outcome of the avulsion procedure was as follows:two animals had true avulsion,i.e.,no remaining stump was attached to the spinal cord surface.One rat had a stump still attached

  6. Extensive juvenile "babysitting" facilitates later adult maternal responsiveness, decreases anxiety, and increases dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase-2 expression in female laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kaitlyn M; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy and parturition can dramatically affect female neurobiology and behavior. This is especially true for laboratory-reared rodents, in part, because such rearing prevents a host of developmental experiences that females might undergo in nature, including juvenile alloparenting. We examined the effect of chronic exposure to pups during post-weaning juvenile life (days 22-36) on adult maternal responsiveness, anxiety-related behaviors, and dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) levels in nulliparous rats. Adult females with juvenile alloparental experience showed significantly faster sensitized maternal responsiveness, less anxiety, and more dorsal raphe TPH2. Juvenile alloparenting did not affect females' later social novelty and preference behaviors toward adults, suggesting their increased interest in pups did not extend to all social partners. In a second experiment, suckling a pregnant dam (achieved by postpartum estrus reinsemination), interacting with her after standard laboratory weaning age, and a 3-day exposure to younger siblings also reduced juvenile females' later anxiety but did not affect maternal responsiveness or TPH2. Thus, extensive juvenile "babysitting" can have long-term effects reminiscent of pregnancy and parturition on maternal responsiveness and anxiety, and these effects may be driven by upregulated serotonin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 492-508, 2016. PMID:26806471

  7. Cellular and axonal plasticity in the lesioned spinal cord of adult zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Kuscha, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish, in contrast to mammals, are capable of functional regeneration after complete transection of the spinal cord. In this system I asked: (1) Which spinal cell types regenerate in the lesioned spinal cord? (2) To what extent do the dopaminergic and 5-HT systems regenerate and (3) do dopaminergic axons from the brain influence cellular regeneration in the spinal cord? (1) Lost motor neurons are replaced by newly born motor neurons that mature and are integrated into the spinal cir...

  8. Malignant ventricular arrhythmia in a case of adult onset of spinal muscular atrophy (Kugelberg-Welander disease).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, M.; Sarkozy, A.; Chierchia, G.B.; Wilde, P.C.M. de; Schmedding, E.; Brugada, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient with adult onset of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). The patient first came to our attention with atrioventricular (AV) block. A dual-chamber pacemaker (DDD-PM) was implanted. Four years later, the PM data log showed occurrence of frequent episodes of no

  9. Bulleyaconitine A depresses neuropathic pain and potentiation at C-fiber synapses in spinal dorsal horn induced by paclitaxel in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He-Quan; Xu, Jing; Shen, Kai-Feng; Pang, Rui-Ping; Wei, Xu-Hong; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2015-11-01

    Paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, often induces painful peripheral neuropathy and at present no effective drug is available for treatment of the serious side effect. Here, we tested if intragastrical application of bulleyaconitine A (BLA), which has been approved for clinical treatment of chronic pain in China since 1985, could relieve the paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. A single dose of BLA attenuated the mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia induced by paclitaxel dose-dependently. Repetitive administration of the drug (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, t.i.d. for 7 d) during or after paclitaxel treatment produced a long-lasting inhibitory effect on thermal hyperalgesia, but not on mechanical allodynia. In consistency with the behavioral results, in vivo electrophysiological experiments revealed that spinal synaptic transmission mediated by C-fiber but not A fiber was potentiated, and the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) at C-fiber synapses induced by the same high frequency stimulation was ~50% higher in paclitaxel-treated rats, compared to the naïve rats. Spinal or intravenous application of BLA depressed the spinal LTP, dose-dependently. Furthermore, patch clamp recordings in spinal cord slices revealed that the frequency but not amplitude of both spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSCs) and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in lamina II neurons was increased in paclitaxel-treated rats, and the superfusion of BLA reduced the frequency of sEPSCs and mEPSCs in paclitaxel-treated rats but not in naïve ones. Taken together, we provide novel evidence that BLA attenuates paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain and that depression of spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses via inhibiting presynaptic transmitter release may contribute to the effect. PMID:26376216

  10. Expression of CDc6 after acute spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Lu, Jian; Yu, Qin; Xiao, Jian-Ru; Wei, Hai-Feng; Song, Xin-Jian; Ge, Jian-Bing; Tao, Wei-Dong; Qian, Rong; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Jian

    2016-04-01

    The cell division cycle 6 (CDc6) protein has been primarily investigated as a component of the pre-replicative complex for the initiation of DNA replication. Some studies have shown that CDc6 played a critical role in the development of human carcinoma. However, the expression and roles of CDc6 in the central nervous system remain unknown. We have performed an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of CDc6 expression in spinal cord. Western blot have found that CDc6 protein levels first significantly increase, reach a peak at day 3, and then gradually return to normal level at day 14 after SCI. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that CDc6 immunoreactivity was found in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Additionally, colocalization of CDc6/active caspase-3 has been detected in neurons and colocalization of CDc6/proliferating cell nuclear antigen has been detected in astrocytes and microglial. In vitro, CDc6 depletion by short interfering RNA inhibits astrocyte proliferation and reduces cyclin A and cyclin D1 protein levels. CDc6 knockdown also decreases neuronal apoptosis. We speculate that CDc6 might play crucial roles in CNS pathophysiology after SCI. PMID:26899166

  11. Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.

  12. Spinal actinomycosis: A rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by Actinomyces species. Of human actinomycosis, the spinal form is rare and actinomycosis-related spinal neurological deficit is uncommon. We report two cases with cervical and dorsal actinomycosis and one of them with spinal neurological deficit.

  13. Steadiness of Spinal Regions during Single-Leg Standing in Older Adults with and without Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Liang Kuo

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the steadiness index of spinal regions during single-leg standing in older adults with and without chronic low back pain (LBP and to correlate measurements of steadiness index with the performance of clinical balance tests. Thirteen community-dwelling older adults (aged 55 years or above with chronic LBP and 13 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic volunteers participated in this study. Data collection was conducted in a university research laboratory. Measurements were steadiness index of spinal regions (trunk, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, and pelvis during single-leg standing including relative holding time (RHT and relative standstill time (RST, and clinical balance tests (timed up and go test and 5-repetition sit to stand test. The LBP group had a statistically significantly smaller RHT than the control group, regardless of one leg stance on the painful or non-painful sides. The RSTs on the painful side leg in the LBP group were not statistically significantly different from the average RSTs of both legs in the control group; however, the RSTs on the non-painful side leg in the LBP group were statistically significantly smaller than those in the control group for the trunk, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine. No statistically significant intra-group differences were found in the RHTs and RSTs between the painful and non-painful side legs in the LBP group. Measurements of clinical balance tests also showed insignificant weak to moderate correlations with steadiness index. In conclusion, older adults with chronic LBP demonstrated decreased spinal steadiness not only in the symptomatic lumbar spine but also in the other spinal regions within the kinetic chain of the spine. When treating older adults with chronic LBP, clinicians may also need to examine their balance performance and spinal steadiness during balance challenging tests.

  14. Role of calpain in spinal dorsal horn in development of paw inflammatory pain in rats%脊髓背角卡配因在大鼠足底炎性痛形成中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静捷; 陈广俊; 陈雯; 杜金; 罗爱伦; 黄宇光

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨脊髓背角卡配因在大鼠足底炎性痛形成中的作用.方法 雄性SD大鼠48只,6周龄,体重160~200 g,采用随机数字表法,将其随机分为3组:正常对照组(C组,n=8)、PBS组(n=16)和酵母多糖诱发足底炎性痛组(Z组,n=24).Z组于大鼠左侧后足足底皮下注射酵母多糖1.25 mg,制备酵母多糖诱发足底炎性痛模型,PBS组给予等容量PBS 100μl.分别于给药前(T0)、给药后30 min(T1)、1 h(T2)、2 h(T3)、4 h(T4)、8 h(T5)、24 h(T6)和48 h(T7)时测定左侧后足机械刺激缩足阈值(MWT)、热缩足反应潜伏期(PWTL)和左侧后足足底最大厚度.PBS组于T4时处死8只大鼠,Z组分别于T4、T6和T7时各处死8只大鼠,取左侧脊髓L4~6节段,采用Western blot法测定脊髓背角spectrin αⅡ降解产物、IκBα、环氧化酶-2(COX-2)的表达和NF-κB活性.结果 与C组比较,Z组MWT降低,PWTL缩短,足底最大厚度增厚,脊髓背角spectrin αⅡ降解产物和COX-2的表达上调,IκBα表达下调,NF-κB活性升高(P<0.05或0.01),PBS组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 脊髓背角卡配因活化参与了大鼠足底炎性痛的形成,其机制与激活NF-κB,上调COX-2表达有关.%Objective To investigate the role of calpain in the spinal dorsal horn in development of paw inflammatory pain in rats.Methods Forty-eight male SD rats,aged 6 weeks,weighing 160-200 g,were randomly divided into three groups:normal control group(group C,n =8),PBS group( n =16),zymosan-induced paw inflammatory pain group (group Z,n =24).Inflammatory pain was induced by injection of zymosan 1.25 mg into the plantar surface of left hindpaw.Group PBS received the equal volume of PBS 100 μl.The mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT),paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) and maximum thickness of the plantar surface of left hindpaw were measured before (T0 ) and at 30 min,1,2,4,8,24 and 48 h(T1-7 ) after zymosan or PBS injection.Eight rats were sacrificed at T4 in

  15. Incidence of surgical site infection following adult spinal deformity surgery: an analysis of patient risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pull ter Gunne, A.F.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Cohen, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) following spinal surgery is a frequent complication and results in higher morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Patients undergoing surgery for spinal deformity (scoliosis/kyphosis) have longer surgeries, involving more spinal levels and larger blood losses than ty

  16. Bone marrow stromal cells elicit tissue sparing after acute but not delayed transplantation into the contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tewarie, R.D.; Hurtado, A.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Rahiem, S.T.; Wendell, D.F.; Barroso, M.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Oudega, M.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplanted into the contused spinal cord may support repair by improving tissue sparing. We injected allogeneic BMSC into the moderately contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord at 15 min (acute) and at 3, 7, and 21 days (delayed) post-injury and quantified tissue s

  17. 18F-FDG PET/CT evaluation of children and young adults with suspected spinal fusion hardware infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the child with spinal fusion hardware and concern for infection is challenging because of hardware artifact with standard imaging (CT and MRI) and difficult physical examination. Studies using 18F-FDG PET/CT combine the benefit of functional imaging with anatomical localization. To discuss a case series of children and young adults with spinal fusion hardware and clinical concern for hardware infection. These people underwent FDG PET/CT imaging to determine the site of infection. We performed a retrospective review of whole-body FDG PET/CT scans at a tertiary children's hospital from December 2009 to January 2012 in children and young adults with spinal hardware and suspected hardware infection. The PET/CT scan findings were correlated with pertinent clinical information including laboratory values of inflammatory markers, postoperative notes and pathology results to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT. An exempt status for this retrospective review was approved by the Institution Review Board. Twenty-five FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 20 patients. Spinal fusion hardware infection was confirmed surgically and pathologically in six patients. The most common FDG PET/CT finding in patients with hardware infection was increased FDG uptake in the soft tissue and bone immediately adjacent to the posterior spinal fusion rods at multiple contiguous vertebral levels. Noninfectious hardware complications were diagnosed in ten patients and proved surgically in four. Alternative sources of infection were diagnosed by FDG PET/CT in seven patients (five with pneumonia, one with pyonephrosis and one with superficial wound infections). FDG PET/CT is helpful in evaluation of children and young adults with concern for spinal hardware infection. Noninfectious hardware complications and alternative sources of infection, including pneumonia and pyonephrosis, can be diagnosed. FDG PET/CT should be the first-line cross-sectional imaging study in patients

  18. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT evaluation of children and young adults with suspected spinal fusion hardware infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrosky, Brian M. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital Colorado, 12123 E. 16th Ave., Box 125, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari L.; Fenton, Laura Z. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital Colorado, 12123 E. 16th Ave., Box 125, Aurora, CO (United States); Koo, Phillip J. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Evaluation of the child with spinal fusion hardware and concern for infection is challenging because of hardware artifact with standard imaging (CT and MRI) and difficult physical examination. Studies using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT combine the benefit of functional imaging with anatomical localization. To discuss a case series of children and young adults with spinal fusion hardware and clinical concern for hardware infection. These people underwent FDG PET/CT imaging to determine the site of infection. We performed a retrospective review of whole-body FDG PET/CT scans at a tertiary children's hospital from December 2009 to January 2012 in children and young adults with spinal hardware and suspected hardware infection. The PET/CT scan findings were correlated with pertinent clinical information including laboratory values of inflammatory markers, postoperative notes and pathology results to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT. An exempt status for this retrospective review was approved by the Institution Review Board. Twenty-five FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 20 patients. Spinal fusion hardware infection was confirmed surgically and pathologically in six patients. The most common FDG PET/CT finding in patients with hardware infection was increased FDG uptake in the soft tissue and bone immediately adjacent to the posterior spinal fusion rods at multiple contiguous vertebral levels. Noninfectious hardware complications were diagnosed in ten patients and proved surgically in four. Alternative sources of infection were diagnosed by FDG PET/CT in seven patients (five with pneumonia, one with pyonephrosis and one with superficial wound infections). FDG PET/CT is helpful in evaluation of children and young adults with concern for spinal hardware infection. Noninfectious hardware complications and alternative sources of infection, including pneumonia and pyonephrosis, can be diagnosed. FDG PET/CT should be the first-line cross-sectional imaging study in

  19. Factors that limit access to dental care for adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K; Wolf, Bethany J; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Magruder, Kathryn M; Selassie, Anbesaw W; Salinas, Carlos F

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated dental care service utilization among adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and identified barriers and other factors affecting utilization among this population. There were 192 subjects with SCI who participated in the oral health survey assessing dental care service utilization and they were compared with subjects from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS). There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects with SCI who visited the dentist for any reason in the past year compared to the general population (65.5% vs. 68.8%, p= .350). However, subjects with SCI were less likely to go to the dentist for a dental cleaning in the past year compared to the general population (54.6% vs. 69.4%, p dental care were cost (40.1%), physical barriers (22.9%), and dental fear (15.1%). Multivariate modeling showed that physical barriers and fear of dental visits were the two significant factors deterring subjects from dental visits in the past year. Physical barriers preventing access to dental facilities and dental fear are prevalent and significantly impede the delivery of dental health care to adults with SCI. Dentists should undertake necessary physical remodeling of their facilities to accommodate wheelchair users and implement appropriate strategies for the management of dental fear among patients with SCI. PMID:20618781

  20. A prospective evaluation of a pressure ulcer prevention and management E-Learning Program for adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Jacalyn A; Schubart, Jane R

    2010-08-01

    Pressure ulcers are a common complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Pressure ulcer education programs for spinal cord injured individuals have been found to have a positive effect on care protocol adherence. A prospective study was conducted among hospitalized spinal cord-injured men and women to determine if viewing the Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Management Education for Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: E-Learning Program affects their knowledge scores. A 20-question multiple-choice pre-/post learning test was developed and validated by 12 rehabilitation nurses. Twenty (20) patients (13 men, seven women; mean age 49 years, [SD: 18.26] with injuries to the cervical [seven], thoracic [six], and lumbar [six] regions) volunteered. Most (42%) had completed high school and time since SCI ranged from 2 weeks to 27 years. Eighteen (18) participants completed both the pre- and post test. Of those, 16 showed improvement in pressure ulcer knowledge scores. The median scores improved from 65 (range 25 to 100) pre-program to 92.5 (range 75 to 100) post-program. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The results suggest that a single viewing of this e-learning program could improve pressure ulcer knowledge of hospitalized adults with SCI. Research to ascertain the effects of this and other educational programs on pressure ulcer rates is needed. PMID:20729562

  1. Changes of the expression of prostatic acid phosphatase in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion in different chronic pain models of the rat%前列腺酸性磷酸酶在慢性痛大鼠脊髓背角和背根神经节的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 陈磊; 张富兴; 李云庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe the expression changes of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in different chronic pain models of the rat. Methods; Immunohistochemistry combined with multiple immunofluorescent histochemical technique was employed to detect the expression changes of PAP in different chronic pain models. Results; In the intact normal rats, PAP was principally located in small- to medium-sized non-peptidergic neurons in the DRG, and the number of PAP-immunoreactive (PAP-ir) neurons was about 64 ± 4.3% to the total number of the DRG neurons. In the SDH, only PAP-ir fibers and terminals but not PAP-ir neurons were exclusively observed in lamina Ⅰ and Ⅱ, especially in lamina Ⅱ. In a model of neuropathic pain rat, PAP immunoreactivi-ties were markedly decreased, or even vanished in the SDH and DRG ipsilateral to the nerve injury side. There were no remarkable changes of the PAP expression on the side contralateral to the nerve injury. In an inflammatory pain model induced by CFA injection into the rat hindpaw, however, there were no obvious expression changes of PAP-ir neurons, fibers and terminals in bilateral SDHs and DRGs. Conclusion: PAP is specifically expressed in the SDH and DRG. It might play important roles in the transduction and process of the signals of the neuropathic pain.%目的:观察前列腺酸性磷酸酶(prostatic acid phosphatase,PAP)在多种慢性痛大鼠脊髓背角(spinal dorsal horn,SDH)和背根神经节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)内的表达变化.方法:应用免疫组织化学染色法以及免疫荧光多重染色技术在多种慢性痛模型大鼠观察PAP的表达变化.结果:在正常大鼠,PAP阳性反应产物主要位于DRG的中、小型的非肽能神经元,PAP阳性神经元约占DRG神经元总数的64±4.3%;在脊髓背角,PAP 阳性纤维和终末主要位于Ⅱ层.在神经病理性痛模型大鼠,术侧脊髓背角Ⅱ层的PAP

  2. Interneurons and proprioneurons in the adult human spinal grey matter and in the general somatic and visceral afferent cranial nerve nuclei.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Maguid, T E; Bowsher, D

    1984-01-01

    Using the classification of Abdel-Maguid & Bowsher (1984), interneurons of the dorsal horn of the grey matter of the human spinal cord and medulla oblongata were found to belong to only three 'families' of neurons, out of a possible thirteen. This is in itself one of the justifications for the method of classification. Functional identification of these human neurons has been made on the basis of topological, morphological and projectional comparison with known cells in other mammalian specie...

  3. Combining Adult Learning Theory with Occupational Therapy Intervention for Bladder and Bowel Management after Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Gina; Bell, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Bladder and bowel management is an important goal of rehabilitation for clients with spinal cord injury. Dependence is these areas have been linked to a variety of secondary complications, including decreased quality of life, urinary tract infections and pressure ulcers (Hammell, 2010; Hicken et al, 2001). Occupational therapists have been identified as important members of the health care team in spinal cord injury rehabilitation; however, specific roles and interventions have not been clearly described. This case report will describe occupational therapy interventions embedded with principles of adult learning theory to address bladder and bowel management with an adult client who sustained an incomplete thoracic level spinal cord injury. PMID:26694910

  4. Intracranial somatosensory responses with direct spinal cord stimulation in anesthetized sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver E Flouty

    Full Text Available The efficacy of spinal cord stimulators is dependent on the ability of the device to functionally activate targeted structures within the spinal cord, while avoiding activation of near-by non-targeted structures. In theory, these objectives can best be achieved by delivering electrical stimuli directly to the surface of the spinal cord. The current experiments were performed to study the influence of different stimulating electrode positions on patterns of spinal cord electrophysiological activation. A custom-designed spinal cord neurostimulator was used to investigate the effects of lead position and stimulus amplitude on cortical electrophysiological responses to spinal cord stimulation. Brain recordings were obtained from subdural grids placed in four adult sheep. We systematically varied the position of the stimulating lead relative to the spinal cord and the voltage delivered by the device at each position, and then examined how these variables influenced cortical responses. A clear relationship was observed between voltage and electrode position, and the magnitude of high gamma-band oscillations. Direct stimulation of the dorsal column contralateral to the grid required the lowest voltage to evoke brain responses to spinal cord stimulation. Given the lower voltage thresholds associated with direct stimulation of the dorsal column, and its possible impact on the therapeutic window, this intradural modality may have particular clinical advantages over standard epidural techniques now in routine use.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico)); Rivera, F. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Babinski, E. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Berlanga, E. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Madrazo, M. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Franco-Bourland, R. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico)); Grijalva, I. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  7. Severe spinal stenosis in an adult achondroplastic dwarf – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Iliescu1, S. Gaivas1, C. Apetrei1, I. Poeată1,2

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia is the most commonform of human short-limbed dwarfism andis one of a spectrum of diseases caused bymutations in the FGFR3 gene.Achondroplasia is estimated to occur in 1 in10,000–30,000 live births4,7. The disease isautosomal dominant, but 80% of patientshave new mutations. It is commonlyassociated with several neurologicalconditions such as hydrocephalus,cervicomedullary compression, cervical orthoracic cord compression, and lumbarspinal compression due to bone stenosisalong the neuraxis. We report a case withsevere spinal stenosis at the lumbar andthoracic levels, with minimal involvementof the cervical spine with late neurologicalonset in an adult patient withachondroplasia. Neurological andradiological findings and surgicalprocedures are discussed. The patient wasadmitted with profound spastic lowerparaparesis and urinary incontinence. In thefirst operation we performed lumbardecompression and the patient improvedand on the fifth day she was able to take ashort walk. 3 months after the first surgerywe intervened on the thoracic spine with amulti-level decompression which allowedfor further neurological improvement,continued in a specialized medical facility.The case stands out as the clinical picturewas dominated by the lumbar stenosis(although both lumbar and thoracicstenosis were severe at the time ofpresentation with a late onset and sparingof the cervical spine.

  8. EXPRESSION OF NESTIN AND GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN DIFFERENT PERIOD AFTER SPINAL INJURY IN ADULT RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈建强; 贺西京; 杨平林; 师蔚; 李浩鹏; 兰宾尚; 袁普卫; 王国毓

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in different period after spinal injury in adult rats. Methods Animal moels were created by artery clamp. Expression of Nestin and GFAP in different period (1,3,5days;1-8 weeks) and different area(injury locus and its surrounding tissue ) after spinal injury were observed pathologicaly using immunofluorescence and LeicaQ500IW imaging processing system. Results There was expression of Nestin and GFAP in injured area 1 day after injury.The expression increased not only in in injured area but its sourrounding 3-7 days later and gradually got to peak value. As the time went on, expression of Nestin and GFAP dereased. Conclusion Spinal injury can induce the expression of Nestin. Nerve stem cell has response to spinal injury. There is positive correlation between expression of Nestin and hyperplasia of reactivity astrocyte. Nerve stem cell maybe invovled in the repair of central nervous system (CNS).

  9. Retinoic acid receptor beta2 promotes functional regeneration of sensory axons in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Liang-Fong; Yip, Ping K; Battaglia, Anna; Grist, John; Corcoran, Jonathan; Maden, Malcolm; Azzouz, Mimoun; Kingsman, Susan M; Kingsman, Alan J; Mazarakis, Nicholas D; McMahon, Stephen B

    2006-02-01

    The embryonic CNS readily undergoes regeneration, unlike the adult CNS, which has limited axonal repair after injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), critical in development for neuronal growth, may enable adult neurons to grow in an inhibitory environment. Overexpression of RARbeta2 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion cultures increased intracellular levels of cyclic AMP and stimulated neurite outgrowth. Stable RARbeta2 expression in DRG neurons in vitro and in vivo enabled their axons to regenerate across the inhibitory dorsal root entry zone and project into the gray matter of the spinal cord. The regenerated neurons enhanced second-order neuronal activity in the spinal cord, and RARbeta2-treated rats showed highly significant improvement in sensorimotor tasks. These findings show that RARbeta2 induces axonal regeneration programs within injured neurons and may thus offer new therapeutic opportunities for CNS regeneration. PMID:16388307

  10. Ketamine inhibits the excitability induced by formalin in spinal dorsal horn neurons of rats%氯胺酮对甲醛致痛诱导大鼠脊髓背角神经元兴奋性的抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜明; 曾因明; 张励才; 戴体俊; 段世明

    2006-01-01

    performance of the rats in each group. ② Spinal sections were chosen, and stained with c-fos genetic immunohistochemical and NADPH-d histochemical methods. The changes of the number of Fos-like immuno-positive neurons (FLI) and FLI/nitric oxide synthase (NOS) double-labeled neurons in the 4-layer sections (layer Ⅰ -Ⅱ ,layer Ⅲ-Ⅳ ,layerⅤ-Ⅵ ,layer Ⅶ-X )of spinal dorsal horn of the rats were observed.RESULTS: All the thirty rats entered the stage of result analysis. ① Behavioral changes: The rats of formalin group and formalin+ normal salinegroup had apparent pain response; Several minutes after injection with ketamine, righting reflex disappeared and did not recover at perfusion period.Prolonged sleep was found without obvious pain response performance. ② FLI neuron expression: A lot of FLI positive neurons were found in the spinal dorsal horn of injec tion side of the rats in the formalin group and formalin+ normal saline group, and they distributed principally in the layer Ⅰ - Ⅱ of spinal dorsal horn.The distribution in the ketamine + formalin group and formalin + ketamine group was basically similar to that in the formalin group and formalin + normal saline group, but positive neuron counts were significantly reduced (P < 0.01). ③ The expression of FLI/NOS double-labeled neurons: The number of double-labeled neurons in the spinal dorsal horn layer Ⅰ - Ⅱ of the rats in the ketamine+ formalin group and formalin+ ketamine group were significantly less than that in the formalin group and formalin+normal saline group [(1±1), (1±1), (7±3), (8±3),P < 0.01].CONCLUSION: Some neurons of ipsilateral corresponding spinal segments participate in the transmission and mediation of pain signal. Ketamine can suppress the activities of these neurons and exert antinociceptive effect. The antinococeptive function of ketamine may be caused by the activity depression of the NOS-positive neurons in spinal cord.%背景:氯胺酮是否可通过影响脊髓水平

  11. Non-peptidergic small diameter primary afferents expressing VGluT2 project to lamina I of mouse spinal dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Jennifer N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmyelinated primary afferent nociceptors are commonly classified into two main functional types: those expressing neuropeptides, and non-peptidergic fibers that bind the lectin IB4. However, many small diameter primary afferent neurons neither contain any known neuropeptides nor bind IB4. Most express high levels of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2 and are assumed to be glutamatergic nociceptors but their terminations within the spinal cord are unknown. We used in vitro anterograde axonal tracing with Neurobiotin to identify the central projections of these putative glutamatergic nociceptors. We also quantitatively characterised the spatial arrangement of these terminals with respect to those that expressed the neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. Results Neurobiotin-labeled VGluT2-immunoreactive (IR terminals were restricted to lamina I, with a medial-to-lateral distribution similar to CGRP-IR terminals. Most VGluT2-IR terminals in lateral lamina I were not labeled by Neurobiotin implying that they arose mainly from central neurons. 38 ± 4% of Neurobiotin-labeled VGluT2-IR terminals contained CGRP-IR. Conversely, only 17 ± 4% of Neurobiotin-labeled CGRP-IR terminals expressed detectable VGluT2-IR. Neurobiotin-labeled VGluT2-IR or CGRP-IR terminals often aggregated into small clusters or microdomains partially surrounding intrinsic lamina I neurons. Conclusions The central terminals of primary afferents which express high levels of VGluT2-IR but not CGRP-IR terminate mainly in lamina I. The spatial arrangement of VGluT2-IR and CGRP-IR terminals suggest that lamina I neurons receive convergent inputs from presumptive nociceptors that are primarily glutamatergic or peptidergic. This reveals a previously unrecognized level of organization in lamina I consistent with the presence of multiple nociceptive processing pathways.

  12. Dorsal fin anatomy (Cetacean dorsal fin Anatomy)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cetacean dorsal fin Anatomy for ONR. Comparison within populations to ascertain phenotypic differences. Findings corroborate field observation. dorsal fin description

  13. Activation of the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves tamoxifen-induced memory retrieval impairment in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Azam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Sardari, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has frequently been used in the treatment of breast cancer. In view of the fact that cognitive deficits in women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is a common health problem, using female animal models for investigating the cognitive effects of TAM administration may improve our knowledge of TAM therapy. Therefore, the present study assessed the role of dorsal hippocampal cholinergic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the effect of TAM administration on memory retrieval in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX female rats using a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that pre-test administration of TAM (2-6mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.5μg/rat) reversed TAM-induced memory impairment. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.1-0.3μg/rat) plus 2mg/kg (an ineffective dose) of TAM impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of nicotine and mecamylamine by themselves had no effect on memory retrieval. In OVX rats, the administration of TAM (6mg/kg) produced memory impairment but pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.5μg/rat) had no effect on TAM response. Moreover, the administration of an ineffective dose of TAM (2mg/kg) had no effect on memory retrieval in OVX rats, while pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.3μg/rat) impaired memory retrieval. Taken together, it can be concluded that the impairing effect of TAM on memory formation may be modulated by nAChRs of the CA1 regions. It seems that memory impairment may be considered as an important side effect of TAM. PMID:27072849

  14. Visual patch clamp recording of neurons in thick portions of the adult spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders Sonne; Smith, Morten; Moldovan, Mihai; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2010-01-01

    enlargement of the spinal cord. With a conventional upright microscope in which the light condenser was carefully adjusted, we could visualize neurons present at the surface of the slice and record them with the whole-cell patch clamp technique. We show that neurons present in the middle of the preparation...... currents (IPSCs) remains constant. These preliminary data suggest that inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections are balanced locally while excitation dominates long-range connections in the spinal cord....

  15. 体视学研究坐骨神经慢性限制性损伤对大鼠脊髓背角内突触数量的可塑性改变及COX-2抑制剂的作用%Stereological investigation on plasticity in synaptic number associated with chronic constriction injury in the rat spinal dorsal horn and effects of COX-2 inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商义; 张才全; 彭彬; 林菁艳; 杨正伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨坐骨神经慢性限制性损伤(CCI)所致神经病理性疼痛是否伴有脊髓背角神经元和突触数量的可塑性变化以及帕瑞昔布干预的作用.方法:正常成年SD大鼠随机分为假手术组、CCI组及帕瑞昔布组.术后28d取第5腰段脊髓作石蜡包埋切片,分别用尼氏染色和突触素的免疫组织化学显色显示神经元和突触,采用体视学新技术--光学体视框估计脊髓背角内神经元和突触的数量.结果:与对侧未手术侧相比,CCI组手术侧单位长度脊髓背角内的突触数及突触数与神经元数之比分别增加了86%、98%;帕瑞昔布组手术侧单位长度脊髓背角内的突触数及突触数与神经元数之比分别增加了78%、68%.与假手术组手术侧相比,CCI组手术侧单位长度脊髓背角内的突触数及突触数与神经元数之比分别增加了78%、73%;帕瑞昔布组则分别增加了81%、71%.结论:CCI所致神经病理性疼痛伴有脊髓背角内突触数量增加的可塑性变化,COX-2抑制剂帕瑞昔布对CCI致突触数量的增加无作用.%Objective: To determine whether neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) is associated with a plasticity change in the number of synapses in the spinal dorsal horn and the effects of COX-2 inhibitor on it. Methods: 17 normal adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated group, CCI group and parecoxib group. 28 days after operation, L5 segment of the spinal cord was removed, and paraffin-embedded sections were prepared and stained with Nissl's method and synaptophysin immunohistochemistry. The numbers of neurons and synapses in the spinal dorsal horn were estimated using a contemporary stereological technique - the optical disector. Results: In the CCI group, the number of synapses and the ratio between the numbers of synapses and neurons on the operated side increased significantly by 86%and 98%, respectively, compared to the non-operated side

  16. Role of 5-HT5A receptors in activation of astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of neuropathic pain by vincristine%5-HT5A受体在长春新碱致神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角星形胶质细胞活化中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巍; 叶茂; 徐颖; 石远; 柏林

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价5-羟色胺5A受体(5-HT5AR)在长春新碱致神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角星形胶质细胞活化中的作用.方法 雄性成年SD大鼠40只,体重180~200 g,随机分为4组(n=10):对照组(C组)、神经病理性痛组(P组)、空载体腺病毒组(B组)和siRNA重组腺病毒载体组(S组).C组腹腔注射生理盐水1 ml;P组、B组和S组第1~5天和第8~12天每天定时腹腔注射0.1 mg/kg长春新碱建立大鼠神经病理性痛模型.腹腔给药结束第2天测定机械痛阈,然后P组、B组和S组分别鞘内注射人工脑脊液、空载体腺病毒和siRNA重组腺病毒载体25μl.鞘内给药后第7天测定机械痛阈,然后处死大鼠,取L4.5脊髓组织,测定脊髓背角5-HT5AR及胶原纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)的表达.结果 与C组比较,P组、B组和S组各时点机械痛阈降低,脊髓背角5-HT5AR和GFAP的表达均上调(P<0.05);与P组比较,S组鞘内给药后第7天机械痛阈降低,脊髓背角5-HT5AR表达下调,GFAP表达上调(P<0.05),B组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 5-HT5AR参与了星形胶质细胞活化的抑制过程,从而减轻长春新碱致大鼠神经病理性痛.%Objective To evaluate the role of 5-HT5A receptors (5-HT5A R) in activation of astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by vincristine. Methods Forty adult male SD rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n = 10 each): control group (group C);neuropathic pain group (group P);Ad-X-HK group (group B) and Ad-5-HT5A-siRNA group (group S). Neuropathic pain was induced by repeated intraperitoneal (IP) injection of vincristine 0.1 mg/kg according to the method described by Weng et al in group P, B and S. On the 2nd day after the last IP injection, the animals received artificial cerebrospinal fluid, Ad-X-HK and Ad-5-HT5A-siRNA 25 μl administered intrathecally (IT) in group P, B and S respectively. Paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulus

  17. Primary spinal intradural hydatid cyst--a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparaj, K; Sundararajan, M; Madeswaran, K; Ambalavanan, S

    2001-06-01

    Primary spinal hydatid cysts are uncommon. Among these, intradural presentation is very rare. A case of primary spinal intradural hydatid cyst presenting as incomplete dorsal cord compression is reported here for its rarity. PMID:11447449

  18. Primary spinal intradural hydatid cyst--a short report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj K

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal hydatid cysts are uncommon. Among these, intradural presentation is very rare. A case of primary spinal intradural hydatid cyst presenting as incomplete dorsal cord compression is reported here for its rarity.

  19. Primary spinal intradural hydatid cyst--a short report.

    OpenAIRE

    Pushparaj K; Sundararajan M; Madeswaran K; Ambalavanan S

    2001-01-01

    Primary spinal hydatid cysts are uncommon. Among these, intradural presentation is very rare. A case of primary spinal intradural hydatid cyst presenting as incomplete dorsal cord compression is reported here for its rarity.

  20. Circumcision with “no-flip Shang Ring” and “Dorsal Slit” methods for adult males: a single-centered, prospective, clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jun-Hao; Liu, Liang-Ren; Wei, Qiang; Xue, Wen-Ben; Song, Tu-Run; Yan, Shi-Bing; Yang, Lu; Han, Ping; Zhu, Yu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This paper was aimed to compare the clinical effectiveness and safety of adult male circumcision using the Shang Ring™ (SR) with the no-flip technique compared with Dorsal Slit (DS) surgical method. A single-centered, prospective study was conducted at the West China Hospital, where patients were circumcised using the no-flip SR (n = 408) or the DS (n = 94) procedure. The adverse events (AEs) and satisfaction were recorded for both groups, and ring-removal time and percentage of delayed removals were recorded for the SR group. Finally, complete follow-up data were collected for 76.1% of patients (SR: n = 306; DS: n = 76). The average ring-removal time for the SR group was 17.62 ± 6.30 days. The operation time (P flip SR method was found to be superior to the DS method for its short operation time (<5 min), involving less pain, bleeding, infection, and resulting in a satisfactory appearance. However, the time for recovery from edema took longer, and patients may wear device for 2–3 weeks after the procedure. PMID:26585694

  1. Remyelination after chronic spinal cord injury is associated with proliferation of endogenous adult progenitor cells after systemic administration of guanosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shucui; Ballerini, Patrizia; Buccella, Silvana; Giuliani, Patricia; Jiang, Cai; Huang, Xinjie; Rathbone, Michel P

    2008-03-01

    Axonal demyelination is a consistent pathological sequel to chronic brain and spinal cord injuries and disorders that slows or disrupts impulse conduction, causing further functional loss. Since oligodendroglial progenitors are present in the demyelinated areas, failure of remyelination may be due to lack of sufficient proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitors. Guanosine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of many types of cells in vitro and exerts neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system (CNS). Five weeks after chronic traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), when there is no ongoing recovery of function, intraperitoneal administration of guanosine daily for 2 weeks enhanced functional improvement correlated with the increase in myelination in the injured cord. Emphasis was placed on analysis of oligodendrocytes and NG2-positive (NG2+) cells, an endogenous cell population that may be involved in oligodendrocyte replacement. There was an increase in cell proliferation (measured by bromodeoxyuridine staining) that was attributable to an intensification in progenitor cells (NG2+ cells) associated with an increase in mature oligodendrocytes (determined by Rip+ staining). The numbers of astroglia increased at all test times after administration of guanosine whereas microglia only increased in the later stages (14 days). Injected guanosine and its breakdown product guanine accumulated in the spinal cords; there was more guanine than guanosine detected. We conclude that functional improvement and remyelination after systemic administration of guanosine is due to the effect of guanosine/guanine on the proliferation of adult progenitor cells and their maturation into myelin-forming cells. This raises the possibility that administration of guanosine may be useful in the treatment of spinal cord injury or demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis where quiescent oligodendroglial progenitors exist in demyelinated plaques. PMID

  2. Dorsal penile nerves and primary premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHANG Chun-ying; LI Xing-hua; FU Zhong-ze; CHEN Zhao-yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on our clinical experience, the number of dorsal penile nerves in patients with primary premature ejaculation (PPE) is not consistent with the average number (2 branches). In this study, we evaluated the number and distribution of dorsal penile nerves among healthy Chinese adults and patients with PPE.Methods The dorsal nerve of the penis, the deep dorsal vein of the penis, and the dorsal artery of the penis between the deep fascia of the penis and the albuginea penis were carefully educed, observed, and counted in 38 adult autopsy specimens. The number and distribution of the dorsal penile nerve in 128 surgical patients with PPE were determined. Results The numbers of dorsal penile nerves of the 38 cases were as follows:7 branches in 1 case; 6 branches in 1 case; 5 branches in 6 cases; 4 branches in 9 cases; 3 branches in 14 cases; and 2 branches in 7 cases. Most of the dorsal nerves were parallel to each other and in the dorsum of the penis. In only 8 cases, the branches were connected by some communicating branches. In 4 cases, 1 or 2 thin dorsal nerves continued their pathway over the ventral aspect of the penis. The average number of branches of the dorsal penile nerve in patients with PPE was 7.16. Conclusions Based on the study of 38 cases, the average number of dorsal penile nerves was 3.55 branches and that of patients with PPE was greater. These preliminary results suggest that the excessive dorsal penile nerves may have an impact on PPE via increased sensitivity and provide topographic data for the possible treatment of PPE.

  3. Role of ERK1/2, Akt, and PLCy pathways in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the adult rat spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Si eChan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs has been identified in both normal and injured adult mammalian spinal cord. Yet the signaling mechanisms underlying the regulation of adult spinal cord NSPCs proliferation and commitment toward a neuronal lineage remain undefined. In this study, the role of three growth factor-mediated signaling pathways in proliferation and neuronal differentiation was examined. Adult spinal cord NSPCs were enriched in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2. We observed an increase in the number of cells expressing the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 over time, indicating neuronal differentiation in the culture. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK kinase 1 and 2/ERK 1 and 2 (MEK/ERK1/2 or the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways suppressed active proliferation in adult spinal cord NSPC cultures; whereas neuronal differentiation was negatively affected only when the ERK1/2 pathway was inhibited. Inhibition of the phospholipase C gamma (PLCy pathway did not affect proliferation or neuronal differentiation. Finally, we demonstrated that the blockade of either the ERK1/2 or PLCy signaling pathways reduced neurite branching of MAP2+ cells derived from the NSPC cultures. Many of the MAP2+ cells expressed synaptophysin and had a glutamatergic phenotype, indicating that over time adult spinal cord NSPCs had differentiated into mostly glutamatergic neurons. Our work provides new information regarding the contribution of these pathways to the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSPCs derived from adult spinal cord cultures, and emphasizes that the contribution of these pathways is dependent on the origin of the NSPCs.

  4. Short term treatment versus long term management of neck and back disability in older adults utilizing spinal manipulative therapy and supervised exercise: a parallel-group randomized clinical trial evaluating relative effectiveness and harms

    OpenAIRE

    Vihstadt, Corrie; Maiers, Michele; Westrom, Kristine; Bronfort, Gert; Evans, Roni; Hartvigsen, Jan; Schulz, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Background Back and neck disability are frequent in older adults resulting in loss of function and independence. Exercise therapy and manual therapy, like spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), have evidence of short and intermediate term effectiveness for spinal disability in the general population and growing evidence in older adults. For older populations experiencing chronic spinal conditions, long term management may be more appropriate to maintain improvement and minimize the impact of futu...

  5. Dorsal horn-enriched genes identified by DNA microarray, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblan Kenneth S

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons in the dorsal spinal cord play important roles in nociception and pain. These neurons receive input from peripheral sensory neurons and then transmit the signals to the brain, as well as receive and integrate descending control signals from the brain. Many molecules important for pain transmission have been demonstrated to be localized to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Further understanding of the molecular interactions and signaling pathways in the dorsal horn neurons will require a better knowledge of the molecular neuroanatomy in the dorsal spinal cord. Results A large scale screening was conducted for genes with enriched expression in the dorsal spinal cord using DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. In addition to genes known to be specifically expressed in the dorsal spinal cord, other neuropeptides, receptors, ion channels, and signaling molecules were also found enriched in the dorsal spinal cord. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed the cellular expression of a subset of these genes. The regulation of a subset of the genes was also studied in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL neuropathic pain model. In general, we found that the genes that are enriched in the dorsal spinal cord were not among those found to be up-regulated in the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. This study also provides a level of validation of the use of DNA microarrays in conjunction with our novel analysis algorithm (SAFER for the identification of differences in gene expression. Conclusion This study identified molecules that are enriched in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and provided a molecular neuroanatomy in the spinal cord, which will aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms important in nociception and pain.

  6. Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, Shiva Nemati; Jabbari, Reza; Hajinasrollah, Mostafa;

    2014-01-01

    confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Animals were clinically observed for 6 months. RESULTS: Analysis confirmed homing of mNSCs into the injury site. Transplanted cells expressed neuronal markers (TubIII). Hind limb performance improved in trans- planted animals based on......, therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model was......OBJECTIVE: Currently, cellular transplantation for spinal cord injuries (SCI) is the subject of numerous preclinical studies. Among the many cell types in the adult brain, there is a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells (NSC) that can self-renew and differentiate into neurons. The study aims...

  7. Enhanced dopamine D1 and BDNF signaling in the adult dorsal striatum but not nucleus accumbens of prenatal cocaine treated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Tropea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous work from our group and others utilizing animal models have demonstrated long lasting structural and functional alterations in the meso-cortico-striatal dopamine pathway following prenatal cocaine treatment. We have shown that prenatal cocaine treatment results in augmented D1 -induced cyclic AMP (cAMP and cocaine-induced immediate-early gene expression in the striatum of adult mice. In this study we further examined basal as well as cocaine or D1-induced activation of a set of molecules known to be mediators of neuronal plasticity following psychostimulant treatment, with emphasis in the dorsal striatum (Str and nucleus accumbens (NAc of adult mice exposed to cocaine in utero. Basally, in the striatum of prenatal cocaine treated (PCOC mice there were significantly higher levels of a number of the transcription factors studied. Following acute administration of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p. or D1 agonist (SKF 82958; 1 mg/kg, i.p. there were significantly higher levels of Ser133 P-CREB, Thr34 P-DARPP-32, and Thr202/Tyr204 P-ERK2 in the Str, that were significantly augmented in PCOC mice. In sharp contrast, in the NAc of those mice, we found increased P-CREB and P-ERK2 in PSAL mice, a response that was not evident in PCOC mice. Examination of Ser 845 P-GluA1 revealed increased levels in PSAL mice, but significantly decreased levels in PCOC mice in both the Str and NAc following acute administration of cocaine or D1 agonist. We also found significantly higher levels of the BDNF precursor, pro-BDNF and one of its receptors, TrkB in the Str of PCOC mice. These results suggest a persistent up-regulation of molecules critical to D1 and BDNF signaling in the Str of adult mice exposed to cocaine in utero. These molecular adaptations may underlie components of the behavioral deficits evident in exposed animals and a subset of exposed humans, and may represent a therapeutic target for ameliorating aspects of the prenatal cocaine-induced phenotype.

  8. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V.; Kaila, R.; Wilson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the safety and efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) compared with bone graft when used specifically for revision spinal fusion surgery secondary to pseudarthrosis. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched using defined search terms. The primary outcome measure was spinal fusion, assessed as success or failure in accordance with radiograph, MRI or CT scan review at 24-month follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was time to fusion. Results A total of six studies (three prospective and three retrospective) reporting on the use of BMP2 met the inclusion criteria (203 patients). Of these, four provided a comparison of BMP2 and bone graft whereas the other two solely investigated the use of BMP2. The primary outcome was seen in 92.3% (108/117) of patients following surgery with BMP2. Although none of the studies showed superiority of BMP2 to bone graft for fusion, its use was associated with a statistically quicker time to achieving fusion. BMP2 did not appear to increase the risk of complication. Conclusion The use of BMP2 is both safe and effective within the revision setting, ideally in cases where bone graft is unavailable or undesirable. Further research is required to define its optimum role. Cite this article: Mr P. Bodalia. Effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for adults with lumbar spine pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion surgery: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:145–152. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000418. PMID:27121215

  9. Spinal opioids in adult patients with cancer pain: a systematic review: a European Palliative Care Research Collaborative (EPCRC) opioid guidelines project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Kaasa, Stein; Sjøgren, Per

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review, undertaken according to an initiative to revise European Association for Palliative Care guidelines on the use of opioids for cancer pain, which aimed to analyse analgesic efficacy and side effects of spinal opioids in adult cancer patients previously treated with systemic...

  10. Anatomical variations and clinical relevance of dorsal sacral foramina in North Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugesh Khanna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateral side of each intermediate crest has four dorsal sacral foramina for the passage of posterior division of the sacral nerves. Not only they serve as an important landmark in placement of spinal instrumentation but are also of great importance in transsacral block of sacral nerves for producing analgesia and anesthesia in pelvic surgeries. Therefore a study on the variation in number of dorsal sacral foramina was conducted in 60 adult dry North Indian sacra. Three dorsal sacral foramina were seen on the lateral side of each intermediate crest in four sacra (6.6% and five in 6 sacra (10% amongst all the sacra examined. Either a single pair, double pair or totally absent foramina were not observed in any of the sacra seen. This study revealed that there is variation in the number of dorsal sacral foramina. Anaesthetists should be aware of this disparity to be able to perform trans-sacral nerve block successfully. Radiologists must also know about this variation to interpret the radiographs of lumbosacral region. Neurologist and orthopedist should also be cognizant of this fact to diagnose patients presenting with bizarre clinical findings. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 263-266

  11. Histochemical study of the pre—and postnatal development of acetylcholinesterase in the rat spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGQIN; XINWENDONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase(AChE)-positive structures in the developing rat spinal cord was studied with AChE-histochemistry.AChE-positive perikarya were first seen on embryonic day 14(E14) in the ventrolateral portion of the spinal cord.From that time onward.AChE=containing cells appeared gradually in the intermediate gray,dorsal horn and lateral spinal nucleus of the spinal cord in a ventral-to-dorsal,and lateral-to-medial order.No obvious rostral-to-caudal sequence was found.At birth,the distribution pattern of AChE-positive perikarya was basically similar to that in adults.After birth a dramatic increase in the AChE staining intensity extended from postnatal day 5(P5) to postnatal day 21(P21),In addition,two phases of transient AChE staining were observed in the external surface of the dorsal horn from embryonic day 15(E15) to embryonic day 21(E21) and in the marginal layer from embryonic day 21(E21) to postnatal day 14(P14),respectively.

  12. A PET/CT-based Morphometric Study of Spinal Canal in Korean Young Adults: Anteroposterior Diameter from Cervical Vertebra to Sacrum

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Moo Sung; Park, Jeong Yoon; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish normative data for spinal canal AP diameter from cervical vertebra to sacrum in the Korean young and to assess the exposed spinal canal after laminectomy which was related with restenosis by post-laminectomy membrane formation. Methods From PET/CT, axial bone-window CT of 83 young adults (20-29 years) were obtained, and we measured AP diameters of C3, C5, C7, T1, T4, T8, T12, L1, L3, L5 and S1. We also measured exposed AP diameter of C3, C5, C7, T1 and T2 above imaginar...

  13. Response of Ependymal Progenitors to Spinal Cord Injury or Enhanced Physical Activity in Adult Rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, D.; Nagyová, M.; Slovinská, L.; Novotná, I.; Radoňák, J.; Čížek, M.; Mechirová, E.; Tomori, Z.; Hlučilová, Jana; Motlík, Jan; Sulla, I.; Vanický, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 29, 6-7 (2009), s. 999-1013. ISSN 0272-4340 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB0808108 Grant ostatní: Agentúra na podporu výskumu a vývoja(SK) APVV SK-CZ-0045-07; Agentúra na podporu výskumu a vývoja(SK) APVV SK-CZ-0682-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Spinal cord injury * Neural stem cells * BrdU Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2009

  14. Effects of estrogens and bladder inflammation on mitogen-activated protein kinases in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia from adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keast Janet R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition associated with bladder inflammation and, like a number of other chronic pain states, symptoms associated with interstitial cystitis are more common in females and fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogens could directly modulate signalling pathways within bladder sensory neurons, such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. These signalling pathways have been implicated in neuronal plasticity underlying development of inflammatory somatic pain but have not been as extensively investigated in visceral nociceptors. We have focused on lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons projecting to pelvic viscera (L1, L2, L6, S1 of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and performed both in vitro and in vivo manipulations to compare the effects of short- and long-term changes in estrogen levels on MAPK expression and activation. We have also investigated if prolonged estrogen deprivation influences the effects of lower urinary tract inflammation on MAPK signalling. Results In studies of isolated DRG neurons in short-term (overnight culture, we found that estradiol and estrogen receptor (ER agonists rapidly stimulated ER-dependent p38 phosphorylation relative to total p38. Examination of DRGs following chronic estrogen deprivation in vivo (ovariectomy showed a parallel increase in total and phosphorylated p38 (relative to β-tubulin. We also observed an increase in ERK1 phosphorylation (relative to total ERK1, but no change in ERK1 expression (relative to β-tubulin. We observed no change in ERK2 expression or phosphorylation. Although ovariectomy increased the level of phosphorylated ERK1 (vs. total ERK1, cyclophosphamide-induced lower urinary tract inflammation did not cause a net increase of either ERK1 or ERK2, or their phosphorylation. Inflammation did, however, cause an increase in p38

  15. 针刺下大鼠脊髓背根神经元放电的时间结构%Temporal Structures of Spikes in Spinal Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuron of the Rat Under Manual Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖源; 王江; 邓斌; 魏熙乐; 于海涛

    2015-01-01

    神经元放电的时间结构包含了大量的编码信息。为了研究针刺作用下神经元放电的时间结构,通过不同手法针刺刺激大鼠足三里穴在脊髓背根处获取神经放电序列,运用fano因子和分散分析等方法对神经充放电序列进行分形分析。结果表明:部分神经元放电序列的 fano 因子随统计时间窗的增加而增加,具有长时程相关性。部分神经元序列的 fano 因子在小时间窗处出现明显的峰值,具有短时程相关性。放电特征分析显示该峰值是由于簇放电所致。这些结果说明针刺能引起脊髓背根神经元放电时间结构的变化,针刺效应是长时程效应和短时程效应相结合的产物。这些结果为针刺注重时间效应提供了合理解释,也为量化针刺手法提供了参考。%The temporal structure of the neural spikes contains much information of neural coding. In order to under-stand the temporal structure of neural spikes under manual acupuncture(MA),the time series of spike discharge were obtained from spinal dorsal root ganglion(SDRG)during different manual acupuncture manipulations taken at Zusanli point of experiment rats. Fano factor and dispersional analysis(DA)were introduced to analyze these time series. Fano factors increase with time windows increasing in some time series of SDRG neurons,but not in the shuffled surrogate data. This phenomenon reveals that these time series have long-term correlation. Some fano factor curves have an ob-vious peak when the sizes of counting time window are relatively small,which reveals that these time series have short-term correlation. These peaks are proved to be correlated to the bursting evoked by MA stimulations through analyzing the discharge patterns of experimental data. These results suggest that MA stimulations change the temporal structure of SDRG neuron spiking. Both long-term correlation and short-term correlation are the characters of MA effects

  16. Potentiation of excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons of rat spinal cord by inhibition of estrogen receptor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kai-Cheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that estrogen is synthesized in the spinal dorsal horn and plays a role in modulating pain transmission. One of the estrogen receptor (ER subtypes, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, is expressed in the spinal laminae I-V, including substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II. However, it is unclear how ERs are involved in the modulation of nociceptive transmission. Results In the present study, a selective ERα antagonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP, was used to test the potential functional roles of spinal ERα in the nociceptive transmission. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we examined the effects of MPP on SG neurons in the dorsal root-attached spinal cord slice prepared from adult rats. We found that MPP increased glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs evoked by the stimulation of either Aδ- or C-afferent fibers. Further studies showed that MPP treatment dose-dependently increased spontaneous EPSCs frequency in SG neurons, while not affecting the amplitude. In addition, the PKC was involved in the MPP-induced enhancement of synaptic transmission. Conclusions These results suggest that the selective ERα antagonist MPP pre-synaptically facilitates the excitatory synaptic transmission to SG neurons. The nociceptive transmission evoked by Aδ- and C-fiber stimulation could be potentiated by blocking ERα in the spinal neurons. Thus, the spinal estrogen may negatively regulate the nociceptive transmission through the activation of ERα.

  17. Mature teratoma of the spinal cord in adults: An unusual case

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuan; Yang, Bo; SONG, LAIJUN; Yan, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    Intraspinal mature teratomas rarely occur in adults. The present study describes an unusual case of adult intradural mature teratoma, which was completely resected. A 22-year-old female presented with an intermittent pinching pain in the lower right shank that had lasted for three months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results indicated a multicystic mass extending from the T12 to L2 vertebrae, and the tumors were certified as teratomas by a histopathological examination. The level of pain ...

  18. Spinal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine directly into the space around your spinal nerves or spinal cord. Spinal stenosis symptoms often become worse over ... Surgery is done to relieve pressure on the nerves or spinal cord. You and your doctor can decide when ...

  19. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal and neural crest stem cells are chemoattractive and accelerate motor recovery in a mouse model of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Neirinckx, Virginie; Agirman, Gulistan; Coste, Cécile; Marquet, Alice; Dion, Valérie; Rogister, Bernard; Franzen, Rachelle; Wislet, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stem cells from adult tissues were considered for a long time as promising tools for regenerative therapy of neurological diseases, including spinal cord injuries (SCI). Indeed, mesenchymal (MSCs) and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) together constitute the bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) that were used as therapeutic options in various models of experimental SCI. However, as clinical approaches remained disappointing, we thought that reducing BMSC heterogeneity should be a...

  20. Classification of neurons by dendritic branching pattern. A categorisation based on Golgi impregnation of spinal and cranial somatic and visceral afferent and efferent cells in the adult human.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Maguid, T E; Bowsher, D

    1984-01-01

    Neurons from adult human brainstem and spinal cord, fixed by immersion in formalin, were impregnated by a Golgi method and examined in sections 100 micron thick. Objective numerical criteria were used to classify completely impregnated neurons. Only the parameters mentioned below were found to be valid. Neurons in 100 micron sections were classified on the basis of (i) the primary dendrite number, indicated by a Roman numeral and called group; (ii) the dendritic branching pattern, comprising ...

  1. NMDA受体通道参与大鼠脊髓背角C纤维诱发电位LTP的表达%NMDA Receptor Channels Are Involved in The Expression of Long-term Potentiation of C-fiber Evoked Field Potentials in Rat Spinal Dorsal Horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 周利君; 胡能伟; 张彤; 刘先国

    2006-01-01

    以往研究表明,激动NMDA受体是引起海马长时程增强(LTP)的必备条件,而LTP的表达主要与AMPA受体的磷酸化及其受体组装到突触后膜有关.但是,近年来有研究表明NMDA受体通道也参与了LTP的表达.为探讨NMDA受体通道是否参与了脊髓背角C纤维诱发电位LTP的表达,诱导LTP后,分别静脉或脊髓局部给予NMDA受体拮抗剂MK 801或APV,观察其作用.发现静脉注射非竞争性NMDA受体MK 801(0.1 mg/kg)对脊髓LTP无影响,注射0.5 mg/kg显著抑制LTP,但是当剂量增高到1.0mg/kg时,抑制作用并未进一步增大.脊髓局部给予MK 801也能抑制脊髓背角LTP.为验证上述结果,使用了竞争性NMDA受体拮抗剂APV.结果显示,脊髓局部给予50μmol/L APV对LTP无影响,100 μmol/L对LTP有显著的抑制作用,当浓度升至200 μmol/L时,抑制作用并未见进一步增强.因此认为,NMDA受体通道部分地参与了脊髓背角C纤维诱发电位LTP的表达.%In hippocampus, numerous studies have shown that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are essential for the initiation of long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas the expression of LTP is primarily mediated by the phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and the increased insertion of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. However, in recent years there is also evidence that NMDA receptor channels contribute to the expression of LTP under physiological conditions. It was examined whether NMDA receptor channels contributed to the expression of LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in rat spinal dorsal horn by intravenous or spinal application of NMDA receptor antagonists after the establishment of LTP. It was found that MK 801 (a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist) at dose of 0.1 mg/kg (iv) had no effect on the spinal LTP and at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg depressed the LTP significantly. However, the inhibitory effect of MK 801 at higher dose (1.0 mg/kg)was not

  2. Adult human neural stem cells : Properties in vitro and as xenografts in the spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Though the presence of stem cells in the adult human brain has been presented earlier, much has yet to be discovered about these cells. However, the mere potential of these cells has had a significant impact of how we today evaluate the regenerative capacity of the central nervous system and, importantly, on the possible means for science to provide insights in neural repair. In this thesis a series of in vitro studies, based on the formation of neurospheres, was used to...

  3. Cutaneous vasodilation during dorsal column stimulation is mediated by dorsal roots and CGRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, J E; Foreman, R D; Chandler, M J; Barron, K W

    1997-02-01

    Dorsal column stimulation (DCS) is used clinically to provide pain relief from peripheral vascular disease and has the benefit of increasing cutaneous blood flow to the affected lower extremities. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of dorsal roots, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P in the cutaneous vasodilation induced by DCS. Male rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (60 mg/kg ip). A unipolar ball electrode was placed unilaterally on the spinal cord at the L1-L2 spinal segment. Blood flow was recorded in each hindpaw foot pad with laser Doppler flowmeters. Blood flow responses were assessed during 1 min of DCS (either 0.2 mA subdural or 0.6 mA epidural at 50 Hz, 0.2-ms pulse duration). Dorsal rhizotomy of L3-L5 (n = 5) abolished the cutaneous vasodilation to subdural DCS, whereas removal of T10-T12 (n = 5) and T13-L2 dorsal roots (n = 5) did not attenuate the DCS-induced vasodilation. The CGRP antagonist, CGRP-(8-37) (2.6 mg/kg iv, n = 7), eliminated the epidural DCS-induced vasodilation, whereas the substance P receptor antagonist, CP-96345 (1 mg/kg iv, n = 6), had no effect. In summary, L3-L5 dorsal roots and CGRP are essential for the DCS-induced vasodilation. We propose that DCS antidromically activates afferent fibers in the dorsal roots, thus causing peripheral release of CGRP, which produces cutaneous vasodilation. PMID:9124459

  4. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Immunoreactive Neuronal Elements in the Superficial Dorsal Horn of the Chicken Spinal Cord: With Special Reference to Their Relationship with the Tachykinin-containing Central Axon Terminals in Synaptic Glomeruli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synaptic glomeruli that involve tachykinin-containing primary afferent central terminals are numerous in lamina II of the chicken spinal cord. Therefore, a certain amount of noxious information is likely to be modulated in these structures in chickens. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry with confocal and electron microscopy to investigate whether neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)-expressing neuronal elements are in contact with the central primary afferent terminals in synaptic glomeruli of the chicken spinal cord. We also investigated which neuronal elements (axon terminals, dendrites, cell bodies) and which neurons in the spinal cord possess NK-1R, and are possibly influenced by tachykinin in the glomeruli. By confocal microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivities were seen in a variety of neuronal cell bodies, their dendrites and smaller fibers of unknown origin. Some of the NK-1R immunoreactive profiles also expressed GABA immunoreactivities. A close association was observed between the NK-1R-immunoreactive neurons and tachykinin-immunoreactive axonal varicosities. By electron microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivity was seen in cell bodies, conventional dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites in laminae I and II. Among these elements, dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites made contact with tachykinin-containing central terminals in the synaptic glomeruli. These results indicate that tachykinin-containing central terminals in the chicken spinal cord can modulate second-order neuronal elements in the synaptic glomeruli

  5. Illness experience of adults with cervical spinal cord injury in Japan: a qualitative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ide-Okochi Ayako

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that healthcare policy should be guided by the illness experience from a layperson’s or insider’s perspective. One such area for exploration would include patient-centered research on traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI, a condition associated with permanent physical disability requiring long-term and often complex health care. The chronicity of SCI can, in turn, affect individuals’ sense of self. Although previous research in Western countries suggests that people with SCI find a way to cope with their disability through social participation and family bonds, the process of adjustment among people with cervical SCI (CSCI living in Japan may be different because of the restrained conditions of their social participation and the excessive burden on family caregivers. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of injury and the process of accommodation in people with CSCI in Japan. Methods Semi-structured home interviews were conducted with 29 participants who were recruited from a home-visit nursing care provider and three self-help groups. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed based on the grounded theory approach. Results Five core categories emerged from the interview data: being at a loss, discrediting self by self and others, taking time in performance, restoring competency, and transcending limitations of disability. Overall, the process by which participants adjusted to and found positive meaning in their lives involved a continuous search for comfortable relationships between self, disability and society. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that persons with CSCI do not merely have disrupted lives, but find positive meaning through meaningful interactions. Family members added to the discredit of self by making the injured person entirely dependent on them. Gaining independence from family members was the key to restoring competency in people with CSCI

  6. UK DRAFFT - A randomised controlled trial of percutaneous fixation with kirschner wires versus volar locking-plate fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Jaclyn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius are extremely common injuries in adults. However, the optimal management remains controversial. In general, fractures of the distal radius are treated non-operatively if the bone fragments can be held in anatomical alignment by a plaster cast or orthotic. However, if this is not possible, then operative fixation is required. There are several operative options but the two most common in the UK, are Kirschner-wire fixation (K-wires and volar plate fixation using fixed-angle screws (locking-plates. The primary aim of this trial is to determine if there is a difference in the Patient-Reported Wrist Evaluation one year following K-wire fixation versus locking-plate fixation for adult patients with a dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius. Methods/design All adult patients with an acute, dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius, requiring operative fixation are potentially eligible to take part in this study. A total of 390 consenting patients will be randomly allocated to either K-wire fixation or locking-plate fixation. The surgery will be performed in trauma units across the UK using the preferred technique of the treating surgeon. Data regarding wrist function, quality of life, complications and costs will be collected at six weeks and three, six and twelve months following the injury. The primary outcome measure will be wrist function with a parallel economic analysis. Discussion This pragmatic, multi-centre trial is due to deliver results in December 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31379280 UKCRN portfolio ID 8956

  7. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFRa (GDNF family receptor alpha localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Lynne Forrest

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFRα1, GFRα2 and GFRα3, respectively and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signalling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFRα. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recovery of sensation, and sensory hypersensitivity that contributes to pain. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of spinal cord and sciatic nerve injuries in adult rodents have identified characteristic changes in GFRα1, GFRα2 or GFRα3 in central spinal cord axons of sensory neurons located in dorsal root ganglia. Here we extend and contrast this analysis by studying injuries of the pelvic and hypogastric nerves that contain the majority of sensory axons projecting to the pelvic viscera (e.g., bladder and lower bowel. At 7 d, we detected some effects of pelvic but not hypogastric nerve transection on the ipsilateral spinal cord. In sacral (L6-S1 cord ipsilateral to nerve injury, GFRα1-immunoreactivity (IR was increased in medial dorsal horn and CGRP-IR was decreased in lateral dorsal horn. Pelvic nerve injury also upregulated GFRα1- and GFRα3-IR terminals and GFRα1-IR neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus that provides the spinal parasympathetic preganglionic output to the pelvic nerve. This evidence suggests peripheral axotomy has different effects on somatic and visceral sensory input to the spinal cord, and identifies sensory-autonomic interactions as a possible site of post-injury regulation.

  8. Osteoporotic spinal burst fracture in a young adult as first presentation of systemic mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble, Christina; Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P; Anestis, Dimitrios M; Hadjileontiadou, Sofia; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Papaioannou, Maria; Tsonidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are uncommon in young adults and usually indicate an underlying disease. Systemic mastocytosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm, which can be associated with osteoporosis. A previously healthy 30-year-old man presented with an L4 burst fracture after lifting a heavy object. He was operated with laminectomy and posterior lumbar instrumentation. During surgery, abnormally soft bone was noted. Postoperatively, osteoporosis was confirmed with measurement of bone mineral density. Further investigation revealed elevated serum tryptase levels while bone marrow biopsy findings showed systemic mastocytosis. He was also tested positive for D816V KIT mutation. Treatment with biphosphonates and interferon was initiated. No extraskeletal involvement was noted up to the last checkup, 18 months after the first presentation. Abrupt vertebral fractures in apparently healthy young individuals should raise the suspicion of an underlying pathology. Prompt identification and treatment of systemic mastocytosis is crucial in order to avoid unexpected sequelae. PMID:27141048

  9. The influence of GABAB receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats by using baclofen in combination with morphine%巴氯芬与吗啡联合应用对脊髓背角GABAB受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单文燕; 陈艳平; 曹德权

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨巴氯芬与吗啡联合应用对脊髓背角GABAB受体表达的影响.方法 成年雄性SD大鼠48只鞘内置管成功后,随机均分为四组,分别鞘内注射生理盐水10μl(NS组),吗啡10μg(M组),巴氯芬0.5μg(B组)和巴氯芬0.5μg+吗啡10 μg(BM组).每天9:00和16:00鞘内注射,在9:30行热水浴甩尾潜伏期(TFL)测定,连测3次,间隔5 min,取其均值,将第1天注药后的TFL均值作为基础值,以TFL恢复到基础值作为出现吗啡耐受的标准.第11天晨,取大鼠腰段脊髓行免疫组织化学染色观察脊髓背角GABAB受体的表达.结果 注药后第10天M组大鼠TFL恢复至基础值,出现吗啡耐受现象,B组和BM组未出现吗啡耐受现象(P<0.01).M组GABABR1及GABABR2表达明显低于其它三组(P<0.01).结论 巴氯芬与吗啡联合应用可以减轻吗啡对脊髓背角GABAB受体表达的下调作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of GABAB receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats by using baclofen in combination with morphine. Methods Healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups after the success of intrathecal cathetemation (n=12). They included saline group(group NS): 0. 9% saline 10 /μ∣, morphine group(group M). morphine 10 figs baclofen group(group B): baclofen 0. 5 μg, baclofen-morphine group (group BM): baclofen 0. 5 μg +morphine 10 μg. Drugs were given by intrathecal injection on 9:00 am and 16:00 pm for 10 consecutive days. At 9:30 the tail-flick latency (TFL) in rats were measured continued 3 limes with an interval of 5 mm. The mean value of TFL measured on the first day were considered as the baseline, and the return to baseline level of TFL were regarded as the morphine tolerance standard. In the morning of the eleventh day, spinal lumbar enlargement of rats were removed and cut into frozen sections to test GABAB receptors expression by immunohistochemical staining. Results TFL of rats returned to baseline in group M after 10 days

  10. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eHoogewoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  11. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 were upregulated in the spinal cord of the ALS mice. ► β-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus in the ALS mice. ► Wnt3a, β-catenin and Cyclin D1 co-localized for astrocytes were all increased. ► BrdU/Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of ALS mice. ► BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. -- Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive and fatal loss of motor neurons. In ALS, there is a significant cell proliferation in response to neurodegeneration; however, the exact molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation and differentiation are unclear. The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative processes. Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 are three key signaling molecules of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We determined the expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 in the adult spinal cord of SOD1G93A ALS transgenic mice at different stages by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. We found that the mRNA and protein of Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 in the spinal cord of the ALS mice were upregulated compared to those in wild-type mice. In addition, β-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus and subsequently activated transcription of the target gene, Cyclin D1. BrdU and Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of these mice. Moreover, Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were also expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. The expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin or Cyclin D1 in mature GFAP+ astrocytes increased. Moreover, BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. Our findings suggest that neurodegeneration activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice. This

  12. Activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanchun [Department of Histology and Embryology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Department of Histology and Embryology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Guan, Yingjun, E-mail: guanyj@wfmc.edu.cn [Department of Histology and Embryology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Department of Histology and Embryology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu, Huancai [Department of Orthopedic, Affiliated Hospital, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Wu, Xin; Yu, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyan; Du, Hongmei [Department of Histology and Embryology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: xwang@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 were upregulated in the spinal cord of the ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus in the ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin and Cyclin D1 co-localized for astrocytes were all increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BrdU/Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. -- Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive and fatal loss of motor neurons. In ALS, there is a significant cell proliferation in response to neurodegeneration; however, the exact molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation and differentiation are unclear. The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative processes. Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 are three key signaling molecules of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. We determined the expression of Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 in the adult spinal cord of SOD1{sup G93A} ALS transgenic mice at different stages by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. We found that the mRNA and protein of Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 in the spinal cord of the ALS mice were upregulated compared to those in wild-type mice. In addition, {beta}-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus and subsequently activated transcription of the target gene, Cyclin D1. BrdU and Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of these mice. Moreover, Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were also expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. The expression of Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin or Cyclin D1 in mature GFAP{sup +} astrocytes increased. Moreover, BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. Our findings suggest that

  13. Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter for gastrin releasing peptide-sensitive and insensitive itch-related synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jennifer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Itch sensation is one of the major sensory experiences of human and animals. Recent studies have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP is a key neurotransmitter for itch in spinal cord. However, no direct evidence is available to indicate that GRP actually mediate responses between primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn neurons. Here we performed integrative neurobiological experiments to test this question. We found that a small population of rat dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with increases in calcium signaling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that a part of superficial dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with the increase of action potential firing in adult rats and mice, and these dorsal horn neurons received exclusively primary afferent C-fiber inputs. On the other hands, few Aδ inputs receiving cells were found to be GRP positive. Finally, we found that evoked sensory responses between primary afferent C fibers and GRP positive superficial dorsal horn neurons are mediated by glutamate but not GRP. CNQX, a blocker of AMPA and kainate (KA receptors, completely inhibited evoked EPSCs, including in those Fos-GFP positive dorsal horn cells activated by itching. Our findings provide the direct evidence that glutamate is the principal excitatory transmitter between C fibers and GRP positive dorsal horn neurons. Our results will help to understand the neuronal mechanism of itch and aid future treatment for patients with pruritic disease.

  14. Changes in the expression of neuromedin U receptor 2 in spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of bone cancer pain%骨癌痛大鼠脊髓背角神经介素U受体2表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭黎华; 邵东华; 陈正; 王洪

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨骨癌痛大鼠脊髓背角神经介素U受体2(NMUR2)表达的变化.方法 健康雌性未交配SD大鼠32只,体重150~ 180 g,采用随机数字表法,将其分为2组(n=16):假手术组(S组)和骨癌痛组(BCP组).采用左胫骨骨髓腔内注入Walker 256(1×105个)乳腺癌细胞的方法建立胫骨癌痛模型.S组左胫骨骨髓腔内注入等容积的热杀死肿瘤细胞.各组随机取8只大鼠,于术前1d和术后1、3、6、9、12、15 d测定机械痛阈.于术后15 d,行左胫骨X线检查,观察骨质破坏情况.于术前1d和术后15 d,随机取4只大鼠,处死后取脊髓背角,采用real-time PCR及Western blot法分别测定NMUR2 mRNA及其蛋白的表达水平.结果 与S组比较,BCP组术后6~15d机械痛阈降低,术后15d脊髓背角NMUR2 mRNA及蛋白表达上调(P<0.05或0.01).与术前1d比较,BCP组术后6~15d机械痛阈进行性降低,术后15 d脊髓NMUR2 mRNA及蛋白表达上调(P<0.05或0.01).BCP组大鼠左胫骨x摄片显示,有明显的骨小梁缺损及骨皮质破坏,而S组变化不明显.结论 骨癌痛大鼠脊髓NMUR2表达上调,该变化可能参与了骨癌痛的形成和维持.%Objective To investigate the changes in the expression of neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) in spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of bone cancer pain (BCP).Methods Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 150-180 g,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n =16 each):sham operation group (group S) and BCP group.BCP was induced by inoculating Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells (1 × 105) into the medullary cavity of left tibia.Heat-killed Walker 256 cells (1 × 105) were injected into the medullary cavity of left tibia in S group.Eight rats were chosen from each group and the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to yon Frey filaments was measured at 1 day before operation (baseline) and 1,3,6,9,12 and 15 days after operation.Bone destruction was shown by X-ray at 15 days after operation.At 1 day before operation and

  15. Axon diameter and myelin sheath thickness in nerve fibres of the ventral spinal root of the seventh lumbar nerve of the adult and developing cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold, C H; Nilsson, I; Rydmark, M

    1983-01-01

    The axon diameter (d) and the number of myelin sheath lamellae (nl) were estimated in electron micrographs of cross sectioned ventral spinal roots of the seventh lumbar nerve of adult cats, kittens and cat fetuses. Myelination started between the 40th and the 45th day after mating (about 3 weeks before birth). From birth onwards the calibre spectrum consisted of a group of small fibres and a group of large fibres. During the first two postnatal months the point distribution of the number of m...

  16. Expression of nitric oxide synthase in the spinal cord after selective brachial plexus injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Liu; Feng Li; Longju Chen; Wutian Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some researches showed that motoneurons in spinal cord anterior horn wound die following brachial plexus injury, but the concrete mechanism of motoneurons death remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and survival of C7 motoneurons in spinal cord of rats after selective brachial plexus injury.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Anatomy, Sun Yet-sen Medical College, Sun Yet-sen University.MATERIALS: Totally 35 adult healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats with the body mass of 200-300 g were provided by Experimental Animal Center, Sun Yet-sen Medical College, Sun Yat-sen University. The rats were divided into control group (n =5) and experimental group (n=30) by random number table method, and the experimental group was divided into three injury subgroups: anterior root avulsion group, dorsal root transection group and spinal cord hemisection group, 10 rats in each group. There were horse anti-neuronal NOS (Nnos) polycolonal antibody (Sigma company) and nicotina mideadeninedinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-d) (SigmaCompany).METHODS: The experiment was performed at Department of Anatomy, Sun Yet-sen Medical College, Sun Yet-sen University between September 2004 and April 2005. ①After anesthetizing the rats, the spinous process of second thoracic vertebra as a marker, the vertebra was exposed from C5 to T1 and the lamina of vertebra was unclenched, and spinal dura mater was carved to expose the spinal nerve dorsal roots of C5-T1.The right ventral root of C7 was avulsed, and the residual root was removed in anterior root avulsion group. The right ventral root of C7 was avulsed and the right dorsal roots of brachial plexus (C5-T1) were cut off in dorsal root transection group. In spinal cord hemisection group, the hemisection between the C5 and C6 spinal segment on right side and avulsion of right ventral root of C7 were made. In the control group, the vertebra from C5 to T1 was

  17. Epicritic Sensation in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Diagnostic Gains Beyond Testing Light Touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Baumberger, Michael; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Curt, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Applied as a bedside test of gross dorsal column function, the testing of light touch (LT) sensation is of high clinical value in the diagnosis of human spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the assessment of overall dorsal column deficit by testing only LT may be limited, because the dorsal column pat

  18. Effects of electrode configuration and geometry on fiber preference in spinal cord stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, Jan; Struijk, Johannes J.; Wesselink, Wilbert A.

    1996-01-01

    In contrast to the widespread assumption that dorsal column fibers are the primary targets of spinal cord stimulation by a dorsal epidural electrode, it appears that dorsal root fibers are recruited as well, and even preferentially under various conditions. This will, however, limit the coverage of

  19. Neuregulin-1 controls an endogenous repair mechanism after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartus, Katalin; Galino, Jorge; James, Nicholas D; Hernandez-Miranda, Luis R; Dawes, John M; Fricker, Florence R; Garratt, Alistair N; McMahon, Stephen B; Ramer, Matt S; Birchmeier, Carmen; Bennett, David L H; Bradbury, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    Following traumatic spinal cord injury, acute demyelination of spinal axons is followed by a period of spontaneous remyelination. However, this endogenous repair response is suboptimal and may account for the persistently compromised function of surviving axons. Spontaneous remyelination is largely mediated by Schwann cells, where demyelinated central axons, particularly in the dorsal columns, become associated with peripheral myelin. The molecular control, functional role and origin of these central remyelinating Schwann cells is currently unknown. The growth factor neuregulin-1 (Nrg1, encoded by NRG1) is a key signalling factor controlling myelination in the peripheral nervous system, via signalling through ErbB tyrosine kinase receptors. Here we examined whether Nrg1 is required for Schwann cell-mediated remyelination of central dorsal column axons and whether Nrg1 ablation influences the degree of spontaneous remyelination and functional recovery following spinal cord injury. In contused adult mice with conditional ablation of Nrg1, we found an absence of Schwann cells within the spinal cord and profound demyelination of dorsal column axons. There was no compensatory increase in oligodendrocyte remyelination. Removal of peripheral input to the spinal cord and proliferation studies demonstrated that the majority of remyelinating Schwann cells originated within the injured spinal cord. We also examined the role of specific Nrg1 isoforms, using mutant mice in which only the immunoglobulin-containing isoforms of Nrg1 (types I and II) were conditionally ablated, leaving the type III Nrg1 intact. We found that the immunoglobulin Nrg1 isoforms were dispensable for Schwann cell-mediated remyelination of central axons after spinal cord injury. When functional effects were examined, both global Nrg1 and immunoglobulin-specific Nrg1 mutants demonstrated reduced spontaneous locomotor recovery compared to injured controls, although global Nrg1 mutants were more impaired in

  20. Evaluation of spinal ultrasound in spinal dysraphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of spinal ultrasound in detecting occult spinal dysraphism (OSD) in neonates and infants, and to determine the degree of agreement between ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five consecutive infants had spinal ultrasound over 31 months. Of these, 15 patients (age 1 day-7 months, mean 40 days; nine male) had follow-up MRI. Ultrasound and MRI findings were correlated retrospectively. RESULTS: Six out of 15 (40%) ultrasound examinations showed full agreement with MRI, seven of 15 (47%) had partial agreement, and two of 15 (13%) had no agreement. In the present series ultrasound failed to visualize: four of four dorsal dermal sinuses, three of four fatty filum terminales, one of one terminal lipoma, two of four partial sacral agenesis, three of four hydromyelia and one of 10 low-lying cords. CONCLUSION: Agreement between ultrasound and MRI was good, particularly for the detection of low-lying cord (90%). Therefore we recommend ultrasound as a first-line screening test for OSD. If ultrasound is abnormal, equivocal or technically limited, MRI is advised for full assessment

  1. Evaluation of spinal ultrasound in spinal dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.A.; Bruyn, R. de; Patel, K.; Thompson, D

    2003-03-01

    AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of spinal ultrasound in detecting occult spinal dysraphism (OSD) in neonates and infants, and to determine the degree of agreement between ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five consecutive infants had spinal ultrasound over 31 months. Of these, 15 patients (age 1 day-7 months, mean 40 days; nine male) had follow-up MRI. Ultrasound and MRI findings were correlated retrospectively. RESULTS: Six out of 15 (40%) ultrasound examinations showed full agreement with MRI, seven of 15 (47%) had partial agreement, and two of 15 (13%) had no agreement. In the present series ultrasound failed to visualize: four of four dorsal dermal sinuses, three of four fatty filum terminales, one of one terminal lipoma, two of four partial sacral agenesis, three of four hydromyelia and one of 10 low-lying cords. CONCLUSION: Agreement between ultrasound and MRI was good, particularly for the detection of low-lying cord (90%). Therefore we recommend ultrasound as a first-line screening test for OSD. If ultrasound is abnormal, equivocal or technically limited, MRI is advised for full assessment.

  2. Uptake of nerve growth factor along peripheral and spinal axons of primary sensory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the distribution of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on peripheral and central axons, [125I]NGF was injected into the sciatic nerve or spinal cord of adult rats. Accumulation of [125I]NGF in lumbar dorsal root ganglia was monitored by gamma emission counting and radioautography. [125I]NGF, injected endoneurially in small quantities, was taken into sensory axons by a saturable process and was transported retrogradely to their cell bodies at a maximal rate of 2.5 to 7.5 mm/hr. Because very little [125I]NGF reached peripheral terminals, the results were interpreted to indicate that receptors for NGF are present on nonterminal segments of sensory axons. The specificity and high affinity of NGF uptake were illustrated by observations that negligible amounts of gamma activity accumulated in lumbar dorsal root ganglia after comparable intraneural injection of [125I] cytochrome C or [125I]oxidized NGF. Similar techniques were used to demonstrate avid internalization and retrograde transport of [125I]NGF by intraspinal axons arising from dorsal root ganglia. Following injection of [125I]NGF into lumbar or cervical regions of the spinal cord, neuronal perikarya were clearly labeled in radioautographs of lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Sites for NGF uptake on primary sensory neurons in the adult rat are not restricted to peripheral axon terminals but are extensively distributed along both peripheral and central axons. Receptors on axons provide a mechanism whereby NGF supplied by glia could influence neuronal maintenance or axonal regeneration

  3. Prospective multicenter assessment of perioperative and minimum 2-year postoperative complication rates associated with adult spinal deformity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S; Klineberg, Eric; Lafage, Virginie; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Renaud; Hostin, Richard; Mundis, Gregory M; Errico, Thomas J; Kim, Han Jo; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Hamilton, D Kojo; Scheer, Justin K; Soroceanu, Alex; Kelly, Michael P; Line, Breton; Gupta, Munish; Deviren, Vedat; Hart, Robert; Burton, Douglas C; Bess, Shay; Ames, Christopher P

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Although multiple reports have documented significant benefit from surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD), these procedures can have high complication rates. Previously reported complications rates associated with ASD surgery are limited by retrospective design, single-surgeon or single-center cohorts, lack of rigorous data on complications, and/or limited follow-up. Accurate definition of complications associated with ASD surgery is important and may serve as a resource for patient counseling and efforts to improve the safety of patient care. The authors conducted a study to prospectively assess the rates of complications associated with ASD surgery with a minimum 2-year follow-up based on a multicenter study design that incorporated standardized data-collection forms, on-site study coordinators, and regular auditing of data to help ensure complete and accurate reporting of complications. In addition, they report age stratification of complication rates and provide a general assessment of factors that may be associated with the occurrence of complications. METHODS As part of a prospective, multicenter ASD database, standardized forms were used to collect data on surgery-related complications. On-site coordinators and central auditing helped ensure complete capture of complication data. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years, ASD, and plan for operative treatment. Complications were classified as perioperative (within 6 weeks of surgery) or delayed (between 6 weeks after surgery and time of last follow-up), and as minor or major. The primary focus for analyses was on patients who reached a minimum follow-up of 2 years. RESULTS Of 346 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 291 (84%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 2.1 years); their mean age was 56.2 years. The vast majority (99%) had treatment including a posterior procedure, 25% had an anterior procedure, and 19% had a 3-column osteotomy. At least 1 revision was required in 82

  4. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  5. Deafferentation is insufficient to induce sprouting of A-fibre central terminals in the rat dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, R J; Doubell, T P; Gill, H; Woolf, C J

    1998-04-01

    The mechanism by which A-fibres sprout into lamina II of the dorsal horn of the adult rat after peripheral nerve injury, a region which normally receives input from noci- and thermoreceptive C-fibres alone, is not known. Recent findings indicating that selective C-fibre injury and subsequent degenerative changes in this region are sufficient to induce sprouting of uninjured A-fibres have raised the possibility that the structural reorganisation of A-fibre terminals is an example of collateral sprouting, in that deafferentation of C-fibre terminals alone in lamina II may be sufficient to cause A-fibre sprouting. Primary afferents of the sciatic nerve have their cell bodies located predominantly in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), and the A-fibres of each DRG have central termination fields that show an extensive rostrocaudal overlap in lamina III in the L4 and L5 spinal segments. In this study, we have found that C-fibres from either DRG have central terminal fields that overlap much less in lamina II than A-fibres in lamina III. We have exploited this differential terminal organisation to produce deafferentation in lamina II of the L5 spinal segment, by an L5 rhizotomy, and then test whether A-fibres of the intact L4 dorsal root ganglion, which terminate within the L5 segment, sprout into the denervated lamina II in the L5 spinal segment. Neither intact nor peripherally injured A-fibres were seen to sprout into denervated lamina II after L5 rhizotomy. Sprouting was only ever seen into regions of lamina II containing the terminals of peripherally injured C-fibres. Therefore, it seems that the creation of synaptic space within lamina II is not the explanation for A-fibre sprouting after peripheral nerve section or crush, emphasising that injury-induced changes in C-fibres and subsequent chemotrophic effects in the superficial dorsal horn are the likely explanation. PMID:9548693

  6. Effect of curcumin on apoptosis in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain%姜黄素对糖尿病神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓和背根神经节神经细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈果; 黄葱葱; 党江坤; 连庆泉; 李军; 曹红

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨姜黄素对糖尿病神经病理性痛(DNP)大鼠脊髓和背根神经节(DRG)神经细胞凋亡的影响.方法雄性SD大鼠108只,体重200~230 g,采用腹腔注射链唑霉素70 mg/kg的方法建立大鼠DNP模型.采用随机数字表法,将大鼠随机分为4组(n=27),正常对照组(C组):不制备DNP模型;DNP组;溶剂对照组(SC组)和姜黄素组(Cur组):于腹腔注射链唑霉素后14 d分别腹腔注射玉米油或姜黄素100 mg/kg(25 mg/ml),1次/d,连续2周.于链唑霉素给药前2 d、给药后14 d、姜黄素给药后3、7、14 d时测定机械缩足阈值(MWT)和热缩足潜伏期(TWL);于姜黄素给药后3、7、14 d时分别采用免疫组化法和Western blot法测定脊髓和DRG caspase-3和Bcl-2的表达水平,并测定神经细胞的凋亡率.结果 与C组比较,DNP组、SC组和Cur组MWT降低,TWL缩短,脊髓和DRG神经细胞凋亡率升高,caspase-3表达上调,Bcl-2表达下调(P<0.05);与DNP组比较,Cur组MWT升高,TWL延长,脊髓和DBG神经细胞凋亡率降低,caspase-3表达下调,Bcl-2表达上调(P<0.05),SC组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 姜黄素可通过抑制脊髓和DRG神经细胞凋亡,从而减轻大鼠DNP,其机制与抑制caspase-3水平、增强Bcl-2水平有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of curcumin on the apoptosis in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) . Methods One hundred and eight male SD rats weighing 200-230 g were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n = 27 each): control group (group C), DNP group, solvent control group (group SC) and curcumin group (group Cur) . Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal streptozocin 70 mg/kg. Successful induction of diabetes was defined as blood glucose > 16.7 mmol/L. Curcumin and com oil 100 mg/kg (23 mg/ml) were given intraperitoneally once a day for 14 consecutive days starting from 14 days after administration of streptozocin in Cur and SC groups respectively

  7. Remyelination after chronic spinal cord injury is associated with proliferation of endogenous adult progenitor cells after systemic administration of guanosine

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shucui; Ballerini, Patrizia; Buccella, Silvana; Giuliani, Patricia; Jiang, Cai; Huang, Xinjie; Rathbone, Michel P.

    2008-01-01

    Axonal demyelination is a consistent pathological sequel to chronic brain and spinal cord injuries and disorders that slows or disrupts impulse conduction, causing further functional loss. Since oligodendroglial progenitors are present in the demyelinated areas, failure of remyelination may be due to lack of sufficient proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitors. Guanosine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of many types of cells in vitro and exerts neuroprotec...

  8. Aquaporin 1 – a novel player in spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nesic, O.; Lee, J.; Unabia, G. C.; Johnson, K.; Z. Ye; Vergara, L.; Hulsebosch, C. E.; Perez-Polo, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) in uninjured or injured spinal cords is unknown. AQP-1 is weakly expressed in neurons and gray matter astrocytes, and more so in white matter astrocytes in uninjured spinal cords, a novel finding. As reported before, AQP-1 is also present in ependymal cells, but most abundantly in small diameter sensory fibers of the dorsal horn. Rat contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) induced persistent and significant four- to eightfold increases in AQP-1 levels ...

  9. Classification of neurons by dendritic branching pattern. A categorisation based on Golgi impregnation of spinal and cranial somatic and visceral afferent and efferent cells in the adult human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Maguid, T E; Bowsher, D

    1984-06-01

    Neurons from adult human brainstem and spinal cord, fixed by immersion in formalin, were impregnated by a Golgi method and examined in sections 100 micron thick. Objective numerical criteria were used to classify completely impregnated neurons. Only the parameters mentioned below were found to be valid. Neurons in 100 micron sections were classified on the basis of (i) the primary dendrite number, indicated by a Roman numeral and called group; (ii) the dendritic branching pattern, comprising the highest branching order seen, indicated by an Arabic numeral and called category; the lowest dendritic branching order observed in complete neurons, indicated by an upper case letter and called class; and the number of branching orders seen between the two preceding, indicated by a lower case letter and called subclass. On the basis of the above characteristics, all neurons seen in the grey matter of the spinal cord and cranial nerve nuclei could be classified into thirteen 'families'. The results of other investigations (Abdel-Maguid & Bowsher, 1979, 1984) showed that this classification has functional value. PMID:6204961

  10. What is different about spinal pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Howard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms subserving deep spinal pain have not been studied as well as those related to the skin and to deep pain in peripheral limb structures. The clinical phenomenology of deep spinal pain presents unique features which call for investigations which can explain these at a mechanistic level. Methods Targeted searches of the literature were conducted and the relevant materials reviewed for applicability to the thesis that deep spinal pain is distinctive from deep pain in the peripheral limb structures. Topics related to the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of deep spinal pain were organized in a hierarchical format for content review. Results Since the 1980’s the innervation characteristics of the spinal joints and deep muscles have been elucidated. Afferent connections subserving pain have been identified in a distinctive somatotopic organization within the spinal cord whereby afferents from deep spinal tissues terminate primarily in the lateral dorsal horn while those from deep peripheral tissues terminate primarily in the medial dorsal horn. Mechanisms underlying the clinical phenomena of referred pain from the spine, poor localization of spinal pain and chronicity of spine pain have emerged from the literature and are reviewed here, especially emphasizing the somatotopic organization and hyperconvergence of dorsal horn “low back (spinal neurons”. Taken together, these findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that deep spine pain is different from deep pain arising from peripheral limb structures. Conclusions This thesis addressed the question “what is different about spine pain?” Neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic findings from studies in the last twenty years provide preliminary support for the thesis that deep spine pain is different from deep pain arising from peripheral limb structures.

  11. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains...

  12. Short term treatment versus long term management of neck and back disability in older adults utilizing spinal manipulative therapy and supervised exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vihstadt, Corrie; Maiers, Michele; Westrom, Kristine;

    2014-01-01

    spinal disability. The primary aim is to compare the relative effectiveness of 12 weeks versus 36 weeks of SMT and supervised rehabilitative exercise (SRE) in older adults with back and neck disability. METHODS/DESIGN: Randomized, mixed-methods, comparative effectiveness trial conducted at a university......-affiliated research clinic in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Independently ambulatory community dwelling adults ≥ 65 years of age with back and neck disability of minimum 12 weeks duration (n = 200). INTERVENTIONS: 12 weeks SMT + SRE or 36 weeks SMT + SRE. RANDOMIZATION: Blocked...... ENDPOINT: 36 weeks post-randomization. DATA COLLECTION: Self-report questionnaires administered at 2 baseline visits and 4, 12, 24, 36, 52, and 78 weeks post-randomization. Primary outcomes include back and neck disability, measured by the Oswestry Disability Index and Neck Disability Index. Secondary...

  13. Dorsal metakarpal arter flepleri

    OpenAIRE

    Bora, Arslan; Ozerkan, Fuat; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Ada, Sait; Ademoglu, Yalcin

    2004-01-01

    We present dorsal metacarpal artery flaps applied to 10 cases with the aim of reconstruction of the skin defects at the dorsum of the fingers and hand and whole thumb. The main aim was to obtain the skin coverage. Average age of our patients was 25,7, and the average follow up period was 25.7 months (2 years and 2 months). 6 out of 10 were island flaps. 3 axial flaps and one was reverse flow (distally based) flap. Seven were to cover the defects on thumb, cne was dorsum of the index finger, o...

  14. Raquianestesia posterior para cirurgias anorretais em regime ambulatorial: estudo piloto Raquianestesia posterior para cirugías anorrectales en régimen ambulatorial: estudio piloto Restricted dorsal spinal anesthesia for ambulatory anorectal surgery: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2004-12-01

    sometidos a la raquianestesia con solución hipobárica de bupivacaína a 0,15% a través de aguja 27G Quincke para cirugías anorrectales. La punción subaracnóidea fue realizada con el paciente en decúbito ventral con auxilio de un cojin en su abdomen para corregir la lordosis lumbar y el espacio intervertebral. RESULTADOS: El bloqueo sensitivo fue logrado en todos los pacientes. Su dispersión varió de T10 a L2 con moda en T12. Apenas tres pacientes presentaron algún grado de bloqueo motor. La duración del bloqueo fue de 122,17 ± 15,35 minutos. Estabilidad hemodinámica fue observada en todos los pacientes. Ningún paciente desarrolló cefalea después de punción de la dura-máter. CONCLUSIONES: Seis miligramos de bupivacaína a 0,15% en solución hipobárica proporcionaron un bloqueo predominantemente sensitivo, cuando inyectados en decúbito ventral. Las principales ventajas son la rápida recuperación, estabilidad hemodinámica y satisfacción del paciente, siendo una buena indicación para anestesia ambulatorial.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing number of ambulatory procedures requires anesthetic methods allowing patients to be discharged soon after surgery completion. Currently, anorectal procedures are performed in inpatient settings. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of performing these procedures in outpatient settings with low hypobaric bupivacaine doses. METHODS: Participated in this study 30 patients physical status ASA I and II, submitted to spinal anesthesia with 0.15% hypobaric bupivacaine with 27G Quincke needle for anorectal procedures. Spinal puncture was performed with patients in the prone position with the help of a pad under the abdomen to correct lumbar lordosis and the vertebral interspace. RESULTS: Sensory block was obtained in all patients. Sensory block spread varied T10 to L2 (mode = T12. Only three patients presented motor block. Blockade length was 122.17 ± 15.35 minutes. No hemodynamic changes were observed in

  15. The calcium-binding protein Mtsl/S100A4 in normal, degenerating and demyelinated spinal cord of the adult mouse%The calcium-binding protein Mtsl/S100A4 in normal,degenerating and demyelinated spinal cord of the adult mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Zhengyu; XIONG Liang; HUANG Xiaolin; ZHOU Ning; Kozlova-Aldskogius Elena

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究止常、退行性病变以及脱髓鞘小鼠脊髓内Mtsl/S100A4蛋白的表达模式,及其对胶质细胞反应的影响.方法:以野生型和Mtsl/S100A4基因敲除型小鼠为试验动物,采用背根损伤、坐骨神经损伤、溴乙啶局部微量注射的方法复制退行性病变及脱髓鞘脊髓动物模型,应用免疫荧光技术,检测S100A4、GFAP、NG2、Mac1的表达情况.结果:野生型小鼠脊髓内,仅白质星型胶质细胞表达S100A4蛋白,且主要分布于Lissauer束:背根或坐骨神经损伤后,白质星形胶质细胞内的S100A4及GFAP表达上调.野生型与S100A4基因敲除小鼠GFAP表达量无显著差异;溴乙啶注射7d后,野生型小鼠脊髓脱髓鞘区域内她S100A4呈云雾状分布,胶质细胞反应局限于注射侧,并且形成清晰的胶质瘢痕,而S100A4基凶敲除小鼠则未见上述病理变化.结论:S100A4蛋白在小鼠脊髓内的表达模式与大鼠相似;退行性变的脊髓内,细胞内上调的S100A4蛋白并不影响胶质细胞的反应;脱髓鞘脊髓内,细胞外的S100A4蛋白明显影响胶质细胞反应,包括胶质瘢痕的形成.%Objective:To investigate the expression pattern of Mtsl/S100A4 in mouse spinal cord;to investigate the effects of Mtsl/S100A4 on glial cell responses.Method:The study was carried out on Mtsl/S100A4 wild type and knock-out mice.The degenerative spinal cord model was established by dorsal root or sciatic nerve injury.The de-myelinated spinal cord model was established by ethidium bromide injections.Then the expressions of S100A4,GFA P,NG2 and Mael were measured.Result:The expressions of Mtsl/S100A4 in mice spinal cord were similar to that in rats.In WT mice this protein expressed in a thin layer of fiber bundles in the tract of Lissauer,and in white matter astrocytes.There was intracellular up-regulation of Mtsl/S100A4 in white matter astrocytes of WT mice after dorsal root or sciatic nerve injury,with no difference in glial cell response

  16. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-01-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm.

  17. 许旺细胞源神经营养因子对脊髓背根节感觉神经元的保护作用%Protective effect of Schwann cell-derived neurotrophic factor on sensory neurons in spinal dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎军; 朱家恺; 王大平; 肖建德; 杨雷

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schwann cell-derived neurotrophic factor is a bioactive protein isolated and purified from the kytoplasm of Schwann cell. It can obviously maintain the survival of spinal cord anterior horn motor neuron and promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve.OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effect of Schwann cell-derived neurotrophic factor on the high injury of peripheral nerve-induced apoptosis of sensory neurons in spinal dorsal root ganglia.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Shenzhen Second People's Hospital.MATERIALS: Totally 30 3-week-old SD infant rats, of clean grade and either gender, were used in this experiment. They were randomly divided into neurotrophic factor group and control group with 15 rats in each one.Left sides of the animals in both two groups were set as normal sides and right sides as injured sides.METHODS: This experiment was carried out at the Experimental Animal Center, Medical College of Sun Yat-sen University from May 2003 to July 2003. ① L4.5 nerve root high-mutilation animal models were developed on the rats in two groups. Proximal nerve stump was connected with silicone tube. According to grouping, 60 mg/L Schwann cell-derived neurotrophic factors and 20 μL normal saline were injected into the silicone tubes respectively. Two ends of silicone tube were enveloped with vaseline.② Sample collecting was conducted at postoperative 4 weeks, survival rate and morphological change of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia of injured nerve was observed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Gross observation of sciatic nerve regeneration at injured side of the rats in two groups ② Survival of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia ③ Morphological change of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia.RESULTS: All the 30 rats entered the stage of result analysis. ① Gross observation of sciatic nerve regeneration: In the neurotrophic factor group,nerve new born axon grew along silicone tube, with 1cm in length

  18. Pediatric spinal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.

  19. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lale Pasaoglu; Murat Vural; Hatice Gul Hatipoglu; Gokce Tereklioglu; Suha Koparal

    2008-01-01

    Developmental anomalies of the pancreas have been reported but dorsal pancreatic agenesis is an extremely rare entity. We report an asymptomatic 62-year-old woman with complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas.Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a normal pancreatic head, but pancreatic body and tail were not visualized. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)findings were similar to CT. At magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), the major pancreatic duct was short and the dorsal pancreatic duct was not visualized. The final diagnosis was dorsal pancreatic agenesis.

  20. Locally transplanted enteric gila improve functional and structural recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shucui Jiang; Mohammad I.Khan; James R.Bain; Cai Jiang; Christopher R.Hansebout; Zesheng Yu; Yuqing Liu; Michel P.Rathbone

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that adult enteric gila (EG) facilitate the growth of transected dorsal root axons into the uninjured spinal cord to form functional connections with their targets. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effects of EG on spinal cord function, tissue injury, and axonal regeneration following transplantation into injured rat spinal cords, according to histological and functional outcomes. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled animal experiment was performed at McMaster University, Canada from January 2006 to March 2008.MATERIALS: EG were isolated from rat intestine. METHODS: One week following spinal cord crush, female Wistar rats were injected with an EG suspension (2 μL, 1 x 10 5/μL, n=10) or with the same volume of fresh culture medium alone (control animals, n=11). The third group did not receive any injection following laminectomy and served as the sham-operated controls (n=5). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Behavior was tested prior to transplantation and weekly following transplantation, with nine behavioral examinations in total. Open field, hind limb placement response, foot orientation response, and inclined plane test were utilized. Immediately following the final behavioral examination, spinal cord T9 to L1 segments were harvested for immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin staining to determine astroglial scarring, axonal regeneration and spinal cord lesion size. RESULTS: Rats with EG transplantation exhibited significantly better locomotor function with reduced tissue damage, compared with the control rats. Cystic cavities were present 2 months after injury in spinal cords from both control groups. In contrast, rats injected with EG did not present with cystic lesions. In addition, the injury site consisted of cellular material and nerve fibers, and axonal regeneration was apparent, with dense labeling of neurofilament-positive axons within the injury site. Moreover, regenerating axons were

  1. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  2. Recurrent Autonomic Dysreflexia due to Chronic Aortic Dissection in an Adult Male with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic dysreflexia is a hypertensive clinical emergency for persons with spinal cord injury at T-6 level or above. Recurrent autonomic dysreflexia is uncommon in spinal cord injury patients and is usually caused by noxious stimuli that cannot be removed promptly, e.g., somatic pain, abdominal distension. A 61-year-old man, who sustained tetraplegia at C-5 (ASIA-A 38 years ago, was admitted with chest infection. Computerised tomography (CT of the chest showed the ascending aorta to measure 4 cm in anteroposterior diameter; descending thoracic aorta measured 3.5 cm. No dissection was seen. Normal appearances of abdominal aorta were seen. He was treated with noninvasive ventilation, antibiotics, and diuretics. Nineteen days later, when there was sudden deterioration in his clinical condition, CT of the pulmonary angiogram was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. This showed no pulmonary embolus, but the upper abdominal aorta showed some dissection with thrombosis of the false lumen. Blood pressure was controlled with perindopril 2 mg, once a day, doxazosin 4 mg, twice a day, and furosemide 20 mg, twice a day. Since this patient did not show clinical features of mesenteric or lower limb ischaemia, the vascular surgeon did not recommend subdiaphragmatic aortic replacement.

  3. Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M I; Smith, G M

    1998-12-01

    This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function. PMID:10023440

  4. Spinal astrocyte gap junctions contribute to oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Robinson, Caleb R.; Zhang, Haijun; Dougherty, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal glial cells contribute to the development of many types of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here the contribution of spinal astrocytes and astrocyte gap junctions to oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity was explored. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in spinal dorsal horn was significantly increased at day 7 but recovered at day 14 after oxaliplatin treatment, suggesting a transient activation of spinal astrocytes by chemotherapy. Astrocyte-specific ...

  5. Neurotransmission in CNS regions involved in pain modulation : Neurochemical effects of analgesic drugs and spinal cord stimulation in the spinal cord and midbrain periaqueductal grey of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, Carl-Olav

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmission in CNS Regions Involved in Pain Modulation Neurochemical effects of analgesic drugs and spinal cord stimulation in the dorsal horn and midbrain periaqueductal grey of the rat by Carl-Olav Stiller From the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Division of Pharmacology Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden The dorsal hom of the spinal cord and the midbrain penaqueductal grey matter (PAG) are important regions for pain modulation. In ...

  6. Enhancing physical activity guidelines: a needs survey of adults with spinal cord injury and health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, Brianne L; Lemay, Valérie; Ainsworth, Victoria; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preferences of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and health care professionals (HCP) regarding the content and format of a SCI physical activity guide to support recently released SCI physical activity guidelines. Seventy-eight people with SCI and 80 HCP completed a survey questionnaire. Participants with SCI identified desired content items and their preferences for format. HCP rated the helpfulness of content items to prescribe physical activity. All content items were rated favorably by participants with SCI and useful by HCP. The risks and benefits of activity and inactivity, and strategies for becoming more active, were rated high by both samples. Photographs and separate information for those with paraplegia versus tetraplegia were strongly endorsed. These data were used to guide the development of an SCI physical activity guide to enhance the uptake of physical activity guidelines for people with SCI. The guide was publically released November 11, 2011. PMID:23027146

  7. LOCUS-COERULEUS PROJECTIONS TO THE DORSAL MOTOR VAGUS NUCLEUS IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TERHORST, GJ; TOES, GJ; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the noradrenergic innervation of the preganglionic autonomic nuclei in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord is still controversial. In this investigation descending connections of the locus coeruleus to the dorsal motor vagus nucleus in the rat are studied with Phaseolus vulgaris leuc

  8. Spontaneous ventral spinal epidural hematoma in a child: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratre, Shailendra; Yadav, Yadram; Choudhary, Sushma; Parihar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is very uncommon cause of spinal cord compression. It is extremely rare in children and is mostly located in dorsal epidural space. Ventral spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is even rarer, with only four previous reports in childrens. We are reporting fifth such case in a 14 year old male child. He presented with history of sudden onset weakness and sensory loss in both lower limbs with bladder bowel involvment since 15 days. There was no history of trauma or bleeding diasthesis. On clinical examination he had spastic paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of dorsal spine was suggestive of ventral spinal epidural hematoma extending from first to sixth dorsal vertebrae. Laminectomy of fourth and fifth dorsal vertebrae and complete evacuation of hematoma was done on the same day of admission. Postoperatively the neurological status was same. PMID:27114667

  9. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone.

  10. Single pellet grasping following cervical spinal cord injury in adult rat using an automated full-time training robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacincte; Torres-Espín, Abel; Forero, Juan; Bennett, David J; Fouad, Karim

    2016-02-15

    Task specific motor training is a common form of rehabilitation therapy in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task used to evaluate recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of SCI. The task requires animals to obtain food pellets located on a shelf beyond a slit at the front of an enclosure. Manually training and testing rats in the SPG task requires extensive time and often yields results with high outcome variability and small therapeutic windows (i.e., the difference between pre- and post-SCI success rates). Recent advances in automated SPG training using automated pellet presentation (APP) systems allow rats to train ad libitum 24h a day, 7 days a week. APP trained rats have improved success rates, require less researcher time, and have lower outcome variability compared to manually trained rats. However, it is unclear whether APP trained rats can perform the SPG task using the APP system after SCI. Here we show that rats with cervical SCI can successfully perform the SPG task using the APP system. We found that SCI rats with APP training performed significantly more attempts, had slightly lower and less variable final score success rates, and larger therapeutic windows than SCI rats with manual training. These results demonstrate that APP training has clear advantages over manual training for evaluating reaching performance of SCI rats and represents a new tool for investigating rehabilitative motor training following CNS injury. PMID:26611563

  11. AMPA receptor trafficking in inflammation-induced dorsal horn central sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Xiang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent postsynaptic receptor trafficking is critical for long-term synaptic plasticity in the brain,but it is unclear whether this mechanism actually mediates the spinal cord dorsal horn central sensitization (a specific form of synaptic plasticity) that is associated with persistent pain.Recent studies have shown that peripheral inflammation drives changes in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy1-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit trafficking in the dorsal horn and that such changes contribute to the hypersensitivity that underlies persistent pain.Here,we review current evidence to illustrate how spinal cord AMPARs participate in the dorsal horn central sensitization associated with persistent pain.Understanding these mechanisms may allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating persistent pain.

  12. Fictive locomotion and scratching inhibit dorsal horn neurons receiving thin fiber afferent input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarenko, A M; Kaufman, M P

    2000-08-01

    In decerebrate paralyzed cats, we examined the effects of two central motor commands (fictive locomotion and scratching) on the discharge of dorsal horn neurons receiving input from group III and IV tibial nerve afferents. We recorded the impulse activity of 74 dorsal horn neurons, each of which received group III input from the tibial nerve. Electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), which evoked fictive static contraction or fictive locomotion, inhibited the discharge of 44 of the 64 dorsal horn neurons tested. The mean depth from the dorsal surface of the spinal cord of the 44 neurons whose discharge was inhibited by MLR stimulation was 1.77 +/- 0.04 mm. Fictive scratching, evoked by topical application of bicuculline to the cervical spinal cord and irritation of the ear, inhibited the discharge of 22 of the 29 dorsal horn neurons tested. Fourteen of the twenty-two neurons whose discharge was inhibited by fictive scratching were found to be inhibited by MLR stimulation as well. The mean depth from the dorsal surface of the cord of the 22 neurons whose discharge was inhibited by fictive scratching was 1.77 +/- 0.06 mm. Stimulation of the MLR or the elicitation of fictive scratching had no effect on the activity of 22 dorsal horn neurons receiving input from group III and IV tibial nerve afferents. The mean depth from the dorsal surface of the cord was 1.17 +/- 0.07 mm, a value that was significantly (P scratching. We conclude that centrally evoked motor commands can inhibit the discharge of dorsal horn neurons receiving thin fiber input from the periphery. PMID:10938225

  13. A new device concept for directly modulating spinal cord pathways: initial in vivo experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a novel spinal cord (SC) stimulator that is designed to overcome a major shortcoming of existing stimulator devices: their restricted capacity to selectively activate targeted axons within the dorsal columns. This device overcomes that limitation by delivering electrical stimuli directly to the pial surface of the SC. Our goal in testing this device was to measure its ability to physiologically activate the SC and examine its capacity to modulate somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) triggered by peripheral stimulation. In this acute study on adult sheep (n = 7), local field potentials were recorded from a grid placed in the subdural space of the right hemisphere during electrical stimulation of the left tibial nerve and the spinal cord. Large amplitude SSEPs (>200 µV) in response to SC stimulation were consistently obtained at stimulation strengths well below the thresholds inducing neural injury. Moreover, stimulation of the dorsal columns with signals employed routinely by devices in standard clinical use, e.g., 50 Hz, 0.2 ms pulse width, produced long-lasting changes (>4.5 h) in the SSEP patterns produced by subsequent tibial nerve stimulation. The results of these acute experiments demonstrate that this device can be safely secured to the SC surface and effectively activate somatosensory pathways. (paper)

  14. The utility of testing tactile perception of direction of scratch as a sensitive clinical sign of posterior column dysfunction in spinal cord disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Hankey, G.J.; Edis, R H

    1989-01-01

    Classical beliefs about the functions of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord have been attacked following recent evidence that position and vibration sensations may be carried in the dorsal spinocerebellar tracts. There is evidence that the one specific function of the dorsal columns is for the transmission of information concerning the direction of tactile cutaneous movement. Thirty normal controls, 43 patients with spinal cord disorders and 10 patients with functional disorders were exami...

  15. Spinal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Development of a spinal locomotor rheostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Issberner, Jon; Sillar, Keith T

    2011-07-12

    Locomotion in immature animals is often inflexible, but gradually acquires versatility to enable animals to maneuver efficiently through their environment. Locomotor activity in adults is produced by complex spinal cord networks that develop from simpler precursors. How does complexity and plasticity emerge during development to bestow flexibility upon motor behavior? And how does this complexity map onto the peripheral innervation fields of motorneurons during development? We show in postembryonic Xenopus laevis frog tadpoles that swim motorneurons initially form a homogenous pool discharging single action potential per swim cycle and innervating most of the dorsoventral extent of the swimming muscles. However, during early larval life, in the prelude to a free-swimming existence, the innervation fields of motorneurons become restricted to a more limited sector of each muscle block, with individual motorneurons reaching predominantly ventral, medial, or dorsal regions. Larval motorneurons then can also discharge multiple action potentials in each cycle of swimming and differentiate in terms of their firing reliability during swimming into relatively high-, medium-, or low-probability members. Many motorneurons fall silent during swimming but can be recruited with increasing locomotor frequency and intensity. Each region of the myotome is served by motorneurons spanning the full range of firing probabilities. This unfolding developmental plan, which occurs in the absence of movement, probably equips the organism with the neuronal substrate to bend, pitch, roll, and accelerate during swimming in ways that will be important for survival during the period of free-swimming larval life that ensues. PMID:21709216

  17. In vitro calcium imaging of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, David; Soukup, Tomáš; Paleček, Jiří

    San Diego : Society for Neuroscience, 2007. [Annual Meeting of American Neuroscience Society. 3.11.2007-7.11.2007, San Diego] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1115; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/03/H148 Grant ostatní: MYORES(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spo2 * calcium imaging * internal calcium stores * pain Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. In vitro calcium imaging of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, David; Paleček, Jiří

    Praha : The Czech Neuroscience Society, 2007. s. 41-41. [Conference of the Czech Neuroscience Society /6./. 19.11.2007-20.11.2007, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1115; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/03/H148 Grant ostatní: MYORES(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spo2 * calcium imaging * internal calcium stores * pain Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  19. Dorsal and ventral language pathways in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that affects an individual's ability to fluently produce speech. While the disorder mainly manifests in situations that require language production, it is still unclear whether persistent developmental stuttering is indeed a language impairment, and if so, which language stream is implicated in people who stutter. In this study, we take a neuroanatomical approach to this question by examining the structural properties of the dorsal and ventral language pathways in adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. We use diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and individualized tract identification to extract white matter volumes and diffusion properties of these tracts in samples of adults who do and do not stutter. We further quantify diffusion properties at multiple points along the tract and examine group differences within these diffusivity profiles. Our results show differences in the dorsal, but not in the ventral, language-related tracts. Specifically, AWS show reduced volume of the left dorsal stream, as well as lower anisotropy in the right dorsal stream. These data provide neuroanatomical support for the view that stuttering involves an impairment in the bidirectional mapping between auditory and articulatory cortices supported by the dorsal pathways, not in lexical access and semantic aspects of language processing which are thought to rely more heavily on the left ventral pathways. PMID:27179916

  20. Treadmill training induced lumbar motoneuron dendritic plasticity and behavior recovery in adult rats after a thoracic contusive spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxing; Liu, Nai-Kui; Zhang, Yi Ping; Deng, Lingxiao; Lu, Qing-Bo; Shields, Christopher B; Walker, Melissa J; Li, Jianan; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating, causing sensorimotor impairments and paralysis. Persisting functional limitations on physical activity negatively affect overall health in individuals with SCI. Physical training may improve motor function by affecting cellular and molecular responses of motor pathways in the central nervous system (CNS) after SCI. Although motoneurons form the final common path for motor output from the CNS, little is known concerning the effect of exercise training on spared motoneurons below the level of injury. Here we examined the effect of treadmill training on morphological, trophic, and synaptic changes in the lumbar motoneuron pool and on behavior recovery after a moderate contusive SCI inflicted at the 9th thoracic vertebral level (T9) using an Infinite Horizon (IH, 200 kDyne) impactor. We found that treadmill training significantly improved locomotor function, assessed by Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, and reduced foot drops, assessed by grid walking performance, as compared with non-training. Additionally, treadmill training significantly increased the total neurite length per lumbar motoneuron innervating the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the hindlimbs as compared to non-training. Moreover, treadmill training significantly increased the expression of a neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the lumbar motoneurons as compared to non-training. Finally, treadmill training significantly increased synaptic density, identified by synaptophysin immunoreactivity, in the lumbar motoneuron pool as compared to non-training. However, the density of serotonergic terminals in the same regions did not show a significant difference between treadmill training and non-training. Thus, our study provides a biological basis for exercise training as an effective medical practice to improve recovery after SCI. Such an effect may be mediated by synaptic plasticity, and neurotrophic modification in the

  1. Spinal anaesthesia for spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellish, W Scott; Shea, John F

    2003-09-01

    Spinal anaesthesia for spinal surgery is becoming increasingly more popular because this anaesthetic technique allows the patient to self-position and avoid neurological injury that may occur with prone positioning under general anaesthesia. Spinal anaesthesia reduces intraoperative surgical blood loss, improves perioperative haemodynamic stability and reduces pain in the immediate postoperative period. This leads to a reduced need for analgesics and a reduction in the incidence of nausea and vomiting in the postoperative setting. Spinal anaesthesia for lumbar spine surgery also decreases the incidence of lower extremity thrombo-embolic complications and does not increase the occurrence of problems with micturition. These benefits increase the patient's satisfaction, and they expedite discharge of the patient from the hospital. Combination anaesthetic techniques, using both subarachnoid and epidural dosing schemes, may be beneficial for improving postoperative pain control and add further to the benefit of spinal anaesthesia for lumbar spine surgical procedures. PMID:14529005

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  5. Epicritic sensation in cervical spinal cord injury: diagnostic gains beyond testing light touch

    OpenAIRE

    Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Baumberger, Michael; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Curt, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Applied as a bedside test of gross dorsal column function, the testing of light touch (LT) sensation is of high clinical value in the diagnosis of human spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the assessment of overall dorsal column deficit by testing only LT may be limited, because the dorsal column pathway conveys several large diameter afferent modalities (e.g., sensation of touch, two-point discrimination, and proprioception). Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the ...

  6. A short-term arm-crank exercise program improved testosterone deficiency in adults with chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosety-Rodriguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To determine the influence of arm-crank exercise in reproductive hormone levels in adults with chronic SCI. Further objectives were to assess the influence of arm-crank exercise on muscle strength and body composition. Materials and Methods Seventeen male adults with complete SCI at or below the 5th thoracic level (T5 volunteered for this study. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 9 or control group (n = 8 using a concealed method. The participants in the intervention group performed a 12-week arm-crank exercise program, 3 sessions/week, consisting of warming-up (10-15 min followed by a main part in arm-crank (20-30 min [increasing 2 min and 30 seconds each three weeks] at a moderate work intensity of 50-65% of heart rate reserve (HRR (starting at 50% and increasing 5% each three weeks and by a cooling-down period (5-10 min. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone and estradiol were determined by ELISA. Muscle strength (handgrip and body composition (waist circumference [WC] were assessed. Results After the completion of the training program, testosterone level was significantly increased (p = 0.0166;d = 1.14. Furthermore, maximal handgrip and WC were significantly improved. Lastly, a significant inverse correlation was found between WC and testosterone (r =- 0.35; p = 0.0377. Conclusion The arm-crank exercise improved reproductive hormone profile by increasing testosterone levels in adults with chronic SCI. A secondary finding was that it also significantly improved muscle strength and body composition in this group.

  7. Immunohistochemical distribution of Calbindin D-28K immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of adult cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; LI Jin-lian; XIONG Kang-hui; LI Ji-shuo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In order to get more information about the possible functions of Calbindin D-28K in the central nervous system of adult cat, the distribution of Calbindin D-28K in the central nervous system of adult cat was examined. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining techniques were used, and immunostained sections were observed under a light microscopy. Results: A high density of both immunoreactive perikarya and fibers were observed in the basal ganglia, amygdaloid complex, nucleus of the fields of Forel, subthalamic nucleus, paracentral nucleus, pulvinar nucleus, subthalamus, dorsal hypothalamic area, lateral hypothalamic area, anterior hypothalamus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, oculomo-tor nucleus, superior olivary complex, marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, vestibular nuclei, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, cuneate nucleus, inferior olivary complex, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the laminae Ⅱ of the spinal cord, whereas the dentate gyrus, the central medial nucleus of the thalamus, the paracentral and central lateral nucleus of the thalamus, the lateral dorsal nucleus of the thalamus,the ventrolateral complex of the thalamus, the medioventral nucleus of the thalamus, the posterior hypothalamic area, the dorsal hypothalamic area, the infundibular nucleus, the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and the interfascicular nucleus had just a high density of immunoreactive perikarya, and no positive fibres were detected in these areas. Conclusion: The present results showed that Calbindin D-28K-like immunoreactivity was widely distributed throughout the central nervous system of adult cat and might play an important role in the activities of the neurons in the central nervous system of adult cat.

  8. Comparison of pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of spinal curvature of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    You, Jae Eung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Degree of curvature on the spine is known to affect respiratory function and back muscle activation. We compared pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of curvature of the spine of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled. They were divided into two groups according to the degree of curvature of the spine: the below 2° group, and the above 2° group. The degree of curvature was assessed using the Adams forward b...

  9. Spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wound or vertebral bones Damage to a spinal nerve, causing weakness, pain, loss of sensation, problems with your bowels or bladder The vertebrae above and below the fusion are more likely to wear away, leading to more problems later

  10. Spinal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make some changes in their activities or work. Spine surgery will often partly or fully relieve symptoms in ... disease of the bone Spinal fusion Patient Instructions Spine surgery - discharge Update Date 7/13/2015 Updated by: ...

  11. Spinal Hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Norkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The given article considers the modern view on etiology, pathogenesis, classifications, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of spinal hemangiomas. Advantages of vertebroplasty over the other techniques of treatment of studied pathology are presented

  12. Effect of activation of γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on glutamate release in spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain%激活γ-氨基丁酸B受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元谷氨酸递质释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 吴川; 郭跃先; 王秋筠; 刘飞飞; 曹倩倩; 张兆龙

    2012-01-01

    release in spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats with diabetic neuropathyic pain(DNP). Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley(SD) male rats(aged 4 weeks,weighing 150 g-170 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=15):Normal rats group (N group),DN rats group (D group).DNP were induced by single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozotocin (STZ,50 mg/kg),and rats in C group received the equal volume saline injection.At 3-4 weeks after STZ or saline intraperitoneal injection,blood glucose level and paw withdraw threshold (PWT) were measured,and the rats were then killed,the lumbar segment of spinal cord (L1-5) was removed for slices preparations.Monosynaptic glutamatergic evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) of lamina Ⅱ neurons were recorded by using whole-cell voltage-clamp patch.Bath baclofen (1,10,20,50 μmol/L) was applicated,monosynaptic eEPSCs was recorded before application of baclofen,at 1,10,20,50 μmol/L and wash out 5 min,the inhibitory rate (%) of eEPSCs was compared between two groups (n=15),the effect of CGP55845 (1 pmol/L) on eEPSCs of 50 μmol/L baclofen was analyzed in two groups (n=12). Results The mean blood glucose level was significantly higher in D group than in N group,while PWT in D group was significantly lower than that in N group (P<0.05).eEPSCs in totally 30 glutamatergic neurons was recorded by electrophysiological recording. (1, 10,20,50 μmol/L) baclofen dose-dependently decreased the amplitude of eEPSCs both in two groups,the significant decrease of the amplitude inhibitory rate (%) of eEPSCs was observed at 1,10,20,50 μmol/L baclofen both in two groups(P<0.05),its in D group were significantly decreased compared with N group at above times(P<0.05) respectively:(47±7) vs (21 ±7 ),(55 ±6) vs (50±6),(92±6) vs (72±9),(95 ±8) vs (88±8).CGP55845 was completely abolished the inhibitory effect of 50 μmol/L baclofen on the amplitude of monosynaptic eEPSCs in lamina Ⅱ neurons both two groups. Conclusions Activation of

  13. Spinal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cysticercosis is an extremely uncommon condition. We have examined four patients with complaints that resembled nervous root compression by disk herniation. Myelography was shown to be an efficient method to evaluate spinal involvement, that was characterized by findings of multiple filling defect images (cysts) plus signs of adhesive arachnoiditis. One cyst was found to be mobile. Because of the recent development of medical treatment, a quick and precise diagnosis is of high importance to determine the prognosis of this condition. (author)

  14. Spinal vascular malformations; Spinale Gefaessmalformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Spinal vascular malformations are a group of rare diseases with different clinical presentations ranging from incidental asymptomatic findings to progressive tetraplegia. This article provides an overview about imaging features as well as clinical and therapeutic aspects of spinal arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas and capillary telangiectasia. (orig.) [German] Spinale Gefaessmalformationen sind eine Gruppe seltener Erkrankungen mit unterschiedlichen klinischen Praesentationen, die vom asymptomatischen Zufallsbefund bis zur progredienten Tetraparese reichen. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber radiologische Befunde sowie klinische und therapeutische Aspekte von spinalen arteriovenoesen Malformationen, Kavernomen und kapillaeren Teleangiektasien. (orig.)

  15. Immediate electrical stimulation enhances regeneration and reinnervation and modulates spinal plastic changes after sciatic nerve injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivó, Meritxell; Puigdemasa, Antoni; Casals, Laura; Asensio, Elena; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2008-05-01

    We have studied whether electrical stimulation immediately after nerve injury may enhance axonal regeneration and modulate plastic changes at the spinal cord level underlying the appearance of hyperreflexia. Two groups of adult rats were subjected to sciatic nerve section followed by suture repair. One group (ES) received electrical stimulation (3 V, 0.1 ms at 20 Hz) for 1 h after injury. A second group served as control (C). Nerve conduction, H reflex, motor evoked potentials, and algesimetry tests were performed at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks after surgery, to assess muscle reinnervation and changes in excitability of spinal cord circuitry. The electrophysiological results showed higher levels of reinnervation, and histological results a significantly higher number of regenerated myelinated fibers in the distal tibial nerve in group ES in comparison with group C. The monosynaptic H reflex was facilitated in the injured limb, to a higher degree in group C than in group ES. The amplitudes of motor evoked potentials were similar in both groups, although the MEP/M ratio was increased in group C compared to group ES, indicating mild central motor hyperexcitability. Immunohistochemical labeling of sensory afferents in the spinal cord dorsal horn showed prevention of the reduction in expression of substance P at one month postlesion in group ES. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation applied after sciatic nerve injury promotes axonal regeneration over a long distance and reduces facilitation of spinal motor responses. PMID:18316076

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal ...

  17. Dorsal spinous process impingement syndrome ('kissing spine') in a cat: imaging appearance and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Lindley, Samantha; Sullivan, Martin; Penderis, Jacques; Wessmann, Annette

    2011-08-01

    Spinal pain is an important clinical presentation in feline patients, but the underlying causes can often be difficult to elucidate. Dorsal spinous process impingement syndrome ('kissing spine' or in human patients 'Baastrup syndrome') is a significant cause of spinal pain in equine and human patients and radiographically is characterised by a close approximation of adjacent spinous processes with reactive bone sclerosis affecting these spinous processes. In this report we describe the first reported case of dorsal spinous process impingement syndrome in a cat causing spinal pain, and successful surgical management of the syndrome. The affected cat presented at 5 years of age for evaluation of a 7-month history of progressive thoracolumbar pain. Radiographs revealed close approximation of the dorsal spinous processes of the seventh, eighth and ninth thoracic vertebrae (T7, T8 and T9), with associated reactive bone sclerosis. Surgical resection of the T8 dorsal spinous process resulted in complete resolution of the clinical signs with no evidence of recurrence 9 months after surgery. PMID:21723173

  18. Accommodation of the spinal cat to a tripping perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ReggieEdgerton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult cats with a complete spinal cord transection at T12-T13 can relearn over a period of days-to-weeks how to generate full weight-bearing stepping on a treadmill or standing ability if trained specifically for that task. In the present study, we assessed short-term (msec-min adaptations by repetitively imposing a mechanical perturbation on the hindlimb of chronic spinal cats by placing a rod in the path of the leg during the swing phase to trigger a tripping response. The kinematics and EMG were recorded during control (10 steps, trip (1 to 60 steps with various patterns and then release (without any tripping stimulus, 10 to 20 steps sequences. Our data show that the activation patterns and kinematics of the hindlimb in the step cycle immediately following the initial trip (mechanosensory stimulation of the dorsal surface of the paw was modified in a way that increased the probability of avoiding the obstacle in the subsequent step. This indicates that the spinal sensorimotor circuitry reprogrammed the trajectory of the swing following a perturbation prior to the initiation of the swing phase of the subsequent step, in effect “attempting” to avoid the re-occurrence of the perturbation. The average height of the release steps was elevated compared to control regardless of the pattern and the length of the trip sequences. In addition, the average impact force on the tripping rod tended to be lower with repeated exposure to the tripping stimulus. EMG recordings suggest that the semitendinosus, a primary knee flexor, was a major contributor to the adaptive tripping response. These results demonstrate that the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry can modulate the activation patterns of the hindlimb motor pools within the time frame of single step in a manner that tends to minimize repeated perturbations. Furthermore, these adaptations remained evident for a number of steps after removal of the mechanosensory stimulation.

  19. MR imaging of spinal epidural sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal epidural abscess is uncommonly found in adults and children. Early diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis and prevents serious neurologic sequelae. Four patients with spinal epidural infections were recently evaluated with MR and CT of the spine. In all cases, MR and CT localized the site of infection accurately and showed adjacent bony osteomyelitis. MR proved superior in characterizing infection (abscess vs. inflammatory edema) and demonstrating epidural involvement and spinal cord compression. In all cases, MR obviated the need for myelography. Early recognition by MR of spinal epidural sepsis led to expeditious treatment and better clinical outcome

  20. Neurogenic bladder: Highly selective rhizotomy of specific dorsal rootlets maybe a better choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Genying; Zhou, Mouwang; Wang, Wenting; Zeng, Fanshuo

    2016-02-01

    Spinal cord injury results not only in motor and sensory dysfunctions, but also in loss of normal urinary bladder functions. A number of clinical studies were focused on the strategies for improvement of functions of the bladder. Completely dorsal root rhizotomy or selective specific S2-4 dorsal root rhizotomy suppress autonomic hyper-reflexia but have the same defects: it could cause detrusor and sphincter over-relaxation and loss of reflexive erection in males. So precise operation needs to be considered. We designed an experimental trail to test the possibility on the basis of previous study. We found that different dorsal rootlets which conduct impulses from the detrusor or sphincter can be distinguished by electro-stimulation in SD rats. Highly selective rhizotomy of specific dorsal rootlets could change the intravesical pressure and urethral perfusion pressure respectively. We hypothese that for neurogenic bladder following spinal cord injury, highly selective rhizotomy of specific dorsal rootlets maybe improve the bladder capacity and the detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, and at the same time, the function of other pelvic organ could be maximize retainment. PMID:26643667

  1. Cell size and geometry of spinal cord motoneurons in the adult cat following the intramuscular injection of adriamycin: comparison with data from aged cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R H; Yamuy, J; Engelhardt, J K; Xi, M C; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1996-10-28

    of neurons on the control side. We conclude that significant geometrical changes were induced in lumbar motoneurons of adult cats after ADM was injected to their muscles. In old cats, spinal cord motoneurons exhibit similar patterns of changes in their electrophysiological characteristics which have also been suggested to be correlated with changes in cell geometry. The question then arises as to whether the response of motoneurons to ADM and the aging process reflects a stereotypic reaction of motoneurons to a variety of insults or whether the response to ADM mirrors specific aspects of the aging process. PMID:8949934

  2. Spontaneous ventral spinal epidural hematoma in a child: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shailendra Ratre; Yadram Yadav; Sushma Choudhary; Vijay Parihar

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is very uncommon cause of spinal cord compression. It is extremely rare in children and is mostly located in dorsal epidural space. Ventral spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is even rarer, with only four previous reports in childrens. We are reporting fifth such case in a 14 year old male child. He presented with history of sudden onset weakness and sensory loss in both lower limbs with bladder bowel involvment since 15 days. There was no history...

  3. 大鼠初级传入纤维与脊髓背角神经元间的动作电序列的突触传递%SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION OF VARIOUS SPIKE TRAINS BETWEEN PRIMARY AFFERENT FIBER AND SPINAL DORSAL HORN NEURON IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万业宏; 菅忠; 文治洪; 王玉英; 胡三觉

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral sensory neurons encode continuous, time-varying signals into spike trains, which are finally relayed to the brain through synaptic transmission. But how various types of spike trains are transmitted across chemical synapses between neurons is still an open question. Here the synaptic transmission of various spike trains between primary Aδ afferent fiber and spinal dorsal horn neuron was investigated. Regular, periodic and stochastic stimulus trains were composed of either brief bursts or single pulses. "Events" were defined as the longest sequences of spikes with all interspike intervals less than or equal to a certain threshold and the interevent intervals (IEIs) were extracted from spike trains. The IEI analysis by time-IEI graphs and return maps showed that the main temporal structure of presynaptic input trains could be detected in postsynaptic output trains, especially under brief-burst stimulation. By calculating the mutual information between input and output trains, it was found that brief bursts could more reliably transmit the information carried by input trains across synapses.These results suggested that the main temporal characters of peripheral input trains can be transmitted across synapses, and that brief-burst firing is more effective during synapse transmission of neural information. The present research takes a step forward to exploring the mystery of neural coding from the aspect of synaptic transmission.%外周感觉神经元通过动作电位序列对信号进行编码,这些动作电位序列经过突触传递最终到达脑部.但是各种脉冲序列如何通过神经元之间的化学突触进行传递依然是一个悬而未决的问题.研究了初级传入Aδ纤维与背角神经元之间各种动作电位序列的突触传递过程.用于刺激的规则、周期、随机脉冲序列由短簇脉冲或单个脉冲构成.定义"事件"(event)为峰峰间期(interspike interval)小于或等于规定阈值的最长动作电位

  4. Dorsal Hump Reduction and Osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Reilly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the technique for planning, executing, and troubleshooting dorsal hump reduction for the cosmetic rhinoplasty patient. Details of the discussion include the necessary elements of the preoperative consultation with the patient, the specific instruments used to effectively and reproducibly create osteotomies, the anatomic and patient variables that require special attention, and the necessary measures to guard against potential complications. PMID:26616694

  5. Involvement of microglia and interleukin-18 in the induction of long-term potentiation of spinal nociceptive responses induced by tetanic sciatic stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xia Chu; Yu-Qiu Zhang; Zhi-Qi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to investigate the potential roles of spinal microglia and downstream molecules in the induction of spinal long-term potentiation (LTP) and mechanical allodynia by tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (TSS).Methods Spinal LTP was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (0.5 ms,100 Hz,40 V,10 trains of 2-s duration at 10-s intervals).Mechanical allodynia was determined using von Frey hairs.Immunohistochemical staining and Westem blot were used to detect changes in glial expression of interleukin- 18 (IL- 18) and IL- 18 receptor (IL- 18R).Results TSS induced LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the spinal cord.Intrathecal administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline (200 μg/20 μL) 1 h before TSS completely blocked the induction of spinal LTP.Furthermore,after intrathecal injection of minocycline (200 μg/20 μL) by lumbar puncture 1 h before TSS,administration of minocycline for 7 consecutive days (once per day) partly inhibited bilateral allodynia.Immunohistochemistry showed that minocycline inhibited the sequential activation of microglia and astrocytes,and IL-1 8 was predominantly colocalized with the microglial marker Iba-1 in the spinal superficial dorsal horn.Western blot revealed that repeated intrathecal injection of minocycline significantly inhibited the increased expression of IL-18 and IL-18Rs in microglia induced by TSS.Conclusion The IL-18 signaling pathway in microglia is involved in TSS-induced spinal LTP and mechanical allodynia.

  6. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  7. Characterization of spinal findings in children and adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 enrolled in a natural history study using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Rosa; Dombi, Eva; Akshintala, Srivandana; Baldwin, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2015-01-01

    To characterize spinal abnormalities in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NF1 patients with at least one spine MRI were selected from participants prospectively enrolled in the National Cancer Institute NF1 Natural History Study. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Ninety-seven patients (38 females, median age 14.2 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.6) had baseline imaging of the spine, and 26 patients (27 %) had one follow-up spine MRI (follow up time 2.5 years, SD 1.1, range 0.7-4.7). Seventy-eight patients (80 %) had spinal neurofibromas, with rising frequency from 70 % in patients younger than 10 years to 80 % in patients aged 10-18 years to 89 % in individuals older than 18 years of age. At baseline, 33/97 patients (34 %) had MRI changes consistent with spinal cord compression that was most prevalent at the cervical (43 %) and lumbar spine region (40 %). Seven of nine patients with progression of their spinal neurofibromas developed cord compression. Paraspinal plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) were present in 77/97 patients (79 %), of which 68 patients (88 %) had concomitant spinal neurofibromas. Spinal curvature abnormality was present in 50/97 patients (51 %, 20 females, median age 14.6 years, SD 7.6). Patients with paraspinal PNs had six-fold higher odds of developing spinal curvature abnormalities compared to patients without PN (OR = 5.9, 95 % CI 1.81 to 19.44, p = 0.0033). A total of 58/97 patients (60 %, median age 16.1 years, SD 7.8, range 4.8-48.2 years) presented with neurologic abnormalities that progressed in 12/26 patients (46 %). Substantial spinal neurofibroma and paraspinal PN burden was observed in our study population, which represents a selective group of patients with specifically more severe tumor involvement than the general NF1 population. Occurrence and progression of spinal neurofibromas on repeat evaluations highlight the need for longitudinal clinical monitoring in patients with known

  8. 自体骨髓基质干细胞移植对大鼠脊髓损伤的疗效%EFFECTS OF TRANSPLANTATION OF AUTOLOGOUS BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS ON REPAIR OF SPINAL CORD INJURY IN ADULT RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈肖方; 王延伟; 刘晓阳; 刘洪涛

    2011-01-01

    [目的]观察自体骨髓基质干细胞(bone marrow stromal cells,BMSCs)移植对大鼠脊髓损伤(SCI)的治疗效果.[方法]体外分离纯化大鼠骨髓基质干细胞,取46例Wistar大鼠采用改良的Allen's装置在TIl水平制成大鼠脊髓损伤模型,随机分成基质干细胞(MSCs)移植组(n=23)和对照组(n=23),分别于术后1、4周通过BBB评分观察大鼠SCI后功能的恢复情况.[结果]术前所有大鼠BBB评分均为21分,脊髓损伤后为0分,所有大鼠神经功能缺损症状随着时间的推移都有不同程度的减轻.两组术后4周时BBB评分均较术后1周时高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).移植组术后1、4周时BBB评分均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]BMSCs移植有助予大鼠脊髓损伤后的修复重建和功能恢复.%[Objective] To observe the effects of transplantation of autologous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult rats. [Methods] Autologous bone marrow stromal cells were isolated and purified. 46 Wistar rats with spinal cord injury were randomly divided into two groups (n = 23, each). The BMSCs group was received transplantation of autologous bone marrow stromal cells, and the control group was only given spinal cord injury. At one and four weeks after surgery, the functional recovery of the hind limbs was evaluated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating score. [Results] The spinal cord function BBB scores at 4 weeks after bone marrow stromal cell transplantation were significantly higher than those at one week after bone marrow stromal cell transplantation in the two groups. At one and four weeks after bone marrow stromal cell transplantation, the BBB scores in the BMSCs group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). [Conclusion] Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation is effective for treatment of spinal cord injury of adult rats.

  9. Differential contribution of electrically evoked dorsal root reflexes to peripheral vasodilatation and plasma extravasation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yuan B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsal root reflexes (DRRs are antidromic activities traveling along the primary afferent fibers, which can be generated by peripheral stimulation or central stimulation. DRRs are thought to be involved in the generation of neurogenic inflammation, as indicated by plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. The hypothesis of this study was that electrical stimulation of the central stump of a cut dorsal root would lead to generation of DRRs, resulting in plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared to expose spinal cord and L4-L6 dorsal roots under pentobarbital general anesthesia. Electrical stimulation of either intact, proximal or distal, cut dorsal roots was applied while plasma extravasation or blood perfusion of the hindpaw was recorded. Results While stimulation of the peripheral stump of a dorsal root elicited plasma extravasation, electrical stimulation of the central stump of a cut dorsal root generated significant DRRs, but failed to induce plasma extravasation. However, stimulation of the central stump induced a significant increase in blood perfusion. Conclusions It is suggested that DRRs are involved in vasodilatation but not plasma extravasation in neurogenic inflammation in normal animals.

  10. Drug distribution in spinal cord during administration with spinal loop dialysis probes in anaesthetized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uustalu, Maria; Abelson, Klas S P

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study two methodological concerns of an experimental model, where a spinal loop dialysis probe is used for administration of substances to the spinal cord and sampling of neurotransmitters by microdialysis from the same area of anaesthetized rats. [(3)H]Epibatid......The present investigation aimed to study two methodological concerns of an experimental model, where a spinal loop dialysis probe is used for administration of substances to the spinal cord and sampling of neurotransmitters by microdialysis from the same area of anaesthetized rats. [(3)H......]Epibatidine in concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 nM was dissolved in Ringer's solution and administered through the dialysis membrane into the dorsal region of the cervical spinal cord. First, the outflow of [(3)H]epibatidine from the probe into the spinal cord was examined with respect to different concentrations and changes....... The administered [(3)H]epibatidine was found to be distributed to the area closest to the dialysis probe and not dispersed along the spinal cord, and the distribution was equal for all concentrations. The data presented in this investigation provide information, which is important for interpretation of data from...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury How does the spinal cord work? What is a spinal cord injury? Why is the level of a spinal cord ... stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell ...

  12. Glutamate Increases In Vitro Survival and Proliferation and Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death in Adult Spinal Cord-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Non-NMDA Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Laureen D; Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a cascade of secondary chemical insults, including oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, which damage host neurons and glia. Transplantation of exogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has shown promise in enhancing regeneration after SCI, although survival of transplanted cells remains poor. Understanding the response of NSPCs to the chemical mediators of secondary injury is essential in finding therapies to enhance survival. We examined the in vitro effects of glutamate and glutamate receptor agonists on adult rat spinal cord-derived NSPCs. NSPCs isolated from the periventricular region of the adult rat spinal cord were exposed to various concentrations of glutamate for 96 h. We found that glutamate treatment (500 μM) for 96 h significantly increased live cell numbers, reduced cell death, and increased proliferation, but did not significantly alter cell phenotype. Concurrent glutamate treatment (500 μM) in the setting of H2O2 exposure (500 μM) for 10 h increased NSPC survival compared to H2O2 exposure alone. The effects of glutamate on NSPCs were blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist GYKI-52466, but not by the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist MK-801 or DL-AP5, or the mGluR3 antagonist LY-341495. Furthermore, treatment of NSPCs with AMPA, kainic acid, or the kainate receptor-specific agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid mimicked the responses seen with glutamate both alone and in the setting of oxidative stress. These findings offer important insights into potential mechanisms to enhance NSPC survival and implicate a potential role for glutamate in promoting NSPC survival and proliferation after traumatic SCI. PMID:27316370

  13. Motoneurons of the adult marmoset can grow axons and reform motor endplates through a peripheral nerve bridge joining the locally injured cervical spinal cord to the denervated biceps brachii muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, E; Rhrich-Haddout, F; Kassar-Duchossoy, L; Lyoussi, B; Tadié, M; Horvat, J C

    2000-12-15

    Reconnection of the injured spinal cord (SC) of the marmoset with the denervated biceps brachii muscle (BB) was obtained by using a peripheral nerve (PN) bridge. In 13 adult males, a 45 mm segment of the peroneal nerve was removed: one end was implanted unilaterally into the cervical SC of the same animal (autograft), determining a local injury, although the other end was either directly inserted into the BB (Group A) or, alternatively, sutured to its transected motor nerve, the musculocutaneous nerve (Group B). From 2-4 months post-surgery, eight out of the 10 surviving animals responded by a contraction of the BB to electrical stimulations of the PN bridge. All ten were then processed for a morphological study. As documented by retrograde axonal tracing studies using horse radish peroxidase or Fast Blue (FB), a mean number of 314 (Group A) or 45 (Group B) spinal neurons, mainly located close to the site of injury and grafting, re-expressed a capacity to grow and extend axons into the PN bridge. Most of these regenerated axons were able to grow up to the BB and form or reform functional motor endplates. Many of the spinal neurons that were retrogradely labeled with FB simultaneously displayed immunoreactivity for choline acetyl-transferase and consequently were assumed to be motoneurons. Reinnervation and regeneration of the BB were documented by methods revealing axon terminals, endplates and myofibrillary ATPase activity. Our results indicate that motoneurons of the focally injured SC of a small-sized primate can, following the example of the adult rat, re-establish a lost motor function by extending new axons all the way through a PN bridge connected to a denervated skeletal muscle. PMID:11107167

  14. Spinal dural involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are very few reported cases of Erdheim-Chester disease that document involvement of dura at the level of the spinal cord. Among these reports, we know of no publication that includes detailed MRI findings. To the best of our knowledge, the case presented here is the first published report of this specific manifestation of Erdheim-Chester disease that includes detailed MRI findings in addition to the related history. Spinal manifestations of Erdheim-Chester disease in our patient were at the dorsal and lumbar levels (T1-T6 and T12-T11 respectively). Both epidural and subdural linear large masses were present, causing spinal cord compression at the dorsal level and epidural thickening at the lumbar level. (orig.)

  15. Sympathectomy attenuates excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons and pain behaviour in a lumbar radiculopathy model

    OpenAIRE

    Iwase, T; Takebayashi, T; Tanimoto, K; Terashima, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Tohse, N.; Yamashita, T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In order to elucidate the influence of sympathetic nerves on lumbar radiculopathy, we investigated whether sympathectomy attenuated pain behaviour and altered the electrical properties of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of lumbar root constriction. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three experimental groups. In the root constriction group, the left L5 spinal nerve root was ligated proximal to the DRG as a lumbar radiculopathy model. In the root con...

  16. Changing Balance of Spinal Cord Excitability and Nociceptive Brain Activity in Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Caroline; Moultrie, Fiona; Gursul, Deniz; Hoskin, Amy; Adams, Eleri; Rogers, Richard; Slater, Rebeccah

    2016-08-01

    In adults, nociceptive reflexes and behavioral responses are modulated by a network of brain regions via descending projections to the spinal dorsal horn [1]. Coordinated responses to noxious inputs manifest from a balance of descending facilitation and inhibition. In contrast, young infants display exaggerated and uncoordinated limb reflexes [2]. Our understanding of nociceptive processing in the infant brain has been advanced by the use of electrophysiological and hemodynamic imaging [3-6]. From approximately 35 weeks' gestation, nociceptive-specific patterns of brain activity emerge [7], whereas prior to this, non-specific bursts of activity occur in response to noxious, tactile, visual, and auditory stimulation [7-10]. During the preterm period, refinement of spinal cord excitability is also observed: reflex duration shortens, response threshold increases, and improved discrimination between tactile and noxious events occurs [2, 11, 12]. However, the development of descending modulation in human infants remains relatively unexplored. In 40 infants aged 28-42 weeks' gestation, we examined the relationship between nociceptive brain activity and spinal reflex withdrawal activity in response to a clinically essential noxious procedure. Nociceptive-specific brain activity increases in magnitude with gestational age, whereas reflex withdrawal activity decreases in magnitude, duration, and latency across the same developmental period. By recording brain and spinal cord activity in the same infants, we demonstrate that the maturation of nociceptive brain activity is concomitant with the refinement of noxious-evoked limb reflexes. We postulate that, consistent with studies in animals, infant reflexes are influenced by the development of top-down inhibitory modulation from maturing subcortical and cortical brain networks. PMID:27374336

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition ...

  19. Technical performance of percutaneous leads for spinal cord stimulation: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Ljubomir; Holsheimer, Jan; Veltink, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Objective  To compare the technical performance of different percutaneous lead types for spinal cord stimulation. Methods  Using the ut-scs software (University of Twente's spinal cord stimulation), lead models having similar characteristics such as the 3487A PISCES-Quad (PQ), 3887 PISCES-Quad Compact (PC), 3888 PISCES-Quad Plus (PP) (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN), and the AB SC2108 (AB) (Advanced Bionics Corp., Valencia, CA) were simulated in monopolar and tripolar (guarded cathode) combinations on a single lead, placed just outside the dorsal dura mater and both centered on the spinal cord midline, and at 1 mm lateral. The influence of displacing a lead dorsally in the epidural fat was examined as well. Finally, dual leads both aligned and offset were modeled. Several parameters were calculated to allow a quantitative comparison of the performances. Results  When programmed as a guarded cathode, the AB lead recruits nerve fibers in an ~25% larger dorsal column area than the PQ. However, the AB has an ~160% higher energy consumption. The performance of the PC is between the AB and PQ, whereas the PP is suitable only for dorsal root stimulation. Displacing a single lead off midline or dorsally decreases its ability to recruit fibers in the dorsal columns. Similarly, dual lead combinations are less capable when compared to single lead centered on the spinal cord midline just outside the dura mater. Conclusions  Complex pain syndromes are treated best with lead having a small contact spacing, being programmed as a tripole (guarded cathode) and centered on the spinal cord midline just outside the dura mater. This is because dorsal column fiber recruitment is more extensive than with any other combinations, including dual leads. Improved recruitment of dorsal column fibers is accompanied by increased energy consumption. PMID:22151437

  20. New understanding of dorsal dysraphism with lipoma (lipomyeloschisis): radiologic evaluation and surgical correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidich, T.P. (Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL); McLone, D.G.; Mutluer, S.

    1983-06-01

    The spinal anomaly designated dorsal dysraphism with lipoma (lipomyeloschisis) consists of skin-covered, focal spina bifida; focal partial clefting of the dorsal half of the spinal cord; continuity of the dorsal cleft with the central canal of the cord above (and occasionally below) the cleft; deficiency of the dura underlying the spina bifida; deep extension of subcutaneous lipoma through the spina bifida and the dural deficiency to insert directly into the cleft on the dorsal half of the cord; variable cephalic extension of lipoma into the contiguous central canal of the cord; and variable ballooning of the subarachnoid space to form an associated meningocele. The variable individual expressions of the anomaly are best understood by reference to their archetypal concept. Careful analysis of radiographic and surgical findings in human lipomyeloschisis and correlation with an animal model of lipomyeloschisis indicate that plain spine radiographs and high-resolution metrizamide computed tomographic myelography successfully delineate the precise anatomic derangements associated with lipomyeloschisis and provide the proper basis for planning surgical therapy of this condition.

  1. New understanding of dorsal dysraphism with lipoma (lipomyeloschisis): radiologic evaluation and surgical correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinal anomaly designated dorsal dysraphism with lipoma (lipomyeloschisis) consists of skin-covered, focal spina bifida; focal partial clefting of the dorsal half of the spinal cord; continuity of the dorsal cleft with the central canal of the cord above (and occasionally below) the cleft; deficiency of the dura underlying the spina bifida; deep extension of subcutaneous lipoma through the spina bifida and the dural deficiency to insert directly into the cleft on the dorsal half of the cord; variable cephalic extension of lipoma into the contiguous central canal of the cord; and variable ballooning of the subarachnoid space to form an associated meningocele. The variable individual expressions of the anomaly are best understood by reference to their archetypal concept. Careful analysis of radiographic and surgical findings in human lipomyeloschisis and correlation with an animal model of lipomyeloschisis indicate that plain spine radiographs and high-resolution metrizamide computed tomographic myelography successfully delineate the precise anatomic derangements associated with lipomyeloschisis and provide the proper basis for planning surgical therapy of this condition

  2. Acute Paraplegia as a Result of Hemorrhagic Spinal Ependymoma Masked by Spinal Anesthesia: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyo; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Ependymomas are the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in adults. Although a hemorrhage within spinal ependymoma on imaging studies is not uncommon, it has rarely been reported to bea cause of acute neurological deficit. In the present report, we describe a case of a 24-year-old female patient who developed acute paraplegia as a result of hemorrhagic spinal ependymoma immediately after a cesarean delivery under spinal regional anesthesia. We review the literature of hemorrhagic spinal ependymomas presenting with acute neurological deficit and discuss the most appropriate treatment for a good neurological recovery. PMID:27195260

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  5. Effect of interleukin-1β on spinal cord nociceptive transmission of normal and monoarthritic rats after disruption of glial function

    OpenAIRE

    Constandil, Luis; Hernández, Alejandro; Pelissier, Teresa; Arriagada, Osvaldo; Espinoza, Karla; Burgos, Hector; Laurido, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cytokines produced by spinal cord glia after peripheral injuries have a relevant role in the maintenance of pain states. Thus, while IL-1β is overexpressed in the spinal cords of animals submitted to experimental arthritis and other chronic pain models, intrathecal administration of IL-1β to healthy animals induces hyperalgesia and allodynia and enhances wind-up activity in dorsal horn neurons. Methods To investigate the functional contribution of glial cells in the spinal cord n...

  6. CNTF promotes the survival and differentiation of adult spinal cord-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells in vitro but fails to promote remyelination in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Talbott, Jason F.; Cao, Qilin; Bertram, James; Nkansah, Michael; Richard L. Benton; Lavik, Erin; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Delivery of factors capable of promoting oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) survival and differentiation in vivo is an important therapeutic strategy for a variety of pathologies in which demyelination is a component, including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neuropoietic cytokine that promotes both survival and maturation of a variety of neuronal and glial cell populations, including oligodendrocytes. Present results suggest that although ...

  7. Retinal glia promote dorsal root ganglion axon regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lorber

    Full Text Available Axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS is limited by several factors including a lack of neurotrophic support. Recent studies have shown that glia from the adult rat CNS, specifically retinal astrocytes and Müller glia, can promote regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons. In the present study we investigated whether retinal glia also exert a growth promoting effect outside the visual system. We found that retinal glial conditioned medium significantly enhanced neurite growth and branching of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG in culture. Furthermore, transplantation of retinal glia significantly enhanced regeneration of DRG axons past the dorsal root entry zone after root crush in adult rats. To identify the factors that mediate the growth promoting effects of retinal glia, mass spectrometric analysis of retinal glial conditioned medium was performed. Apolipoprotein E and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC were found to be present in high abundance, a finding further confirmed by western blotting. Inhibition of Apolipoprotein E and SPARC significantly reduced the neuritogenic effects of retinal glial conditioned medium on DRG in culture, suggesting that Apolipoprotein E and SPARC are the major mediators of this regenerative response.

  8. Cost effectiveness of treatment with percutaneous Kirschner wires versus volar locking plate for adult patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius: analysis from the DRAFFT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubeuf, S; Yu, G; Achten, J; Parsons, N R; Rangan, A; Lamb, S E; Costa, M L

    2015-08-01

    We present an economic evaluation using data from the Distal Radius Acute Fracture Fixation Trial (DRAFFT) to compare the relative cost effectiveness of percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation and volar locking-plate fixation for patients with dorsally-displaced fractures of the distal radius. The cost effectiveness analysis (cost per quality-adjusted life year; QALY) was derived from a multi-centre, two-arm, parallel group, assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial which took place in 18 trauma centres in the United Kingdom. Data from 460 patients were available for analysis, which includes both a National Health Service cost perspective including costs of surgery, implants and healthcare resource use over a 12-month period after surgery, and a societal perspective, which includes the cost of time off work and the need for additional private care. There was only a small difference in QALYs gained for patients treated with locking-plate fixation over those treated with K-wires. At a mean additional cost of £714 (95% confidence interval 588 to 865) per patient, locking-plate fixation presented an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £89,322 per QALY within the first 12 months of treatment. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the ICER of locking-plate fixation compared with K-wires. These were greater than £30,000. Compared with locking-plate fixation, K-wire fixation is a 'cost saving' intervention, with similar health benefits. PMID:26224825

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury How does the spinal cord work? What is a spinal cord injury? Why is ...

  10. Assessment of penetration of dorsal screws after fixation of the distal radius using ultrasound: cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D; Singh, J; Heidari, N; Ahmad, M; Noorani, A; Di Mascio, L

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Volar locking plates are used to treat unstable and displaced fractures of the distal radius. Potential advantages of stable anatomical reduction (eg early mobilisation) can be limited by penetration of dorsal screws, leading to synovitis and potential rupture of extensor tendons. Despite intraoperative imaging, penetration of dorsal screws continues to be a problem in volar plating of the distal radius. Ultrasound is a well recognised, readily available, diagnostic tool used to assess soft-tissue impingement by orthopaedic hardware. In this cadaveric study, we wished to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for identification of protrusion of dorsal screws after volar plating of the distal radius. Methods Four adult, unpaired phenol-embalmed cadaveric distal radii were used. A VariAx™ Distal Radius Volar Locking Plate system (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) was employed for instrumented fixation. A portable SIUI CTS 900 ultrasound machine (Providian Medical, Eastlake, OH, USA) was used to image the dorsal cortex to ascertain screw penetration. Results Specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound for detection of screw protrusion through the dorsal cortex was 100%. Conclusions Ultrasound was found to be a safe and accurate method for assessment of dorsal-screw penetration through the dorsal cortex of the radius after volar plating of the distal radius. It also aids diagnosis of associated tendon disorders (eg tenosynovitis) that might cause pain and limit wrist function. PMID:26829667

  11. The effect of microgene pSVPoMcat to modify Schwann cell on GAP- 43 expression after spinal cord injury in adult rats%微基因修饰雪旺氏细胞移植对大鼠脊髓损伤后GAP-43表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈礼刚; 高立达; 毛伯镛; 杨立斌; 李开慧

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of microgene pSVPoMcat implanted to modify schwann cell on growth associated protein-43(GAP-43) expression after spinal cord injury in adult rats.Method Hemisected of the T8 segment of the spinal cord was performed for all the experiment rats.The rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows:Group A with microgene pSVPoMcat implanted to genetically modify SC;Group B with SC implanted ;Group C with hemisection of the spinal cord only.The changes of expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord were observed by immunochemistry with antibodies against GAP-43 .Simultaneous,the combined behavioral scores(CBS)was measured.Result There were not any different(P >0.05)among the three groups in first week and 12 week.There were significant diffeence(P<0.05)among three groups in 2nd,8th,and more dxpression of GAP-43 at the 2nd week in group A.The neurofunctional recovery was best in group A.Conclusion The microgene pSVPoMcat implanted to modify schwann cell can promote the expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and functional recovery in adults rats after SCI.

  12. Adult Scheuermann’s disease as cause of mechanic dorsalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Cantatore

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scheuermann’s disease (SD or vertebral osteochondrosis is the most frequent cause of non postural kyphosis and one of more frequent cause of adolescent’s dorsalgia. The criteria for the diagnosis are: more than 5° of wedging of at least three adjacent vertebrae at the apex of the kyphosis; a toracic kyphosis of more than 45° of Cobb’s degree; Schmorl’s nodes and endplates irregularities. In addition to classic SD, there are radiological alterations that remain asintomatic for a long time to reveal in adult age: in that case it speaks of adult Scheuermann’s disease (ASD. We considered the diagnosis of patients came from April 2006 to April 2007 on Day Hospital in our Clinic. ASD was diagnosed, besides, in 10 of these patients. 7 patients had previous diagnosis such as: dorsal Spondiloarthrosis (4 subjects; Osteoporosis with vertebral fractures (3 subjects. All these diagnosis was not confirmed by us. In case of chronic dorsalgia of adult, ASD is rarely considered as differential diagnosis. Besides, the vertebral dorsalgia, even in absence of red flags as fever, astenia, ipersedimetry, functional loss and aching spinal processes to tapping, could hide a serious scene that lead us to be careful in the differential diagnosis, because of similar radiological pictures of the MSA to other pathology as spondylodiscitis, primitive or metastasic spinal tumors, and brittleness vertebral fractures

  13. Penatalaksanaan Trauma Spinal

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafiah, Hafas

    2010-01-01

    Spinal trauma has a potential capability for catastrophic neurologic injury and physical injury. Spinal Trauma usually involved bony elements (vertebral spine), spinal cord, nerve roots, peripheral nerves and soft tissue. Early treatment should begun at the site of injury and during transportation to hospital. Protection to cervical spine and cervical spinal cord and patent respiration are the top priorities. There has been an established definitive procedures for the treatment of spinal trauma.

  14. Spinal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R., E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Popolizio, T., E-mail: t.popolizio1@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Fg) (Italy); D’Aprile, P., E-mail: paoladaprile@yahoo.it [Neuroradiology Department, San Paolo Hospital, Bari (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  15. Spinal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  16. Complete agenesis of dorsal pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwinder Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complete agenesis of body and tail of pancreas is a very rare type of developmental anomaly of pancreas. It is important regarding its presentations of diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, and exocrine insufficiency. Case Report: An old man had presented with atypical symptoms of obstructive jaundice with exocrine insufficiency. CECT helped to reveal the complete absence of the body and tail of pancreas with radiologically normal head with no signs of pancreatitis or mass lesion. Conclusions: The cause of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is currently not well understood. It can also present lately as the presenting case. The presentations are usually related to secretory malfunctions. CECT is an initial investigation for diagnosis

  17. A role for bombesin in sensory processing in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, T L; Massari, V J; Pazoles, C J; Chronwall, B M; Shults, C W; Quirion, R; Chase, T N; Moody, T W

    1984-12-01

    Bombesin (BN)-containing neuronal processes were demonstrated in laminae I and II of the dorsal horn of the cat, rat, and mouse spinal cord by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Dorsal rhizotomy in the cat resulted in a marked decrease in BN immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn indicating that BN is contained in primary sensory afferents. BN-binding sites were also localized in superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. The presence of both BN and BN-binding sites in the dorsal horn suggested that BN may be involved in sensory processing in the spinal cord. Consistent with this hypothesis, it was demonstrated that an injection of BN into the spinal cord caused a biting and scratching response indicative of sensory stimulation. The effect was similar to that observed after injection of substance P into the cord with the exception that the BN effect lasted about 100 times longer than that induced by substance P. Taken together, these data indicate that BN may be a neurotransmitter of primary sensory afferents to the spinal cord. PMID:6094746

  18. Analysis of current density and related parameters in spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, W A; Holsheimer, J; Boom, H B

    1998-06-01

    A volume conductor model of the spinal cord and surrounding anatomical structures is used to calculate current (and current density) charge per pulse, and maximum charge density per pulse at the contact surface of the electrode in the dorsal epidural space, in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and in the dorsal roots. The effects of various contact configurations (mono-, bi-, and tripole), contact area and spacing, pulsewidth and distance between contacts and spinal cord on these electrical parameters were investigated under conditions similar to those in clinical spinal cord stimulation. At the threshold stimulus of a large dorsal column fiber, current density and charge density per pulse at the contact surface were found to be highest (1.9.10(5) microA/cm2 and 39.1 microC/cm2.p, respectively) when the contact surface was only 0.7 mm2. When stimulating with a pulse of 500 microseconds, highest charge per pulse (0.92 microC/p), and the largest charge density per pulse in the dorsal columns (1.59 microC/cm2. p) occurred. It is concluded that of all stimulation parameters that can be selected freely, only pulsewidth affects the charge and charge density per pulse in the nervous tissue, whereas both pulsewidth and contact area strongly affect these parameters in the nonnervous tissue neighboring the electrode contacts. PMID:9631328

  19. Spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remove some bone from the back of the rim of the pelvis. From a bone bank. This ... of your back at home Patient Instructions Bathroom safety - adults Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask ...

  20. Use of quadrupedal step training to re-engage spinal interneuronal networks and improve locomotor function after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Prithvi K.; Garcia-Alias, Guillermo; Choe, Jaehoon; Gad, Parag; Gerasimenko, Yury; Tillakaratne, Niranjala; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2013-01-01

    Can lower limb motor function be improved after a spinal cord lesion by re-engaging functional activity of the upper limbs? We addressed this issue by training the forelimbs in conjunction with the hindlimbs after a thoracic spinal cord hemisection in adult rats. The spinal circuitries were more excitable, and behavioural and electrophysiological analyses showed improved hindlimb function when the forelimbs were engaged simultaneously with the hindlimbs during treadmill step-training as oppos...

  1. Pharmacological characterization of serotonin receptor subtypes modulating primary afferent input to deep dorsal horn neurons in the neonatal rat

    OpenAIRE

    Garraway, Sandra M.; Hochman, Shawn

    2001-01-01

    Spinal cord slices and whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used to investigate the effects of serotonergic receptor ligands on dorsal root-evoked synaptic responses in deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons of the neonatal rat at postnatal days (P) 3 – 6 and P10 – 14.Bath applied 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) potently depressed synaptic responses in most neurons. Similarly, the 5-HT1/7 receptor agonist, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) depressed synaptic responses. This action was probably mediated by ...

  2. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in occult spinal dysraphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study was carried out in 100 cases of suspected occult spinal dysraphic anomalies with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in order to determine its diagnostic efficacy as the initial imaging modality. MR imaging provided accurate preoperative information in 91 out of 92 cases (98.9%). Some of the unusual and interesting findings in the series were: presence of intrinsic cord abnormality in 19 out of 21 cases (90.4%) with a normal plain radiography, 4 cases of diastematomyelia with a dermoid in the dorsal and lumbar region associated with syringohydromyelia, intradural fibrous/glial bands, syringo-hydromyelia/myelomalacia of the conus with tethered cord syndrome having a normally paced conus, and myelocystocele. It is concluded that MRI is an excellent primary diagnostic tool, together with a plain radiography, for complete preoperative evaluation of mid-line spinal anomalies. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  4. Building bridges with astrocytes for spinal cord repair

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous suppression of glial scarring and a general enhancement of axonal outgrowth has now been accomplished in an adult rat model of spinal cord transection. Transplantation of a novel astrocyte cell type derived from glial-restricted precursors in vitro raise the eventual possibility of cellular therapy for spinal cord injury.

  5. Autotaxin and lysophosphatidic acid1 receptor-mediated demyelination of dorsal root fibers by sciatic nerve injury and intrathecal lysophosphatidylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Junken

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although neuropathic pain is frequently observed in demyelinating diseases such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis, the molecular basis for the relationship between demyelination and neuropathic pain behaviors is poorly understood. Previously, we found that lysophosphatidic acid receptor (LPA1 signaling initiates sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and demyelination. Results In the present study, we have demonstrated that sciatic nerve injury induces marked demyelination accompanied by myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG down-regulation and damage of Schwann cell partitioning of C-fiber-containing Remak bundles in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root, but not in the spinal nerve. Demyelination, MAG down-regulation and Remak bundle damage in the dorsal root were abolished in LPA1 receptor-deficient (Lpar1-/- mice, but these alterations were not observed in sciatic nerve. However, LPA-induced demyelination in ex vivo experiments was observed in the sciatic nerve, spinal nerve and dorsal root, all which express LPA1 transcript and protein. Nerve injury-induced dorsal root demyelination was markedly attenuated in mice heterozygous for autotaxin (atx+/-, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC to LPA. Although the addition of LPC to ex vivo cultures of dorsal root fibers in the presence of recombinant ATX caused potent demyelination, it had no significant effect in the absence of ATX. On the other hand, intrathecal injection of LPC caused potent dorsal root demyelination, which was markedly attenuated or abolished in atx+/- or Lpar1-/- mice. Conclusions These results suggest that LPA, which is converted from LPC by ATX, activates LPA1 receptors and induces dorsal root demyelination following nerve injury, which causes neuropathic pain.

  6. UK DRAFFT - A randomised controlled trial of percutaneous fixation with kirschner wires versus volar locking-plate fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius

    OpenAIRE

    Brown Jaclyn; Edlin Richard P; Rangan Amar; Parsons Nick R; Achten Juul; Costa Matthew L; Lamb Sarah E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius are extremely common injuries in adults. However, the optimal management remains controversial. In general, fractures of the distal radius are treated non-operatively if the bone fragments can be held in anatomical alignment by a plaster cast or orthotic. However, if this is not possible, then operative fixation is required. There are several operative options but the two most common in the UK, are Kirschner-wire fixation (K-wires) and volar ...

  7. Primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column: review of pathology and surgical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Eli, Ilyas M; Schmidt, Meic H; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    Spinal column tumors are rare in children and young adults, accounting for only 1% of all spine and spinal cord tumors combined. They often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this article, the authors review the current management of primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column and highlight diagnosis, management, and surgical decision making. PMID:27476845

  8. Neurotransmitter map of the asymmetric dorsal habenular nuclei of zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCarvalho, Tagide N.; Subedi, Abhignya; Rock, Jason; Harfe, Brian D.; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard; Halpern, Marnie E.; Hong, Elim

    2014-01-01

    The role of the habenular nuclei in modulating fear and reward pathways has sparked a renewed interest in this conserved forebrain region. The bilaterally paired habenular nuclei, each consisting of a medial/dorsal and lateral/ventral nucleus, can be further divided into discrete subdomains whose neuronal populations, precise connectivity and specific functions are not well understood. An added complexity is that the left and right habenulae show pronounced morphological differences in many non-mammalian species. Notably, the dorsal habenulae of larval zebrafish provide a vertebrate genetic model to probe the development and functional significance of brain asymmetry. Previous reports have described a number of genes that are expressed in the zebrafish habenulae, either in bilaterally symmetric patterns or more extensively on one side of the brain than the other. The goal of our study was to generate a comprehensive map of the zebrafish dorsal habenular nuclei, by delineating the relationship between gene expression domains, comparing the extent of left-right asymmetry at larval and adult stages, and identifying potentially functional subnuclear regions as defined by neurotransmitter phenotype. While many aspects of habenular organization appear conserved with rodents, the zebrafish habenulae also possess unique properties that may underlie lateralization of their functions. PMID:24753112

  9. Wound management with vacuum-assisted closure in postoperative infections after surgery for spinal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Karaaslan F; Erdem Ş; Mermerkaya MU

    2014-01-01

    Fatih Karaaslan,1 Şevki Erdem,2 Musa Ugur Mermerkaya11Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Bozok University Medical School, Yozgat, Turkey; 2Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Haydarpasa Numune Training Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyObjective: To evaluate the results of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the treatment of surgical spinal site infections.Materials and methods: The use of NPWT in postoperative infections after dorsal spinal surgery (transforaminal lumbar in...

  10. Intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment attenuates immediate neuropathic pain by modulating Nav1.3 expression and decreasing spinal microglial activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hung-Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrathecal lidocaine reverses tactile allodynia after nerve injury, but whether neuropathic pain is attenuated by intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment is uncertain. Methods Sixty six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three treatment groups: (1 sham (Group S, which underwent removal of the L6 transverse process; (2 ligated (Group L, which underwent left L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL; and (3 pretreated (Group P, which underwent L5 SNL and was pretreated with intrathecal 2% lidocaine (50 μl. Neuropathic pain was assessed based on behavioral responses to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Expression of sodium channels (Nav1.3 and Nav1.8 in injured dorsal root ganglia and microglial proliferation/activation in the spinal cord were measured on post-operative days 3 (POD3 and 7 (POD7. Results Group L presented abnormal behavioral responses indicative of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, exhibited up-regulation of Nav1.3 and down-regulation of Nav1.8, and showed increased microglial activation. Compared with ligation only, pretreatment with intrathecal lidocaine before nerve injury (Group P, as measured on POD3, palliated both mechanical allodynia (p p 1.3 up-regulation (p = 0.003, and mitigated spinal microglial activation (p = 0.026 by inhibiting phosphorylation (activation of p38 MAP kinase (p = 0.034. p38 activation was also suppressed on POD7 (p = 0.002. Conclusions Intrathecal lidocaine prior to SNL blunts the response to noxious stimuli by attenuating Nav1.3 up-regulation and suppressing activation of spinal microglia. Although its effects are limited to 3 days, intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment can alleviate acute SNL-induced neuropathic pain.

  11. Dorsal horn neurons release extracellular ATP in a VNUT-dependent manner that underlies neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Ozono, Yui; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Reiko; Salter, Michael W; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2016-01-01

    Activation of purinergic receptors in the spinal cord by extracellular ATP is essential for neuropathic hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). However, the cell type responsible for releasing ATP within the spinal cord after PNI is unknown. Here we show that PNI increases expression of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in the spinal cord. Extracellular ATP content ([ATP]e) within the spinal cord was increased after PNI, and this increase was suppressed by exocytotic inhibitors. Mice lacking VNUT did not show PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and had attenuated hypersensitivity. These phenotypes were recapitulated in mice with specific deletion of VNUT in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) neurons, but not in mice lacking VNUT in primary sensory neurons, microglia or astrocytes. Conversely, ectopic VNUT expression in SDH neurons of VNUT-deficient mice restored PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and pain. Thus, VNUT is necessary for exocytotic ATP release from SDH neurons which contributes to neuropathic pain. PMID:27515581

  12. Time Course of Immediate Early Gene Protein Expression in the Spinal Cord following Conditioning Stimulation of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Panja, Deb; Bittins, Margarethe; Bramham, Clive R.; Tjolsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation induced by conditioning electrical stimulation of afferent fibers is a widely studied form of synaptic plasticity in the brain and the spinal cord. In the spinal cord dorsal horn, long-term potentiation is induced by a series of high-frequency trains applied to primary afferen

  13. Inhibiting spinal neuron-astrocytic activation correlates with synergistic analgesia of dexmedetomidine and ropivacaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Hui Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to identify that intrathecal (i.t. injection of dexmedetomidine (Dex and ropivacaine (Ropi induces synergistic analgesia on chronic inflammatory pain and is accompanied with corresponding "neuron-astrocytic" alterations. METHODS: Male, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, control and i.t. medication groups. The analgesia profiles of i.t. Dex, Ropi, and their combination detected by Hargreaves heat test were investigated on the subcutaneous (s.c. injection of complete Freund adjuvant (CFA induced chronic pain in rat and their synergistic analgesia was confirmed by using isobolographic analysis. During consecutive daily administration, pain behavior was daily recorded, and immunohistochemical staining was applied to investigate the number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir neurons on hour 2 and day 1, 3 and 7, and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP within the spinal dorsal horn (SDH on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 after s.c. injection of CFA, respectively, and then Western blot to examine spinal GFAP and β-actin levels on day 3 and 7. RESULTS: i.t. Dex or Ropi displayed a short-term analgesia in a dose-dependent manner, and consecutive daily administrations of their combination showed synergistic analgesia and remarkably down-regulated neuronal and astrocytic activations indicated by decreases in the number of Fos-ir neurons and the GFAP expression within the SDH, respectively. CONCLUSION: i.t. co-delivery of Dex and Ropi shows synergistic analgesia on the chronic inflammatory pain, in which spinal "neuron-astrocytic activation" mechanism may play an important role.

  14. The influence of protein-calorie malnutrition on the development of paranodal regions in spinal roots. A study with the OTAN method on rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, C

    1977-11-28

    During the early postnatal development of spinal roots in rats paranodal regions were often found, containing OTAN-positive inclusions in the Schwann cell cytoplasm. The presence of OTAN-positive paranodal regions showed variations in time, which were synchronous for ventral and dorsal roots. Dorsal roots, however, showed a more marked presence during development than ventral roots. Spinal roots of animals submitted to a 50% food restriction, were shown to contain more OTAN-positive paranodal regions than controls. This was true for ventral as well as dorsal roots. It is suggested that crowding of internodal segments could be one factor, determining the presence of paranodal, OTAN-positive material. PMID:414508

  15. Spinal osteomyelitis caused by Proteus mirabilis in a child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deWeerd, W; Kimpen, JLL; Miedema, CJ

    1997-01-01

    Osteomyelitis due to Proteus mirabilis is rare. Spinal osteomyelitis caused by this organism has only been described in adults. This is the first paediatric case of P. mirabilis vertebral osteomyelitis.

  16. The excitatory and inhibitory modulation of primary afferent fibre-evoked responses of ventral roots in the neonatal rat spinal cord exerted by nitric oxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurihara, T.; Yoshioka, K.

    1996-01-01

    1. We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating spinal synaptic responses evoked by electrical and noxious sensory stimuli in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro. 2. Potentials were recorded extracellularly from a ventral root (L3-L5) of the isolated spinal cord preparation or spinal cord-saphenous nerve-skin preparation of 0- to 2-day-old rats. Spinal reflexes were elicited by electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral dorsal root or by noxious skin stimulation. 3. In the spi...

  17. Prospectively isolated CD133/CD24-positive ependymal cells from the adult spinal cord and lateral ventricle wall differ in their long-term in vitro self-renewal and in vivo gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, Cosima V; Steinhoff, Christine; Hertwig, Falk; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to ependymal cells located above the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult lateral ventricle wall (LVW), adult spinal cord (SC) ependymal cells possess certain neural stem cell characteristics. The molecular basis of this difference is unknown. In this study, antibodies against multiple cell surface markers were applied to isolate pure populations of SC and LVW ependymal cells, which allowed a direct comparison of their in vitro behavior and in vivo gene expression profile. Isolated CD133(+)/CD24(+)/CD45(-)/CD34(-) ependymal cells from the SC displayed in vitro self-renewal and differentiation capacity, whereas those from the LVW did not. SC ependymal cells showed a higher expression of several genes involved in cell division, cell cycle regulation, and chromosome stability, which is consistent with a long-term self-renewal capacity, and shared certain transcripts with neural stem cells of the embryonic forebrain. They also expressed several retinoic acid (RA)-regulated genes and responded to RA exposure. LVW ependymal cells showed higher transcript levels of many genes regulated by transforming growth factor-β family members. Among them were Dlx2, Id2, Hey1, which together with Foxg1 could explain their potential to turn into neuroblasts under certain environmental conditions. PMID:21046556

  18. Mirror Neurons System Engagement in Late Adolescents and Adults While Viewing Emotional Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia, Emilie; Süß, Moritz; Tivadar, Ruxandra; Harkness, Sarah; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Observing others’ actions enhances muscle-specific cortico-spinal excitability, reflecting putative mirror neurons activity. The exposure to emotional stimuli also modulates cortico-spinal excitability. We investigated how those two phenomena might interact when they are combined, i.e., while observing a gesture performed with an emotion, and whether they change during the transition between adolescence and adulthood, a period of social and brain maturation. We delivered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the left primary motor cortex of 27 healthy adults and adolescents and recorded their right first dorsal interossus (FDI) muscle activity (i.e., motor evoked potential – MEP), while they viewed either videos of neutral or angry hand actions and facial expressions, or neutral objects as a control condition. We reproduced the motor resonance and the emotion effects – hand-actions and emotional stimuli induced greater cortico-spinal excitability than the faces/control condition and neutral videos, respectively. Moreover, the influence of emotion was present for faces but not for hand actions, indicating that the motor resonance and the emotion effects might be non-additive. While motor resonance was observed in both groups, the emotion effect was present only in adults and not in adolescents. We discuss the possible neural bases of these findings. PMID:27489547

  19. Bupivacaína a 0,15% hipobárica para raquianestesia posterior (dorsal versus bupivacaína a 0,5% hiperbárica para procedimentos cirúrgicos anorretais em regime ambulatorial Bupivacaína a 0,15% hipobárica para raquianestesia posterior (dorsal versus bupivacaína a 0,5% hiperbara para procedimientos quirúrgicos anorrectales en régimen ambulatorial Hypobaric 0.15% bupivacaine versus hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine for posterior (dorsal spinal block in outpatient anorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2006-12-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to study low dose hypobaric 0.15% bupivacaine and hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine in outpatient anorectal surgical procedures. METHODS: Two groups of 50 patients, physical status ASA I and II, undergoing anorectal surgical procedures in a jackknife position, received 6 mg of hypobaric 0.15% bupivacaine in the surgical position (Group 1 or 6 mg of hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine in the sitting position for 5 minutes, after which they were placed in a jackknife position (Group 2. Sensitive and motor blockade, time of first urination, ambulation, complications, and the need for analgesics were evaluated. Patients were followed until the third postoperative day and questioned whether they experienced post-puncture headache or temporary neurological symptoms, and until the 30th day and questioned about permanent neurological complications. The test t Student, Mood's median, and Fisher Exact test were used for statistical analysis, and a p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Every patient in Group 1 presented selective blockade of the posterior sacral nerve roots, while patients in Group 2 experienced blockade of the anterior and posterior nerve roots. Blockade was significantly higher in Group 1. Motor blockade was significantly less severe in Group 1. Forty-nine patients in Group 1 transferred to the stretcher unassisted while only 40 patients in Group 2 were able to do so. Recovery in Group 1 occurred in 105 ± 25 minutes and in 95 ± 15 minutes in Group 2, and this difference was not statistically significant. There were no hemodynamic changes, nausea or vomiting, urine retention, or post-puncture headache. CONCLUSIONS: Anorectal surgical procedures under spinal block with low dose bupivacaine, hyperbaric or hypobaric, can be safely done.

  20. Spinal cord trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be removed or reduced before the spinal nerves are completely destroyed, paralysis may improve. Surgery may be needed to: Realign the spinal bones (vertebrae) Remove fluid or tissue that presses ...

  1. Spinal Cord Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments Functional and Dysfunctional Spinal Circuitry: Role for Rehabilitation and Neural Prostheses Summary of NINDS New Strategies in Spinal Cord Injury workshop held June, 2000. NINDS Workshop on Re- ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? What is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  4. Spinal Cord Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such as meningitis and polio Inflammatory diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral ...

  5. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for spinal cord injuries? What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ... provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on ...

  8. Activation of spinal extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 is associated with the development of visceral hyperalgesia of the bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, H. Henry; Qiu, Chang-Shen; Crock, Lara W.; Morales, Maria Elena P.; Ness, Tim J.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 in dorsal horn neurons is important for the development of somatic hypersensitivity and spinal central sensitization after peripheral inflammation. However, data regarding the roles of spinal ERK1/2 in the development of visceral hyperalgesia are sparse. Here we studied the activation of ERK1/2 in the lumbosacral spinal cord following innocuous and noxious distention of the inflamed (cyclophosphamide- treated) and non-inflamed uri...

  9. Muscle structure and innervation are affected by loss of Dorsal in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantera, R; Kozlova, T; Barillas-Mury, C; Kafatos, F C

    1999-02-01

    In Drosophila, the Rel-protein Dorsal and its inhibitor, Cactus, act in signal transduction pathways that control the establishment of dorsoventral polarity during embryogenesis and the immune response during postembryonic life. Here we present data indicating that Dorsal is also involved in the control of development and maintenance of innervation in somatic muscles. Dorsal and Cactus are colocalized in all somatic muscles during postembryonic development. In larvae and adults, these proteins are distributed at low levels in the cytoplasm and nuclei and at much higher levels in the postsynaptic component of glutamatergic neuromuscular junctions. Absence of Dorsal, in homozygous dorsal mutant larvae results in muscle misinsertions, duplications, nuclear hypotrophy, disorganization of actin bundles, and altered subcellular distribution of Cactus. Some muscles show very abnormal neuromuscular junctions, and some motor axon terminals are transformed into growth cone-like structures embedded in synaptotagmin-enriched vesicles. The detailed phenotype suggests a role of Dorsal signalling in the maintenance and plasticity of the NMJ. PMID:10192771

  10. Is BDNF sufficient for information transfer between microglia and dorsal horn neurons during the onset of central sensitization?

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanyan Sridhar; Stebbing Martin J; Lu Van B; Biggs James E; Smith Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral nerve injury activates spinal microglia. This leads to enduring changes in the properties of dorsal horn neurons that initiate central sensitization and the onset of neuropathic pain. Although a variety of neuropeptides, cytokines, chemokines and neurotransmitters have been implicated at various points in this process, it is possible that much of the information transfer between activated microglia and neurons, at least in this context, may be explicable in terms of the ac...

  11. Mechanical Compression and Nucleus Pulposus Application on Dorsal Root Ganglia Differentially Modify Evoked Neuronal Activity in the Thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Elin; Brisby, Helena; Rask, Katarina; Hammar, Ingela

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A combination of mechanical compression caused by a protruding disc and leakage of nucleus pulposus (NP) from the disc core is presumed to contribute to intervertebral disc hernia-related pain. Experimental models of disc hernia including both components have resulted in changes in neuronal activity at the level of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord, but changes within the brain have been less well studied. However, acute application of NP to a DRG without mechanical comp...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life ...

  13. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  14. Short-term plasticity in turtle dorsal horn neurons mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1994-01-01

    Windup--the gradual increase of the response--of dorsal horn neurons to repeated activation of primary afferents is an elementary form of short-term plasticity that may mediate central sensitization to pain. In deep dorsal horn neurons of the turtle spinal cord in vitro we report windup of the...... response to repeated depolarizing current pulses as well as to repeated stimulation of the ipsilateral dorsal root. We found both forms of windup to be mediated by a depolarizing potential produced by increasing activation of postsynaptic L-type Ca2+ channels. These results suggest a central role for...... intrinsic postsynaptic properties in nociceptive plasticity and for L-type Ca2+ channels as a promising target for therapeutic intervention....

  15. Anatomic Landmarks for the First Dorsal Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Hazani, Ron; Engineer, Nitin J.; Cooney, Damon; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge of anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment can assist clinicians with management of de Quervain's disease. The radial styloid, the scaphoid tubercle, and Lister's tubercle can be used as superficial landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. Methods: Thirty-two cadaveric wrists were dissected, and measurements were taken from the predetermined landmarks to the extensor retinaculum. The compartments were also inspected for variability of the abductor pollicis ...

  16. Supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme with spinal metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhidha Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. Metastasis of intracranial glioblastoma via the cerebrospinal fluid to the spine is a rare occurrence. We present two cases of glioblastoma multiforme with spinal leptomeningeal spread who presented with back pain and paraparesis.

  17. Anatomical changes within the medullary dorsal horn in chronic temporomandibular disorder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, S L; Gustin, S M; Macey, P M; Peck, C C; Murray, G M; Henderson, L A

    2015-08-15

    Accumulated evidence from experimental animal models suggests that neuroplastic changes at the dorsal horn are critical for the maintenance of various chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. However, to date, no study has specifically investigated whether neuroplastic changes also occur at this level in humans. Using brain imaging techniques, we sought to determine whether anatomical changes were present in the medullary dorsal horn (spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis) in subjects with the chronic musculoskeletal pain. In twenty-two subjects with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and forty pain-free controls voxel based morphometry of T1-weighted anatomical images and diffusion tensor images were used to assess regional grey matter volume and microstructural changes within the brainstem and, in addition, the integrity of ascending pain pathways. Voxel based morphometry revealed significant regional grey matter volume decreases in the medullary dorsal horn, in conjunction with alterations in diffusivity properties, namely an increase in mean diffusivity, in TMD subjects. Volumetric and mean diffusivity changes also occurred in TMD subjects in regions of the descending pain modulation system, including the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter and nucleus raphe magnus. Finally, tractography revealed altered diffusivity properties, namely decreased fractional anisotropy, in the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve, the spinal trigeminal tract and the ventral trigeminothalamic tracts of TMD subjects. These data reveal that chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans is associated with discrete alterations in the anatomy of the medullary dorsal horn, as well as its afferent and efferent projections. These neural changes may be critical for the maintenance of pathological pain. PMID:25979666

  18. PKMζ is essential for spinal plasticity underlying the maintenance of persistent pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laferrière Andre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain occurs when normally protective acute pain becomes pathologically persistent. We examined here whether an isoform of protein kinase C (PKC, PKMζ, that underlies long-term memory storage in various brain regions, also sustains nociceptive plasticity in spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH mediating persistent pain. Results Cutaneous injury or spinal stimulation produced persistent increases of PKMζ, but not other atypical PKCs in SCDH. Inhibiting spinal PKMζ, but not full-length PKCs, reversed plasticity-dependent persistent painful responses to hind paw formalin and secondary mechanical hypersensitivity and SCDH neuron sensitization after hind paw capsaicin, without affecting peripheral sensitization-dependent primary heat hypersensitivity after hind paw capsaicin. Inhibiting spinal PKMζ, but not full-length PKCs, also reversed mechanical hypersensitivity in the rat hind paw induced by spinal stimulation with intrathecal dihydroxyphenylglycine. Spinal PKMζ inhibition also alleviated allodynia 3 weeks after ischemic injury in rats with chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP, at a point when allodynia depends on spinal changes. In contrast, spinal PKMζ inhibition did not affect allodynia in rats with chronic contriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve, or CPIP rats early after ischemic injury, when allodynia depends on ongoing peripheral inputs. Conclusions These results suggest spinal PKMζ is essential for the maintenance of persistent pain by sustaining spinal nociceptive plasticity.

  19. Spinal canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.)

  20. Presence of neuropeptide FF receptors on primary afferent fibres of the rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioiodinated analogue of neuropeptide FF, [125I][d.Tyr1,(NMe)Phe3]neuropeptide FF, was used as a selective probe to label neuropeptide FF receptors in the rat spinal cord. Following neonatal capsaicin treatment, dorsal rhizotomy or sciatic nerve section, the distribution and possible alterations of spinal cord specific [125I][d.Tyr1,(NMe)Phe3]neuropeptide FF binding sites were evaluated using in vitro quantitative receptor autoradiography. In normal rats, the highest densities of sites were observed in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn (laminae I-II) whereas moderate to low amounts of labelling were seen in the deeper (III-VI) laminae, around the central canal, and in the ventral horn. Capsaicin-treated rats showed a bilateral decrease (47%) in [125I][d.Tyr1,(NMe)Phe3]neuropeptide FF binding in all spinal areas. Unilateral sciatic nerve section and unilateral dorsal rhizotomy induced significant depletions (15-27%) in [125I][d.Tyr1,(NMe)Phe3]neuropeptide FF labelling in the ipsilateral dorsal horn.These results suggest that a proportion of neuropeptide FF receptors is located on primary afferent terminals of the dorsal horn and could thus play a role in the modulation of nociceptive transmission. (Copyright (c) 1996 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Presence of neuropeptide FF receptors on primary afferent fibres of the rat spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajac, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie Fondamentales, C.N.R.S., 205 Route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Kar, S. [Douglas Hospital Research Centre and Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 6875 LaSalle Blvd, Verdun, Quebec H4H1R3 (Canada); Gouarderes, C. [Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie Fondamentales, C.N.R.S., 205 Route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    1996-09-01

    A radioiodinated analogue of neuropeptide FF, [{sup 125}I][d.Tyr{sup 1},(NMe)Phe{sup 3}]neuropeptide FF, was used as a selective probe to label neuropeptide FF receptors in the rat spinal cord. Following neonatal capsaicin treatment, dorsal rhizotomy or sciatic nerve section, the distribution and possible alterations of spinal cord specific [{sup 125}I][d.Tyr{sup 1},(NMe)Phe{sup 3}]neuropeptide FF binding sites were evaluated using in vitro quantitative receptor autoradiography. In normal rats, the highest densities of sites were observed in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn (laminae I-II) whereas moderate to low amounts of labelling were seen in the deeper (III-VI) laminae, around the central canal, and in the ventral horn. Capsaicin-treated rats showed a bilateral decrease (47%) in [{sup 125}I][d.Tyr{sup 1},(NMe)Phe{sup 3}]neuropeptide FF binding in all spinal areas. Unilateral sciatic nerve section and unilateral dorsal rhizotomy induced significant depletions (15-27%) in [{sup 125}I][d.Tyr{sup 1},(NMe)Phe{sup 3}]neuropeptide FF labelling in the ipsilateral dorsal horn.These results suggest that a proportion of neuropeptide FF receptors is located on primary afferent terminals of the dorsal horn and could thus play a role in the modulation of nociceptive transmission. (Copyright (c) 1996 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Optimum electrode geometry for spinal cord stimulation: the narrow bipole and tripole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsheimer, J; Wesselink, W A

    1997-09-01

    A computer model is used to calculate the optimum geometry of an epidural electrode, consisting of a longitudinal contact array, for spinal cord stimulation in the management of chronic, intractable pain. 3D models of the spinal area are used for the computation of stimulation induced fields, and a cable model of myelinated nerve fibre is used for the calculation of the threshold stimulus to excite large dorsal column and dorsal root fibres. The criteria for the geometry of the longitudinal contact array are: a low threshold for the stimulation of dorsal column fibres compared with dorsal root fibres; and a low stimulation voltage (and current). For both percutaneous and laminectomy electrodes, the contact length should be approximately 1.5 mm, and the optimum contact separation, as determined by the computer model, is 2-2.5 mm. The contacts for a laminectomy electrode should be approximately 4 mm wide. This electrode geometry is applicable to all spinal levels where the dorsal columns can be stimulated (C1-2 down to L1). The stimulating electrode should preferably be used as a tripole with one (central) cathode. PMID:9374053

  3. Spinal infections in children: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rahul

    2016-12-01

    Spinal infections are uncommon but significant causes of morbidity and hospitalization in the paediatric population. These infections encompass a broad range of conditions, from discitis to osteomyelitis and spinal epidural and intramedullary abscesses. Paediatric spinal infections can be caused by a range of bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic agents. Ultrastructural differences of the vertebrae and associated structures result in distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis of spinal infections in children compared to adults. The non-specific nature of symptoms produced by them can cause considerable diagnostic delays. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging can facilitate early identification of the disease, and distinguish it from other spinal pathologies. The association of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains from some of the cases appears worrisome; as is the increasing incidence of Kingella kingae infections causing spinal infections. Rest and immobilization are the general treatment, and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy is warranted to ensure optimal clinical outcome. Most patients generally have a good prognosis; however, early identification and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy is essential to achieve the best therapeutic response. PMID:27408498

  4. Radiation effects in brain and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitivity of both the brain and spinal cord in prenatal and postnatal stages, in infancy and adult age is represented also in consideration of a combined treatment with methotrexate. In adults, application of important doses of high-energy radiation increases the risk of injurious effects to the central nervous system. If the spinal cord is involved, more than 60% of the radiolesions have a progredient course ending with death. The pathogenesis and disposing factors are referred to, and the incidence of radiation necrosis with regard to age and sex, the degrees of injury and their frequence within different ranges of dosage are analyzed on the basis of data from universal literature. An examination of 'tolerance doses' for the spinal cord is made by means of Strandquist-diagrams and of the Ellis-formula. The slopes of regression lines are reported for various 'degrees of response' in skin, brain and spinal cord following radiation therapy. In the Strandquist-diagram, slopes of regression lines are dependent on the 'degree of response', flattening if skin and spinal cord are affected by radiation in the same degree, necroses having the same slope for both the organs. (orig./MG)

  5. Kinematic analysis of the gait of adult sheep during treadmill locomotion: Parameter values, allowable total error, and potential for use in evaluating spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, Sina; Jeffery, Nick D; Shivapour, Sara K; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Zylstra, Tyler J; Bratsch-Prince, Joshua; Wilson, Saul; Reddy, Chandan G; Fredericks, Douglas C; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2015-11-15

    We are developing a novel intradural spinal cord (SC) stimulator designed to improve the treatment of intractable pain and the sequelae of SC injury. In-vivo ovine models of neuropathic pain and moderate SC injury are being implemented for pre-clinical evaluations of this device, to be carried out via gait analysis before and after induction of the relevant condition. We extend previous studies on other quadrupeds to extract the three-dimensional kinematics of the limbs over the gait cycle of sheep walking on a treadmill. Quantitative measures of thoracic and pelvic limb movements were obtained from 17 animals. We calculated the total-error values to define the analytical performance of our motion capture system for these kinematic variables. The post- vs. pre-injury time delay between contralateral thoracic and pelvic-limb steps for normal and SC-injured sheep increased by ~24s over 100 steps. The pelvic limb hoof velocity during swing phase decreased, while range of pelvic hoof elevation and distance between lateral pelvic hoof placements increased after SC injury. The kinematics measures in a single SC-injured sheep can be objectively defined as changed from the corresponding pre-injury values, implying utility of this method to assess new neuromodulation strategies for specific deficits exhibited by an individual. PMID:26341152

  6. Coexpression of auxiliary subunits KChIP and DPPL in potassium channel Kv4-positive nociceptors and pain-modulating spinal interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chau-Fu; Wang, Wan-Chen; Huang, Chia-Yi; Du, Po-Hau; Yang, Jung-Hui; Tsaur, Meei-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Subthreshold A-type K(+) currents (ISA s) have been recorded from the somata of nociceptors and spinal lamina II excitatory interneurons, which sense and modulate pain, respectively. Kv4 channels are responsible for the somatodendritic ISA s. Accumulative evidence suggests that neuronal Kv4 channels are ternary complexes including pore-forming Kv4 subunits and two types of auxiliary subunits: K(+) channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs). Previous reports have shown Kv4.3 in a subset of nonpeptidergic nociceptors and Kv4.2/Kv4.3 in certain spinal lamina II excitatory interneurons. However, whether and which KChIP and DPPL are coexpressed with Kv4 in these ISA -expressing pain-related neurons is unknown. In this study we mapped the protein distribution of KChIP1, KChIP2, KChIP3, DPP6, and DPP10 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. In the DRG, we found colocalization of KChIP1, KChIP2, and DPP10 in the somatic surface and cytoplasm of Kv4.3(+) nociceptors. KChIP3 appears in most Aβ and Aδ sensory neurons as well as a small population of peptidergic nociceptors, whereas DPP6 is absent in sensory neurons. In the spinal cord, KChIP1 is coexpressed with Kv4.3 in the cell bodies of a subset of lamina II excitatory interneurons, while KChIP1, KChIP2, and DPP6 are colocalized with Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in their dendrites. Within the dorsal horn, besides KChIP3 in the inner lamina II and lamina III, we detected DPP10 in most projection neurons, which transmit pain signal to brain. The results suggest the existence of Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complexes in ISA -expressing nociceptors and pain-modulating spinal interneurons. PMID:26239200

  7. Spinal ultrasound in infants. Indications, findings and MRI correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ultrasound can detect the spinal abnormalities and demonstrate anatomical variants and pathologies with very high degree of accuracy. The best time to scan the infant is up to about three months of age as there is incomplete ossification of the posterior spinal elements. After the 3 month period the posterior spinal elements start to ossify and subsequently there is loss of the acoustic window with the intraspinal elements poorly visualized. There are many advantages of the US neonatal spine: No need for sedation or general anesthesia, it can be performed even in the intensive care unit at the bedside, it is a dynamic study, It is cheap, easy to perform and is an excellent screening modality, however this is exclusively operator dependant. Although MRI is the imaging modality of choice a carefully performed ultrasound can give very accurate information. The main indications for performing spinal ultrasound in the young infant is screening for occult spinal dysraphism: lower lumbar skin markers such as hairy patch, skin tag, cutaneous hemangioma or dorsal dermal sinus; Closed lumbar mass; Congenital anomalies such as anorectal atresia and cloacal exstrophy. Through the short talk I will explain the technique, some of the major spinal abnormalities detectable by ultrasound which are subsequently correlated by MRI

  8. Spinal processing of bee venom-induced pain and hyperalgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of bee venom causes long-term neural activation and hypersensitization in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which contributes to the development and maintenance of various pain-related behaviors. The unique behavioral 'pheno-types' of nociception and hypersensitivity identified in the rodent bee venom test are believed to reflect a complex pathological state of inflammatory pain and might be appropriate to the study of phenotype-based mechanisms of pain and hyperalgesia. In this review, the spinal processing of the bee venom-induced different 'phenotypes' of pain and hyperalgesia will be described. The accumulative electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral data strongly suggest that different 'phenotypes' of pain and hyperalgesia are mediated by different spinal signaling pathways. Unraveling the phenotype-based mechanisms of pain might be useful in development of novel therapeutic drugs against complex clinic pathological pain.

  9. Microglia and Spinal Cord Synaptic Plasticity in Persistent Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Taves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are regarded as macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS and play an important role in neuroinflammation in the CNS. Microglial activation has been strongly implicated in neurodegeneration in the brain. Increasing evidence also suggests an important role of spinal cord microglia in the genesis of persistent pain, by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, Interleukine-1beta (IL-1β, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. In this review, we discuss the recent findings illustrating the importance of microglial mediators in regulating synaptic plasticity of the excitatory and inhibitory pain circuits in the spinal cord, leading to enhanced pain states. Insights into microglial-neuronal interactions in the spinal cord dorsal horn will not only further our understanding of neural plasticity but may also lead to novel therapeutics for chronic pain management.

  10. Hypocretinergic control of spinal cord motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, Jack; Fung, Simon J; Xi, Mingchu; Chase, Michael H

    2004-06-01

    Hypocretinergic (orexinergic) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project to motor columns in the lumbar spinal cord. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the hypocretinergic system modulates the electrical activity of motoneurons. Using in vivo intracellular recording techniques, we examined the response of spinal motoneurons in the cat to electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. In addition, we examined the membrane potential response to orthodromic stimulation and intracellular current injection before and after both hypothalamic stimulation and the juxtacellular application of hypocretin-1. It was found that (1) hypothalamic stimulation produced a complex sequence of depolarizing- hyperpolarizing potentials in spinal motoneurons; (2) the depolarizing potentials decreased in amplitude after the application of SB-334867, a hypocretin type 1 receptor antagonist; (3) the EPSP induced by dorsal root stimulation was not affected by the application of SB-334867; (4) subthreshold stimulation of dorsal roots and intracellular depolarizing current steps produced spike potentials when applied in concert to stimulation of the hypothalamus or after the local application of hypocretin-1; (5) the juxtacellular application of hypocretin-1 induced motoneuron depolarization and, frequently, high-frequency discharge; (6) hypocretin-1 produced a significant decrease in rheobase (36%), membrane time constant (16.4%), and the equalizing time constant (23.3%); (7) in a small number of motoneurons, hypocretin-1 produced an increase in the synaptic noise; and (8) the input resistance was not affected after hypocretin-1. The juxtacellular application of vehicle (saline) and denatured hypocretin-1 did not produce changes in the preceding electrophysiological properties. We conclude that hypothalamic hypocretinergic neurons are capable of modulating the activity of lumbar motoneurons through presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. The lack of hypocretin

  11. Aquaporin 1 - a novel player in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesic, O; Lee, J; Unabia, G C; Johnson, K; Ye, Z; Vergara, L; Hulsebosch, C E; Perez-Polo, J R

    2008-05-01

    The role of water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) in uninjured or injured spinal cords is unknown. AQP-1 is weakly expressed in neurons and gray matter astrocytes, and more so in white matter astrocytes in uninjured spinal cords, a novel finding. As reported before, AQP-1 is also present in ependymal cells, but most abundantly in small diameter sensory fibers of the dorsal horn. Rat contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) induced persistent and significant four- to eightfold increases in AQP-1 levels at the site of injury (T10) persisting up to 11 months post-contusion, a novel finding. Delayed AQP-1 increases were also found in cervical and lumbar segments, suggesting the spreading of AQP-1 changes over time after SCI. Given that the antioxidant melatonin significantly decreased SCI-induced AQP-1 increases and that hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha was increased in acutely and chronically injured spinal cords, we propose that chronic hypoxia contributes to persistent AQP-1 increases after SCI. Interestingly; AQP-1 levels were not affected by long-lasting hypertonicity that significantly increased astrocytic AQP-4, suggesting that the primary role of AQP-1 is not regulating isotonicity in spinal cords. Based on our results we propose possible novel roles for AQP-1 in the injured spinal cords: (i) in neuronal and astrocytic swelling, as AQP-1 was increased in all surviving neurons and reactive astrocytes after SCI and (ii) in the development of the neuropathic pain after SCI. We have shown that decreased AQP-1 in melatonin-treated SCI rats correlated with decreased AQP-1 immunolabeling in the dorsal horns sensory afferents, and with significantly decreased mechanical allodynia, suggesting a possible link between AQP-1 and chronic neuropathic pain after SCI. PMID:18248364

  12. Dorsal and Ventral Pathways for Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Anwander, Alfred; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Belin, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Our vocal tone--the prosody--contributes a lot to the meaning of speech beyond the actual words. Indeed, the hesitant tone of a "yes" may be more telling than its affirmative lexical meaning. The human brain contains dorsal and ventral processing streams in the left hemisphere that underlie core linguistic abilities such as phonology, syntax, and semantics. Whether or not prosody--a reportedly right-hemispheric faculty--involves analogous processing streams is a matter of debate. Functional connectivity studies on prosody leave no doubt about the existence of such streams, but opinions diverge on whether information travels along dorsal or ventral pathways. Here we show, with a novel paradigm using audio morphing combined with multimodal neuroimaging and brain stimulation, that prosody perception takes dual routes along dorsal and ventral pathways in the right hemisphere. In experiment 1, categorization of speech stimuli that gradually varied in their prosodic pitch contour (between statement and question) involved (1) an auditory ventral pathway along the superior temporal lobe and (2) auditory-motor dorsal pathways connecting posterior temporal and inferior frontal/premotor areas. In experiment 2, inhibitory stimulation of right premotor cortex as a key node of the dorsal stream decreased participants' performance in prosody categorization, arguing for a motor involvement in prosody perception. These data draw a dual-stream picture of prosodic processing that parallels the established left-hemispheric multi-stream architecture of language, but with relative rightward asymmetry. PMID:26549262

  13. The Cotransplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exerts Antiapoptotic Effects in Adult Rats after Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Shifeng Wu; Guanqun Cui; Hua Shao; Zhongjun Du; Ng, Jack C.; Cheng Peng

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the repairing effects of the cotransplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have not been fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the cotransplantation of OECs with BMSCs on antiapoptotic effects in adult rats for which the models of SCI are induced. We examined the changes in body weight, histopathological changes, apoptosis, and the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins after 14 days an...

  14. Surgical treatment of primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors in adult patients Tratamento cirúrgico de tumores intramedulares primários em adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Taricco

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary spinal cord intramedullary tumors are rare and present with insidious symptoms. Previous treatment protocols emphasized biopsy and radiation/chemotherapy but more aggressive protocols have emerged. OBJECTIVE: To report our experience. METHOD: Forty-eight patients were diagnosed with primary intramedullary tumors. The cervical cord was involved in 27% and thoracic in 42% of patients. Complete microsurgical removal was attempted whenever possible without added neurological morbidity. RESULTS: Complete resection was obtained in 33 (71% patients. Neurological function remained stable or improved in 32 patients (66.7%. Ependymoma was the most frequent tumor (66.7%. CONCLUSION: Neurological outcome is superior in patients with subtle findings; aggressive microsurgical resection should be pursued with acceptable neurological outcomes.INTRODUÇÃO: Tumores intramedulares primários são raros e apresentam-se com sintomas insidiosos. Protocolos de tratamento anteriores enfatizavam biópsia e radio/quimioterapia, mas protocolos mais agres-sivos têm surgido. OBJETIVO: Relatar nossa experiência. MÉTODO: Tumores intramedulares foram diagnosticados em 48 pacientes. O segmento cervical estava envolvido em 27% e torácico em 42% dos pacientes. Remoção completa foi tentada quando possível sem aumento da morbidade neurológica. RESULTADOS: Ressecção total foi obtida em 33 (71% pacientes. Função neurológica: permaneceu inalterada/melhorou em 32 (66,7% pacientes. O tumor mais freqüente foi ependimoma (66,7%. CONCLUSÃO: O prognóstico é melhor em pacientes oligossintomáticos; ressecção microcirúrgica agressiva deve ser tentada sempre, com resultados clínicos aceitáveis.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor α sensitizes spinal cord TRPV1 receptors to the endogenous agonist N-oleoyldopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spicarova Diana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Modulation of synaptic transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn is thought to be involved in the development and maintenance of different pathological pain states. The proinflamatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, is an established pain modulator in both the peripheral and the central nervous system. Up-regulation of TNFα and its receptors (TNFR in dorsal root ganglion (DRG cells and in the spinal cord has been shown to play an important role in neuropathic and inflammatory pain conditions. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 receptors are known as molecular integrators of nociceptive stimuli in the periphery, but their role on the spinal endings of nociceptive DRG neurons is unclear. The endogenous TRPV1 receptor agonist N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA was shown previously to activate spinal TRPV1 receptors. In our experiments the possible influence of TNFα on presynaptic spinal cord TRPV1 receptor function was investigated. Using the patch-clamp technique, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs were recorded in superficial dorsal horn neurons in acute slices after incubation with 60 nM TNFα. A population of dorsal horn neurons with capsaicin sensitive primary afferent input recorded after the TNFα pretreatment had a basal mEPSC frequency of 1.35 ± 0.20 Hz (n = 13, which was significantly higher when compared to a similar population of neurons in control slices (0.76 ± 0.08 Hz; n = 53; P

  16. Review of spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma without primary origin in the vertebral bone were evaluated in 54 patients including our new case. The 36 male and 18 female patients were aged 5 to 78 years (mean 47 years). Most lesions were in the thoracic spine (80%) and on the dorsal side of the spinal cord (93%). The clinical course was mostly slowly progressive, with myelopathy in 33% at onset and 83% at admission. The lesion appeared isointense to the spinal cord on T1-weighted imaging, and isointense or slightly hypointense to the cerebrospinal fluid on T2-weighted imaging. Lesion without hemorrhage showed prominent homogeneous enhancement after administration of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid because of the sinusoidal channel structure. Heterogeneous enhancement was caused by hematoma and/or post-hemorrhagic degeneration. The differential diagnosis of this disease includes metastatic tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, chordoma, eosinophilic granuloma, sarcoidosis, lipoma, hypertrophy of the posterior longitudinal ligament or the ligamentum flavum, meningioma, and neurinoma. The relationships between clinical course and surgery or outcome suggest that early diagnosis and total removal of the lesion before massive lesional bleeding occurs are necessary for a good outcome. (author)

  17. Spinal 5-HT3 receptor activation induces behavioral hypersensitivity via a neuronal-glial-neuronal signaling cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ming; Miyoshi, Kan; Dubner, Ronald; Wei GUO; Zou, Shiping; Ren, Ke; Noguchi, Koichi; Wei, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the descending serotonin (5-HT) system from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in brainstem and the 5-HT3 receptor subtype in the spinal dorsal horn are involved in enhanced descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor and its contribution to facilitation of pain remain unclear. In the present study, activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptor by intrathecal injection of a selective...

  18. Induction of long-term potentiation and long-term depression is cell-type specific in the spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Young; Jun, Jaebeom; Wang, Jigong; Bittar, Alice; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The underlying mechanism of chronic pain is believed to be changes in excitability in spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons that respond abnormally to peripheral input. Increased excitability in pain transmission neurons, and depression of inhibitory neurons, are widely recognized in the spinal cord of animal models of chronic pain. The possible occurrence of 2 parallel but opposing forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) was tested in 2 ty...

  19. Dorsal wrist ganglion: Current review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Sanjay; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-06-01

    Ganglion cyst is the most common soft tissue tumour of hand. Sixty to seventy percent of ganglion cysts are found in the dorsal aspect of the wrist. They may affect any age group; however they are more common in the twenties to forties. Its origin and pathogenesis remains enigmatic. Non-surgical treatment is unreliable with a high recurrence rates. Open surgical excision leads to unsightly scar and poor outcome. Arthroscopy excision has shown very promising result with very low recurrence rate. We reviewed the current literature available on dorsal wrist ganglion. PMID:25983472

  20. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the vertebral bodies (osteophytes), which compress spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine problems include: pain that interferes with daily ...

  1. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  2. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  3. Spinal CT scan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections. (Ueda, J.)

  4. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality is rare in adults. Below we present a case report of 20 yrs old male with isolated cervical cord injury, without accompanying vertebral dislocation or fracture involving the spinal canal rim. He fell down on plain and smooth ground while carrying 40 kg weight overhead and developed quadriparesis with difficulty in respiration. Plain radiographs of the neck revealed no fractures or dislocations. MRI showed bulky spinal cord and an abnormal hyper intense signal on the T2W image from C2 vertebral body level to C3/4 intervertebral disc level predominantly in the anterior aspect of the cord The patient was managed conservatively with head halter traction and invasive ventilatory support for the initial 7 days period in the ICU. In our patient recovery was good and most of the neurological deficit improved over 4 weeks with conservative management.

  5. Establishment and validation of standardized animal models of spinal cord injury by normal external force-caused fracture dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weibing Shuang; Qiang Liu; Shoubin Jiao; Yang Yang

    2011-01-01

    The duplication of animal models plays a key role in spinal cord injury research; however, there has been limited study into normal, external force-derived fracture dislocation. This study adopted experimental devices, designed in-house, to construct standardized ventral and dorsal spinal cord injury animal models of 6 g and 17 g falling from a height of 2, 4, and 10 cm, and 15, 30 or 50 g transversal compression on the spinal cord. The results showed that gradual increases in the degree of histopathological injury led to decreased Tarlov and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores for the behavioral test, and increased Ashworth scores for the hind limb. Furthermore, there was a gradual decline in the slope test in the rats with dorsal spinal cord injury that correlated to increases in the falling substance weight or falling height. Similar alterations were observed in the ventral spinal cord injured rats, proportional to the increase in compression weight. Our experimental findings indicate that the standardized experimental rat models of dorsal and ventral spinal cord injury are stable, reliable and reproducible.

  6. Astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoplasms affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems of wild animals are extremely rare. Described are clinical signs, pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in an adult female raccoon (Procyon lotor) with an astrocytoma which involved brainstem, cervical spinal cord and roots of the ...

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 0.5% BUPIVACAINE AND 0.5% BUPIVACAINE WITH CLONIDINE (30μg FOR SPINAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpashri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present day practice of Anesthesiology, bupivacaine is the most commonly used drug for spinal anesthesia. To improve upon the quality of analgesia and prolong the duration of its action, many adjuvants have been tried. Intrathecal clonidine an α2 adrenceptor agonist has potent central antinoceptive properties with analgesic effect at spinal level mediated by postsynaptically situated adrenoreceptor in dorsal horn of spinal cord. Lo w doses of clonidine have shown effectiveness in intensifying spinal anesthesia. Hence this study was done in our institute to evaluate the efficacy of spinal anesthesia with clonidine added to hyperbaric bupivacaine in elective lower limb, lower abdominal, gynaecological and urological surgeries under spinal anaesthesia. This prospective, single center parallel group, double blind study conducted over a span of 1 year with 100 patients, was effective in proving that Clonidine potentiates bupivacaine spinal anesthesia by increasing the duration and improving the quality of analgesia without producing significant hemodynamic side effects and with mild sedation.

  8. Dorsal defect of the patella and infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesions of the patella are relatively rare, although a large variety of etiologies have been reported. To our knowledge this is only the second reported case of a Brodie's abcess of the patella. Its radiologic appearance was identical to that described for the common dorsal defect of the patella. (orig.)

  9. Cryptic organisation within an apparently irregular rostrocaudal distribution of interneurons in the embryonic zebrafish spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecules and mechanisms involved in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the developing vertebrate spinal cord have been investigated extensively and many are well known. Conversely, knowledge of mechanisms patterning cellular distributions along the rostrocaudal axis is relatively more restricted. Much is known about the rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurons and spinal cord cells derived from neural crest but there is little known about the rostrocaudal patterning of most of the other spinal cord neurons. Here we report data from our analyses of the distribution of dorsal longitudinal ascending (DoLA) interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. We show that, although apparently distributed irregularly, these cells have cryptic organisation. We present a novel cell-labelling technique that reveals that DoLA interneurons migrate rostrally along the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of the spinal cord during development. This cell-labelling strategy may be useful for in vivo analysis of factors controlling neuron migration in the central nervous system. Additionally, we show that DoLA interneurons persist in the developing spinal cord for longer than previously reported. These findings illustrate the need to investigate factors and mechanisms that determine 'irregular' patterns of cell distribution, particularly in the central nervous system but also in other tissues of developing embryos.

  10. Prodynorphine opioid peptides and aspartate aminotransferase studied in spinal cord and sensory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An objective of this research was to obtain evidence for the synthesis and release of newly discovered opioid peptides, such as dynorphin, in spinal cord and sensory neurons. Several specific antisera were used to visualize dynorphin and related peptides in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons in dissociated cell culture. Antisera specific for the midportion of the dynorphin molecule revealed a subpopulation of spinal cord neurons with dense immunoreactive dynorphin in cell perikarya, but none in their associated neurites. Antisera specific for either the amino or carboxy terminal sequences of the molecule produced intense immunoreactivity in both cell perikarya and neurites of spinal neurons. These data suggest the cleavage products of dynorphin and not the complete molecule are possible neurotransmitters in the spinal cord. Additional evidence in support of this hypothesis was derived from radioimmunoassays of these cells and their culture medium following depolarization induced by elevated extracellular potassium. Antisera against aspartate aminotransferase revealed no differentially elevated immunoreactive aspartate aminotransferase in tissue sections of spinal cord or dorsal root ganglia

  11. Cryptic organisation within an apparently irregular rostrocaudal distribution of interneurons in the embryonic zebrafish spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Simon, E-mail: simon.wells@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Conran, John G., E-mail: john.conran@adelaide.edu.au [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Tamme, Richard, E-mail: rtamme@ttu.ee [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Gaudin, Arnaud, E-mail: a.gaudin@uq.edu.au [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Webb, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.webb@worc.ox.ac.uk [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Lardelli, Michael, E-mail: michael.lardelli@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    The molecules and mechanisms involved in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the developing vertebrate spinal cord have been investigated extensively and many are well known. Conversely, knowledge of mechanisms patterning cellular distributions along the rostrocaudal axis is relatively more restricted. Much is known about the rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurons and spinal cord cells derived from neural crest but there is little known about the rostrocaudal patterning of most of the other spinal cord neurons. Here we report data from our analyses of the distribution of dorsal longitudinal ascending (DoLA) interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. We show that, although apparently distributed irregularly, these cells have cryptic organisation. We present a novel cell-labelling technique that reveals that DoLA interneurons migrate rostrally along the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of the spinal cord during development. This cell-labelling strategy may be useful for in vivo analysis of factors controlling neuron migration in the central nervous system. Additionally, we show that DoLA interneurons persist in the developing spinal cord for longer than previously reported. These findings illustrate the need to investigate factors and mechanisms that determine 'irregular' patterns of cell distribution, particularly in the central nervous system but also in other tissues of developing embryos.

  12. Phorbol Ester Modulation of Ca2+ Channels Mediates Nociceptive Transmission in Dorsal Horn Neurones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Stephens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phorbol esters are analogues of diacylglycerol which activate C1 domain proteins, such as protein kinase C (PKC. Phorbol ester/PKC pathways have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets for chronic pain states, potentially by phosphorylating proteins involved in nociception, such as voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs. In this brief report, we investigate the potential involvement of CaV2 VDCC subtypes in functional effects of the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA on nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Effects of PMA and of selective pharmacological blockers of CaV2 VDCC subtypes on nociceptive transmission at laminae II dorsal horn neurones were examined in mouse spinal cord slices. Experiments were extended to CaV2.3(−/− mice to complement pharmacological studies. PMA increased the mean frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs in dorsal horn neurones, without an effect on event amplitude or half-width. sPSC frequency was reduced by selective VDCC blockers, w-agatoxin-IVA (AgTX; CaV2.1, w-conotoxin-GVIA (CTX; CaV2.2 or SNX-482 (CaV2.3. PMA effects were attenuated in the presence of each VDCC blocker and, also, in CaV2.3(−/− mice. These initial data demonstrate that PMA increases nociceptive transmission at dorsal horn neurones via actions on different CaV2 subtypes suggesting potential anti-nociceptive targets in this system.

  13. Bone cancer induces a unique central sensitization through synaptic changes in a wide area of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Daisuke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic bone cancer pain is thought to be partly due to central sensitization. Although murine models of bone cancer pain revealed significant neurochemical changes in the spinal cord, it is not known whether this produces functional alterations in spinal sensory synaptic transmission. In this study, we examined excitatory synaptic responses evoked in substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices of adult mice bearing bone cancer, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording techniques. Results Mice at 14 to 21 days after sarcoma implantation into the femur exhibited hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of the ipsilateral hind paw, as well as showing spontaneous and movement evoked pain-related behaviors. SG neurons exhibited spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. The amplitudes of spontaneous EPSCs were significantly larger in cancer-bearing than control mice without any changes in passive membrane properties of SG neurons. In the presence of TTX, the amplitude of miniature EPSCs in SG neurons was increased in cancer-bearing mice and this was observed for cells sampled across a wide range of lumbar segmental levels. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked by focal stimulation were also enhanced in cancer-bearing mice. Dorsal root stimulation elicited mono- and/or polysynaptic EPSCs that were caused by the activation of Aδ and/or C afferent fibers in SG neurons from both groups of animals. The number of cells receiving monosynaptic inputs from Aδ and C fibers was not different between the two groups. However, the amplitude of the monosynaptic C fiber-evoked EPSCs and the number of SG neurons receiving polysynaptic inputs from Aδ and C fibers were increased in cancer-bearing mice. Conclusions These results show that spinal synaptic transmission mediated through Aδ and C fibers is

  14. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  15. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school...

  16. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G;

    2015-01-01

    the final version. RESULTS: The data set consists of nine variables: (1) Intervention/Procedure Date and start time (2) Non-surgical bed rest and external immobilization, (3) Spinal intervention-closed manipulation and/or reduction of spinal elements, (4) Surgical procedure-approach, (5) Date and time...

  17. Spinal arteriography: a primer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David A KUMPE

    2005-01-01

    Spinal arteriography is an esoteric procedure that is seldom performed by peripheral interventionalists. This presentation is intended to outline some of the essential points that the interventionalist performing the procedure should be aware of, especially about spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (SDAVF).

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries and the ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help ... advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  1. Spinal subdural metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of metastasis to the thoracic spinal subdural space is reported. Metrizamide myelography showed narrowing of the upper thoracic subarachnoid space. A tumor in the spinal subdural space is unusual; only a few cases have been reported. The myelographic appearance is not specific; and epidural metastasis can produce the same myelographic picture. (orig.)

  2. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information ... spinal cord injuries and the members of their families. Our website has more than 1,500 videos ...

  4. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid limits astrocyte activation and scar formation after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaing, Zin Z.; Milman, Brian D.; Vanscoy, Jennifer E.; Seidlits, Stephanie K.; Grill, Raymond J.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2011-08-01

    A major hurdle for regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the ability of axons to penetrate and grow through the scar tissue. After SCI, inflammatory cells, astrocytes and meningeal cells all play a role in developing the glial scar. In addition, degradation of native high molecular weight (MW) hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to induce activation and proliferation of astrocytes. However, it is not known if the degradation of native HA actually enhances glial scar formation. We hypothesize that the presence of high MW HA (HA with limited degradation) after SCI will decrease glial scarring. Here, we demonstrate that high MW HA decreases cell proliferation and reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) production in cultured neonatal and adult astrocytes. In addition, stiffness-matched high MW HA hydrogels crosslinked to resist degradation were implanted in a rat model of spinal dorsal hemisection injury. The numbers of immune cells (macrophages and microglia) detected at the lesion site in animals with HA hydrogel implants were significantly reduced at acute time points (one, three and ten days post-injury). Lesioned animals with HA implants also exhibited significantly lower CSPG expression at ten days post-injury. At nine weeks post-injury, animals with HA hydrogel implants exhibited a significantly decreased astrocytic response, but did not have significantly altered CSPG expression. Combined, these data suggest that high MW HA, when stabilized against degradation, mitigates astrocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. The presence of HA implants was also associated with a significant decrease in CSPG deposition at ten days after SCI. Therefore, HA-based hydrogel systems hold great potential for minimizing undesired scarring as part of future repair strategies after SCI.

  5. Periampullary carcinoma in a patient with agenesis of dorsal pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, A; Singh, RK

    2011-01-01

    Agenesis of dorsal pancreas is a rare developmental anomaly. We here report a case of agenesis of dorsal pancreas in a patient of periampullary carcinoma and highlight its implications on the management.

  6. Sigma-1 receptor expression in the dorsal root ganglion: Reexamination using a highly specific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyutov, Timur A; Duellman, Tyler; Kim, Hung Tae; Epstein, Miles L; Leese, Charlotte; Davletov, Bazbek A; Yang, Jay

    2016-09-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a unique pluripotent modulator of living systems and has been reported to be associated with a number of neurological diseases including pathological pain. Intrathecal administration of S1R antagonists attenuates the pain behavior of rodents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. However, the S1R localization in the spinal cord shows a selective ventral horn motor neuron distribution, suggesting the high likelihood of S1R in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mediating the pain relief by intrathecally administered drugs. Since primary afferents are the major component in the pain pathway, we examined the mouse and rat DRGs for the presence of the S1R. At both mRNA and protein levels, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western confirmed that the DRG contains greater S1R expression in comparison to spinal cord, cortex, or lung but less than liver. Using a custom-made highly specific antibody, we demonstrated the presence of a strong S1R immuno-fluorescence in all rat and mouse DRG neurons co-localizing with the Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) marker, but not in neural processes or GFAP-positive glial satellite cells. In addition, S1R was absent in afferent terminals in the skin and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Using immuno-electron microscopy, we showed that S1R is detected in the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of DRG cells. In contrast to other cells, S1R is also located directly at the plasma membrane of the DRG neurons. The presence of S1R in the nuclear envelope of all DRG neurons suggests an exciting potential role of S1R as a regulator of neuronal nuclear activities and/or gene expression, which may provide insight toward new molecular targets for modulating nociception at the level of primary afferent neurons. PMID:27339730

  7. Mini-open pedicle subtraction osteotomy as a treatment for severe adult spinal deformities: case series with initial clinical and radiographic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael Y; Bordon, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    lumbar Cobb angle improved from a mean of 41.2° ± 18.4° to 15.4° ± 9.6°, and lumbar lordosis improved from 23.1° ± 15.9° to 48.6° ± 11.7°. Pelvic tilt improved from a mean of 33.7° ± 8.6° to 24.4° ± 6.5°, and the sagittal vertical axis improved from 102.4 ± 73.4 mm to 42.2 ± 39.9 mm. The final lumbar lordosis-pelvic incidence difference averaged 8.4° ± 12.1°. There were 4 patients who failed to achieve less than or equal to a 10° mismatch on this parameter. Ten of the 16 patients underwent delayed postoperative CT, and 8 of these had developed a solid arthrodesis at all levels treated. A total of 6 complications occurred in this series. There were no cases of symptomatic proximal junction kyphosis. CONCLUSIONS Advancements in minimally invasive technique have resulted in the ability to manage increasingly complex deformities with hybrid approaches. In this limited series, the authors describe the results of utilizing a tissue-sparing mini-open PSO to correct severe spinal deformities. This method was technically feasible in all cases with acceptable radiographic outcomes similar to open surgery. However, high complication rates associated with these deformity corrections remain problematic. PMID:26745348

  8. Pain processing by spinal microcircuits: afferent combinatorics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Steven A; Ratté, Stéphanie

    2012-08-01

    Pain, itch, heat, cold, and touch represent different percepts arising from somatosensory input. How stimuli give rise to these percepts has been debated for over a century. Recent work supports the view that primary afferents are highly specialized to transduce and encode specific stimulus modalities. However, cross-modal interactions (e.g. inhibition or exacerbation of pain by touch) support convergence rather than specificity in central circuits. We outline how peripheral specialization together with central convergence could enable spinal microcircuits to combine inputs from distinctly specialized, co-activated afferents and to modulate the output signals thus formed through computations like normalization. These issues will be discussed alongside recent advances in our understanding of microcircuitry in the superficial dorsal horn. PMID:22409855

  9. Diagnostics and therapy of spinal disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenerative processes in a movement segment of the vertebral column, which can potentially give rise to herniation of elements of the nucleus pulposus, are complex and of variable clinical and radiological dimensions; however the mere assumption that degenerative changes precede disc herniation remains a matter of debate. By definition, spinal disc herniation (SDH) refers to components of the gelatinous nucleus pulposus protruding beyond the dorsal level of the vertebral body margin through tears in the annulus fibrosus. Clinical presentation may include pain, paresis and sensory disturbances. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of SDH. In the majority of patients a conservative approach with physical therapy exercises and adequate analgesic and antiphlogistic medical treatment results in a substantial improvement of symptoms. (orig.)

  10. The Prdm13 histone methyltransferase encoding gene is a Ptf1a-Rbpj downstream target that suppresses glutamatergic and promotes GABAergic neuronal fate in the dorsal neural tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanotel, Julie; Bessodes, Nathalie; Thélie, Aurore; Hedderich, Marie; Parain, Karine; Driessche, Benoit Van; Brandão, Karina De Oliveira; Kricha, Sadia; Jorgensen, Mette C; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Serup, Palle; Lint, Carine Van; Perron, Muriel; Pieler, Tomas; Henningfeld, Kristine A; Bellefroid, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional activator Ptf1a determines inhibitory GABAergic over excitatory glutamatergic neuronal cell fate in progenitors of the vertebrate dorsal spinal cord, cerebellum and retina. In an in situ hybridization expression survey of PR domain containing gene...

  11. Minimally Invasive Drainage of a Post-Laminectomy Subfascial Seroma with Cervical Spinal Cord Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitshoff, Adriaan Mynhardt; Van Goethem, Bart; Cornelis, Ine; Combes, Anais; Dvm, Ingeborgh Polis; Gielen, Ingrid; Vandekerckhove, Peter; de Rooster, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    A 14 mo old female neutered Doberman pinscher was evaluated for difficulty in rising, a wide based stance, pelvic limb gait abnormalities, and cervical pain of 2 mo duration. Neurologic examination revealed pelvic limb ataxia and cervical spinal hyperesthesia. Spinal reflexes and cranial nerve examination were normal. The pathology was localized to the C1-C5 or C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Computed tomography (CT) findings indicated bony proliferation of the caudal articular processes of C6 and the cranial articular processes of C7, resulting in bilateral dorsolateral spinal cord compression that was more pronounced on the left side. A limited dorsal laminectomy was performed at C6-C7. Due to progressive neurological deterioration, follow-up CT examination was performed 4 days postoperatively. At the level of the laminectomy defect, a subfacial seroma had developed, entering the spinal canal and causing significant spinal cord compression. Under ultrasonographic guidance a closed-suction wound catheter was placed. Drainage of the seroma successfully relieved its compressive effects on the spinal cord and the patient's neurological status improved. CT was a valuable tool in assessing spinal cord compression as a result of a postoperative subfascial seroma. Minimally invasive application of a wound catheter can be successfully used to manage this condition. PMID:27008321

  12. Three dimensional-magnetic resonance imaging of dorsal root. Ganglion in lumbosacral disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used for the diagnosis of lumbosacral disease. However, there are certain pitfalls in the use of this imaging technique. In particular, MRI is inadequate for accurate diagnosis of lateral spinal root lesions. Furthermore, it is also difficult to show the root ganglion of both sides on a plane by classical 2D-MRI. Moreover 2D-coronal views do not show several roots in one image because each lumbosacral nerve root is on a different plane. We have developed a new method of three-dimensional MRI (3D-MRI) which enables a stereoscopic view of the spinal cord and both sides of spinal nerve roots in one image. We evaluated three techniques of 3D-MRI, including rapid imaging spin echo (RISE), small tip angle gradient echo (STAGE) and short TI inversion recovery (STIR), in 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation. In a separate anatomical study lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were investigated by 3D-MRI in 20 normal subjects. In a pathophysiological study the use of 3D-MRI defects the signal changes following damage to the spinal nerve roots or ganglion in 70 patients. Our results indicated that the STIR method is the best for identifying abnormalities of the spinal cord, roots and intervertebral disc. It was possible to image the lateral part of damaged nerve roots. The S1 angulations and length were significantly smaller than those of others (p<0.05). The S1 DRG was oval and was the largest. With regard to signal changes in damaged root ganglion, a good correlation between root compression and root edema was detected by basic experiments. We are currently examining the relationship between the damaged root ganglion, pain and sensory disturbance. This study showed that the dorsal root ganglion plays an important role in sensory control of radiculopathy. In conclusion, our new data show a close relationship between sensory loss, pain and DRG finding on 3D-MRI. (author)

  13. Three dimensional-magnetic resonance imaging of dorsal root. Ganglion in lumbosacral disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Gaku [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used for the diagnosis of lumbosacral disease. However, there are certain pitfalls in the use of this imaging technique. In particular, MRI is inadequate for accurate diagnosis of lateral spinal root lesions. Furthermore, it is also difficult to show the root ganglion of both sides on a plane by classical 2D-MRI. Moreover 2D-coronal views do not show several roots in one image because each lumbosacral nerve root is on a different plane. We have developed a new method of three-dimensional MRI (3D-MRI) which enables a stereoscopic view of the spinal cord and both sides of spinal nerve roots in one image. We evaluated three techniques of 3D-MRI, including rapid imaging spin echo (RISE), small tip angle gradient echo (STAGE) and short TI inversion recovery (STIR), in 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation. In a separate anatomical study lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were investigated by 3D-MRI in 20 normal subjects. In a pathophysiological study the use of 3D-MRI defects the signal changes following damage to the spinal nerve roots or ganglion in 70 patients. Our results indicated that the STIR method is the best for identifying abnormalities of the spinal cord, roots and intervertebral disc. It was possible to image the lateral part of damaged nerve roots. The S1 angulations and length were significantly smaller than those of others (p<0.05). The S1 DRG was oval and was the largest. With regard to signal changes in damaged root ganglion, a good correlation between root compression and root edema was detected by basic experiments. We are currently examining the relationship between the damaged root ganglion, pain and sensory disturbance. This study showed that the dorsal root ganglion plays an important role in sensory control of radiculopathy. In conclusion, our new data show a close relationship between sensory loss, pain and DRG finding on 3D-MRI. (author)

  14. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  15. Cannabinoid inhibition of the capsaicin-induced calcium response in rat dorsal root ganglion neurones

    OpenAIRE

    Millns, Paul J; Chapman, Victoria; Kendall, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Cannabinoids have marked inhibitory effects on somatosensory processing, which may arise from actions at both peripheral and central cannabinoid receptors. Here, the effect of a synthetic cannabinoid agonist HU210 on capsaicin-evoked responses in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones was studied. The vanilloid capsaicin produced a concentration-related increase in intracellular calcium in DRG neurones, which was significantly inhibited by HU210 (1 μM). The cannabinoid CB1 receptor ant...

  16. Increased autophagic activity in dorsal root ganglion attenuates neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Shuang; Jing, Peng-Bo; Wang, Ji-An; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Bao-Chun; Gao, Yong-Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-07-10

    Autophagy is a process of cellular self-cannibalization, and provides an adaptive mechanism to protect cells against diverse pathological settings. Following peripheral nerve injury, autophagic process was changed in Schwann cells and spinal neurons and glial cells, implicating a vital role of autophagy in chronic pain. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in neuropathic pain. In the present study, we investigated the autophagic process in DRG and its effect on neuropathic pain induced by L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). The level of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, a general marker for autophagy, was increased in L5 DRG after SNL. Immunofluorescence staining showed that LC3-II puncta were observed in DRG neurons after SNL. Injection of autophagy inducer rapamycin into L5 DRG before or after SNL dose-dependently attenuated neuropathic pain. The expression of LC3 was enhanced in L5 DRG by rapamycin. These data suggest that the autophagy in L5 DRG neurons is a defensive reaction to L5 spinal nerve injury, and pharmacological enhancement of autophagy may be a potential treatment to prevent the onset and chronification of neuropathic pain. PMID:26021876

  17. Connections from the rat dorsal column nuclei (DCN) to the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaresi, Paolo; Mensà, Emanuela

    2016-08-01

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsal columns (DCs; spinal cord stimulation; SCS) has been proposed to treat chronic neuropathic pain. SCS may activate a dual mechanism that would affect both the spinal cord and supraspinal levels. Stimulation of DCs or DC nuclei (DCN) in animals where neuropathic pain has been induced causes activation of brainstem centers including the periaqueductal gray (PAG), which is involved in the endogenous pain suppression system. Biotinylated dextran-amine (BDA) was iontophoretically injected into the DCN to analyze the ascending projection directed to the PAG. Separate injections into the gracile nucleus (GrN) and the cuneate nucleus (CunN) showed BDA-positive fibers terminating in different regions of the contralateral PAG. GrN-PAG afferents terminated in the caudal and middle portions of PAG-l, whereas CunN-PAG fibers terminated in the middle and rostral portions of PAG-l. Based on the DCN somatotopic map, the GrN sends information to the PAG from the contralateral hindlimb and the tail and the CunN from the contralateral forelimb, shoulder, neck and ear. This somatotopic organization is consistent with earlier electrophysiological and PAG stimulation studies. These fibers could form part of the DCs-brainstem-spinal cord loop, which may be involved in the inhibitory effects of SCS on neuropathic pain. PMID:26902642

  18. Development of a spinal locomotor rheostat

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Issberner, Jon; Sillar, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    Locomotion in immature animals is often inflexible, but gradually acquires versatility to enable animals to maneuver efficiently through their environment. Locomotor activity in adults is produced by complex spinal cord networks that develop from simpler precursors. How does complexity and plasticity emerge during development to bestow flexibility upon motor behavior? And how does this complexity map onto the peripheral innervation fields of motorneurons during development? We show in postemb...

  19. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is an important cause of a slowly progressive sensorimotor transverse lesion in mostly elderly patients. The disease affects men in 80% of the cases. Per year and per 1 Million inhabitants only 5-10 new cases of the disease have to be expected. Although rare, the serious disease should not be missed. Diagnosis can be made by MRI and spinal angiography. The result of treatment depends on early diagnosis. The arteriovenous shunt is located within the dural layer of the spinal canal. It connects branches of a radiculomeningeal artery with the veins of the spinal cord. Spinal cord supplying vessels are not primarily involved. Arterialisation of the venous part of the spinal cord circulation results in a chronic congestive myelopathy, which can well be demonstrated by MR imaging. The role of selective spinal angiography is to detect and exactly localize the site of the avshunt, which is rather difficult in some cases. Therapeutic alternatives are effective embolization of the fistula with liquid agents or surgical dysconnection. (orig.)

  20. [Arthroscopic resection of dorsal wrist ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisch, N

    2014-10-01

    In arthroscopic wrist surgery, the resection of dorsal wrist ganglia has become a well accepted practice. As advantages for the minimally invasive procedure the low complication rate and low postoperative morbidity, less postoperative pain and faster recovery over open techniques are discussed. The possibility to assess accompanying joint pathology is considered as another advantage. The importance of identifying a so-called ganglion cyst stalk seems to have been overstated. Regarding the technique, the main discussion points are the size and localisation of the capsular window and the necessity of additional midcarpal arthroscopy. The possibility and results of treatment of recurrent ganglion cysts are still controversial. Our own experience and that of some authors are positive. Hardly mentioned in the literature is the treatment of occult dorsal wrist ganglia and its results, which is considered as very successful by the authors. PMID:25290273

  1. Dorsal wrist ganglion: Current review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Ganglion cyst is the most common soft tissue tumour of hand. Sixty to seventy percent of ganglion cysts are found in the dorsal aspect of the wrist. They may affect any age group; however they are more common in the twenties to forties. Its origin and pathogenesis remains enigmatic. Non-surgical treatment is unreliable with a high recurrence rates. Open surgical excision leads to unsightly scar and poor outcome. Arthroscopy excision has shown very promising result with very low recurrence rat...

  2. Effect of Regular Exercise on Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Males With Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Hee; Oh, Kyung Joon; Kong, In Deok; Kim, Sung Hoon; Shinn, Jong Mock; Kim, Jong Heon; Yi, Dongsoo; Lee, Jin Hyeong; Chang, Jae Seung; Kim, Tae-ho; Kim, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance of subjects with spinal cord injury by measuring the maximal oxygen consumption with varying degrees of spinal cord injury level, age, and regular exercise. Methods We instructed the subjects to perform exercises using arm ergometer on healthy adults at 20 years of age or older with spinal cord injury, and their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured with a metabolic measurement system. The exercise proceeded stepwise according to ...

  3. Spinal meningeal cyst in a dog: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-year-old, female Chinese shar pei was presented with a one-year history of ataxia involving the pelvic limbs. The neurological lesion was localized to the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord. A cyst involving the dorsal subarachnoid space at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebral body was identified with myelography. The diagnosis of a meningeal cyst was made, and surgical treatment consisting of a dorsal laminectomy and cyst fenestration was performed. The pelvic-limb ataxia improved, and the owners considered the dog to be normal three months after surgery. The classification, etiology, clinical signs, diagnostic techniques, treatment, and histology of meningeal cysts are reviewed

  4. Spinal angiography with iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iohexol 300 was used for 55 selective spinal angiograms in 50 patients; all were of good quality. There was no significant change in vital signs during the angiographic procedure in any case. Two patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistula draining into a coronal venous plexus developed transient subjective slight increase in their disability during the immediate post-angiographic period. Eight cases embolised at the time of angiography showed improvement in their neurological deficits within 24 h of the study. The other patients were unaffected by the procedure. Iohexol 300 is a very suitable contrast medium for spinal angiography. (orig.)

  5. Immediate effects of spinal manipulation on thermal pain sensitivity: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Steven Z

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying causes of spinal manipulation hypoalgesia are largely unknown. The beneficial clinical effects were originally theorized to be due to biomechanical changes, but recent research has suggested spinal manipulation may have a direct neurophysiological effect on pain perception through dorsal horn inhibition. This study added to this literature by investigating whether spinal manipulation hypoalgesia was: a local to anatomical areas innervated by the lumbar spine; b correlated with psychological variables; c greater than hypoalgesia from physical activity; and d different for A-delta and C-fiber mediated pain perception. Methods Asymptomatic subjects (n = 60 completed baseline psychological questionnaires and underwent thermal quantitative sensory testing for A-delta and C-fiber mediated pain perception. Subjects were then randomized to ride a stationary bicycle, perform lumbar extension exercise, or receive spinal manipulation. Quantitative sensory testing was repeated 5 minutes after the intervention period. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc testing was performed with Bonferroni correction, as appropriate. Results Subjects in the three intervention groups did not differ on baseline characteristics. Hypoalgesia from spinal manipulation was observed in lumbar innervated areas, but not control (cervical innervated areas. Hypoalgesic response was not strongly correlated with psychological variables. Spinal manipulation hypoalgesia for A-delta fiber mediated pain perception did not differ from stationary bicycle and lumbar extension (p > 0.05. Spinal manipulation hypoalgesia for C-fiber mediated pain perception was greater than stationary bicycle riding (p = 0.040, but not for lumbar extension (p = 0.105. Conclusion Local dorsal horn mediated inhibition of C-fiber input is a potential hypoalgesic mechanism of spinal manipulation for asymptomatic subjects, but further study is required to

  6. Sphingosine kinase 1 in murine dorsal root ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Beroukas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, is a multifunctional mediator that regulates a multitude of processes such as proliferation and differentiation, immune responses, airway constriction and nociception. S1P is synthesized by two sphingosine kinase isoforms, Sphk1 and Sphk2, which are expressed ubiquitously, but exhibit differential tissue expression patterns among organs. S1P has been shown to be involved in sensory neuron nociceptive signalling. However, the presence and regulation of Sphk expression in sensory neurons under conditions of persistent inflammatory pain are currently unknown. We therefore assessed the expression levels of Sphk in murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons, explored the localisation of Sphk mRNA using In-Situ-Hybridization and used mice with a global null mutation for Sphk1 to investigate the response of sensory neurons in a model of persistent inflammation. Here we showed the expression of both Sphk isoforms in mouse primary sensory neurons. The relative mRNA expression levels for markers of inflammation and nociceptive activity, TNFα and NPY, increased whereas mRNA expression levels for Sphk1 but not Sphk2 decreased in ipsilateral DRG in response to peripheral inflammation. Mice with a global deletion of Sphk1 showed a substantial reduction in Sphk1- but not Sphk2-activity in spinal cord but responded to CFA inflammation in a similar way to control mice, with increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, although the degree of inflammation-induced paw swelling was slightly increased in the Sphk1−/− mice. In summary, Sphk1 mRNA was expressed in virtually all sensory DRG neurons and its expression changed in response to peripheral inflammation. However, deficiency of Sphk1did not impact on the inflammation-dependent changes in the expression of pro-inflammatory markers in DRGs, nor did it significantly change nocifensive behaviour.

  7. Spinal cord trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other rehabilitation after the injury has healed. Rehabilitation will help you cope with the disability from your spinal cord injury. Support Groups Seek out organizations for additional information ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Experts Resources The Short List Government ... Home Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we expect stem-cell ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  11. Spinal cord abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abscess: Back injuries or trauma, including minor ones Boils on the skin, especially on the back or ... of spinal cord abscess. Prevention Thorough treatment of boils, tuberculosis, and other infections decreases the risk. Early ...

  12. Spinal and epidural anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraspinal anesthesia; Subarachnoid anesthesia; Epidural; Peridural anesthesia ... Spinal and epidural anesthesia have fewer side effects and risks than general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free). Patients usually recover their senses ...

  13. α-Synuclein pathology in the cranial and spinal nerves in Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiko; Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Miki, Yasuo; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in neurons and glial cells is a histological hallmark of Lewy body disease (LBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recently, filamentous aggregations of phosphorylated α-synuclein have been reported in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells, but not in axons, in the peripheral nervous system in MSA, mainly in the cranial and spinal nerve roots. Here we conducted an immunohistochemical investigation of the cranial and spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia of patients with LBD. Lewy axons were found in the oculomotor, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal-vagus nerves, but not in the hypoglossal nerve. The glossopharyngeal-vagus nerves were most frequently affected, with involvement in all of 20 subjects. In the spinal nerve roots, Lewy axons were found in all of the cases examined. Lewy axons in the anterior nerves were more frequent and numerous in the thoracic and sacral segments than in the cervical and lumbar segments. On the other hand, axonal lesions in the posterior spinal nerve roots appeared to increase along a cervical-to-sacral gradient. Although Schwann cell cytoplasmic inclusions were found in the spinal nerves, they were only minimal. In the dorsal root ganglia, axonal lesions were seldom evident. These findings indicate that α-synuclein pathology in the peripheral nerves is axonal-predominant in LBD, whereas it is restricted to glial cells in MSA. PMID:26563477

  14. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 39 is July 08, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates....

  15. Syphilitic myelitis with diffuse spinal cord abnormality on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphilitic myelitis is a very rare manifestation of neurosyphilis. The MRI appearance of syphilitic myelitis is not well documented and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 52-year-old woman with acute onset of paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed diffuse high signal intensity in the whole spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Focal enhancement was observed in the dorsal aspect of the thoracic cord on T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced images. To our knowledge, diffuse spinal cord abnormality in syphilitic myelitis has not been reported in the international literature. Disappearance of the diffuse high-signal lesions with residual focal enhancement was noted after antibiotic therapy. The patient suffered significant neurological deficit despite improvement in the MR images. In this article we present the imaging findings and review the literature of this rare condition. (orig.)

  16. Ependymomas of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many patients with spinal cord ependymomas (SCE) undoubtedly benefit from post-operative radiation therapy; however, because of the wide variability in the total doses given, the optimal post-operative dose for SCE remains unclear. Several recent papers recommend total doses of 4000 rad to 5000 rad in 4-1/2 to 6 weeks. Unfortunately, only a small number of patients reported in the literature have been consistently treated to these high dose recommendations. Nine consecutive adult patients with SCE have been treated in a consistent way at Yale-New Haven Hospital with total doses of approximately 4500 rad to 5000 rad at 180 rad to 200 rad per day. The acute and chronic morbidity from such treatment has been minimal and no patient has had a local recurrence at 8 months to 8 years following treatment

  17. Modeling spinal cord biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

  18. Minimally invasive keyhole approaches in spinal intradural tumor surgery: report of two cases and conceptual considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Robert; Koechlin, Nicolas O; Marcus, Hani J

    2016-09-01

    Despite their predominantly histologically benign nature, intradural tumors may become symptomatic by virtue of their space-occupying effect, causing severe neurological deficits. The gold standard treatment is total excision of the lesion; however, extended dorsal and dorsolateral approaches may cause late complications due to iatrogenic destruction of the posterolateral elements of the spine. In this article, we describe our concept of minimally invasive spinal tumor surgery. Two illustrative cases demonstrate the feasibility and safety of keyhole fenestrations exposing the spinal canal. PMID:25336048

  19. Asymmetric development of dorsal and ventral attention networks in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristafor Farrant

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two neural systems for goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention have been described in the adult human brain; the dorsal attention network (DAN centered in the frontal eye fields (FEF and intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and the ventral attention network (VAN anchored in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ and ventral frontal cortex (VFC. Little is known regarding the processes governing typical development of these attention networks in the brain. Here we use resting state functional MRI data collected from thirty 7 to 12 year-old children and thirty 18 to 31 year-old adults to examine two key regions of interest from the dorsal and ventral attention networks. We found that for the DAN nodes (IPS and FEF, children showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with adults, whereas adults showed greater functional connectivity between the FEF and extra-network regions including the posterior cingulate cortex. For the VAN nodes (TPJ and VFC, adults showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with children. Children showed greater functional connectivity between VFC and nodes of the salience network. This asymmetric pattern of development of attention networks may be a neural signature of the shift from over-representation of bottom-up attention mechanisms to greater top-down attentional capacities with development.

  20. Safety Profile, Feasibility and Early Clinical Outcome of Cotransplantation of Olfactory Mucosa and Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Goni, Vijay G.; Chhabra, Rajesh; Gupta, Ashok; Marwaha, Neelam; Dhillon, Mandeep S; Pebam, Sudesh; Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Bangalore Kantharajanna, Shashidhar

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective case series. Purpose To study the safety and feasibility of cotransplantation of bone marrow stem cells and autologous olfactory mucosa in chronic spinal cord injury. Overview of Literature Stem cell therapies are a novel method in the attempt to restitute heavily damaged tissues. We discuss our experience with this modality in postspinal cord injury paraplegics. Methods The study includes 9 dorsal spine injury patients with American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) I...

  1. Puerarin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments, and partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Puerarin, the main constituent of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, has been used extensively in China to treat hypertension and tumor. The current study examined the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain using two most commonly used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI and diabetic neuropathy. We found that consecutive intrathecal administration of puerarin (4–100 nM for 7 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models puerarin inhibited the activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn. Puerarin also reduced the upregulated levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. In summary, puerarin alleviated CCI- and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. The anti-inflammation effect of puerarin might be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines upregulation. We conclude that puerarin has a significant effect on alleviating neuropathic pain and thus may serve as a therapeutic approach for neuropathic pain.

  2. The coding of cutaneous temperature in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chen; Hoon, Mark A; Chen, Xiaoke

    2016-09-01

    The spinal cord is the initial stage that integrates temperature information from peripheral inputs. Here we used molecular genetics and in vivo calcium imaging to investigate the coding of cutaneous temperature in the spinal cord in mice. We found that heating or cooling the skin evoked robust calcium responses in spinal neurons, and their activation threshold temperatures distributed smoothly over the entire range of stimulation temperatures. Once activated, heat-responding neurons encoded the absolute skin temperature without adaptation and received major inputs from transient receptor potential (TRP) channel V1 (TRPV1)-positive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. By contrast, cold-responding neurons rapidly adapted to ambient temperature and selectively encoded temperature changes. These neurons received TRP channel M8 (TRPM8)-positive DRG inputs as well as novel TRPV1(+) DRG inputs that were selectively activated by intense cooling. Our results provide a comprehensive examination of the temperature representation in the spinal cord and reveal fundamental differences in the coding of heat and cold. PMID:27455110

  3. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu. Evzikov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF, the most common type of spinal cord vascular anomalies. SDAVFs account for 60–80% of the spinal cord vascular anomalies. The causes of SDAVFs, the specific features of their hemodynamics, and their classification remain the subject matter of disputes.SDAVFs form in dura mater tissue, on the dorsal surface of radicular cuffs. The pathogenesis of neurological disorders in SDAVF has determined the name «venous hypertensive myelopathy», a spinal cord injury occurring in their presence. Pain and paresthesias, cacesthesia (more commonly in their distal parts, and motor disorders as flail legs are observed at the onset of SDAVF in typical cases. On average, 12 to 44 months elapse to establish its diagnosis. In addition of motor and sensory disorders, sphincter impairments and sexual dysfunction are detected in the patients at the time of diagnosis. By this time, most patients have already neurological disability.The paper presents the history of studying SDAVF, the existing classifications of arteriovenous malformations and fistulas, the clinical manifestations of venous hypertensive myelopathy in SDAVF, neuroimaging findings, and treatment options.

  4. Congenital spinal malformations; Kongenitale spinale Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2001-12-01

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.) [German] Kongenitale spinale Malformationen stellen eine komplexe Gruppe an Stoerungen dar, deren Genese sich am einfachsten aus der Embryologie heraus erklaeren laesst. Bei der klinisch-radiologischen Begutachtung ist zunaechst ihre korrekte Klassifikation im Rahmen der Erstdiagnose wichtig. Im weiteren Verlauf ist es jedoch zudem entscheidend, moegliche Komplikationen wie beispielsweise eine Hydromyelie oder ein Wiederanheften des Myelons nach Operation einer Spina bifida aperta zu erkennen. Zudem sollte bei der Diagnosestellung einer kongenitalen spinalen Malformation immer auch auf assoziierte Fehlbildungen, wie z.B. die Diastematomyelie oder das intraspinale Lipom bei der Spina bifida aperta, sowie auf eine moegliche syndromale Einordnung wie beispielsweise beim OEIS-oder VACTERL-Syndrom geachtet werden. (orig.)

  5. Variable laterality of corticospinal tract axons that regenerate after spinal cord injury as a result of PTEN deletion or knock-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Rafer; Zukor, Katherine; Liu, Kai; He, Zhigang; Steward, Oswald

    2016-09-01

    Corticospinal tract (CST) axons from one hemisphere normally extend and terminate predominantly in the contralateral spinal cord. We previously showed that deleting the gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the sensorimotor cortex enables CST axons to regenerate after spinal cord injury and that some regenerating axons extend along the "wrong" side. Here, we characterize the degree of specificity of regrowth in terms of laterality. PTEN was selectively deleted via cortical adeno-associated virus (AAV)-Cre injections in neonatal PTEN-floxed mice. As adults, mice received dorsal hemisection injuries at T12 or complete crush injuries at T9. CST axons from one hemisphere were traced by unilateral biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injections in PTEN-deleted mice with spinal cord injury and in noninjured PTEN-floxed mice that had not received AAV-Cre. In noninjured mice, 97.9 ± 0.7% of BDA-labeled axons in white matter and 88.5 ± 1.0% of BDA-labeled axons in gray matter were contralateral to the cortex of origin. In contrast, laterality of CST axons that extended past a lesion due to PTEN deletion varied across animals. In some cases, regenerated axons extended predominantly on the ipsilateral side; in other cases, axons extended predominantly contralaterally, and in others, axons were similar in numbers on both sides. Similar results were seen in analyses of cases from previous studies using short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated PTEN knock-down. These results indicate that CST axons that extend past a lesion due to PTEN deletion or knock-down do not maintain the contralateral rule of the noninjured CST, highlighting one aspect of how the resultant circuitry from regenerating axons may differ from that of the uninjured CST. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2654-2676, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878190

  6. Dorsal wrist mass: the carpal boss

    OpenAIRE

    Boggess, Blake; Berkoff, David

    2011-01-01

    The carpal boss is an osseous overgrowth that is occasionally mistaken for a ganglion cyst. This report highlights the case a 36-year-old patient who was originally diagnosed by his primary care physician with a ganglion cyst and was sent to an orthopaedist for aspiration. Upon further evaluation with a plain radiograph, the dorsal wrist mass was found to be a carpal boss. The patient was treated with rest and a wrist brace, and was informed that a corticosteroid injection or surgical excisio...

  7. Dorsal wrist mass: the carpal boss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Blake; Berkoff, David

    2011-01-01

    The carpal boss is an osseous overgrowth that is occasionally mistaken for a ganglion cyst. This report highlights the case a 36-year-old patient who was originally diagnosed by his primary care physician with a ganglion cyst and was sent to an orthopaedist for aspiration. Upon further evaluation with a plain radiograph, the dorsal wrist mass was found to be a carpal boss. The patient was treated with rest and a wrist brace, and was informed that a corticosteroid injection or surgical excision would be necessary if conservative treatment failed. The patient was asymptomatic on follow-up and invasive procedures were not necessary. PMID:22707539

  8. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  9. Reducing macrophages to improve bone marrow stromal cell survival in the contused spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritfeld, G.J.; Nandoe Tewarie, R.D.S.; Rahiem, S.T.; Hurtado, A.; Roos, R.A.; Grotenhuis, A.; Oudega, M.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether reducing macrophage infiltration would improve the survival of allogeneic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplanted in the contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord. Treatment with cyclosporine, minocycline, or methylprednisolone all resulted in a significant decrease in macropha

  10. Imaging in spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Algemeen Ziekenhuis Maria Middelares, Department of Radiology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2005-03-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  11. Imaging in spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  12. G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fei GAO; Hai-lin ZHANG; Zhen-dong YOU; Chang-lin LU; Cheng HE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK) are important for neuronal signaling and membrane excitability. In the present study, we intend to find whether GIRK channels express functionally in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Methods: We used RT-PCR to detect mRNA for4 subunits of GIRK in the adult DRG. The whole-cell patch clamp recording was used to confirm GIRK channels functionally expressed. Results: The mRNA for the 4 subunits of GIRK were detected in the adult DRG. GTPγS enhanced inwardly rectifying potassium (K+) currents of the DRG neurons, while Ba2+inhibited such currents. Furthermore, the GIRK channels were shown to be coupled to the GABAB receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, as baclofen increased the inwardly rectifying K+ currents. Conclusion: GIRK channels are expressed and functionally coupled with GABAB receptors in adult rat DRG neurons.

  13. Unpredicted spontaneous extrusion of a renal calculus in an adult male with spina bifida and paraplegia: report of a misdiagnosis. Measures to be taken to reduce urological errors in spinal cord injury patients

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Gurpreet; Soni Bhakul M; Hughes Peter L; Vaidyanathan Subramanian; Mansour Paul; Sett Pradipkumar

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background A delay in diagnosis or a misdiagnosis may occur in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) or spinal bifida as typical symptoms of a clinical condition may be absent because of their neurological impairment. Case presentation A 29-year old male, who was born with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, became unwell and developed a swelling and large red mark in his left loin eighteen months ago. Pyonephrosis or perinephric abscess was suspected. X-ray of the abdomen showed left-s...

  14. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  15. Catenin-dependent cadherin function drives divisional segregation of spinal motor neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, S. M.; Millo, H.; Rajebhosale, M.; Price, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Motor neurons that control limb movements are organised as a neuronal nucleus in the developing ventral horn of the spinal cord called the lateral motor column. Neuronal migration segregates motor neurons into distinct lateral and medial divisions within the lateral motor column that project axons to dorsal or ventral limb targets respectively. This migratory phase is followed by an aggregation phase whereby motor neurons within a division that project to the same muscle cluster together. The...

  16. Selective depression of synaptic excitation in cat spinal neurones by baclofen: an iontophoretic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J

    1981-01-01

    1 The effects of baclofen have been examined on responses of neurones in the spinal cord of the anaesthetized cat to stimulation of appropriate synaptic pathways, acetylcholine and a range of amino acid excitants. Baclofen and excitant substances were administered by standard microiontophoretic techniques. 2 Small ejecting currents of baclofen (less than 10 nA) depressed non-cholinergic, excitatory, synaptic responses evoked by stimulation of dorsal roots or muscle or cutaneous afferents. Exc...

  17. Somatosensory evoked potentials after multisegmental lower limb stimulation in focal lesions of the lumbosacral spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Restuccia, D; Insola, A; Valeriani, M; Santilli, V; Bedini, L.; Le Pera, D.; Barba, C.; Denaro, F.; Tonali, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Recording techniques permit the separate analysis of the response from cauda equina roots and the spinal potential that is probably generated by the activation of dorsal horn cells. To improve the functional assessment of focal lesions of the lumbosacral cord, lower limb somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were measured by multisegmental stimulation.
METHODS—Common peroneal and tibial nerves SEPs were recorded in 14 patients in whom MRI demonstrated compress...

  18. Alterations in multidimensional motor unit number index of hand muscles after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Le; LI, XIAOYAN; Liu, Jie; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a novel multidimensional motor unit number index (MD-MUNIX) technique to examine hand muscles in patients with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The MD-MUNIX was estimated from the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and different levels of surface interference pattern electromyogram (EMG) at multiple directions of voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The MD-MUNIX was applied in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), thenar and hypothe...

  19. Spinal Cord Stimulation Restores Locomotion in Animal Models of Parkinson’s disease1

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Romulo; Petersson, Per; Siesser, William B.; Caron, Marc G.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine replacement therapy is useful for treating motor symptoms in the early phase of Parkinson’s disease, but is less effective in the long-term. Electrical deep-brain stimulation is a valuable complement to pharmacological treatment but involves a highly invasive surgical procedure. We found that epidural electrical stimulation of the dorsal columns in the spinal cord restores locomotion in both acute pharmacologically induced dopamine-depleted mice and in chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesio...

  20. Effect of activating γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain%激活γ-氨基丁酸B型受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角磷酸化环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白和N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体2B亚基表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 郭闻亚; 赵晓南; 吕艳霞; 魏淑明; 王秀丽

    2013-01-01

    binding protein (p-CREB) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) receptors in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) by using GABAB receptors agonist (baclofen) and atagonist (CGP55845).Methods Sixty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups:normal control group (C group) and DNP nodel group (D group),which were intraperitonealy injected with saline and streptozocin (STZ) respectively.Fifty rats were intraperitonealy injected with STZ (60 mg/kg),and 4weeks later,DNP models were successfully established in 36 rats which were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 12 each) according to the injected medicines:saline 10 μ1 + saline 10 μl were injected intrathecally in D1 group,saline 10 μl + baclofen 0.5 μg in D2 group,CGP55845 10 μg + baclofen 0.5 μg in D3 group.Saline 10 μl + saline 10 μl were injected intrathecally in 12 normal rats as C group.There was an interval of 15 min between twice intrathecal injections in four groups.The PWT was measured at 30 min before and after intrathecal injection for 4 days,and the time points were as follows:T1,T2,T3and T4.The spinal cord dorsal horns of rats were removed after measurement of PWT for detection of the expression of p-CREB,cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) and NR2B receptor.Results As compared with C group,the expression levels of NR2B and p-CREB protein were significantly increased,while PWT was significantly decreased at each time point (T1-T4) in D1 and D3 groups (P<0.05).As compared with D1 group [p-CREB protein (0.76 ±0.13),NR2B protein (1.28 ±0.14),and NR2B mRNA (0.83 ± 0.10)],the protein expression levels of NR2B (0.88 ±0.13) and p-CREB (0.45 ± 0.08) and NR2B mRNA expression (0.53 ± 0.08) were significantly decreased,and PWT was significantly increased at each time point (T1-T4) in D2 group (P < 0.05).The expression levels of CREB had no significant diffierence among the four groups (P > 0.05).Conclusion

  1. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the tarsal naviculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Kaziz; Hazem, Ben Ghozlen; Yadh, Zitoun; Faouzi, Abid

    2015-01-01

    Isolated dislocation of the tarsal naviculum is an unusual injury, scarcely reported in the literature. The naviculum is surrounded by the rigid bony and ligamentous support hence fracture dislocation is more common than isolated dislocation. The mechanism and treatment options remain unclear. In this case report, we describe a 31 year old man who sustained an isolated dorsal dislocation of the left tarsal naviculum, without fracture, when he was involved in a motor vehicle collision. The reported mechanism of the dislocation is a hyper plantar flexion force applied to the midfoot, resulting in a transient disruption of the ligamentous support of the naviculum bone, with dorsal displacement of the bone. The patient was treated with open reduction and Krischner-wire fixation of the navicular after the failure of closed reduction. The wires were removed after 6 weeks postoperatively. Physiotherapy for stiffness and midfoot pain was recommended for 2 months. At 6 months postoperatively, limping, midfoot pain and weakness were reported, no X-ray abnormalities were found. The patient returned to his obvious activities with a normal range of motion. PMID:26806978

  2. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the tarsal naviculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziz Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated dislocation of the tarsal naviculum is an unusual injury, scarcely reported in the literature. The naviculum is surrounded by the rigid bony and ligamentous support hence fracture dislocation is more common than isolated dislocation. The mechanism and treatment options remain unclear. In this case report, we describe a 31 year old man who sustained an isolated dorsal dislocation of the left tarsal naviculum, without fracture, when he was involved in a motor vehicle collision. The reported mechanism of the dislocation is a hyper plantar flexion force applied to the midfoot, resulting in a transient disruption of the ligamentous support of the naviculum bone, with dorsal displacement of the bone. The patient was treated with open reduction and Krischner-wire fixation of the navicular after the failure of closed reduction. The wires were removed after 6 weeks postoperatively. Physiotherapy for stiffness and midfoot pain was recommended for 2 months. At 6 months postoperatively, limping, midfoot pain and weakness were reported, no X-ray abnormalities were found. The patient returned to his obvious activities with a normal range of motion.

  3. Reorganization of central terminals of myelinated primary afferents in the rat dorsal horn following peripheral axotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, C J; Shortland, P; Reynolds, M; Ridings, J; Doubell, T; Coggeshall, R E

    1995-09-11

    We have investigated the time course and extent to which peripheral nerve lesions cause a morphological reorganization of the central terminals of choleragenoid-horseradish peroxidase (B-HRP)-labelled primary afferent fibers in the mammalian dorsal horn. Choleragenoid-horseradish peroxidase is retrogradely transported by myelinated (A) sensory axons to laminae I, III, IV and V of the normal dorsal horn of the spinal cord, leaving lamina II unlabelled. We previously showed that peripheral axotomy results in the sprouting of numerous B-HRP-labelled large myelinated sensory axons into lamina II. We show here that this spread of B-HRP-labelled axons into lamina II is detectable at 1 week, maximal by 2 weeks and persists for over 6 months postlesion. By 9 months, however, B-HRP fibers no longer appear in lamina II. The sprouting into lamina II occurs whether regeneration is allowed (crush) or prevented (section with ligation), and does not reverse at times when peripheral fibers reinnervate the periphery. We also show that 15 times more synaptic terminals in lamina II are labelled by B-HRP 2 weeks after axotomy than in the normal. We interpret this as indicating that the sprouting fibers are making synaptic contacts with postsynaptic targets. This implies that A-fiber terminal reorganization is a prominent and long-lasting but not permanent feature of peripheral axotomy. We also provide evidence that this sprouting is the consequence of a combination of an atrophic loss of central synaptic terminals and the conditioning of the sensory neurons by peripheral axotomy. The sprouting of large sensory fibers into the spinal territory where postsynaptic targets usually receive only small afferent fiber input may bear on the intractable touch-evoked pain that can follow nerve injury. PMID:7499558

  4. Dorsal Column Degeneration after Bortezomib Therapy in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Joh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of dorsal column degeneration in a female patient with multiple myeloma following exposure to bortezomib. Two days after intravenous administration of a first course of bortezomib 1 mg/m2, the patient developed rapidly-progressive numbness, pain and muscle weakness in the bilateral upper and lower limbs. Following gancyclovir treatment of subsequent cytomegalovirus viremia, the patient went on to receive a course of EPOCH (etoposide 50 mg/m2/day on days 1–4, vincristine 0.4 mg/m2/day on days 1–4, doxorubicin 10 mg/m2/day on days 1–4, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2/day on day 6, and prednisolone 60 mg/m2/day on days 1–6. Shortly thereafter, the patient developed bilateral Aspergillus pneumonia. Despite treatment with appropriate antifungal agents, the patient died from respiratory failure due to bilateral diffuse alveolar damage of the lungs and without recovery of severe sensory and motor neuropathy prior to her death. Post mortem examination revealed spongy degeneration of the dorsal column from the medulla oblongata to the cervical spinal cord. Bortezomib-associated peripheral neuropathy in patients with multiple myeloma has been commonly reported but appears to resolve in a majority of these patients after dose reduction or discontinuation. We believe this to be the first report of spinal cord abnormalities in a patient with multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib. Further investigation is required to ascertain the exact mechanism of this central neurotoxic effect and to identify appropriate neuroprotective strategies.

  5. Spinal vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Timo [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Mull, Michael; Thron, Armin [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Gilsbach, Joachim M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  6. Spinal vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  7. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  8. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures. PMID:23830781

  9. Neurotrophins and spinal circuit function

    OpenAIRE

    Lorne M. Mendell

    2014-01-01

    Work early in the last century emphasized the stereotyped activity of spinal circuits based on studies of reflexes. However, the last several decades have focused on the plasticity of these spinal circuits. These considerations began with studies of the effects of monoamines on descending and reflex circuits. In recent years new classes of compounds called growth factors that are found in peripheral nerves and the spinal cord have been shown to affect circuit behavior in the spinal cord. In t...

  10. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  11. CONSEQÜÊNCIAS DA LAMINECTOMIA DORSAL DO TIPO FUNKQUIST A EM CÃES NORMAIS CONSEQUENCES OF THE FUNKQUIST A DORSAL LAMINECTOMY, IN NORMAL DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto Tudury

    2001-02-01

    supramedulary pad; suture of thoracolumbar fascia, subcutaneous and skin; and compressive bandage for seven days. Fourty-eight hours latter all the dogs (10 submitted to this technique showed loss of the postural reactions and paraparesis classified of moderated to serious. Hypalgesia was ascertained in five of them. Trying to discover the causes, was accomplished histologic studies of spinal cord collected 4 and 48 hours after the accomplishment of the laminectomies were conducted, however with modifications as: non-elevation of the vertebral bodies during the surgery and prevention of any type of compression spinal after the laminectomie. Examining these results was possible to conclude that the neurologic dysfunctions were originated from cord lesions caused for: elevation of the vertebral bodies during the laminectomy, possible damage of spinal vessels, destabilization of the spine and a somatory of compressive forces acting upon an uncovered spinal cord. At the necropsy of five dogs realized forty - five days latter were possible to verify: the permanence of the supraspinous ligament; that the fat grafts do not avoid the penetration of the fibrous tissue into the vertebral canal neither its adherency to the dura mater; notorious (p < 0.01 flattening of the vertebral canal and deformations of the spinal cords. With support on these results, isn't advise to furfill these surgery procedure in the thoracolumbar junction of dogs. The mantainement of the supraspinatus ligament do not perturb the realization of the laminectomy, minimize the occurrence of the aesthetics defects at the dorsal midline and can participate at the immediate postoperative cord compression.

  12. Serotonin Promotes Development and Regeneration of Spinal Motor Neurons in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Barreiro-Iglesias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammals, zebrafish regenerate spinal motor neurons. During regeneration, developmental signals are re-deployed. Here, we show that, during development, diffuse serotonin promotes spinal motor neuron generation from pMN progenitor cells, leaving interneuron numbers unchanged. Pharmacological manipulations and receptor knockdown indicate that serotonin acts at least in part via 5-HT1A receptors. In adults, serotonin is supplied to the spinal cord mainly (90% by descending axons from the brain. After a spinal lesion, serotonergic axons degenerate caudal to the lesion but sprout rostral to it. Toxin-mediated ablation of serotonergic axons also rostral to the lesion impaired regeneration of motor neurons only there. Conversely, intraperitoneal serotonin injections doubled numbers of new motor neurons and proliferating pMN-like progenitors caudal to the lesion. Regeneration of spinal-intrinsic serotonergic interneurons was unaltered by these manipulations. Hence, serotonin selectively promotes the development and adult regeneration of motor neurons in zebrafish.

  13. Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality (SCIWORA) – Clinical and Radiological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acronym SCIWORA (Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality) was first developed and introduced by Pang and Wilberger who used it to define “clinical symptoms of traumatic myelopathy with no radiographic or computed tomographic features of spinal fracture or instability”. SCIWORA is a clinical-radiological condition that mostly affects children. SCIWORA lesions are found mainly in the cervical spine but can also be seen, although much less frequently, in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Based on reports from different authors, SCIWORA is responsible for 6 to 19% and 9% to 14% of spinal injuries in children and adults, respectively. Underlying degenerative changes, including spondylosis or spinal canal stenosis, are typically present in adult patients. The level of spinal cord injury corresponds to the location of these changes. With recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, especially in magnetic resonance imaging, and with increasing availability of MRI as a diagnostic tool, the overall detection rate of SCIWORA has significantly improved

  14. Spinal cord injury pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beric, Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Awareness that SCI pain is common emerged during the past decade. However, there are a number of unresolved issues. There is a need for variety of experimental models to reflect diversity of SCI pains. Current classification is not as user-friendly as it should be. More attention should be given to a condition of the spinal cord below and above the SCI lesion. A consensus for what is an optimal SCI functional assessment for patients with sensory complaints and pain should be developed. Further extensive SCI pain research is needed prior to spinal cord regeneration trials in order to be able to cope with a potential for newly developed pains that may appear during incomplete spinal cord regenerative attempts. PMID:12821403

  15. Spinal leptomeningeal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinal forms of neurocysticercosis are extremely rare, with a frequency under 1% in large series. The types of involvement are a) subarachnoid cysts and b) intramedullary lesions (less frequent). The authors report the case of a 56-year-old female with central nervous system infection by the larval form of Taenia Solium, which conduced to a hydrocephalus, treated by neurosurgical ventricular-peritoneal shunting. After 2 years, the patient consulted due to paraesthesia, spastic paraparesis and incontinence. MRI showed an homogeneous cystic mass compressing the spinal cord at D5-D6 level. Laminectomies were performed and the arachnoid membrane appeared thickened (arachnoiditis); the larval cyst was removed. Anatomo-pathologic exam revealed a leptomeningeal cysticercosis. The patient had a favorable clinical evolution without spinal compression sings or symptoms. (author)

  16. Intramedullary spinal melanocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meic H. Schmidt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal melanocytoma is a benign lesion arising from leptomeningeal melanocytes that at times can mimic its malignant counterpart, melanoma. Lesions of the spine usually occur in extramedullary locations and present with spinal cord compression symptoms. Because most reported spinal cases occur in the thoracic region, these symptoms usually include lower extremity weakness or numbness. The authors present a case of primary intrame­dullary spinal meningeal melanocytoma presenting with bilateral lower extremity symptoms in which the patient had no known supratentorial primary lesions. Gross total surgical resection allowed for full recovery, but early recurrence of tumor was detected on close follow-up monitoring, allowing for elective local radiation without loss of neurological function. Case reports of such tumors discuss different treatment strategies, but just as important is the close follow-up monitoring in these patients even after gross total surgical resection, since these tumors can recur.

  17. Spinal CT scan, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plain CT described fairly accurately the anatomy and lesions of the lumbar and sacral spines on their transverse sections. Since hernia of the intervertebral disc could be directly diagnosed by CT, indications of myelography could be restricted. Spinal-canal stenosis of the lumbar spine occurs because of various factors, and CT not only demonstrated the accurate size and morphology of bony canals, but also elucidated thickening of the joints and yellow ligament. CT was also useful for the diagnosis of tumors in the lumbar and sacral spines, visualizing the images of bone changes and soft tissues on the trasverse sections. But the diagnosis of intradural tumors required myelography and metrizamide CT. CT has become important for the diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases and for selection of the route of surgical arrival. (Chiba, N.)

  18. MRI of closed spinal dysraphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badve, Chaitra A.; Khanna, Paritosh C.; Phillips, Grace S.; Thapa, Mahesh M.; Ishak, Gisele E. [Seattle Children' s Hospital and University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We present a pictorial review of MRI features of various closed spinal dysraphisms based on previously described clinicoradiological classification of spinal dysraphisms proposed. The defining imaging features of each dysraphism type are highlighted and a diagnostic algorithm for closed spinal dysraphisms is suggested. (orig.)

  19. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  20. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  1. Modulation of AMPA excitatory postsynaptic currents in the spinal cord dorsal horn neurons by insulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špicarová, Diana; Paleček, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2010), s. 305-311. ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1115; GA ČR GA305/09/1228; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : pain * synaptic modulation * insulin Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.215, year: 2010

  2. Delta Opioid Receptors Presynaptically Regulate Cutaneous Mechanosensory Neuron Input to the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn

    OpenAIRE

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L.; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A.; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C.; Mennicken, Françoise; O’Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Woodbury, C. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair fo...

  3. Sympathetic-correlated c-Fos expression in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Hsiao-Hui

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An isolated thoracic spinal cord of the neonatal rat in vitro spontaneously generates sympathetic nerve discharge (SND at ~25°C, but it fails in SND genesis at ≤ 10°C. Basal levels of the c-Fos expression in the spinal cords incubated at ≤ 10°C and ~25°C were compared to determine the anatomical substrates that might participate in SND genesis. Cells that exhibited c-Fos immunoreactivity were virtually absent in the spinal cords incubated at ≤ 10°C. However, in the spinal cords incubated at ~25°C, c-Fos-positive cells were found in the dorsal laminae, the white matter, lamina X, and the intermediolateral cell column (IML. Cell identities were verified by double labeling of c-Fos with neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. The c-Fos-positive cells distributed in the white matter and lamina X were NeuN-negative or GFAP-positive and were glial cells. Endogenously active neurons showing c-Fos and NeuN double labeling were scattered in the dorsal laminae and concentrated in the IML. Double labeling of c-Fos and ChAT confirmed the presence of active sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs in the IML. Suppression of SND genesis by tetrodotoxin (TTX or mecamylamine (MECA, nicotinic receptor blocker almost abolished c-Fos expression in dorsal laminae, but only mildly affected c-Fos expression in the SPNs. Therefore, c-Fos expression in some SPNs does not require synaptic activation. Our results suggest that spinal SND genesis is initiated from some spontaneously active SPNs, which are capable of TTX- or MECA-resistant c-Fos expression.

  4. Dissociation of μ- and δ-opioid inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in superficial dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Christopher W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is anatomical and behavioural evidence that μ- and δ-opioid receptors modulate distinct nociceptive modalities within the superficial dorsal horn. The aim of the present study was to examine whether μ- and δ-opioid receptor activation differentially modulates TRP sensitive inputs to neurons within the superficial dorsal horn. To do this, whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from lamina I - II neurons in rat spinal cord slices in vitro to examine the effect of opioids on TRP agonist-enhanced glutamatergic spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. Results Under basal conditions the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO (3 μM reduced the rate of miniature EPSCs in 68% of neurons, while the δ- and κ-opioid agonists deltorphin-II (300 nM and U69593 (300 nM did so in 13 - 17% of neurons tested. The TRP agonists menthol (400 μM and icilin (100 μM both produced a Ca2+-dependent increase in miniature EPSC rate which was unaffected by the voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC blocker Cd2+. The proportion of neurons in which deltorphin-II reduced the miniature EPSC rate was enhanced in the presence of icilin (83%, but not menthol (0%. By contrast, the proportion of DAMGO and U69593 responders was unaltered in the presence of menthol (57%, 0%, or icilin (57%, 17%. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that δ-opioid receptor activation selectively inhibits inputs activated by icilin, whereas μ-opioid receptor activation has a more widespread effect on synaptic inputs to neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. These findings suggest that δ-opioids may provide a novel analgesic approach for specific, TRPA1-like mediated pain modalities.

  5. Pre- and post-operative hydromyelia in spinal dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scatliff, James H.; Kwon, Lanna [University of North Carolina, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hayward, Richard [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom); Armao, Diane [University of North Carolina, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Background and purpose: There has been limited description of hydromyelia after surgery for spinal dysraphism. The opportunity to compare pre- and post-operative hydromyelia in patients with spinal dysraphism has been possible in two groups of patients using MRI. Post-operative assessment and possible relationship of hydromyelia to clinical findings has been made during a 7- to 14-year period. Methods: A total of 38 patients with congenital lumbar or sacral lipomas and 20 with diastematomyelia were studied pre-operatively with a 1.5-T MRI. Most patients in each group were examined with surveillance MRI (1.5 T) post-operatively. Clinical correlations were carried out with each examination. Of the 38 dorsal or terminal lipoma post-operative patients, hydromyelia increased in 3 and was a new finding in 4. One symptomatic patient in the latter group had extensive septated lumbar hydromyelia. In 8 of 20 diastematomyelia patients, pre-operative hydromyelia was unchanged post-operatively. Hemicord hydromyelia developed in 1. Hydromyelia of varying degree was found in almost one-third of post-operative dorsal or terminal lipoma patients and nearly one-half of diastematomyelia patients. In five post-operative lipoma and two diastematomyelia patients, significant neurological findings remained. One of the six post-operative lipomas had new extensive lumbar hydromyelia that may have been responsible for the patient's symptoms. In the remaining symptomatic patients, hydromyelia was absent or modest. (orig.)

  6. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...... controversial. SCS is not effective in relieving central neuropathic pain states....

  7. Congenital spinal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.)

  8. Spinal Neurocysticercosis: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic illness of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of Taenia solium and its considered to be endemic in Latin America. Its diagnosis is based on imaging findings and epidemiological data; although its diagnosis can be made through the detection of specific IgG antibodies, these tests have limited availability in our environment. Central nervous system involvement is generally observed in the brain parenchyma, and less commonly in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space; only infrequently is reported to involve the structures within the spinal canal, in this article we review a case of a patient with spinal cysticercal involvement.

  9. Spinal Cord Meningioma: A Treatable Cause of Paraplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Manoj K; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.

    2012-01-01

    Chondrocalcinosis associated with Gitelman syndrome (GS) presents in young adults with either no symptoms or joint pain, muscle weakness, muscle cramps, paresthesias, episodes of tetany, or hypokalemic paralysis. Spinal cord meningiomas present with gradual onset of lower extremities weakness, numbness, pain, or balance problem. We report a 76 year old gentleman who presented with gradually progressive leg weakness puzzling the treating physicians.

  10. Best practice guidelines for molecular analysis in spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, H; Cobben, JM; Matthijs, G; Wirth, B

    2001-01-01

    With a prevalence of approximately 1/10 000, and a carrier frequency of 1/40-1/60 the proximal spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are among the most frequent autosomal recessive hereditary disorders. Patients can be classified clinically into four groups: acute, intermediate, mild, and adult (SMA type

  11. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI. Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. The mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain pathways in the spinal cord may emerge with certain patterns of activity, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after spinal cord injury. We review these basic phenomena, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and discuss implications of these findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after spinal cord injury.

  12. Which Neuronal Elements are Activated Directly by Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsheimer, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss which nerve fibers in the various quadrants of the spinal cord are immediately activated under normal conditions of spinal cord stimulation, ie, at voltages within the therapeutic range. The conclusions are based on both empirical and computer modeling data. The recruitment of dorsal column (DC) fibers is most likely restricted to Aβ fibers with a diameter ≥ 10.7 μm in a 0.20-0.25 mm layer under the pia mater and fibers of 9.4-10.7 μm in an even smaller outer layer when a conventional SCS lead is used. In a 0.25-mm outer layer of the T11 segment the number of Aβ fibers ≥ 10.7 μm, as estimated in a recent morphometric study, is about 56 in each DC. Because a DC at T11 innervates 12 dermatomes, a maximum of 4-5 fibers (≥ 10.7 μm) may be recruited in each dermatome near the discomfort threshold. The dermatome activated just below the discomfort threshold is likely to be stimulated by just a single fiber, suggesting that paresthesia and pain relief may be effected in a dermatome by the stimulation of a single large Aβ fiber. The depth of stimulation in the DCs, and thereby the number of recruited Aβ fibers, may be increased 2-3 fold when stimulation is applied by an optimized electrode configuration (a narrow bi/tripole or a transverse tripole). Assuming that the largest Aβ fibers in a dorsal root have a diameter of 15 μm, the smallest ones recruited at discomfort threshold would be 12 μm. The latter are presumably of proprioceptive origin and responsible for segmental reflexes and uncomfortable sensations. Furthermore, it is shown to be unlikely that, apart from dorsal roots and a thin outer layer of the DCs, any other spinal structures are recruited when stimulation is applied in the dorsal epidural space. Finally, anodal excitation and anodal propagation block are unlikely to occur with SCS. PMID:22151778

  13. Role of interleukin-1beta in the control of neuroepithelial proliferation and differentiation of the spinal cord during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mano, A; Gato, A; Alonso, M I; Carnicero, E; Martín, C; Moro, J A

    2007-02-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is an important trophic factor in the nervous system (NS). IL-1beta is ubiquitously expressed from very early stages during the development of the amphibian NS and its action has been demonstrated in vitro on survival, proliferation and differentiation in mammalian embryos. In this report, we show that IL-1beta is immunocytochemically expressed in embryonic spinal cord from early stages, both in rat (embryonic day 12) and in chicken (stage 17-HH), in neuroepithelial cells and nerve fibres, dorsal root ganglia, anterior and posterior roots of the spinal nerves, and in the fibres of these nerves. Our in vivo experiments on chick embryos, with microbeads impregnated with IL-1beta implanted laterally to the spinal cord at the level of the wing anlage, demonstrate that this cytokine produces a statistically significant increase in nuclear incorporation of BrdU at the dorsal level and a reduction of this at the ventral level, whereas local immunoblocking with anti-IL-1beta antibodies causes a dorsal reduction of BrdU incorporation and alters ventral differentiation. These data demonstrate that IL-1beta plays a part in controlling proliferation and early differentiation during the development of the spinal cord in chick embryos. PMID:17449272

  14. Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Mushahwar, V. K.; Stein, R. B.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach. In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the DRG. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modelled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main results. Overall, firing-rate-based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48 ± 13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance. Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development.

  15. Selective Stimulation of the Spinal Cord Surface Using a Conformable Microelectrode Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Williams Meacham

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available By electrically stimulating the spinal cord, it is possible to activate functional populations of neurons that modulate motor and sensory function. One method for accessing these neurons is via their associated axons, which project as functionally-segregated longitudinal columns of white- matter funiculi (i.e., spinal tracts. To stimulate spinal tracts without penetrating the cord, we have recently developed technology that enables close-proximity, multi-electrode contact with the spinal cord surface. Our stretchable microelectrode arrays (sMEAs are fabricated using an elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS substrate and can be wrapped circumferentially around the spinal cord to optimize electrode contact. Here, sMEAs were used to stimulate the surfaces of rat spinal-cords maintained in vitro, and their ability to selectively activate axonal surface tracts was compared to rigid bipolar tungsten microelectrodes pressed firmly onto the cord surface. Along dorsal column tracts, the axonal response to sMEA stimulation was compared to that evoked by rigid microelectrodes through measurement of their evoked axonal compound action potentials (CAPs. Paired t-tests failed to reveal significant differences between the sMEA’s and the rigid microelectrode’s stimulus resolution, or in their ranges of evoked CAP conduction velocities. Additionally, dual-site stimulation using sMEA electrodes recruited spatially-distinct populations of spinal axons. Site-specific stimulation of the ventrolateral funiculus—a tract capable of evoking locomotor-like activity—recruited ventral-root efferent activity that spanned several spinal segments. These findings indicate that the sMEA stimulates the spinal cord surface with selectivity similar to that of rigid microelectrodes, while possessing potential advantages concerning circumferential contact and mechanical compatibility with the cord surface.

  16. Expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to central preterminal branches and terminals in the dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Joel A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channel Nav1.7 has emerged as a target of considerable interest in pain research, since loss-of-function mutations in SCN9A, the gene that encodes Nav1.7, are associated with a syndrome of congenital insensitivity to pain, gain-of-function mutations are linked to the debiliting chronic pain conditions erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, and upregulated expression of Nav1.7 accompanies pain in diabetes and inflammation. Since Nav1.7 has been implicated as playing a critical role in pain pathways, we examined by immunocytochemical methods the expression and distribution of Nav1.7 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, from peripheral terminals in the skin to central terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Results Nav1.7 is robustly expressed within the somata of peptidergic and non-peptidergic DRG neurons, and along the peripherally- and centrally-directed C-fibers of these cells. Nav1.7 is also expressed at nodes of Ranvier in a subpopulation of Aδ-fibers within sciatic nerve and dorsal root. The peripheral terminals of DRG neurons within skin, intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF, exhibit robust Nav1.7 immunolabeling. The central projections of DRG neurons in the superficial lamina of spinal cord dorsal horn also display Nav1.7 immunoreactivity which extends to presynaptic terminals. Conclusions The expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to preterminal central branches and terminals in the dorsal horn. These data support a major contribution for Nav1.7 in pain pathways, including action potential electrogenesis, conduction along axonal trunks and depolarization/invasion of presynaptic axons. The findings presented here may be important for pharmaceutical development, where target engagement in the right compartment is essential.

  17. An Optimized Culture Method of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYin; CHENJing-Hong; GONGZe-Hui

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a primary culture technique of acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and provide a simple & useful in vitro model for study of analgesia. Methods: Acutely isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were planted and cultured; the configuration and growth characters of DRG neurons were observed through inverted microscope.

  18. Non-traumatic acute epidural spinal hematomas diagnosed by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-traumatic spinal epidural hematoma (NTSEH) is a rare entity that can be the cause of an acute spinal compression syndrome. the objective of this review is to identify the characteristics by MRI and NTSEH and to analyze the factors that influence in its prognosis. In the years 1994 and 1999, 12 patients with NTSEH have been diagnosed in our hospital, and a MRI was performed during the acute phase. the characteristics of the lesions have been analyzed by MRI, with special emphasis on the topographic data and resonance signal and the factors that can influence in the clinical prognosis of the patients. Initially, all of the patients presented pain in the cervical dorsal or interscapular site, followed by a sensitive-motor deficit picture. The MRI showed a lesion of expansive character and posterior epidural location in every case that would produce varying degrees of compression on the spinal cord. The NTSEH should be considered as one of the causes of acute spinal cord compression. The clinical association of intense cervical, dorsal or interscapular pain followed by a sensomotor deficit picture should lead to the suspicion of this entity, that would require an immediate examination with MRI to verify its diagnosis. Both the clinical manifestations as well as the characteristics observed by MRI of the NTSEH have a prognostic value and determine the therapeutic decision. (Author) 34 refs

  19. The corticospinal tract lesion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging by gradient echo method demonstrated lesions of the lateral corticospinal tract at cervical cord levels in three ALS patients. Patient 1 was a 43-year-old woman with common from of ALS. She developed right-side predominant pyramidal signs, and right-side predominant prolongation of central motor conduction time. MRI showed hypersignal intensity areas in the dorsal region of the lateral column at the 4th and 5th cervical segments with right-side predominacy. Patient 2 was a 65-year-old man with pseudopolyneuritic from of ALS, who showed lower motor neuron signs without a pyramidal sign. MRI of the 3rd and 4th cervical cord segments demonstrated bilateral hypersignal intensity areas in the dorsal part of the lateral column. Patient 3 was a 62-year-old man with common form of ALS, who showed marked bilateral pyramidal signs with Babinski's sign. MRI of the 5th cervical spinal cord segment demonstrated bilateral hypersignal intensity areas in the dorsolateral column. MR images of the spinal cord thus obtained corresponded well to the postmortem confirmed degeneration of the spinal corticospinal tract. MRI of the spinal cord performed by gradient echo method would provide additional information on the upper motor neuron involvement in ALS. (author)

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...